WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid gb diffusion

  1. "Maiden Flight" for LHC Computing grid breaks gigabyte-per-secnd barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "UK physicists have successfully taken part in a challenge to test an internationl scientific computing Grid under working conditions. During the week-long challenge, the LHC computing grid sustained transfer rates of a gigabyte per second. a world first for a permanent, international grid using scientific data" (2 pages)

  2. Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) - Rapidly Serving NASA Imagery for Applications and Science Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Plesea, L.; Hall, J. R.; Boller, R. A.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Thompson, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Expedited processing of imagery from NASA satellites for near-real time use by non-science applications users has a long history, especially since the beginning of the Terra and Aqua missions. Several years ago, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near-real time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) began exploring methods to distribute these data as imagery in an intuitive, geo-referenced format, which would be available within three hours of acquisition. Toward this end, EOSDIS has developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services. The baseline technology chosen for GIBS was a Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using this, global images and mosaics are divided into tiles with fixed bounding boxes for a pyramid of fixed resolutions. Initially, the satellite imagery is created at the existing data systems for each sensor, ensuring the oversight of those most knowledgeable about the science. There, the satellite data is geolocated and converted to an image format such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The GIBS ingest server retrieves imagery from the various data systems and converts them into image tiles, which are stored in a highly-optimized raster format named Meta Raster Format (MRF). The image tiles are then served to users via HTTP by means of an Apache module. Services are available for the entire globe (lat-long projection) and for both polar regions (polar stereographic projection). Requests to the services can be made with the non-standard, but widely known, TWMS format or via the well-known OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard format. Standard OGC Web Map Service (WMS) access to the GIBS server is also available. In addition, users may request a

  3. Pocket-size solid-state iPOD and flash drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: Review and work initiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally assembled image viewer system with pocket-size iPOD (80 GB and flash (2 GB drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images, oriented towards training purposes, is described. Both the iPOD and flash drive enable storage of thousands of images from diverse medical-imaging equipments. The iPOD, in addition, can display with sufficient resolution any of these images and serves as a transportable preview device. Through the use of a computer, these devices can access/ store/ display the images/ photos from a CD, digital camera or the internet. A TV image viewing unit is also provided. The operational features and the advantages of these devices are discussed in detail. The quality assurance (QA of the displays has been successfully carried out with standard test patterns. The image quality has been tested with dynamic and static medical images. The system will be highly useful for storage and remote display of multitude of images from several modalities in the hospital, as well as other images, from the point of view of education and training. It has good potential for use in clinical diagnosis as well. Other recent advancements using iPHONE and improved but expensive computers, integrated with picture archiving and communication system (PACS as well as radiology and hospital information system (RHIS for versatile applications in modern radiology, are also highlighted.This system, assembled with indigenous equipments, is much less expensive and specially suited for teaching radiologists, physicists and technologists, particularly in developing countries.

  4. Daily Planet Imagery: GIBS MODIS Products on ArcGIS Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA EOSDIS Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is rapidly becoming an invaluable GIS resource for the science community and for the public at large. Reliable, fast access to historical as well as near real time, georeferenced images form a solid basis on which many innovative applications and projects can be built. Esri has recognized the value of this effort and is a GIBS user and collaborator. To enable the use of GIBS services within the ArcGIS ecosystem, Esri has built a GIBS reflector server at http://modis.arcgis.com, server which offers the facilities of a time enabled Mosaic Service on top of the GIBS provided images. Currently the MODIS reflectance products are supported by this mosaic service, possibilities of handling other GIBS products are being explored. This reflector service is deployed on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud platform, and is freely available to the end users. Due to the excellent response time from GIBS, image tiles do not have to be stored by the Esri mosaic server, all needed data being retrieved directly from GIBS when needed, continuously reflecting the state of GIBS, and greatly simplifying the maintenance of this service. Response latency is usually under one second, making it easy to interact with the data. The remote data access is achieved by using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) Tiled Web Map Server (TWMS) driver. The response time of this server is excellent, usually under one second. The MODIS imagery has proven to be one of the most popular ones on the ArcGIS Online platform, where it is frequently use to provide temporal context to maps, or by itself, to tell a compelling story.

  5. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, Gabriel E; Young, H Peyton

    2014-07-22

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks.

  6. The rapid moving Capriglio earth flow (Parma Province, North Italy): multi-temporal mapping and GB-InSAR monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Federica; Raspini, Federico; Frodella, William; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Morelli, Stefano; Corsini, Alessandro; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    This research presents the main findings of the multi-temporal mapping and of the long-term, real-time monitoring of the Capriglio landslide in the Emilian Apennines (Northern Italy). The landslide, triggered by prolonged rainfall and rapid snowmelt, activated of April 6th 2013. It is constituted by two main adjacent enlarging bodies with a roto-translational kinematics. They activated in sequence and subsequently joined into a large fast moving earth flow, channelizing downstream the Bardea Creek, for a total length of about 3600 meters. The landslide completely destroyed a 450 m sector of the provincial roadway S.P. 101, and its retrogression tendency put at high risk the Capriglio and Pianestolla villages, located in the upper watershed area of the Bardea River. Furthermore, the advancing toe seriously threatened the Antria bridge, representing the "Massese" provincial roadway S.P. 665R transect over the Bardea Creek, the only strategic roadway left able to connect the above-mentioned villages. With the final aim of supporting local authorities in the hazard assessment and risk management during the emergency phase, on May 5th 2013 aerial optical surveys were conducted to accurately map the landslide extension and evolution. Moreover, a GB-InSAR monitoring campaign was started in order to assess displacements of the whole landslide area. The versatility and flexibility of the GB-InSAR sensors allowed acquiring data with two different configurations, designed and set up to continuously retrieve information on the landslide movements rates (both in its upper slow-moving sectors and in its fast-moving toe). The first acquisition mode revealed that the Capriglio and Pianestolla villages were affected by minor displacements (order of magnitude of few millimetres per month). The second acquisition mode allowed to acquire data every 28'', reaching very high temporal resolution values by applying GB-InSAR technique (Monserrat et al., 2014; Caduff et al., 2015).

  7. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine: Remote access and distribution of a multi-gigabyte data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the 1986 Long-Range Plan for the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the Planning Panel on Medical Education wrote that NLM should '...thoroughly and systematically investigate the technical requirements for and feasibility of instituting a biomedical images library.' The panel noted the increasing use of images in clinical practice and biomedical research. An image library would complement NLM's existing bibliographic and factual database services and would ideally be available through the same computer networks as are these current NLM services. Early in 1989, NLM's Board of Regents convened an ad hoc planning panel to explore possible roles for the NLM in the area of electronic image libraries. In its report to the Board of Regents, the NLM Planning Panel on Electronic Image Libraries recommended that 'NLM should undertake a first project building a digital image library of volumetric data representing a complete, normal adult male and female. This Visible Human Project will include digitized photographic images for cryosectioning, digital images derived from computerized tomography, and digital magnetic resonance images of cadavers.' The technologies needed to support digital high resolution image libraries, including rapid development; and that NLM encourage investigator-initiated research into methods for representing and linking spatial and textual information, structural informatics. The first part of the Visible Human Project is the acquisition of cross-sectional CT and MRI digital images and cross-sectional cryosectional photographic images of a representative male and female cadaver at an average of one millimeter intervals. The corresponding cross-sections in each of the three modalities are to be registerable with one another.

  8. NASA GIBS & Worldview - Lesson Ready Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechini, M. F.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M. M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; De Luca, A. P.; King, J.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; Thompson, C. K.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Pressley, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    For more than 20 years, the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) has operated dozens of remote sensing satellites collecting 14 Petabytes of data that span thousands of science parameters. Within these observations are keys the Earth Scientists have used to unlock many things that we understand about our planet. Also contained within these observations are a myriad of opportunities for learning and education. The trick is making them accessible to educators and students in convenient and simple ways so that effort can be spent on lesson enrichment and not overcoming technical hurdles. The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) system and NASA Worldview website provide a unique view into EOS data through daily full resolution visualizations of hundreds of earth science parameters. For many of these parameters, visualizations are available within hours of acquisition from the satellite. For others, visualizations are available for the entire mission of the satellite. Accompanying the visualizations are visual aids such as color legends, place names, and orbit tracks. By using these visualizations, educators and students can observe natural phenomena that enrich a scientific education. This presentation will provide an overview of the visualizations available in NASA GIBS and Worldview and how they are accessed. We will also provide real-world examples of how the visualizations have been used in educational settings including planetariums, visitor centers, hack-a-thons, and public organizations.

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Diffusion thermopower in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, R. G.; Kamatagi, M. D.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2010-09-01

    The diffusion thermopower of graphene, Sd, is studied for 30 < T < 300 K, considering the electrons to be scattered by impurities, vacancies, surface roughness and acoustic and optical phonons via deformation potential couplings. Sd is found to increase almost linearly with temperature, determined mainly by vacancy and impurity scatterings. A departure from linear behaviour due to optical phonons is noticed. As a function of carrier concentration, a change in the sign of |Sd| is observed. Our analysis of recent thermopower data obtains a good fit. The limitations of Mott formula are discussed. Detailed analysis of data will enable a better understanding of the scattering mechanisms operative in graphene.

  10. The MEDESS-GIB database: tracking the Atlantic water inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sotillo, Marcos; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio; Orfila, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Rubio, Pablo; Cristobal Maraver, José; Conti, Daniel; Padorno, Elena; Jiménez, José Antonio; Capó, Este; Pérez, Fernando; Sayol, Juan Manuel; de los Santos, Francisco Javier; Amo, Arancha; Rietz, Ana; Troupin, Charles; Tintore, Joaquín; Álvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    On 9 September 2014, an intensive drifter deployment was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar. In the frame of the MEDESS-4MS Project (EU MED Program), the MEDESS-GIB experiment consisted of the deployment of 35 satellite tracked drifters, mostly of CODE-type, equipped with temperature sensor sampling at a rate of 30 min. Drifters were distributed along and on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. The MEDESS-GIB deployment plan was designed as to ensure quasi-synoptic spatial coverage. To this end, four boats covering an area of about 680 NM2 in 6 h were coordinated. As far as these authors know, this experiment is the most important exercise in the area in terms of number of drifters released. Collected satellite-tracked data along drifter trajectories have been quality controlled and processed to build the presented MEDESS-GIB database. This paper reports the MEDESS-GIB data set that comprises drifter trajectories, derived surface currents and in situ SST measurements collected along the buoys tracks. This series of data is available through the PANGAEA (Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science) repository, with the following doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.853701. Likewise, the MEDESS-GIB data will be incorporated as part of the Copernicus Marine historical products. The MEDESS-GIB data set provides a complete Lagrangian view of the surface inflow of Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and thus, very useful data for further studies on the surface circulation patterns in the Alboran Sea, and their links with one of the most energetic Mediterranean Sea flows: the Algerian Current.

  11. ALICE breaks through the one Gigabyte/sec barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The test phases of the ALICE data acquisition system, known as the Data Challenges, are celebrating their fourth anniversary. The fruit of collaboration between several of the experiment's groups and IT Division, the 2002 tests concentrated on the system's performance and stability.

  12. The seafloor off Greater Los Angeles: Visualizing Gigabytes of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    The seafloor off the greater Los Angeles area was mapped with three different high-resolution multibeam echosounders over a period of three field seasons. The mapping was untaken to provide a base map for ongoing marine geological studies in the area. The combined data set covers the entire continental shelf and basin slope from as shallow as the 20-m isobath (in some places the 5-m isobath) on the inner shelf to the 800-m isobath on the basin floor. These data represent more than 5 billion georeferenced depth soundings that cover an area of more than 1000 km2. In addition, each depth sounding location has an associated acoustic backscatter value, thereby effectively doubling the data volume that needs to be visualized. And, when the land area DEM is draped with Landsat imagery, the dataset enlarges to more than 6 billion points. The data can be visualized with many standard GIS packages but statically investigating 2D map views of such a large dataset, one view at a time, is cumbersome and can be tedious. In addition, the bathymetric data have various spatial resolutions that depend on the water depth. A dynamically interactive 3D visualization package that allows georeferenced datasets of mixed spatial resolutions was chosen to enhance the interpretation phase of the dataset. Some of the capabilities of this software will be demonstrated during the presentation. The bathymetric data reveal the complex nature of this basin-margin environment. Large debris avalanches have scarred the basin slope off the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Undercutting along the base of the basin slope suggests current erosion. The morphologies of the submarine canyons in the area range in complexity from a simple single canyon channel, such as Redondo Canyon, to a complex system of canyon channels, such as Newport and San Gabriel Canyons. Distinctive small canyon morphologies suggests the possibility of fresh-water springs outcropping along the San Pedro upper basin slope and along the mid and lower basin slope. Large sections of the southern portion of the margin appear to be slowly creeping downslope. The continental shelves in the area vary from sediment covered with fields of bedforms to areas of rock outcrops. Linear trends of outcrops on the San Pedro shelf suggest previously unmapped structural trends. Very little of the floors of Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins have been mapped. However, the areas that have been mapped show a succession of channel downcuts that suggest tectonic uplift of San Pedro Basin as well as debris deposits and channel meanders.

  13. Rapid diffusion of magic-size islands by combined glide and vacancy mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Voter, A F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uche, O U [SNL; Hamilton, J C [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics, nudged elastic band, and embedded atom methods, we show that certain 2D Ag islands undergo extremely rapid one-dimensional diffusion on Cu(001) surfaces. Indeed, below 300K, hopping rates for 'magic-size' islands are orders of magnitude faster than hopping rates for single Ag adatoms. This rapid diffusion requires both the c(10 x 2) hexagonally-packed superstructure typical of Ag on Cu(001) and appropriate 'magic-sizes' for the islands. The novel highly-cooperative diffusion mechanism presented here couples vacancy diffusion with simultaneous core glide.

  14. Pharmacognostic standardization of stems of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbhale, D S; Upasani, C D

    2012-05-01

    To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of stems of T. lampas. Chemo-microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physico-chemical evaluation used to determine numerical standards showed a result with total ash (9.03 ± 0.05) % w/w, acid insoluble ash (1.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, water soluble ash (2.51 ± 0.02) % w/w, sulphated ash (7.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, ethanol soluble extractive (0.24 ± 0.02) % w/w, water soluble extractive (0.08 ± 0.01) % w/w, moisture content (6.03 ± 0.05) % w/w and total crude fibre content of stem powder (47.36 ± 0.32) % w/w. Behavior characteristics of the stem powder showed presence of steroids, starch, alkaloid, flavonoids and proteins. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9-tetradecenal and HPTLC fingerprinting revealed the presence of β-sitosterol and quercetin in stems of T. lampas. The pharmacognostic standardization of T. lampas is useful towards establishing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  15. Ta räägib siiski? Räägime veel... / Leo Rohlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohlin, Leo, 1939-

    2010-01-01

    Publiku ja meedia huvipuudusest kaasaegse kujutava kunsti vastu, kunsti marginaliseerumisest. Nüüdiskunsti mõistmisest, kunsti esteetilise ilu olulisusest. Näituste kesisest külastatavusest. Artikli kirjutamise ajendiks oli Marko Mäetamme essee "Ta räägib siiski" (Postimees : AK, 13.veebr. 2010)

  16. MANAGING RAPID DIFFUSION: THE CASE OF CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: TSouth Africa has experienced extraordinarily rapid growth in the cellular communications industry, with subscriber numbers growing from zero to 5,3 million in the first six years since its introduction in 1994. Research was conducted to investigate the way in which the industry managed this rapid diffusion. The study highlighted the way in which the diffusion of cellular communication was managed, particularly through networks and linkages between hardware suppliers, network operators and service providers. The study has found that industry cooperation is the most important factor that drives rapid diffusion of new technology in a non-integrated industry such as the cellular communications industry in South Africa. The findings of this single-case study support propositions based on the innovation network theory.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika het buitengewoon vinnige groei in die sellulêre kommunikasiebedryf ervaar, en intekenaarsyfers het van nul tot 5,3 miljoen in die eerste ses jaar sedert die bekendstelling daarvan in 1994 opgeskiet. Navorsing om vas te stel op watter wyse die bedryf hierdie snelle verspreiding bestuur het is, gedoen. Die studie het gekonsentreer op die manier waarop die verspreiding van sellulêre kommunikasie bestuur is, veral deur middel van netwerke en skakeling tussen apparatuurverskaffers, netwerkoperateurs en diensverskaffers. Die studie het bevind dat industriesamewerking die belangrikste faktor is wat vinnige verspreiding van nuwe tegnologie dryf in ʼn nie-geintegreerde nywerheid soos die sellulêre kommunikasiebedryf in Suid-Afrika. Die bevindinge van hierdie enkel-gevalstudie ondersteun proposisies gebaseer op die innovasie-netwerkteorie.

  17. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  18. Rapid temporal accumulation in spider fear: Evidence from hierarchical drift diffusion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Fear can distort sense of time--making time seem slow or even stand still. Here, I used hierarchical drift diffusion modeling (HDDM; Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, & Lee, 2008, 2011; Wiecki, Sofer, & Frank, 2013) to test the idea that temporal accumulation speeds up during fear. Eighteen high fearful and 23 low fearful participants judged the duration of both feared stimuli (spiders) and nonfeared stimuli (birds) in a temporal bisection task. The drift diffusion modeling results support the main hypothesis. In high but not low fearful individuals, evidence accumulated more rapidly toward a long duration decision-drift rates were higher-for spiders compared with birds. This result and further insights into how fear affects time perception would not have been possible on the basis of analyses of choice proportion data alone. Further results were interpreted in the context of a recent 2-stage model of time perception (Balcı & Simen, 2014). The results highlight the usefulness of diffusion modeling to test process-based explanations of disordered cognition in emotional disorders. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Quantifying Extremely Rapid Flux Enhancements of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons Associated With Radial Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si; Yan, Qi; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have revealed a typical picture that seed electrons are transported inward under the drive of radial diffusion and then accelerated via chorus to relativistic energies. Here we show a potentially different process during the 2-3 October 2013 storm when Van Allen Probes observed extremely rapid (by about 50 times in 2 h) flux enhancements of relativistic (1.8-3.4 MeV) electrons but without distinct chorus at lower L-shells. Meanwhile, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites simultaneously measured enhanced chorus and fluxes of energetic (˜100-300 keV) seed electrons at higher L-shells. Numerical calculations show that chorus can efficiently accelerate seed electrons at L ˜ 8.3. Then radial diffusion further increased the phase space density of relativistic electrons throughout the outer radiation belts, with a remarkable agreement with the observation in magnitude and timescale. The current results provide a different physical scenario on the interplay between radial diffusion and local acceleration in outer radiation belt.

  20. Diffusion of the Reaction Boundary of Rapidly Interacting Macromolecules in Sedimentation Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation combines relatively high hydrodynamic resolution of macromolecular species with the ability to study macromolecular interactions, which has great potential for studying dynamically assembled multiprotein complexes. Complicated sedimentation boundary shapes appear in multicomponent mixtures when the timescale of the chemical reaction is short relative to the timescale of sedimentation. Although the Lamm partial differential equation rigorously predicts the evolution of concentration profiles for given reaction schemes and parameter sets, this approach is often not directly applicable to data analysis due to experimental and sample imperfections, and/or due to unknown reaction pathways. Recently, we have introduced the effective particle theory, which explains quantitatively and in a simple physical picture the sedimentation boundary patterns arising in the sedimentation of rapidly interacting systems. However, it does not address the diffusional spread of the reaction boundary from the cosedimentation of interacting macromolecules, which also has been of long-standing interest in the theory of sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation. Here, effective particle theory is exploited to approximate the concentration gradients during the sedimentation process, and to predict the overall, gradient-average diffusion coefficient of the reaction boundary. The analysis of the heterogeneity of the sedimentation and diffusion coefficients across the reaction boundary shows that both are relatively uniform. These results support the application of diffusion-deconvoluting sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s) to the analysis of rapidly interacting systems, and provide a framework for the quantitative interpretation of the diffusional broadening and the apparent molar mass values of the effective sedimenting particle in dynamically associating systems. PMID:20513419

  1. Catch the A-Train from the NASA GIBS/Worldview Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Baynes, K.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; De Cesare, C.; De Luca, A. P.; Gunnoe, T.; King, B. A.; King, J.; Pressley, N. N.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; Thompson, C. K.; Wong, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The satellites and instruments of the Afternoon Train are providing an unprecedented combination of nearly simultaneous measurements. One of the challenges for researchers and applications users is to sift through these combinations to find particular sets of data that correspond to their interests. Using visualization of the data is one way to explore these combinations. NASA's Worldview tool is designed to do just that - to interactively browse full-resolution satellite imagery. Worldview (https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/) is web-based and developed using open libraries and standards (OpenLayers, JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage and no artificial boundaries. In addition to science data imagery, Worldview provides ancillary datasets such as coastlines and borders, socio-economic layers, and satellite orbit tracks. Worldview interacts with the Earthdata Search Client to provide download of the data files associated with the imagery being viewed. The imagery used by Worldview is provided NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS - https://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) which provide highly responsive, highly scalable imagery services. Requests are made via the OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard. In addition to Worldview, other clients can be developed using a variety of web-based libraries, desktop and mobile app libraries, and GDAL script-based access. GIBS currently includes more than 106 science data sets from seven instruments aboard three of the A-Train satellites and new data sets are being added as part of the President's Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI). Efforts are underway to include new imagery types, such as vectors and curtains, into Worldview/GIBS which will be used to visualize additional A-Train science parameters.

  2. Determination of vacancy mechanism for grain boundary self-diffusion by computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Kwok, T.; Bristowe, P. D.; Brokman, A.; Ho, P. S.; Yip, S.

    1981-06-01

    It is currently established that the fast self diffusion which occurs along grain boundaries (GBs) in metals must occur by a point defect exchange mechanism. For example, it is known that rapid GB diffusion can transport a net current of atoms along GBs during both sintering and diffusional creep, and that the two species in a binary substitutional alloy diffuse at different rates in GBs. The results of an effort to establish the GB self diffusion mechanism in a bcc iron (UC OMEGA) = 5 (36.90) 001 (310) tilt boundary using the combined methods of computer molecular statics and molecular dynamics simulation are presented.

  3. Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gierl, Heribert

    1995-01-01

    Diffusion. - In: Handwörterbuch des Marketing / hrsg. von Bruno Tietz ... - 2., völlig neu gestalt. Aufl. - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1995. - S. 469-477. - (Enzyklopädie der Betriebswirtschaftslehre ; 4)

  4. Rapid yet accurate measurement of mass diffusion coefficients by phase shifting interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhi Xiong; Komiya, A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of using a phase-shifting interferometer is applied to the study of diffusion in transparent liquid mixtures. A quick method is proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient from the measurements of the location of fringes on a grey level picture. The measurement time is very short (within 100 s) and a very small transient diffusion field can be observed and recorded accurately with a rate of 30 frames per second. The measurement can be completed using less than 0.12 cc of solutions. The influence of gravity on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient is eliminated in the present method. Results on NaCl-water diffusion systems are presented and compared with the reference data. (author)

  5. Rapid nickel diffusion in cold-worked type 316 austenitic steel at 360-500 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems, Inc., Mihama (Japan); Iijima, Yoshiaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science; Miyamoto, Tomoki [Kobe Material Testing Laboratory Co. Ltd., Harima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    The diffusion coefficient of nickel in cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel was determined by the diffusion couple method in the temperature range between 360 and 500 C. A diffusion couple was prepared by electroless nickel plating on the surface of a 20 % cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel specimen. The growth in width of the interdiffusion zone was proportional to the square root of diffusion time until 14 055 h. The diffusion coefficient of nickel (D{sub Ni}) in cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel was determined by extrapolating the concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient to 11 at.% of nickel. The value of D{sub Ni} at 360 C was about 5 000 times higher than the lattice diffusion coefficient of nickel in Type 316 austenitic steel. The determined activation energy 117 kJ mol{sup -1} was 46.6 % of the activation energy 251 kJ mol{sup -1} for the lattice diffusion of nickel in Type 316 austenitic steel.

  6. Graphite Girls in a Gigabyte World: Managing the World Wide Web in 700 Square Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope; Johnson, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Our action research project examined the on-task and off-task behaviors of university-level student, use of wireless laptops in face-to-face classes in order to establish rules of wireless laptop etiquette in classroom settings. Participants in the case study of three university classrooms included undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students.…

  7. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  8. Fully automated disc diffusion for rapid antibiotic susceptibility test results: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Jetter, Marion; Blöchliger, Nicolas; Kolesnik-Goldmann, Natalia; Böttger, Erik C

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a significant threat to patients suffering from infectious diseases. Early readings of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results could be of critical importance to ensure adequate treatment. Disc diffusion is a well-standardized, established and cost-efficient AST procedure; however, its use in the clinical laboratory is hampered by the many manual steps involved, and an incubation time of 16-18 h, which is required to achieve reliable test results. We have evaluated a fully automated system for its potential for early reading of disc diffusion diameters after 6-12 h of incubation. We assessed availability of results, methodological precision, categorical agreement and interpretation errors as compared with an 18 h standard. In total, 1028 clinical strains (291 Escherichia coli , 272 Klebsiella pneumoniae , 176 Staphylococcus aureus and 289 Staphylococcus epidermidis ) were included in this study. Disc diffusion plates were streaked, incubated and imaged using the WASPLab TM automation system. Our results demonstrate that: (i) early AST reading is possible for important pathogens; (ii) methodological precision is not hampered at early timepoints; and (iii) species-specific reading times must be selected. As inhibition zone diameters change over time and are phenotype/drug combination dependent, specific cut-offs and expert rules will be essential to ensure reliable interpretation and reporting of early susceptibility testing results.

  9. Thermal and chemical diffusion in the rapid solidification of binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti

    2000-01-01

    Solidification of binary alloys is characterized by the necessity to reject away from the advancing front two conserved quantities: the latent heat released at the solid-liquid interface and the solute atoms that cannot be accommodated in the solid phase. As thermal diffusion is much faster than chemical diffusion, the latter is generally assumed to be the rate limiting mechanism for the process, and the problem is addressed through the isothermal approximation. In the present paper we use the phase-field model to study the planar growth of a solid germ, nucleated in its undercooled melt. We focus on the effects of a noninstantaneous thermal relaxation. The steady growth predicted at large supersaturation in the isothermal limit is prevented. Depending on the value of the Lewis number the growth rate is limited by either mass or heat diffusion; in the latter case we observe a sharp transition between two different regimes, in which originates a nonmonotonic time dependence of the interface temperature. The effects of this transition reflect in the composition of the solidified alloy.

  10. GIBS Server-side Software for Visualizing Diverse Geospatial Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Chelikani, A.; De Cesare, C.; De Luca, A. P.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; King, J.; Pressley, N. N.; Plesea, L.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Server-side software used by the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services are responsible for efficiently delivering imagery for over a hundred different Earth Science data products to various Web applications and GIS tools. Images from a multitude of platforms and sensors are made available via common web protocols using the open source OnEarth software package originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. OnEarth is a highly-scalable server module that handles raster imagery of varying projections, resolutions, formats, and coverages including newly added support for granule-based imagery. The future roadmap of OnEarth may include several new features, such as support for vector data and data access via a service, which could be developed in the future or aided by other open source software. This presentation focuses on the current capabilities of the OnEarth software used in GIBS and similar open source packages as well as potential technologies that may be utilized to handle a more diverse set of data products in the future.

  11. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    This thesis investigates state of the art components and subsystems to be used in the next generation of high speed optical transmission systems at 40 Gb/s. The thesis will provide guidelines for the design and implementation of 40 Gb/s systems, investigating topics that could limit transmission......) experimental demonstrations are presented. The first one is a 100 GHz spaced 16 channel WDM system, using 40 Gb/s NRZ modulation over a 200 km link of standard-SMF. The second one is a 100 GHz spaced 32 channel 40 Gb/s WDM system, using CSRZ modulation over a 400 km link of standard-SMF and using Raman...

  12. MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Rapid Microstructural Changes in Amygdala and Hippocampus Following Fear Conditioning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Abby Y.; Li, Qi; Zhou, Iris Y.; Ma, Samantha J.; Tong, Gehua; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Wu, Ed X.

    2013-01-01

    Background Following fear conditioning (FC), ex vivo evidence suggests that early dynamics of cellular and molecular plasticity in amygdala and hippocampal circuits mediate responses to fear. Such altered dynamics in fear circuits are thought to be etiologically related to anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consistent with this, neuroimaging studies of individuals with established PTSD in the months after trauma have revealed changes in brain regions responsible for processing fear. However, whether early changes in fear circuits can be captured in vivo is not known. Methods We hypothesized that in vivo magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) would be sensitive to rapid microstructural changes elicited by FC in an experimental mouse PTSD model. We employed a repeated measures paired design to compare in vivo DTI measurements before, one hour after, and one day after FC-exposed mice (n = 18). Results Using voxel-wise repeated measures analysis, fractional anisotropy (FA) significantly increased then decreased in amygdala, decreased then increased in hippocampus, and was increasing in cingulum and adjacent gray matter one hour and one day post-FC respectively. These findings demonstrate that DTI is sensitive to early changes in brain microstructure following FC, and that FC elicits distinct, rapid in vivo responses in amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions Our results indicate that DTI can detect rapid microstructural changes in brain regions known to mediate fear conditioning in vivo. DTI indices could be explored as a translational tool to capture potential early biological changes in individuals at risk for developing PTSD. PMID:23382811

  13. Simultaneous Rapid Determination of the Solubility and Diffusion Coefficients of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Based on a Novel UV Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Mingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The solubility and diffusion coefficient are two of the most important physicochemical properties of a drug compound. In practice, both have been measured separately, which is time consuming. This work utilizes a novel technique of UV imaging to determine the solubility and diffusion coefficients of poorly water-soluble drugs simultaneously. A 2-step optimal method is proposed to determine the solubility and diffusion coefficients of a poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical substance based on the Fick's second law of diffusion and UV imaging measurements. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to determine the solubility and diffusion coefficients of a drug with reasonable accuracy, indicating that UV imaging may provide a new opportunity to accurately measure the solubility and diffusion coefficients of a poorly water-soluble drug simultaneously and rapidly. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) for rapid measurement of organic matter in compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirt, Amanda L; Weindorf, David C; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Li, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Commercial compost is the inherently variable organic product of a controlled decomposition process. In the USA, assessment of compost's physicochemical parameters presently relies on standard laboratory analyses set forth in Test Methods for the Examination of Composting and Compost (TMECC). A rapid, field-portable means of assessing the organic matter (OM) content of compost products would be useful to help producers ensure optimal uniformity in their compost products. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR DRS) is a rapid, proximal-sensing technology proven effective at quantifying organic matter levels in soils. As such, VisNIR DRS was evaluated to assess its applicability to compost. Thirty-six compost samples representing a wide variety of source materials and moisture content were collected and scanned with VisNIR DRS under moist and oven-dry conditions. Partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal component regression (PCR) were used to relate the VisNIR DRS spectra with laboratory-measured OM to build compost OM prediction models. Raw reflectance, and first- and second-derivatives of the reflectance spectra were considered. In general, PLS regression outperformed PCR and the oven-dried first-derivative PLS model produced an r(2) value of 0.82 along with a residual prediction deviation value of 1.72. As such, VisNIR DRS shows promise as a suitable technique for the analysis of compost OM content for dried samples.

  15. 10 Gb/s CMOS photonics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cary

    2006-02-01

    Freescale's production 0.13μm SOI process is used to fabricate all required electrical and optical components for 10Gb interconnect up to 2000m using only 1.7W. The optical transceiver cores are monolithically fabricated with CMOS circuitry required for bias and control as well as the electrical PHY interface. Optical multiplexing of 4 to 10 channels allows scaling to 40/100Gb.

  16. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  17. Molecular dynamics study on the diffusion behavior of Li in the grain boundaries of α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xingang, E-mail: xgyu@ucas.ac.cn [School of Engineering Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chengrui [Beijing Institute of Control Engineering, Beijing 100190 (China); Han, Tiansi [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Gan, Xianglai [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Confirmed the strong binding effect between the grain boundaries and lithium interstitials. • Determined the critical temperatures for a lithium atom to diffuse in the grain boundaries. • Revealed that the diffusion mechanism of a lithium atom depends on the grain boundary structure. - Abstract: Liquid lithium has been considered as a candidate material for several components of future fusion devices. Since the containment materials are usually ferrous alloys, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the diffusion behavior of lithium atoms along <110> tilt grain boundaries (GB) including Σ9{114}, Σ11{113}, Σ3{112} and Σ11{332} in α-Fe. The binding energies of a Li interstitial to the GBs were calculated. The results suggest that all the GBs have strong binding effect on the Li atom. The critical temperatures for the Li atom to diffuse were determined. The diffusion process of a Li interstitial in the GBs was systematically analyzed. It turns out that the diffusion mechanism depends on the GB structures. For Σ11{113} and GB Σ9{114}, the Li atom was trapped by the Frenkel defect around the GBs at 300 K and 400 K respectively and therefore the diffusion was slowed down rapidly. For Σ3{112}, no defects were formed around GB and the Li atom diffused into Fe bulk at 700 K and above. For Σ3{112}, the diffusion process is driven by the movement of the GB. Finally, the diffusion coefficient, as well as the activation energy, was evaluated.

  18. Distribution of human Cytomegalovirus gB genotypes in samples from pediatric patients in Parma during the period 1995-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Arcangeletti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is a leading cause of developmental disability and late neurological sequelae in children. Several literature data indicate that HCMV pericapsidic glycoprotein B (gB is highly immunogenic and is involved in virus-cell interaction.The gB gene has hypervariable regions producing four genotypes (gB1, gB2, gB3, gB4; however, the correlation between gB genotypes and HCMV infection outcome remains unclear. Objectives. The main goal of this study was that of evaluating the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes in samples from pediatric population in Parma with congenital, perinatal or post-natal infections, in order to find a correlation between viral gB genotypes and the clinical outcome of the infection. Study design. Forty eight urine samples, selected between 1999 and 2003 and stored at -80°C, underwent DNA extraction, nested PCR amplification of a gB gene region and restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP. Results. The gB genotypes distribution in the considered pediatric population was as follows: gB1 was the most diffused (45.83% followed by gB2 (22.92%, gB3 (16.67% and gB4 (14.58%. Conclusions. In the considered population, gB1 was the most represented genotype and was often found in congenital and perinatal symptomatic infections, as well as in post-natal, asymptomatic infections.

  19. Emergency management of the 2010 Mt. Rotolon landslide by means of a local scale GB-InSAR monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodella, William; Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Salvatici, Teresa; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Between October 31st and November 2nd 2010 the whole Veneto region (north-eastern Italy) was hit by heavy and persistent rainfall, which diffusely triggered floods and slope failures. In this framework on November 4th 2010 a detrital mass, approximately 225.000 m3 in volume, detached from the lowermost sector of the Mt. Rotolon landslide cover (located in the Vicentine Pre-Alps, upper Agno River Valley), channelizing within the Rotolon Creek riverbed and evolving into a highly mobile debris flow. The latter phenomena, characterized by a 3 km travel distance, damaged many hydraulic works, putting at high risk bridges and local roads located along the creek banks, together with the population of both the town of Recoaro Terme and the villages of Maltaure, Turcati and Parlati. Starting from the beginning of the emergency phase, the Civil Protection system was activated, involving the National Civil Protection Department, Veneto Region and local administrations personnel and technicians, as well as research centers. On December 8th 2010 a local scale monitoring system, based on a ground based interferometric radar (GB-InSAR), was implemented in order to evaluate the slope deformation pattern evolution in correspondence of the debris flow detachment sector, with the final aim of assessing the landslide residual risk and manage the emergency phase. Accurate geomorphological field surveys were also carried out, in order to study the landslide morphological features as to improve the radar data interpretation. The radar system acquired in continuous GB-InSAR data, such as displacement maps and time series of 10 selected monitoring points, which were uploaded via LAN network on a dedicated Web-based interface, shared with the technical stakeholders and decision makers involved in the emergency management and allowing for a near real time data routine visualization. This paper describes the outcomes of a 2 years GB-InSAR monitoring campaign (December 2010-November 2012

  20. Direct susceptibility testing by disk diffusion on clinical samples : a rapid and accurate tool for antibiotic stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coorevits, L.; Boelens, J.; Claeys, G.

    We compared the accuracy of direct susceptibility testing (DST) with conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), both using disk diffusion, on clinical samples. A total of 123 clinical samples (respiratory tract samples, urine, vaginal and abdominal abscess discharges, bile fluid and a

  1. GB virus C: the good boy virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nirjal; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic human virus discovered in 1995 that is related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). GBV-C infection has not been convincingly associated with any disease; however, several studies found an association between persistent GBV-C infection and improved survival in HIV-positive individuals. GBV-C infection modestly alters T cell homeostasis in vivo through various mechanisms, including modulation of chemokine and cytokine release and receptor expression, and by diminution of T cell activation, proliferation and apoptosis, all of which may contribute to improved HIV clinical outcomes. In vitro studies confirm these clinical observations and demonstrate an anti-HIV replication effect of GBV-C. This review summarizes existing data on potential mechanisms by which GBV-C interferes with HIV, and the research needed to capitalize on this epidemiological observation. PMID:22325031

  2. Diffusion and Electrical Activation After a Rapid Thermal Annealing of an As and B-Co-Implanted Polysilicon Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontrand, C.; Sellitto, P.; Tabikh, S.; Latreche, S.; Kaminski, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work provides an experimental insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the co-diffusion of arsenic and boron in polysilicon/monocrystalline Si bilayers, during the formation of shallow N^+ emitters for the BiCMOS technology. The RTA-induced redistribution of As and B successively implanted in a 380 nm LPCVD polysilicon layer is studied by SIMS measurements. Hall effect, as well as sheet resistance measurements, show that the electrical activation of dopants in the co-implanted structures is satisfactory from a RTA temperature of 1100 °C. Nous présentons ici un travail expérimental mettant en évidence les mécanismes physiques intervenant dans la co-diffusion de l'arsenic et du bore dans une bicouche polysilicium sur silicium polycrystallin, durant la formation des émetteurs étroits N^+ destinés à la technologie BiCMOS. La redistribution de As et B induite par un RTA, successivement implantés dans une couche de polysilicium de 380 nm, est appréhendée par des mesures SIMS. Des mesures par effet Hall et par résistances par carrés mettent en évidence que l'activité électrique des dopants dans les structures implantées est satisfaisante à partir d'une température de 1100 °C.

  3. GB-InSAR monitoring of slope deformations in a mountainous area affected by debris flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodella, William; Salvatici, Teresa; Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-10-01

    Diffuse and severe slope instabilities affected the whole Veneto region (north-eastern Italy) between 31 October and 2 November 2010, following a period of heavy and persistent rainfall. In this context, on 4 November 2010 a large detrital mass detached from the cover of the Mt. Rotolon deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD), located in the upper Agno River valley, channelizing within the Rotolon Creek riverbed and evolving into a highly mobile debris flow. The latter phenomena damaged many hydraulic works, also threatening bridges, local roads, and the residents of the Maltaure, Turcati, and Parlati villages located along the creek banks and the town of Recoaro Terme. From the beginning of the emergency phase, the civil protection system was activated, involving the National Civil Protection Department, Veneto Region, and local administrations' personnel and technicians, as well as scientific institutions. On 8 December 2010 a local-scale monitoring system, based on a ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (GB-InSAR), was implemented in order to evaluate the slope deformation pattern evolution in correspondence of the debris flow detachment sector, with the final aim of assessing the landslide residual risk and managing the emergency phase. This paper describes the results of a 2-year GB-InSAR monitoring campaign (December 2010-December 2012) and its application for monitoring, mapping, and emergency management activities in order to provide a rapid and easy communication of the results to the involved technicians and civil protection personnel, for a better understanding of the landslide phenomena and the decision-making process in a critical landslide scenario.

  4. HCMV gB shares structural and functional properties with gB proteins from other herpesviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sapna [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C. [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Heldwein, Ekaterina E., E-mail: katya.heldwein@tufts.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Glycoprotein B (gB) facilitates HCMV entry into cells by binding receptors and mediating membrane fusion. The crystal structures of gB ectodomains from HSV-1 and EBV are available, but little is known about the HCMV gB structure. Using multiangle light scattering and electron microscopy, we show here that HCMV gB ectodomain is a trimer with the overall shape similar to HSV-1 and EBV gB ectodomains. HCMV gB ectodomain forms rosettes similar to rosettes formed by EBV gB and the postfusion forms of other viral fusogens. Substitution of several bulky hydrophobic residues within the putative fusion loops with more hydrophilic residues reduced rosette formation and abolished cell fusion. We propose that like gB proteins from HSV-1 and EBV, HCMV gB has two internal hydrophobic fusion loops that likely interact with target membranes. Our work establishes structural and functional similarities between gB proteins from three subfamilies of herpesviruses.

  5. GB Virus C Infection: Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wei Meng

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available GB virus C (GBV-C RNA positivity rates were examined in serum specimens from 231 patients with liver disease (23 patients with hepatitis B, 175 patients with hepatitis C, five patients with hepatitis B virus plus hepatitis C virus coinfection, and 28 patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis to clarify the clinical significance of this virus. GBV-C RNA was detected in none of 12 patients with fulminant hepatitis, one of two patients with acute hepatitis positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and one of four patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. Pathogenetic involvement of GBV-C was suspected in some patients in the latter group. Among patients with the non-B, non-C type of chronic disease, one of seven with cirrhosis (14% and none with chronic hepatitis or hepatocellular carcinoma were GBV-C-positive. In chronic hepatitis C patients who had received interferon treatment, no difference was found in clinical findings, alanine aminotransferase (ALT concentrations, histology or response to interferon between 11 patients who were GBV-C RNA-positive and 101 patients who were GBV-C RNA-negative. Moreover, changes in ALT after interferon therapy showed no relation to positivity for GBV-C RNA. On the basis of these findings, GBV-C appears to be an unlikely cause of initiation or progression of chronic hepatic diseases.

  6. The Class of London 2012: Some Sociological Reflections on the Social Backgrounds of Team GB Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Smith; David Haycock; Nicola Hulme

    2013-01-01

    This rapid response article briefly examines one feature of the relationship between social class and elite sport: the social backgrounds of the Olympians who comprised Team GB (Great Britain) at the 2012 London Olympics Games, and especially their educational backgrounds, as a means of shedding sociological light on the relationship between elite sport and social class. It is claimed that, to a large degree, the class-related patterns evident in the social profiles of medal-winners are expre...

  7. 100 Gb/s single VCSEL data transmission link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Li, Bomin

    2012-01-01

    100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation.......100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation....

  8. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, C; Stapleton, P; Phelan, E; Mulhare, P; Carey, B; Hickey, M; Lynch, B; Doyle, M

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h. 277 positive blood cultures had a Gram stain performed and were subcultured and incubated at 37°C in a CO2 atmosphere for 4-6 h. Identification of the visible growth was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Taking a modified approach to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-standardised AST methodology, an inoculum density of 0.5 McFarland was prepared from the early growth for disc diffusion testing. The standard AST method was also performed on the 18-24 h culture. 96% (n=73/76) of gram-negative organisms were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Comparative analysis of the rapid and standard AST results showed an overall interpretive category error rate of 7.7% (6.7% minor errors, 0.6% major errors and 0.4% very major errors). 100% of Staphylococcus aureus (n=41) and enterococcus isolates (n=9) were correctly identified after 4-6 h incubation. The overall AST categorical agreement was also 100% for these isolates. An incubation of 4-6 h directly from positive blood cultures allowed for both a rapid species identification and an antimicrobial susceptibility result approximately 24 h earlier than is possible using standard methodology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Herpesvirus gB: A Finely Tuned Fusion Machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Rebecca S; Heldwein, Ekaterina E

    2015-01-01

    .... Surprisingly, in herpesviruses, these functions are distributed among multiple proteins: the conserved fusogen gB, the conserved gH/gL heterodimer of poorly defined function, and various non-conserved receptor-binding proteins...

  10. Towards 40GbE GNU/Linux Router

    OpenAIRE

    Luštický, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Účelem této práce je popis protokolu 40Gb Ethernet, popis směrovacího procesu v jádře Linux a navrhnout a provést testování výkonnosti směrování se síťovým adaptérem pro 40Gb Ethernet. Výsledky a nastavení pro získání maximální výkonnosti směrování jsou dále popsány v této práci. The purpose of this thesis is to describe 40Gb Ethernet, describe routing process in the Linux kernel and to design and perform benchmark of routing performance with a 40Gb Ethernet network interface card. The res...

  11. Determination of vacancy mechanism for grain boundary self-diffusion by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Kwok, T.; Bristowe, P. D.; Brokman, A.; Ho, P. S.; Yip, S.

    1981-06-01

    It is currently well established that the fast self-diffusion which occurs along grain boundaries (GBs) in metals must occur by a point defect exchange mechanism. For example, it is known that rapid GB diffusion can transport a net current of atoms along GBs during both sintering and diffusional creep, and that the two species in a binary substitutional alloy diffuse at different rates in GBs. However, it has not been possible to establish firmly whether the defect mechanism involves the exchange of atoms with vacancy or interstitial point defects. It has been suspected that the vacancy exchange mechanism must apply but it has been difficult to prove this hypothesis because of a lack of detailed information at the atomistic level. The results are presented of an effort to establish the GB self-diffusion mechanism in a bcc iron ..sigma.. = 5 (36.9/sup 0/) (001) (310) tilt boundary using the combined methods of computer molecular statics and molecular dynamics simulation.

  12. A 5 Gb/s Radiation Tolerant Laser Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, L; Da Silva, S; Mazza, G; Meroli, S; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2009-01-01

    A laser driver for data transmission at 5 Gb/s has been developed as a part of the Giga Bit Transceiver (GBT) project. The Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) targets High Energy Physics (HEP) applications for which radiation tolerance is mandatory. The GBLD ASIC can drive both VCSELs and some types of edge emitting lasers. It is essentially composed of two drivers capable of sinking up to 12 mA each from the load at a maximum data rate of 5 Gb/s, and of a current sink for the laser bias current. The laser driver include also pre-emphasis and duty cycle control capabilities.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations on the conformational transitions from the GA 98 (GA 88) to GB 98 (GB 88) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunnian; Wang, Qing; Xue, Tuo; Wang, Yan; Chen, Guangju

    2016-12-01

    We performed conventional and targeted molecular dynamics simulations to address the dynamic transition mechanisms of the conformational transitions from the GA 98 protein with only 1 mutation of Leu45Tyr to GB 98 and from the GA 88 protein with 7 mutations of Gly24Ala, Ile25Thr, Ile30Phe, Ile33Tyr, Leu45Tyr, Ile49Thr, and Leu50Lys to GB 88. The results show that the conformational transition mechanism from the mutated 3α GA 98 (GA 88) state to the α+4β GB 98 (GB 88) state via several intermediate conformations involves the bending of loops at the N and C termini firstly, the unfolding of αA and αC, then the traversing of αB, and the formation of the 4β layer with the conversion of the hydrophobic core. The bending of loops at the N and C termini and the formation of the crucial transition conformation with the full unfolded structure are key factors in their transition processes. The communication of the interaction network, the bending directions of loops, and the traversing site of αB in the transition of GA 98 to GB 98 are markedly different from those in GA 88 to GB 88 because of the different mutated residues. The analysis of the correlations and the calculated mass center distances between some segments further supported their conformational transition mechanisms. These results could help people to better understand the Paracelsus challenge. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. An L1 box binding protein, GbML1, interacts with GbMYB25 to control cotton fibre development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Zuo, Kaijing; Zhang, Jieqiong; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Lida; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2010-08-01

    Transcription factors play key roles in plant development through their interaction with cis-elements and/or other transcription factors. A HD-Zip IV family transcription factor, Gossypium barbadense Meristem Layer 1 (GbML1) has been identified and characterized here. GbML1 specifically bound to the L1 box and the promoters of GbML1 and GbRDL1. GbML1 physically interacted with a key regulator of cotton fibre development, GbMYB25. Truncated and point mutation assays indicated the START-SAD domain was required for the binding to the C terminal domain (CTD) of GbMYB25. GbML1 overexpression in Arabidopsis increased the number of trichomes on stems and leaves and increased the accumulation of anthocyanin in leaves. Taken together, the L1 box binding protein, GbML1 was identified as the first partner for GbMYB25 and the role of START domain was discovered to be a protein binding domain in plants. Our findings will help the improvement of cotton fibre production and the understanding of the key role of HD-Zip family and MYB family in plants.

  15. Implementation of 350-2500 nm diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography to rapidly assess manufacturing consistency and quality of cotrimoxazole tablets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Eliangiringa; Hope, Samuel M; Jenkins, David; Layloff, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To assess the quality of cotrimoxazole tablets produced by a Tanzanian manufacturer by a newly instituted quality assurance programme. Tablets underwent a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy procedure with periodic quality assessment confirmation by assay and dissolution testing using validated HPTLC techniques (including weight variation and disintegration evaluations). Based on results from the primary test methods, the first group of product was 99% compliance. This approach provides a model for rapidly assuring product quality of future procurements of other products that is more cost-effective than traditional pharmaceutical testing techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. RAPID automated patient selection for reperfusion therapy: a pooled analysis of the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET) and the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberg, Maarten G; Lee, Jun; Christensen, Soren; Straka, Matus; De Silva, Deidre A; Mlynash, Michael; Campbell, Bruce C; Bammer, Roland; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Desmond, Patricia; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Albers, Gregory W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if automated MRI analysis software (RAPID) can be used to identify patients with stroke in whom reperfusion is associated with an increased chance of good outcome. Baseline diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI scans from the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution study (DEFUSE; n=74) and the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET; n=100) were reprocessed with RAPID. Based on RAPID-generated diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging lesion volumes, patients were categorized according to 3 prespecified MRI profiles that were hypothesized to predict benefit (Target Mismatch), harm (Malignant), and no effect (No Mismatch) from reperfusion. Favorable clinical response was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 0 to 1 or a ≥ 8-point improvement on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at Day 90. In Target Mismatch patients, reperfusion was strongly associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.1 to 15.3) and attenuation of infarct growth (10 ± 23 mL with reperfusion versus 40 ± 44 mL without reperfusion; P<0.001). In Malignant profile patients, reperfusion was not associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.8) or attenuation of infarct growth (85 ± 74 mL with reperfusion versus 95 ± 79 mL without reperfusion; P=0.7). Reperfusion was also not associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.1 to 9.4) or attenuation of lesion growth (10 ± 15 mL with reperfusion versus 17 ± 30 mL without reperfusion; P=0.9) in No Mismatch patients. MRI profiles that are associated with a differential response to reperfusion can be identified with RAPID. This supports the use of automated image analysis software such as RAPID for patient selection in acute stroke trials.

  17. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates.......We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  18. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption is...

  19. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To study the function of GbERF in the process of biotic stress, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GbERF were generated. Overexpression of GbERF did not change transgenic plant's phenotype and endogenous ethylene level. However, the expression profile of some ethylene-inducible GCC-box and non-GCC-box ...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  1. Rapid assembly and rejuvenation of a large silicic magmatic system: Insights from mineral diffusive profiles in the Kidnappers and Rocky Hill deposits, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George F.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Wilson, Colin J. N.

    2017-09-01

    The timescales over which magmas in large silicic systems are reactivated, assembled and stored remains a fundamental question in volcanology. To address this question, we study timescales from Fe-Mg interdiffusion in orthopyroxenes and Ti diffusion in quartz from the caldera-forming 1200 km3 Kidnappers and 200 km3 Rocky Hill eruptions from the Mangakino volcanic centre (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand). The two eruptions came from the same source area, have indistinguishable 40Ar/39Ar ages (∼1.0 Ma) and zircon U-Pb age spectra, but their respective deposits are separated by a short period of erosion. Compositions of pumice, glass and mineral species in the collective eruption deposits define multiple melt dominant bodies but indicate that these shared a common magmatic mush zone. Diffusion timescales from both eruptions are used to build on chemical and textural crystal signatures and interpret both the crystal growth histories and the timing of magma accumulation. Fe-Mg interdiffusion profiles in orthopyroxenes imply that the three melt-dominant bodies, established through extraction of melt and crystals from the common source, were generated within 600 years and with peak accumulation rates within 100 years of each eruption. In addition, a less-evolved melt interacted with the Kidnappers magma, beginning ∼30 years prior to and peaking within 3 years of the eruption. This interaction did not directly trigger the eruption, but may have primed the magmatic system. Orthopyroxene crystals with the same zoning patterns from the Kidnappers and Rocky Hill pumices yield consistently different diffusion timescales, suggesting a time break between the eruptions of ∼20 years (from core-rim zones) to ∼10 years (outer rim zones). Diffusion of Ti in quartz reveals similarly short timescales and magmatic residence times of age patterns. The magmatic system was able to recover after the Kidnappers eruption in only ∼10-20 years to accumulate enough eruptible melt and

  2. Burst Mode Receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK with parallel DSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Benn C; Maher, Robert; Millar, David S; Savory, Seb J

    2011-12-12

    A burst mode 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK digital coherent optical receiver with parallel DSP suitable for implementation in a CMOS ASIC with a 218.75 MHz clock speed is presented. The receiver performance is validated in a five channel 50 GHz grid WDM burst switching experiment using a commercially available wavelength tunable laser as the local oscillator. A new equalizer initialization scheme that overcomes the degenerate convergence problem and ensures rapid convergence is introduced. We show that the performance of the tunable local oscillator is commensurate with burst mode coherent reception when differential decoding in employed and that required parallel DSP implementation does not seriously impair the polarization and frequency tracking performance of a digital coherent receiver under burst mode operation. We report a burst acquisition time of less than 200 ns. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  4. Li diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2010-09-01

    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  5. Functional fluorescent protein insertions in herpes simplex virus gB report on gB conformation before and after execution of membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Gallagher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV into a target cell requires complex interactions and conformational changes by viral glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. During viral entry, gB transitions from a prefusion to a postfusion conformation, driving fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane. While the structure of postfusion gB is known, the prefusion conformation of gB remains elusive. As the prefusion conformation of gB is a critical target for neutralizing antibodies, we set out to describe its structure by making genetic insertions of fluorescent proteins (FP throughout the gB ectodomain. We created gB constructs with FP insertions in each of the three globular domains of gB. Among 21 FP insertion constructs, we found 8 that allowed gB to remain membrane fusion competent. Due to the size of an FP, regions in gB that tolerate FP insertion must be solvent exposed. Two FP insertion mutants were cell-surface expressed but non-functional, while FP insertions located in the crown were not surface expressed. This is the first report of placing a fluorescent protein insertion within a structural domain of a functional viral fusion protein, and our results are consistent with a model of prefusion HSV gB constructed from the prefusion VSV G crystal structure. Additionally, we found that functional FP insertions from two different structural domains could be combined to create a functional form of gB labeled with both CFP and YFP. FRET was measured with this construct, and we found that when co-expressed with gH/gL, the FRET signal from gB was significantly different from the construct containing CFP alone, as well as gB found in syncytia, indicating that this construct and others of similar design are likely to be powerful tools to monitor the conformation of gB in any model system accessible to light microscopy.

  6. Development of high-speed VCSELs beyond 10 Gb/s at Emcore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Neinyi; Xie, Chuan; Lei, Chun; Luo, Wenlin; Sun, Xinyu; Kuchta, Daniel; Schow, Clint; Doany, Fuad

    2010-02-01

    We report developments at Emcore on serial 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operated up to 25 Gb/s. They have been designed to provide a solution not only to meet stringent 10 Gb/s IEEE and Fiber Channel specifications but also for emerging demands of 17 Gb/s Fiber Channel serial and 100 Gb/s (4x25 Gb/s or 5x20 Gb/s) parallel applications in local and storage area networks. This paper covers 10 Gb/s GenX production distributions and improved GenX VCSEL device design to meet low-power requirements at 20 Gb/s. We have successfully demonstrated low threshold current of 0.65 mA at 25°C using nominal 7.3 μm oxide-aperture GenX VCSELs. They can be directly modulated up to 25 Gb/s with open eyes at 6 mA bias. With the same design, open eyes of 20 Gb/s is achieved at bias current as low as 4 mA (9 KA/cm2) at 25°C and 8 mA (18 KA/cm2) at 70°C. These operation conditions are comparable to current 10 Gb/s GenX VCSELs in production which have been shown a great field history.

  7. GIBS Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The KML documentation standard provides a solution for imagery integration into mapping tools that utilize support the KML standard, specifically Google Earth. Using...

  8. A new orthogonal labeling scheme based on a 40-Gb/s DPSK payload and a 2.5-Gb/s PolSK label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Chi, Nan; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a new orthogonal labeling scheme based on a 40-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying payload and a 2.5-Gb/s polarization-shift keying label, which entirely eliminates the modulation crosstalk between the payload and label and shows negligible...

  9. Transport of H2S and HS(-) across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Michael L

    2013-11-01

    The rates of H2S and HS(-) transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS(-). Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS(-) acting analogously to CO2/HCO3(-) in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS(-) influx in exchange for Cl(-), catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS(-) protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl(-)/HS(-)/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS(-) interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS(-) and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS(-) is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10(-2) cm/s, half time <0.003 s) to account for the pH equilibration data. The results imply that H2S and HS(-) enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS(-) is a substrate for a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS(-) may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS(-) transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle.

  10. Role of GB virus C in modulating HIV disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Blackard, Jason T; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the most closely related human virus to HCV. However, GBV-C does not replicate in hepatocytes, but rather in lymphocytes. GBV-C has a worldwide distribution and is transmitted sexually, parenterally and through mother-to-child transmission. Thus, co-infection with HCV and HIV is common. Until now, no human disease has been associated with GBV-C infection. However, there are several reports of a beneficial effect of GBV-C on HIV disease progression in vivo. Different mechanisms to explain these observations have been proposed, including modification of antiviral cytokine production, HIV co-receptor expression, direct inhibition of HIV-1 entry, T-cell activation and Fas-mediated apoptosis. Further understanding of these mechanisms may open new strategies for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22702320

  11. CompaGB: An open framework for genome browsers comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiapello Hélène

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to compare and choose a well-adapted genome browser, as multidisciplinary knowledge is required to carry out this task and the number of tools, functionalities and features are overwhelming. Findings To assist in this task, we propose a community-based framework based on two cornerstones: (i the implementation of industry promoted software qualification method (QSOS adapted for genome browser evaluations, and (ii a web resource providing numerous facilities either for visualizing comparisons or performing new evaluations. We formulated 60 criteria specifically for genome browsers, and incorporated another 65 directly from QSOS's generic section. Those criteria aim to answer versatile needs, ranging from a biologist whose interest primarily lies into user-friendly and informative functionalities, a bioinformatician who wants to integrate the genome browser into a wider framework, or a computer scientist who might choose a software according to more technical features. We developed a dedicated web application to enrich the existing QSOS functionalities (weighting of criteria, user profile with features of interest to a community-based framework: easy management of evolving data, user comments... Conclusions The framework is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/CompaGB. It is open to anyone who wishes to participate in the evaluations. It helps the scientific community to (1 choose a genome browser that would better fit their particular project, (2 visualize features comparatively with easily accessible formats, such as tables or radar plots and (3 perform their own evaluation against the defined criteria. To illustrate the CompaGB functionalities, we have evaluated seven genome browsers according to the implemented methodology

  12. CompaGB: An open framework for genome browsers comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Thomas; Loux, Valentin; Gendrault, Annie; Gibrat, Jean-François; Chiapello, Hélène

    2011-05-04

    Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to compare and choose a well-adapted genome browser, as multidisciplinary knowledge is required to carry out this task and the number of tools, functionalities and features are overwhelming. To assist in this task, we propose a community-based framework based on two cornerstones: (i) the implementation of industry promoted software qualification method (QSOS) adapted for genome browser evaluations, and (ii) a web resource providing numerous facilities either for visualizing comparisons or performing new evaluations. We formulated 60 criteria specifically for genome browsers, and incorporated another 65 directly from QSOS's generic section. Those criteria aim to answer versatile needs, ranging from a biologist whose interest primarily lies into user-friendly and informative functionalities, a bioinformatician who wants to integrate the genome browser into a wider framework, or a computer scientist who might choose a software according to more technical features. We developed a dedicated web application to enrich the existing QSOS functionalities (weighting of criteria, user profile) with features of interest to a community-based framework: easy management of evolving data, user comments... The framework is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/CompaGB. It is open to anyone who wishes to participate in the evaluations. It helps the scientific community to (1) choose a genome browser that would better fit their particular project, (2) visualize features comparatively with easily accessible formats, such as tables or radar plots and (3) perform their own evaluation against the defined criteria. To illustrate the CompaGB functionalities, we have evaluated seven genome browsers according to the implemented methodology. A summary of the features of the compared genome

  13. Promoting innovation and excellence to face the rapid diffusion of novel psychoactive substances in the EU: the outcomes of the ReDNet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Assi, Sulaf; Simonato, Pierluigi; Corkery, John; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Stair, Jacqueline; Fergus, Suzanne; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Pasinetti, Manuela; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Davey, Zoe; Blaszko, Ursula; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Mervo, Barbara; Furia, Lucia Di; Farre, Maggi; Flesland, Liv; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Shapiro, Harry; Siemann, Holger; Skutle, Arvid; Sferrazza, Elias; Torrens, Marta; Sambola, F; van der Kreeft, Peer; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    The recent emergence of new psychoactive compounds (novel psychoactive substances (NPS)) has raised prominent challenges in the fields of drug policy, substance use research, public health and service provision. The Recreational Drugs European Network project, funded by the European Commission, was implemented to improve the information stream to young people and professionals about effects/risks of NPS by identifying online products and disseminating relevant information through technological tools. Regular multilingual qualitative assessments of websites, drugs fora and other online resources were carried out using the Google search engine in eight languages from collaborating countries. These included the following: the UK, Norway, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Italy and Spain. Products were tested and prevention messages were developed and disseminated via technological tools such as interactive websites, SMS alert, social networking (Facebook, Twitter), Multimedia (You Tube), Smartphone applications (iPhone) and virtual learning environments (Second Life). The Recreational Drugs European Network project established itself as the first Europe-wide prevention programme designed for NPS based on the efficacy of novel information and communication technology-based forms of intervention. More than 650 NPS products and combinations were identified; relevant information was disseminated to target population and advice was given to both European Union/international agencies and national policy makers. Web-monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPS and the use of technological tools can be successfully incorporated in specific prevention programmes. Furthermore, the involvement of multi-disciplinary international partnerships was and continues to be fundamental for responding to such a prominent challenge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Functional analysis of the seed coat-specific gene GbMYB2 from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiqun; Liu, Xiang; Tang, Kexuan; Zuo, Kaijing

    2013-12-01

    MYB transcription factors are essential for cotton fiber development. We isolated the R2R3-MYB gene GbMYB2 from Gossypium barbadense. RNA in situ hybridization analysis showed that GbMYB2 is mainly expressed in the outer integuments of cotton ovules and in elongating fibers. GbMYB2 expression increased throughout fiber initiation and during the elongation stage. The expression level of GbMYB2 was higher in the Gossypium hirsutum cultivar Xu142 than in the Xu142 (fl) mutant. Overexpression of GbMYB2 in Arabidopsis caused thicker leaf trichomes and longer roots to develop due to the activation of trichome development-related genes such as GL2. These results indicate that GbMYB2 is an R2R3-MYB gene that is involved in fiber development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. 30-Gb/s 90-nm CMOS-driven equalized multimode optical link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel-Bissell, Brendan H; Proesel, Jonathan E; Lee, Benjamin G; Kuchta, Daniel M; Rylyakov, Alexander V; Schow, Clint L

    2013-05-06

    We report an 850-nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based optical link that achieves a new record in speed. The laser driver and receiver ICs are fabricated in standard 90-nm bulk CMOS, and the optoelectronic devices are commercial components. Operation at 30 Gb/s with a bit-error rate link. Transmitter feed-forward equalization is shown to improve maximum data rate from 25 to 30 Gb/s, timing margin by 17% at 23.5 Gb/s, and receiver sensitivity by 4 dB at 23.5 Gb/s.

  16. Mobile telecommunications’ diffusion in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rachinskiy, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century mobile telecommunications spread out rapidly in Russia and became basic commodity Mobile technology arises first in large and rich regions with developed infrastructure Speed of technological diffusion grows over time; regions where mobile technology came lately catch up leaders Infrastructure development positively affects speed of technological diffusion

  17. First Experimental Demonstration of Coherent CAP for 300-Gb/s Metropolitan Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    We report on high - capacity coherent links employing dual polarization 2D - CAP modulation, allowing for signal design in 8 - dimensional space. Successful demodulation of 221 Gb/s (7.5 b/s/Hz) and 336 Gb/s (7.8 b/s/Hz) after 225 km and 451 km of standard single - mode fiber (SSMF) is achieved....

  18. Experimental characterization of dispersion maps with Raman gain in 160 Gb/s transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Seoane, Jorge; Siahlo, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the combined effects of dispersion compensation and Raman amplification in SMF-based transmission span of 160 Gb/s system. The post compensation map shows better power tolerance.......We investigate the combined effects of dispersion compensation and Raman amplification in SMF-based transmission span of 160 Gb/s system. The post compensation map shows better power tolerance....

  19. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-03

    Dec 3, 2009 ... addition, GbAGL2 expression in a cotton cultivar XuZhou142 (wt) (XZ142, G. hirsutum L.) and its fibreless mutant. XZ142 (fl) was examined. RNA in situ hybridization analysis indicated that GbAGL2 transcripts were preferentially restricted to outer ovule integuments, carpels and fibres. These expression ...

  20. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB0A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB0A-2G4NF 1GB0 2G4N A F KLFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...G HHHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N... F 2G4NF IVQN.../rotation> 0.7072579860687256 1.318071961402893 EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB3A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB3A-2G4NF 1GB3 2G4N A F KFFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN... HHHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN... 0.6893870234489441 1.2930560111999512 EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB8A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB8A-2G4NF 1GB8 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...G HHHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N... F 2G4NF IVQN...ation> 0.7009519934654236 1.3157780170440674 EVID...> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1GB7A-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1GB7A-2G4NF 1GB7 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...HHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN--...n> 0.7096549868583679 1.3399250507354736 EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF

  5. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6. Identification and ... Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse ...

  6. Stochastics of diffusion induced damage in intercalation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Pallab; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2016-10-01

    Fundamental understanding of the underlying diffusion-mechanics interplay in the intercalation electrode materials is critical toward improved life and performance of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. Especially, diffusion induced microcrack formation in brittle, intercalation active materials, with emphasis on the grain/grain-boundary (GB) level implications, has been fundamentally investigated based on a stochastic modeling approach. Quasistatic damage evolution has been analyzed under lithium concentration gradient induced stress. Scaling of total amount of microcrack formation shows a power law variation with respect to the system size. Difference between the global and local roughness exponent indicates the existence of anomalous scaling. The deterioration of stiffness with respect to microcrack density displays two distinct regions of damage propagation; namely, diffused damage evolution and stress concentration driven localized crack propagation. Polycrystalline material microstructures with different grain sizes have been considered to study the diffusion-induced fracture in grain and GB regions. Intergranular crack paths are observed within microstructures containing softer GB region, whereas, transgranular crack paths have been observed in microstructures with relatively strong GB region. Increased tortuosity of the spanning crack has been attributed as the reason behind attaining increased fracture strength in polycrystalline materials with smaller grain sizes.

  7. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  8. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Anmar Hameed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity). Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates. PMID:27051199

  9. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar Hameed Bloh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup’s Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06 were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity. Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  10. Experimental investigation of 84-Gb/s and 112-Gb/s polarization-switched quadrature phase-shift keying signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Johannes Karl; Molle, Lutz; Nölle, Markus; Gross, Dirk-Daniel; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Schubert, Colja

    2011-12-12

    We experimentally investigate 28-GBd (84-Gb/s) and 37.3-GBd (112-Gb/s) polarization-switched quadrature phase-shift keying (PS-QPSK) signals. In single-channel transmission experiments over up to 12500 km ultra large effective area fiber, we compare their performance to that of polarization-division multiplexing quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signals at the same bit rates. The experimental results show that PS-QPSK not only benefits from its better sensitivity but also offers an increased tolerance to intra-channel nonlinearities. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Die GB-Viren GBV-A, GBV-B und GBV-C

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Alexandra

    2001-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt eine Charakterisierung der im Jahr 1995 von Wissenschaftlern der Firma Abbott Diagnostics (North Chicago, USA) entdeckten flaviähnlichen, im Tamarinen vorkommenden GB-Viren, GBV-A und GBV-B, sowie des humanen GB-Virus-C dar. GBV-A und GBV-B sind beide im sogenannten “GB-Agens H205”, das als Referenzmaterial dient, vorhanden. GBV-A und GBV-B wurden isoliert und charakterisiert. Da GBV-A im Gehirngewebe in höheren Konzentrationen als GBV-B vorhand...

  12. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  13. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  14. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, V A; Garabalino, M A; Colombo, L L; González, S J; Farías, R O; Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Nigg, D W; Schwint, A E

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25-76ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up...

  16. 80 Gb/s transmission over 80 km and demultiplexing using a highly non-linear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kim Skaalum; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Siahlo, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We report on, transmission of an 80 Gb/s signal over 80 km of standard single mode fibre with subsequent demultiplexing to 10 Gb/s in a NOLM containing a novel photonic crystal fibre......We report on, transmission of an 80 Gb/s signal over 80 km of standard single mode fibre with subsequent demultiplexing to 10 Gb/s in a NOLM containing a novel photonic crystal fibre...

  17. Effect of Temperature on the Desorption and Decomposition of GB on Activated Carbon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    ...) and its decomposition products on coconut shell activated carbon (CSC). The results show that, under equilibrium conditions on dry CSC, changes in the partial pressure of GB are affected primarily by its loading and temperature of the adsorbent...

  18. [Analysis on the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixing; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Suhe

    2015-12-01

    To explore the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31). Through the study of the ancient and modern data,the analysis and integration of the acupuncture books,the comparison of the locations of Fengshi (GB 31) by doctors from all dynasties and the integration of modern anatomia, the modern simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31) is definite, which is the same as the traditional way. It is believed that the simple selec tion method is in accord with the human-oriented thought of TCM. Treatment by acupoints should be based on the emerging nature and the individual difference of patients. Also, it is proposed that Fengshi (GB 31) should be located through the integration between the simple method and body surface anatomical mark.

  19. Evaluation of modulation formats for 160 Gb/s transmission systems using Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    We evaluate 160 Gb/s systems with different modulation formats. RZ-DPSK gives best performance for a single channel system with 40% reach improvement compared to RZ, CSRZ-DPSK is more robust in a WDM system....

  20. All-optical memory operation of 980-nm polarization bistable VCSEL for 20-Gb/s PRBS RZ and 40-Gb/s NRZ data signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakaguchi, Jun; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    .... At the optimum condition, 1-bit data signals were arbitrarily sampled and memorized from a 2(6)-1 pseudorandom bit sequence return-to-zero signal at 20 Gb/s by using AND gate and memory functionalities obtained from the polarization bistability...

  1. Specialty fibers for 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Berg, Kim Skaalum; Clausen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated.......Specialty highly non-linear fibers are experimentally characterized as signal processing components in ultra high-speed OTDM systems. Pulse compression to 359 fs and demultiplexing of 160, 320 and 640 Gb/s signals are demonstrated....

  2. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  3. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio UWB over fiber transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio UWB generation using an uncooled distributed feedback laser. After 50km fiber transmission the signal is recovered without errors using a digital signal processing receiver.......We demonstrate 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio UWB generation using an uncooled distributed feedback laser. After 50km fiber transmission the signal is recovered without errors using a digital signal processing receiver....

  4. 10 Gb/s Real-Time All-VCSEL Low Complexity Coherent scheme for PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Cheng, Ning; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2012-01-01

    Real time demodulation of a 10 Gb/s all-VCSEL based coherent PON link with a simplified coherent receiver scheme is demonstrated. Receiver sensitivity of −33 dBm is achieved providing high splitting ratio and link reach.......Real time demodulation of a 10 Gb/s all-VCSEL based coherent PON link with a simplified coherent receiver scheme is demonstrated. Receiver sensitivity of −33 dBm is achieved providing high splitting ratio and link reach....

  5. Manganese (Mn oxidation increases intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Banh

    Full Text Available Bacterial manganese (Mn oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established. Despite many hypotheses of why these bacteria may oxidize Mn, the physiological reasons remain elusive. Intracellular Mn levels were determined for Pseudomonas putida GB-1 grown in the presence or absence of Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Mn oxidizing wild type P. putida GB-1 had higher intracellular Mn than non Mn oxidizing mutants grown under the same conditions. P. putida GB-1 had a 5 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to the non Mn oxidizing mutant P. putida GB-1-007 and a 59 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to P. putida GB-1 ∆2665 ∆2447. The intracellular Mn is primarily associated with the less than 3 kDa fraction, suggesting it is not bound to protein. Protein oxidation levels in Mn oxidizing and non oxidizing cultures were relatively similar, yet Mn oxidation did increase survival of P. putida GB-1 when oxidatively stressed. This study is the first to link Mn oxidation to Mn homeostasis and oxidative stress protection.

  6. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R.; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E.; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.

    2017-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE, was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE-knockout mutants and farE-overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE-strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph. PMID:28119683

  7. 850 nm optical components for 25 Gb/s optical fiber data communication links over 100 m at 85°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Lott, J. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Karachinsky, L. Y.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Novikov, I. I.; Maleev, N. A.; Fiol, G.; Bimberg, D.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the development of 25Gb/s 850nm VCSEL and PD components for efficient short-reach optical fiber communication systems. VCSELs with the aperture size 6-7μm show the highest -3dB bandwidth (~20GHz) and Dfactor (~8Ghz/mA1/2). K-factor is less than 0.25ns for VCSEL with 6 μm aperture. Eye diagrams are clearly open at 25C up to 35Gb/s. The dark current of PDs remain below 1nA at T < 50°C and below 10nA when T < 90°C out to -10V. The extracted PD capacity is linearly proportional to the detector area and less than 200fF even for 45μm PD diameter. Due to elimination of contribution of diffusion process and quite small capacitance of the depletion region eye diagrams are opened at 28Gb/s, even for the PDs with the largest active diameters. Using 35μm PD and 6μm VCSEL error-free 25Gb/s optical fiber communication links were tested over lengths of 203m and 103m at 25°C and 85°C, respectively. Received optical power for the lowest BER is at both temperatures smaller than -4dBm. Obtained results indicate that from the speed and power dissipation perspective developed high-speed CSELs and PDs are suitable for applications in the next generation of short-reach multimode optical fiber interconnects.

  8. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  9. 400Gb/s (4 x 100Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040km SMF-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianjun; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Ming-Fang; Qian, Dayou; Ji, Philip N; Wang, Ting; Magill, Peter

    2009-09-28

    We have generated 4 x 100-Gb/s orthogonal WDM optical signal by employing polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) return-to-zero (RZ) QPSK modulation format and tight optical filtering technique. The required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) at bit error ratio (BER) of 2 x 10(-3) for the 400 Gb/s orthogonal DWDM signal is measured to be approximately 22.8 dB/0.1 nm. After transmission over 1040-km standard single mode fiber (EDFA-only amplification, 80-km amplifier span and fully receiver-side electrical dispersion compensation), the measured BER for all the four orthogonal subchannels are smaller than 2 x 10(-3).

  10. Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H

    2011-03-14

    Long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) is considered as a promising technology towards higher capacity and extended coverage optical system. We propose and demonstrate a LR-PON with the capability of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation. By using the upstream signal wavelength-transition generated by a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) based colorless optical networking unit (ONU), the spectral overlap among the upstream signal and the RB noises can be minimized. Hence, due to the achievement of effective RB mitigation, a 100 km LR-PON with a high split-ratio of 512 is demonstrated using 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) downstream and 2.5 Gb/s NRZ upstream signals. Detail analysis of the wavelength-transition generation is presented.

  11. All-optical memory operation of 980-nm polarization bistable VCSEL for 20-Gb/s PRBS RZ and 40-Gb/s NRZ data signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Jun; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2010-06-07

    The fastest known operation of all-optical flip-flop memory was experimentally demonstrated using a 980-nm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Operating conditions of the input signal power and the frequency detuning to achieve the fast optical memory operation were characterized experimentally. At the optimum condition, 1-bit data signals were arbitrarily sampled and memorized from a 2(6)-1 pseudorandom bit sequence return-to-zero signal at 20 Gb/s by using AND gate and memory functionalities obtained from the polarization bistability. In addition, 1-bit memory operation was achieved for a 6-bit non-return-to-zero signal at 40 Gb/s. Both memory operations required 250-microW data signal power and had optical gain. The high potential of all-optical flip-flop memories based on polarization bistable VCSELs for use in ultrafast all-optical future networks was demonstrated.

  12. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrando, P.; Pisani, A.; Serieys, N.; Ortonne, J.P. (UER Medecine, Nice (France)); Hsi, Baeli; Yeh, Changjing (INSERM U210, Nice (France))

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida.

  13. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  14. High-speed railway bridge dynamic measurement based on GB-InSAR technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Ding, Ke-liang; Liu, Xianglei; Song, Zichao

    2015-12-01

    It is an important task to evaluate the safety during the life of bridges using the corresponding vibration parameters. With the advantages of non-contact and high accuracy, the new remote measurement technology of GB-InSAR is suitable to make dynamic measurement for bridges to acquire the vibration parameters. Three key technologies, including stepped frequency-continuous wave technique, synthetic aperture radar and interferometric measurement technique, are introduced in this paper. The GB-InSAR is applied for a high-speed railway bridge to measure of dynamic characteristics with the train passing which can be used to analyze the safety of the monitored bridge. The test results shown that it is an reliable non-contact technique for GB-InSAR to acquire the dynamic vibration parameter for the high-speed railway bridges.

  15. Serial 100 Gb/s connectivity based on polymer photonics and InP-DHBT electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopodis, Vasilis; Kouloumentas, Christos; Konczykowska, Agnieszka; Jorge, Filipe; Groumas, Panos; Zhang, Ziyang; Beretta, Antonio; Dede, Alberto; Dupuy, Jean-Yves; Nodjiadjim, Virginie; Cangini, Giulio; Von Büren, George; Miller, Eric; Dinu, Raluca; Choi, Jung Han; Pech, Detlef; Keil, Norbert; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Grote, Norbert; Vannucci, Antonello; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate the first integrated transmitter for serial 100 Gb/s NRZ-OOK modulation in datacom and telecom applications. The transmitter relies on the use of an electro-optic polymer modulator and the hybrid integration of an InP laser diode and InP-DHBT electronics with the polymer board. Evaluation is made at 80 and 100 Gb/s through eye-diagrams and BER measurements using a receiver module that integrates a pin-photodiode and an electrical 1:2 demultiplexer. Error-free performance is confirmed both at 80 and 100 Gb/s revealing the viability of the approach and the potential of the technology.

  16. GB toxicity reassessed using newer techniques for estimation of human toxicity from animal inhalation toxicity data: new method for estimating acute human toxicity (GB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bide, R W; Armour, S J; Yee, E

    2005-01-01

    Estimated human inhalation toxicity values for Sarin (GB) were calculated using a new two independent (concentration, exposure time), one dependent (toxic response), non-linear dose response (toxicity) model combined with re-evaluated allometric equations relating to animal and human respiration. Historical animal studies of GB toxicity containing both exposure and fractional animal response data were used to test the new process. The final data set contained 6621 animals, 762 groups, 37 studies and 7 species. The toxicity of GB for each species was empirically related to exposure concentration (C; mg m(-3)) and exposure time (T; min) through the surface function Y = b0 + b1 Log10C + b2 Log10T or Y = b0 + b2 Log10C(n)T where Y is the Normit, b0, b1 and b2 are constants and n is the 'toxic load exponent' (Normit is PROBIT - 5). Between exposure times of 0.17 and 30 min, the average value for n in seven species was 1.35 +/- 0.15. The near parallel toxic load equations for each species and the linear relationship between minute volume/body weight ratio and the inhalation toxicity (LCt50) for GB were used to create a pseudo-human data set and then an exposure time/toxicity surface for the human. The calculated n for the human was 1.40. The pseudo-human data had much more variability at low exposure times. Raising the lower exposure limit to 1 min, did not change the LCt50 but did result in lower variability. Raising the lower value to 2 min was counterproductive. Based on the toxic load model for 1-30 min exposures, the human GB toxicities (LCt01, LCt05, LCt50 and LCt95) for 70 kg humans breathing 15 l min(-1) were estimated to be 11, 16, 36 and 83; 18, 25, 57 and 132 and 24, 34, 79 and 182 mg x min m(-3) for 2, 10 and 30 min exposures, respectively. These values are recommended for general use for the total human population. The empirical relationships employed in the calculations may not be valid for exposure times >30 min. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Gene mutations versus clinically relevant phenotypes: lyso-Gb3 defines Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Markus; Rolfs, Arndt; Störk, Stefan; Bijnens, Bart; Breunig, Frank; Beer, Meinrad; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Currently, no method is available to identify α-galactosidase A (agalA) mutations determining clinically relevant Fabry disease. In our largest European Fabry cohort, we investigated whether a biomarker, specific for the defect, could stratify persons at risk. A total of 124 individuals with agalA mutations were investigated with a comprehensive clinical workup, genetic analysis, and laboratory testing, including measurements of agalA activity and lyso-Gb3 (degradation product of the accumulating Gb3). Additionally, an extensive family screening with a clinical workup of relatives was performed. The patient population was divided into 2 samples: previously described mutations (n=72) and novel mutations (n=52). The patients with previously described mutations were subdivided into 2 groups: classical mutations, which were known to cause the classic type of Fabry disease with specific symptoms and a high risk for major events in all 3 main organs (heart, kidney, and central nervous system), and atypical mutations without the typical presentation. All patients with atypical mutations (n=17) had lower lyso-Gb3 levels than any of the patients with classical Fabry disease (n=55). A cutoff value of 2.7 ng/mL separated the 2 groups. Six out of 52 patients with novel mutations showed a lyso-Gb3 level characterization of patients with lyso-Gb3≥2.7 ng/mL suggested classical Fabry mutations in most of the patients (93%). Our data show that the biomarker lyso-Gb3 may identify the clinically relevant agalA mutations leading to Fabry disease.

  18. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined.......An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  19. Heterodyne detection of CPFSK signals with and without wavelength conversion up to 5 Gb/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Ebskamp, F.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1993-01-01

    Detection of wavelength converted signals by a coherent continuous-phase frequency-shift-keying receiver is reported. The signals are wavelength converted over 35 nm, and record receiver sensitivities of -38.7 dBm at 4.0Gb/s and -35.6 dBm at 4.8Gb/s are obtained. Comparison between results...... with and without wavelength conversion, relative to theory, shows a small penalty of less than 1.5dB...

  20. Error-free 320 Gb/s simultaneous add-drop multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre.......We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre....

  1. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter

    2013-01-01

    The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D electromagn......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...

  2. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong-Ling; Shen, Yong-Bao; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Shui-Yuan; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter. PMID:26351628

  3. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ling Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter.

  4. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sukun [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Du, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Chunfu [Soochow University, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yalan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Qinxue, E-mail: qhu@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George' s University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry.

  5. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can...

  6. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    induced by salicylic acid (Qin et al 2004; Zuo et al 2005). The current result of expression profile analysis suggests that GbERF may play an important role in plant's defense response by regulating the expression of various PR genes. 3.4 Expression profile of some ethylene-inducible genes. Ethylene treatment can induce ...

  7. M4GB: An efficient Gröbner-basis algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Makarim (Rusydi); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a new efficient algorithm for computing Gröbner-bases named M4GB. Like Faugère's algorithm F4 it is an extension of Buchberger's algorithm that describes: how to store already computed (tail-)reduced multiples of basis polynomials to prevent redundant work in the

  8. Analysis of GB Virus C Markers in Families Over Three Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Margaret; Fischler, Björn; Hultgren, Catharina; Halasz, Robert; Nemeth, Antal; Sällberg, Matti

    1999-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) markers were analyzed in two to three generations in three families with documented vertical transmission of GBV-C. None of the maternal grandparents had GBV-C markers, whereas the male spouses had GBV-C envelope 2 antibodies. Evidence was found for intrafamilial transmission but not for GBV-C transmission over three generations.

  9. Acupuncture stimulation on GB34 activates neural responses associated with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; Lim, Sabina; Choe, Il-Hwan; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Chung, Kyung-Cheon; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative brain disorder that is caused by neural defects in the substantia nigra. Numerous studies have reported that acupuncture treatment on GB34 (Yanglingquan) leads to significant improvements in patients with PD and in PD animal models. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that patients with PD, compared to healthy participants, have lower neural responses in extensive brain regions including the putamen, thalamus, and the supplementary motor area. This study investigated the reported association between acupuncture point GB34 and PD. Using fMRI, neural responses of 12 patients with PD and 12 healthy participants were examined before and after acupuncture stimulation. Acupuncture stimulation increased neural responses in regions including the substantia nigra, caudate, thalamus, and putamen, which are impaired caused by PD. Areas associated with PD were activated by the acupuncture stimulation on GB34. This shows that acupuncture treatment on GB34 may be effective in improving the symptoms of PD. Although more randomized controlled trials on the topic will be needed, this study shows that acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of symptoms involving PD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Flat-top pulse enabling 640 Gb/s OTDM demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In ultra-high speed optical time division multiplexed systems (OTDM) with bit rates of 640 Gb/s at single wavelength and single polarisation, timing jitter is perhaps the most detrimental factor, limiting switching quality. Here, we report on using a novel flat-top pulse shaping technique, which ...

  11. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km...

  12. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    transgenic plants; DNA marker: DL2000, bands on the lane from top are 2000, 1000, 750, 250, and 100 bp. (B) RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants. The Ubiquitin gene is used as the internal control. Lane 1: wt plant; 2–13: transgenic plants. Figure S2. Phenotypic analysis in GbAGL2 transgenic and wt Arabidopsis floral ...

  13. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  14. 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Lin, Xin-Yao; Yang, Zih-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei

    2017-03-06

    A 64 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based free-space optical (FSO) link with an external light injection scheme is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Experimental results show that the 11.2 GHz VCSEL with an external light injection scheme is sufficiently powerful for 64 Gb/s PAM4 FSO links. This study is the first one that adopts a 1550-nm VCSEL transmitter with an external light injection scheme in a 64 Gb/s PAM4 FSO link. The link performances of the proposed PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO links have been analyzed in real-time in terms of eye diagrams and offline processed by Matlab in terms of bit error rate (BER) performances. Good BER performance and clear eye diagrams are acquired over a 100-m free-space link. Such a proposed 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO link with an external light injection scheme is a promising one for providing high transmission rate and long transmission distance.

  15. HGV/GB virus C transmission by blood components in patients undergoing open-heart surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentjens, Roel; Basaras, Miren; Simmonds, Peter; Vrielink, Hans; Reesink, Henk

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To establish the rate of HGV/GB virus C (GBV-C) transmission by blood components in open-heart surgery patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: From 55 patients receiving blood components, sera were collected before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 32 weeks after heart surgery. Serum

  16. [Effect of GB-115 dipeptide on anxiety in rats with model benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolik, L G; Kadnikov, I A; Zhukov, V N; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2011-01-01

    The effects of GB-115 dipeptide, a retroanalog of endogenous CCK-4, on the behavioral indices in "elevated plus maze" (EPM) test and on the content of biogenic amines in the brain structures after discontinuation of a chronic administration of benzodiazepine (BZ) derivatives phenazepam (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (4.0 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied in outbred and inbred MR/MNRA rats. It is established that, in 24-48 h following BZ withdrawal, GB-115 dipeptide administered in doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p., produced an anxiolytic effect in all animals, which was manifested by increasing the stay time and number of entries in EPM. In the striatum of outbred rats, GB-115 increased DOPAC (+25%) and DA (+31.6%) levels that were decreased during diazepam withdrawal syndrome. The obtained results showed the GB-115 efficiency in attenuating the anxiety caused by BZ withdrawal.

  17. Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, M., E-mail: m.wegner@uni-muenster.de; Leuthold, J.; Peterlechner, M.; Divinski, S. V., E-mail: divin@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Materialphysik, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, D-48149, Münster (Germany); Song, X., E-mail: xysong@bjut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100124 Beijing (China); Wilde, G. [Institut für Materialphysik, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, D-48149, Münster (Germany); Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-07

    Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline Cu samples with grain sizes, 〈d〉, of ∼35 and ∼44 nm produced by spark plasma sintering were investigated by the radiotracer method using the {sup 63}Ni isotope. The measured diffusivities, D{sub eff}, are comparable with those determined previously for Ni grain boundary diffusion in well-annealed, high purity, coarse grained, polycrystalline copper, substantiating the absence of a grain size effect on the kinetic properties of grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline material at grain sizes d ≥ 35 nm. Simultaneously, the analysis predicts that if triple junction diffusion of Ni in Cu is enhanced with respect to the corresponding grain boundary diffusion rate, it is still less than 500⋅D{sub gb} within the temperature interval from 420 K to 470 K.

  18. Metal Inhibition of Growth and Manganese Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J.; Sposito, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (MnO2) are ubiquitous nanoparticulate minerals that contribute to the adsorption of nutrient and toxicant metals, the oxidative degradation of various organic compounds, and the respiration of metal-reducing bacteria in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The formation of these minerals is catalyzed by a diverse and widely-distributed group of bacteria and fungi, often through the enzymatic oxidation of aqueous Mn(II) to Mn(IV). In metal-impacted ecosystems, toxicant metals may alter the viability and metabolic activity of Mn-oxidizing organisms, thereby limiting the conditions under which biogenic MnO2 can form and diminishing their potential as adsorbent materials. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 (P. putida GB-1) is a model Mn-oxidizing laboratory culture representative of freshwater and soil biofilm-forming bacteria. Manganese oxidation in P. putida GB-1 occurs via two single-electron-transfer reactions, involving a multicopper oxidase enzyme found on the bacterial outer membrane surface. Near the onset of the stationary phase of growth, dark brown MnO2 particles are deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, thus forming heterogeneous biomineral assemblages. In this study, we assessed the influence of various transition metals on microbial growth and manganese oxidation capacity in a P. putida GB-1 culture propagated in a nutrient-rich growth medium. The concentration-response behavior of actively growing P. putida GB-1 cells was investigated for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn at pH ≈ 6 in the presence and absence of 1 mM Mn. Toxicity parameters such as EC0, EC50 and Hillslope, and EC100 were obtained from the sigmoidal concentration-response curves. The extent of MnO2 formation in the presence of the various metal cations was documented 24, 50, 74 and 104 h after the metal-amended medium was inoculated. Toxicity values were compared to twelve physicochemical properties of the metals tested. Significant

  19. Mare antiquissimum. La réponse de G. B. Vico à la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes Mare Antiquissimum: G.B. Vico's answer to the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Mare Antiquissimum : la respuesta de G.B. Vico a la querella de los antiguos y los modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Luglio

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Au début du XVIIIe siècle, alors que la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes continue d'agiter les milieux intellectuels, la culture italienne est, depuis quelques années déjà, confrontée à la diffusion de la pensée cartésienne et port-royaliste. La nouvelle méthode Iogico-mathématique, qui constitue le nerf de ces courants de pensée, bat en brèche et rapidement l'ancienne tradition de démonstration et d'argumentation rhétoriques. Voulant contrer les attaques lancées à la rhétorique, sans toutefois prendre le parti des Anciens, Giambattista Vico écrit, en 1710, le De Antiquissima italorum sapientia ex linguae latinae originibus emenda, qui propose une troisième issue à la célèbre Querelle.In the beginning of the eighteenth century, when intellectual circles were still ablaze with the quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, Italian culture has been confronted with the spread of Cartesian and Port-Royal thought for some years. The new logico-mathematical method, which was at the core of these trends of thought, soon prevailed over the ancient tradition of demonstration and rhetorical argumentation. As he wished to counter attack and behalf of rhetorics without siding with the Ancients, Giambattista Vico wrote the De Antiquissima italorum sapientia ex linguae latinae originibus emenda en 1710, in order to put forward a third possible solution to the quarrel.A principios del siglo 18, mientras la Querella de los antiguos y los modernos sigue agitando a los medios intelectuales, la cultura italiana está enfrentándose, desde hace algunos años ya, a la difusión de los pensamientos cartesiano y des Port-Royal. El nuevo método lógico-matemático, que constituye la clave de dichas corrientes de pensamiento, bate en brecha, y ello rápidamente, la antigua tradición de demostración y argumentación retóricas. Para combatir los ataques que sufre la retórica, sin por ello tomar el partido de los antiguos, G.B. Vico escribe

  20. Design and OAM&P aspects of a DWDM system equipped with a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent 10Gb/s channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijts, Roeland; Bjørn, Lars Lange; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations of the interaction, in terms of BER performance, between a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent (50GHz spacing) 10Gb/s NRZ-OOK channels. Experiments were conducted on the Hamburg-Copenhagen section of the Amsterdam-Copenhagen CBF (Cro...

  1. 640 Gb/s OTDM Transmission and Demultiplexing using a NOLM with Commercially Available Highly Non-linear Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, Anders; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Demultiplexing of a 640 Gb/s single-polarization optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signal and a 640 Gb/s signal with two alternating polarizations transmitted through 77 km of non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF) are realized using a non-linear optical loop mirrors (NOLM) based on 500 m...... of highly non-linear fiber (HNLF)....

  2. Anisotropy of self-diffusion in forsterite grain boundaries derived from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johannes; Adjaoud, Omar; Marquardt, Katharina; Jahn, Sandro

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion rates and associated deformation behaviour in olivine have been subjected to many studies, due to the major abundance of this mineral group in the Earth's upper mantle. However, grain boundary (GB) transport studies yield controversial results. The relation between transport rate, energy, and geometry of individual GBs is the key to understand transport in aggregates with lattice preferred orientation that favours the presence and/or alignment of specific GBs over random ones in an undeformed rock. In this contribution, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations of a series of symmetric and one asymmetric tilt GBs of Mg_2 SiO_4 forsterite, ranging from 9.58° to 90° in misorientation and varying surface termination. Our emphasis lies on unravelling structural characteristics of high- and low-angle grain boundaries and how the atomic structure influences grain boundary excess volume and self-diffusion processes. To obtain diffusion rates for different GB geometries, we equilibrate the respective systems at ambient pressure and temperatures from 1900 to 2200 K and trace their evolution for run durations of at least 1000 ps. We then calculate the mean square displacement of the different atomic species within the GB interface to estimate self-diffusion coefficients in the individual systems. Grain boundary diffusion coefficients for Mg, Si and O range from 10^{-18} to 10^{-21} m^3/s, falling in line with extrapolations from lower temperature experimental data. Our data indicate that higher GB excess volumes enable faster diffusion within the GB. Finally, we discuss two types of transport mechanisms that may be distinguished in low- and high-angle GBs.

  3. Acalculous Diffuse Gallbladder Wall Thickening in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Haeng; No, Young Eun; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Park, Jae Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gallbladder (GB) wall thickening can be found in various conditions unrelated to intrinsic GB disease. We investigated the predisposing etiologies and the outcome of acalculous GB wall thickening in children. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 67 children with acalculous GB wall thickening who had visited our institute from June 2010 to June 2013. GB wall thickening was defined as a GB wall diameter >3.5 mm on abdominal ultrasound examination or computed tomography. Underlying diseas...

  4. Demonstration of an 8 × 25-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huo, Li; Li, Yunbo; Wang, Lei; Li, Han; Jiang, Xiangyu; Chen, Xin; Lou, Caiyun

    2017-11-01

    An 8 × 25-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) system is demonstrated experimentally. The optical pulse source is based on optical frequency comb (OFC) generation and pulse shaping, which can generate nearly chirp-free 25-GHz 1.6-ps optical Gaussian pulse. The eightfold optical time-division demultiplexer consists of a single-driven dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) and a Mamyshev reshaper. Error-free demultiplexing of 8 × 25-Gb/s back-to-back (B2B) signal with a power penalty of 4.1 dB to 4.4 dB at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 is achieved to confirm the performance of the proposed system.

  5. Experimental demonstration of real-time 3Gb/s optical OFDM transceivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Tang, J M

    2009-09-14

    Real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OOFDM) transceivers based on off-the-shelf components including FPGAs are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, incorporating key functionalities such as live transceiver optimisation and advanced channel estimation, and also utilising self-developed IFFT/FFT logic algorithms verified at 10 Gb/s. The fastest ever real-time end-to-end transmission of 3Gb/s DQPSK- and 16-QAM-encoded OOFDM signals over 500 m multi-mode fibers is achieved with BERs of systems employing directly modulated DFB lasers. Excellent performance robustness is also observed to various offset launch conditions. This work is a significant breakthrough in demonstrating the great potential of OOFDM for practical implementation in optical networks.

  6. Fe-Zn intermetallic phases prepared by diffusion annealing and spark-plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Cinert, Jakub; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), s. 253-256 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Fe-Zn intermetallics * spark-plasma sintering * diffusion annealing * phase composition * hardness Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  7. Determination of vacancy mechanism for grain boundary self-diffusion by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Kwok, T.; Bristowe, P.D.; Brokman, A.; Ho, P.S.; Yip, S.

    1981-08-01

    This note reports efforts to establish the GB self-diffusion mechanism in a bcc iron /SIGMA/.5 (36.9/degree/) (001) (310) tilt boundary using the combined methods of computer molecular statics and molecular dynamics simulation to provide quantitative microscopic evidence in favor of the vacancy mechanism. 16 refs.

  8. Experimental Demonstration of 5-Gb/s Polarization-Multiplexed Fiber-Wireless MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 5-Gb/s fiber-wireless transmission system combining optical polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing technologies. The optical-wireless channel throughput is enhanced by achieving a 4b...... advantageous to the MIMO wireless system due to the inter-channel delay insensitivity. The hybrid transmission performance of 26km fiber and up to 2m wireless MIMO is investigated....

  9. Modeling novel back-pressure mechanisms for a 100 Gb/s switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluate the performance of novel back-pressure mechanisms in a Clos-based 100 Gb/s switch system via OPNET modeler simulations. The effectiveness of the mechanisms under different switch configurations, as well as under different traffic patterns, is presented. Our results indicate...... that the proposed back-pressure techniques can effectively reduce the requirements for buffer space in the different stages of the Clos switch....

  10. 50Gb/s PAM-4 oxide VCSEL development progress at Broadcom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Murty, M. V. Ramana; Wang, Charlie; Hui, David; Lehman Harren, Ann; Chang, Hsu-Hao; Feng, Zheng-Wen; Fanning, Thomas R.; Sridhara, Aaditya; Taslim, Sumitro-Joyo; Cai, Xinle; Chu, Jason; Giovane, Laura M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper will review the device design and performance of Broadcom's 50Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL to enable the next generation of transceivers using a PAM-4 advanced modulation scheme at 25-28 GBd. The VCSEL has been optimized to minimize noise and improve dynamic performance for cleaner eyes. Preliminary wear out lifetime studies indicate that the time to 1% failure exceeds 10 years, making the VCSELs suitable for data communication applications.

  11. 10Gb/s Bang-Bang Clock and Data Recovery (CDR for optical transmission systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dodel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bang-Bang Clock-Data Recovery (CDR for 10Gb/s optical transmission systems is presented. A direct modulated architecture is used for the design. Its loop characteristics can be derived using an analogy to Σ Δ theory. The circuit was produced and measured in a commercial 0.25μm BiCMOS technology with a transition frequency fT70=GHz.

  12. An optical WDM link simulation at 4·10 Gb/s with the COMSIS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benameur S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of data transmission using optical fiber media has been accelerated since the advent of technical multiplexing wavelengths (WDM, which helps to achieve bit rates of a few Tb/s transported by a single fiber. In this context, we propose in this work, to make a simulation of a system WDM, at 4·10Gb/s with the COMSIS simulator system. We will interest especially to demultiplexing. .

  13. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  14. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse [Acadia Optronics LLC, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  15. IMUNOGENISITAS HEAT KILLED Aeromonas hydrophila Strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05 SEBAGAI KANDIDAT VAKSIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Siswani Mulia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Vaksinasi Aeromonas hydrophila merupakan langkah konkrit untuk mengendalikan penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS yang disebabkan oleh bakteri A.hydrophila. Namun, diperlukan strain bakteri A. hydrophila yang memiliki imunogenisitas tinggi. Pembuatan vaksin dengan metode heat killed merupakan salah satu cara pembuatan vaksin inaktif A. hydrophila selain vaksin inaktif dengan formalin (whole cell. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji potensi imunogenisitas heat killed A.hydrophila strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05 sebagai kandidat vaksin. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL, 3 perlakuan (strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05. dan 1 kontrol dengan 4 kali ulangan. Vaksin dibuat dengan memanaskan bakteri pada suhu 100ºC selama 2 jam. Ikan uji adalah lele dumbo berumur sekitar 2 bulan dengan ukuran panjang 9-14 cm. Parameter penelitian meliputi titer antibodi, uji reaksi silang, dan parameter kualitas air, yaitu suhu air, pH, dan kadar oksigen terlarut. Data titer antibodi dianalisis dengan Analysis of Variance (Anova dan Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf uji 5 %, sedangkan data hasil reaksi silang dan parameter kualitas air diamati secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05 dapat meningkatkan titer antibodi dibandingkan kontrol dan bereaksi positif pada uji reaksi silang, sehingga disimpulkan memiliki imunogenisitas yang tinggi dan direkomendasikan menjadi kandidat vaksin.

  16. Hepatitis G virus / GB virus C in Brazil. Preliminary report Vírus da Hepatite G / Vírus GB-C no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.R. Pinho

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis G virus/ GB virus C is a novel flavivirus recently detected in hepatitis non A-E cases. In this study, the presence of this virus in chronic non-B, non-C hepatitis patients was evaluated using GBV-C specific PCR and this virus was detected in one out of thirteen patients. This patient has presented a severe liver failure, has lived for a long time in the Western Amazon basin and no other cause for this clinical picture was reported. The impact of the discovery of this new agent is still under evaluation throughout the world. The study of the prevalence of this virus among chronic hepatitis patients and healthy individuals (as blood donors will furnish subside to evaluate its real pathogenicity.O vírus da Hepatite G ou vírus GB-C é um novo vírus recentemente descoberto em casos de hepatites não A-E. Neste estudo, casos de hepatite crônica não-B, não-C foram testados com uma reação de amplificação específica para GBV-C. Este vírus foi detectado em 1 entre os 13 casos estudados. Este paciente apresentava insuficiência hepática severa, tinha habitado por vários anos na Amazônia Ocidental e nenhuma outra causa para este quadro clínico havia sido relatada. O impacto da descoberta deste novo agente está ainda sendo investigado. O estudo da prevalência deste vírus entre pacientes com hepatite crônica e entre indivíduos sadios (como, por exemplo, doadores de sangue fornecerá subsídios para o estabelecimento de sua real patogenicidade.

  17. [Determination of alpha-cellulose content of natural cellulose pulp in a new clean pulping process using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Jin-Chun; Du, Jun-Qi

    2013-01-01

    A new near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method is proposed to rapidly detect alpha-cellulose content of natural cellulose (plant fiber: cotton, wood) pulp in a new clean pulping process. One hundred forty two samples were collected and their alpha-cellulose content data were determined by standard method GB/T 9107-1999. The samples were homogenized by grinding pretreatment to improve spectroscopy measurement accuracy. Effective classification models were built by SIMCA, with the total correct identification. Using partial least squares (PLS) quantitative calibration, alpha-cellulose of the whole and separate cotton and wood pulp was established, with the correlation coefficients of 0.954, 0.911, 0.839, SEP, 0.024, 0.012 and 0.016, respectively. The repeatability results obtained by the new method are in agreement with the results from GB/T 9107-1999. The new method is feasible for determining alpha-cellulose content of natural cellulose (plant fiber: cotton, wood) in clean pulping process.

  18. GIBS Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GDAL is an open source translator library for raster geospatial data formats that presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported...

  19. GIBS Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TWMS specification is a custom extension to the OGS WMS standard developed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Similar to the OGC WMTS specification, TWMS...

  20. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  1. Japanoloog räägib puudest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Viljandi pärimusmuusika aidas "Omakultuuriakadeemia" loengul Tallinna Ülikooli japanoloog Alari Allik kõneles teemal "Mitu elu on ühel puul: shinto ja pärandihoid" ning otsib vastust küsimusele, milline võiks olla pärandihoid, mis hoiab elus ka rituaalid ja kohaliku elukeskkonna

  2. Pyoverdine synthesis by the Mn(II-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Lundquist Parker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When iron-starved, the Mn(II-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida strains GB-1 and MnB1 produce pyoverdines (PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1, siderophores that both influence iron uptake and inhibit manganese(II oxidation by these strains. To explore the properties and genetics of a PVD that can affect manganese oxidation, LC-MS/MS and various siderotyping techniques were used to identify the peptides of PVDGB-1 and PVDMnB1 as being (for both PVDs: chromophore-Asp-Lys-OHAsp-Ser-Gly-aThr-Lys-cOHOrn, resembling a structure previously reported for P. putida CFML 90-51, which does not oxidize Mn. All three strains also produced an azotobactin and a sulfonated PVD, each with the peptide sequence above, but with unknown regulatory or metabolic effects. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequenced genome of P. putida GB-1 suggested that a particular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, coded by the operon PputGB1_4083-4086, could produce the peptide backbone of PVDGB-1. To verify this prediction, plasmid integration disruption of PputGB1_4083 was performed and the resulting mutant failed to produce detectable PVD. In silico analysis of the modules in PputGB1_4083-4086 predicted a peptide sequence of Asp-Lys-Asp-Ser-Ala-Thr-Lsy-Orn, which closely matches the peptide determined by MS/MS. To extend these studies to other organisms, various Mn(II-oxidizing and non-oxidizing isolates of P. putida, P. fluorescens, P. marincola, P. fluorescens-syringae group, P. mendocina-resinovorans group and P. stutzerii group were screened for PVD synthesis. The PVD producers (12 out of 16 tested strains were siderotyped and placed into four sets of differing PVD structures, some corresponding to previously characterized PVDs and some to novel PVDs. These results combined with previous studies suggested that the presence of OHAsp or the flexibility of the pyoverdine polypeptide may enable efficient binding of Mn(III.

  3. [Study on the angle and depth of needle insertion at Huantiao (GB 30) by three-dimensional reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xiang; Yan, Zhen-Guo; Guo, Yi; Zhuang, Tian-Ge; Shao, Shui-Jin; Jiang, Jun

    2012-10-01

    To observe the anatomic structure of Huantiao (GB 30) visually, to imitate the inserting process of the needle to explore the safty of needle insertion and improve the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in clinic. Combined with anatomic structure of acupoint, muscles and other tissues related with Huantiao (GB 30) were interactively segmented in VOXEL-MAN with the computer graphics technology. Nerves and blood vessels were reconstructed by establishing mathematic model, and the needle-inserting animation of Huantiso (GB 30) was obtained by running script file. The three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of Huantiao (GB 30) on needle-inserting animation was accomplished, the spatial location and expression of Huantiao (GB 30) in the digitized virtual human body were observed, the virtual inserting process was imitated realistically, and the 3-D animation of needle insertion at Huantiao (GB 30) was created. Building mathematic model is favorable for expressing the anatomic structure of Huantiao (GB 30) in 3-D space, imitating the process of needle insertion realistically and observing the spatial structure of the point and the around tissues, which can provide a solid foundation for the safety of needle insertion of acupoints and improve therapeutic effect of acupuncture in clinic.

  4. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  5. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data. PMID:27821901

  6. Single molecule force spectroscopy reveals critical roles of hydrophobic core packing in determining the mechanical stability of protein GB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Tianjia; Wang, Hui-Chuan Eileen; Li, Hongbin

    2012-08-21

    Understanding molecular determinants of protein mechanical stability is important not only for elucidating how elastomeric proteins are designed and functioning in biological systems but also for designing protein building blocks with defined nanomechanical properties for constructing novel biomaterials. GB1 is a small α/β protein and exhibits significant mechanical stability. It is thought that the shear topology of GB1 plays an important role in determining its mechanical stability. Here, we combine single molecule atomic force microscopy and protein engineering techniques to investigate the effect of side chain reduction and hydrophobic core packing on the mechanical stability of GB1. We engineered seven point mutants and carried out mechanical φ-value analysis of the mechanical unfolding of GB1. We found that three mutations, which are across the surfaces of two subdomains that are to be sheared by the applied stretching force, in the hydrophobic core (F30L, Y45L, and F52L) result in significant decrease in mechanical unfolding force of GB1. The mechanical unfolding force of these mutants drop by 50-90 pN compared with wild-type GB1, which unfolds at around 180 pN at a pulling speed of 400 nm/s. These results indicate that hydrophobic core packing plays an important role in determining the mechanical stability of GB1 and suggest that optimizing hydrophobic interactions across the surfaces that are to be sheared will likely be an efficient method to enhance the mechanical stability of GB1 and GB1 homologues.

  7. Diffusion of indium in silicon inert and oxidizing ambients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, D. A.; Moskowitz, I.

    1982-12-01

    The diffusion of indium in silicon at 1000 °C has been measured in inert (dry nitrogen) and oxidizing (dry oxygen) ambients. It was found that, similarly to phosphorous, boron, and arsenic, indium experiences significant oxidation-enhanced diffusion. This result indicates that indium, like the other elements mentioned above, diffuses in silicon by a mixed interstitialcy and vacancy mechanism. It was also found that indium, similarly to gallium, segregates readily and diffuses rapidly in thermal silicon dioxide.

  8. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-07-15

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  9. Chimpanzee GB virus C and GB virus A E2 envelope glycoproteins contain a peptide motif that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human CD4+ T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    McLinden, James H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Klinzman, Donna; Murthy, Krishna K.; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Bhattarai, Nirjal; Xiang, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus that can cause persistent infection in humans. GBV-C is not associated with any disease, but is associated with reduced mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Related viruses have been isolated from chimpanzees (GBV-Ccpz) and from New World primates (GB virus type A, GBV-A). These viruses are also capable of establishing persistent infection. We determined the nucleotide sequence encoding the envelope glyc...

  10. Oxygen Permeability and Grain-Boundary Diffusion Applied to Alumina Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Gleeson, Brian; Hovis, David B.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature oxygen permeability measurements had determined grain-boundary diffusivities (deltaD(sub gb)) in bulk polycrystalline alumina (Wada, Matsudaira, and Kitaoka). They predict that oxygen deltaD(sub gb,O) varies with oxygen pressure as P(O2)(sup -1/6) at low pressure whereas aluminum deltaD(sub gb),Al varies with P(O2)(sup +3/16) at high pressure. These relations were used to evaluate alumina scale growth in terms of diffusivity and grain size. A modified Wagner treatment for dominant inward oxygen growth produces the concise solution: ?(sub i) = k(sub p,i)×G(sub i) = 12 deltaD(sub gb,O,int), where ?(sub i) is a constant and k(sub p,i) and G(sub i) refer to instantaneous values of the scale parabolic growth constant and grain size, respectively. A commercial FeCrAl(Zr) alloy was oxidized at 1100 to 1400 degC to determine k(sub p,i), interfacial grain size, ?, and thus deltaD(sub gb,O,int). The deltaD(sub gb,O,int) values predicted from oxidation at (375 kJ/mole) were about 20 times less than those obtained above (at 298 kJ/mole), but closer than extrapolations from high-temperature bulk measurements. The experimental oxidation results agree with similar FeCrAl(X) studies, especially where both k(sub p,i) and G(sub i) were characterized. This complete approach accounts for temperature-sensitive oxidation effects of grain enlargement, equilibrium interface pressure variation, and grain-boundary diffusivity.

  11. 40 Gb/s optical subassembly module for a multi-channel bidirectional optical link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangirov, Jamshid; Joo, Gwan-Chong; Choi, Jae-Shik; Kim, Do-Hoon; Yoo, Byueng-Su; Ukaegbu, Ikechi Augustine; Nga, Nguyen T H; Kim, Jong-Hun; Lee, Tae-Woo; Cho, Mu Hee; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2014-01-27

    A 40 Gb/s bidirectional optical link using four-channel optical subassembly (OSA) modules and two different wavelengths for the up- and down-link is demonstrated. Widely separated wavelengths of 850 nm and 1060 nm are used to reduce the optical crosstalk between the up- and down-link signals. Due to the integration capabilities of silicon, the OSA is implemented, all based on silicon: V-grooved silicon substrates to embed fibers and silicon optical benches (SiOBs) to mount optical components. The SiOBs are separately prepared for array chips of photodiodes (PDs), vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and monitoring PDs, which are serially configured on an optical fiber array for direct coupling to the transmission fibers. The separation of the up- and down-link wavelengths is implemented using a wavelength-filtering 45° mirror which is formed in the fiber under the VCSEL. To guide the light signal to the PD another 45° mirror is formed at the end of the fiber. The fabricated bidirectional OSA module shows good performances with a clear eye-diagram and a BER of less than 10(-12) at a data rate of 10 Gb/s for each of the channels with input powers of -8 dBm and -6.5 dBm for the up-link and the down-link, respectively. The measured inter-channel crosstalk of the bidirectional 40 Gb/s optical link is about -22.6 dB, while the full-duplex operation mode demonstrates negligible crosstalk between the up- and down-link.

  12. China Dimensions Data Collection: GuoBiao (GB) Codes for the Administrative Divisions of the Peoples Republic of China

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GuoBiao (GB) Codes for the Administrative Divisions of the People's Republic of China consists of geographic codes for the administrative divisions of China. The...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  14. The natural history of non-human GB virus C in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Emma L.; Murthy, Krishna K.; McLinden, James H.; Xiang, Jinhua; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2011-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a common, non-pathogenic human virus that infects lymphocytes. Persistent GBV-C infection of humans with coexistent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with prolonged survival, and GBV-C replication inhibits HIV replication in vitro. A GBV-C virus variant was identified in chimpanzees in 1998 and was named GBV-Ctrog or GBV-Ccpz. The prevalence and natural history of GBV-C in chimpanzees remains uncharacterized. We examined the sera from 235 captive...

  15. GB Virus C Proteine interferieren mit der Replikation von HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Susan

    2010-01-01

    GB Virus C (GBV-C) was discovered in 1995 within the search for new hepatitis viruses. The human apathogenic enveloped RNA virus belongs to the family of the Flaviviridae and replicates primarily in lymphocytes. Transmission occurs mainly by sexual or parenteral exposure. In developed countries up to 6% of the healthy population and up to 40% of multiply exposed individuals, such as HIV patients, are viremic for GBV-C. Since the late 1990s, GBV-C has been investigated in the context of HIV. U...

  16. GB virus type C interactions with HIV: the role of envelope glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Emma L.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2009-01-01

    GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) is the most closely related human virus to hepatitis C virus (HCV). GBV-C is lymphotropic and not associated with any known disease, although it is associated with improved survival in HIV-infected individuals. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, GBV-C induces the release of soluble ligands for HIV entry receptors (RANTES, MIP-1a, MIP-1b and SDF-1), suggesting that GBV-C may interact with lymphocytes to induce a chemokine and/or cytokine milieu that...

  17. Mitigation of Rayleigh crosstalk using noise suppression technique in 10-Gb/s REAM-SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Sool; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki-Soo; Park, Mi-Ran; Kwon, O-Kyun

    2012-11-19

    We demonstrate a mitigation of Rayleigh back-scattering (RBS) impact in 10-Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA). The technique is based on the intensity-noise suppression of the centralized incoherent seed-light, which enables smooth evolution of deployed DWDM applications. We exhibit the power penalty of less than 1 dB at the large RBS crosstalk value of about 8 dB when the optical power of seed-light is lowered about -10 dBm.

  18. Coherent detection of 40-Gb/s optical minimum-shift keying modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Huang, Bo; Shao, Yufeng; Zhang, Junwen; Zhu, Jiangbo; Chi, Nan

    2010-12-01

    Optical minimum-shift keying (MSK) format has constant envelope and continuous temporal phase shift, and exhibits a promising application for its high compact spectrum. Coherent detections have been proved to be effectively for the significant improvement of receiver sensitivity. In this paper, a heterodyne detection scheme to demodulate 40Gb/s MSK signal is proposed, and simulation analysis is given to the receiver sensitivity, the laser line-width and frequency offset. Comparison is drawn between the presented heterodyne detection and homodyne detection, and investigation is made on the performance of the receiver in different schemes.

  19. Cascaded all-optical operations in a hybrid integrated 80-Gb/s logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrange, J D; Dinu, M; Sochor, T; Bollond, P; Kasper, A; Cabot, S; Johnson, G S; Kang, I; Grant, A; Kay, J; Jaques, J

    2014-06-02

    We demonstrate logic functionalities in a high-speed all-optical logic circuit based on differential Mach-Zehnder interferometers with semiconductor optical amplifiers as the nonlinear optical elements. The circuit, implemented by hybrid integration of the semiconductor optical amplifiers on a planar lightwave circuit platform fabricated in silica glass, can be flexibly configured to realize a variety of Boolean logic gates. We present both simulations and experimental demonstrations of cascaded all-optical operations for 80-Gb/s on-off keyed data.

  20. All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong

    2013-01-01

    An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total input...... power of only 8.5 dBm takes place in the ring, resulting in the generation of an idler whose intensity follows the logic operation between the pumps. Clear and open eye diagrams with a bit-error- ratio below 10−9 are achieved....

  1. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6......GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...

  2. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6......GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...

  3. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  4. On tense, aspect and negation markings in Ògbahù dialect of Ìgbò ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that both Tense and Aspect exist as functional categories in gbahù dialect, contrary to earlier works on Ìgbò which claimed that Aspect rather than Tense is explicitly marked in Ìgbò. The -lV suffix clearly instantiates past tense in different constructions in gbahù. The study further reveals the existence of the ...

  5. Field trial of a quantum secured 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission system over a single installed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Iris; Zhou, Yu Rong; Dynes, James F; Yuan, Zhiliang; Klar, Andreas; Sharpe, Andrew; Plews, Alan; Lucamarini, Marco; Radig, Christian; Neubert, Jörg; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Chunnilall, Christopher; Lepert, Guillaume; Sinclair, Alastair; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lord, Andrew; Shields, Andrew

    2014-09-22

    We present results from the first field-trial of a quantum-secured DWDM transmission system, in which quantum key distribution (QKD) is combined with 4 × 10 Gb/s encrypted data and transmitted simultaneously over 26 km of field installed fiber. QKD is used to frequently refresh the key for AES-256 encryption of the 10 Gb/s data traffic. Scalability to over 40 DWDM channels is analyzed.

  6. Simultaneous 160 Gb/s Add-Drop Multiplexing in a Non-Linear Optical Loop Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report on a demonstration of error-free simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 160 Gb/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror composed of 100 m highly non-linear fibre......We report on a demonstration of error-free simultaneous add-drop multiplexing of 160 Gb/s data in a non-linear optical loop mirror composed of 100 m highly non-linear fibre...

  7. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  8. Mapping regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB) important for fusion function with gH/gL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Aileen E.; Reimer, Jessica J.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Longnecker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Glycoproteins gB and gH/gL are required for entry of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into cells, but the role of each glycoprotein and how they function together to mediate fusion is unclear. Analysis of the functional homology of gB from the closely related primate gammaherpesvirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus (Rh-LCV), showed that EBV gB could not complement Rh gB due to a species-specific dependence between gB and gL. To map domains of gB required for this interaction, we constructed a panel of EBV/Rh gB chimeric proteins. Analysis showed that insertion of Rh gB from residues 456-807 restored fusion function of EBV gB with Rh gH/gL, suggesting this region of gB is important for interaction with gH/gL. Split YFP bimolecular complementation (BiFC) provided evidence of an interaction between EBV gB and gH/gL. Together, our results suggest the importance of a gB-gH/gL interaction in EBV-mediated fusion with B cells requiring the region of EBV gB from 456-807. PMID:21376360

  9. 45 Gb/s low complexity optical front-end for soft-decision LDPC decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Meer Nazmus; Moayedi, Monireh; Gross, Warren J; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2012-07-30

    In this paper a low complexity and energy efficient 45 Gb/s soft-decision optical front-end to be used with soft-decision low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders is demonstrated. The results show that the optical front-end exhibits a net coding gain of 7.06 and 9.62 dB for post forward error correction bit error rate of 10(-7) and 10(-12) for long block length LDPC(32768,26803) code. The performance over a hard decision front-end is 1.9 dB for this code. It is shown that the soft-decision circuit can also be used as a 2-bit flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), in conjunction with equalization schemes. At bit rate of 15 Gb/s using RS(255,239), LDPC(672,336), (672, 504), (672, 588), and (1440, 1344) used with a 6-tap finite impulse response (FIR) equalizer will result in optical power savings of 3, 5, 7, 9.5 and 10.5 dB, respectively. The 2-bit flash ADC consumes only 2.71 W at 32 GSamples/s. At 45 GSamples/s the power consumption is estimated to be 4.95 W.

  10. Proposed scheme for parallel 10Gb/s VSR system and its verilog HDL realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Hongda; Zuo, Chao; Jia, Jiuchun; Shen, Rongxuan; Chen, Xiongbin

    2005-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel and innovative scheme for 10Gb/s parallel Very Short Reach (VSR) optical communication system. The optimized scheme properly manages the SDH/SONET redundant bytes and adjusts the position of error detecting bytes and error correction bytes. Compared with the OIF-VSR4-01.0 proposal, the scheme has a coding process module. The SDH/SONET frames in transmission direction are disposed as follows: (1) The Framer-Serdes Interface (FSI) gets 16×622.08Mb/s STM-64 frame. (2) The STM-64 frame is byte-wise stripped across 12 channels, all channels are data channels. During this process, the parity bytes and CRC bytes are generated in the similar way as OIF-VSR4-01.0 and stored in the code process module. (3) The code process module will regularly convey the additional parity bytes and CRC bytes to all 12 data channels. (4) After the 8B/10B coding, the 12 channels is transmitted to the parallel VCSEL array. The receive process approximately in reverse order of transmission process. By applying this scheme to 10Gb/s VSR system, the frame size in VSR system is reduced from 15552×12 bytes to 14040×12 bytes, the system redundancy is reduced obviously.

  11. GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Juan; Tu, Lili; Hu, Haiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Tang, Wenxin; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-10-01

    As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from -2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling.

  12. Cs diffusion in SiC high-energy grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunseok; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2017-09-01

    Cesium (Cs) is a radioactive fission product whose release is of concern for Tristructural-Isotropic fuel particles. In this work, Cs diffusion through high energy grain boundaries (HEGBs) of cubic-SiC is studied using an ab-initio based kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The HEGB environment was modeled as an amorphous SiC, and Cs defect energies were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). From defect energies, it was suggested that the fastest diffusion mechanism is the diffusion of Cs interstitial in an amorphous SiC. The diffusion of Cs interstitial was simulated using a kMC model, based on the site and transition state energies sampled from the DFT. The Cs HEGB diffusion exhibited an Arrhenius type diffusion in the range of 1200-1600 °C. The comparison between HEGB results and the other studies suggests not only that the GB diffusion dominates the bulk diffusion but also that the HEGB is one of the fastest grain boundary paths for the Cs diffusion. The diffusion coefficients in HEGB are clearly a few orders of magnitude lower than the reported diffusion coefficients from in- and out-of-pile samples, suggesting that other contributions are responsible, such as radiation enhanced diffusion.

  13. In vivo facilitated diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bauer

    Full Text Available Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model.

  14. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  15. A 5 Gb/s low area CDR for embedded clock serial links

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Li; Junsheng, Lü; Yumei, Zhou; Jianzhong, Zhao; Yuhu, Chen; Feng, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    A multi-standard compatible clock and data recovery circuit (CDR) with a programmable equalizer and wide tracking range is presented. Considering the jitter performance, tracking range and chip area, the CDR employs a first-order digital loop filter, two 6-bit DACs and high linearity phase interpolators to achieve high phase resolution and low area. Meanwhile the tracking range is greater than ±2200 ppm, making this proposed CDR suitable for the embedded clock serial links. A test chip was fabricated in the 55 nm CMOS process. The measurements show that the test chip can achieve BER < 10-12 and meet the jitter tolerance specification. The test chip occupies 0.19 mm2 with a 0.0486 mm2 CDR core, which only consumes 30 mW from a 1.2 V supply at 5 Gb/s.

  16. Recombination among GB virus C (GBV-C) isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Polen, Clarissa; DuBois, Juwen C; Gast, Jonathon; Radens, Caleb M; Sterling, Richard K; Sherman, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a non-pathogenic flavivirus that may play a role in modulating HIV disease. Multiple genotypes of GBV-C that have been identified to date that may differentially regulate HIV; however, the number of complete GBV-C sequences published to date is very limited. We sequenced full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States. Intergenotypic recombination was evident in two of these individuals. Evaluation of additional full-length GBV-C genomes would facilitate the creation of full-length, replication-competent molecular clones of GBV-C to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBV-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus.

  17. Effects of optical layer impairments on 2.5 Gb/s optical CDMA transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H; Mendez, A; Heritage, J; Lennon, W

    2000-07-03

    We conducted a computer simulation study to assess the effects of optical layer impairments on optical CDMA (O-CDMA) transmission of 8 asynchronous users at 2.5 Gb/s each user over a 214-km link. It was found that with group velocity dispersion compensation, two other residual effects, namely, the nonzero chromatic dispersion slope of the single mode fiber (which causes skew) and the non-uniform EDFA gain (which causes interference power level to exceed signal power level of some codes) degrade the signal to multi-access interference (MAI) ratio. In contrast, four wave mixing and modulation due to the Kerr and Raman contributions to the fiber nonlinear refractive index are less important. Current wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies, including dispersion management, EDFA gain flattening, and 3 rd order dispersion compensation, are sufficient to overcome the impairments to the O-CDMA transmission system that we considered.

  18. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Shah, Nor Shahihda Mohd

    2016-01-01

    High performance communication systems require high performance devices for exchanging information at a faster rate. These devices are experiencing several challenges e.g. bandwidth limitations, power limitations, design limitations and etc. The existing techniques are lacking in providing high...... performance output simultaneously by maintaining actual parameters of device. In this work, high performance 100Gb/s optical DPSK transmitter design is realized in Field Programming Gate (FPGA) using time constraint technique. Before applying the proposed technique actual FPGA’s frequency was 0.2 GHz....... This high performance design of optical transmitter has zero timing error, low timing score and high slack time due to synchronization between input data and clock frequency. It is also determined that 99% timing score is reduced in comparison with 1 GHz frequency that has high jitters, high timing error...

  19. FBG-based reconfigurable bidirectional OXC for 8×10 Gb/s DWDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Tsai, Pei-Shih; Wang, Hsiang; Le Minh, Hoa; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a bidirectional high-speed, power-compensated, 3×3 reconfigurable and multiwavelength optical cross-connect (RMB-OXC) for all-optical networks. RMB-OXC characteristics and its performance are experimentally verified in a bidirectional 8-channel×10 Gb/s capacity system. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is achieved of 18.4 dB corresponds to a BER of 5×10-10. The channel cross-connect function was demonstrated by incorporating RMB-OXC in an 50 km lightwave system. We have observed only ~0.5 dB power penalty in the bidirectional transmission in comparison to the unidirectional transmission. The proposed RMB-OXC has vast potential and it can be utilized in many applications in high-speed wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks.

  20. 500  Gb/s free-space optical transmission over strong atmospheric turbulence channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-07-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-spectral-efficiency, large-capacity, featured free-space-optical (FSO) transmission system by using low-density, parity-check (LDPC) coded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) combined with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The strong atmospheric turbulence channel is emulated by two spatial light modulators on which four randomly generated azimuthal phase patterns yielding the Andrews spectrum are recorded. The validity of such an approach is verified by reproducing the intensity distribution and irradiance correlation function (ICF) from the full-scale simulator. Excellent agreement of experimental, numerical, and analytical results is found. To reduce the phase distortion induced by the turbulence emulator, the inexpensive wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) is used. To deal with remaining channel impairments, a large-girth LDPC code is used. To further improve the aggregate data rate, the OAM multiplexing is combined with WDM, and 500 Gb/s optical transmission over the strong atmospheric turbulence channels is demonstrated.

  1. A water balance approach to enhance national (GB) Daily Landslide Hazard Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Reeves, Helen; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Pennington, Catherine; Jordan, Hannah; Hobbs, Peter; Richardson, Jennifer; Banks, Vanessa; Cole, Steven; Wells, Steven; Moore, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a member of the Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) and delivers a national (GB) daily landslide hazard assessment (DLHA). The DLHA is based largely on 'expert' driven evaluations of the likelihood of landslides in response to antecedent ground conditions, adverse weather and reported landslide events. It concentrates on shallow translational slides and debris flows - events that most frequently have societal consequences by disrupting transport infrastructure and affecting buildings. Considerable experience with the issuing of DLHAs has been gained since 2012. However, it remains very difficult to appropriately assess changing ground conditions throughout GB even when good quality precipitation forecasts are available. Soil moisture sensors are available, but the network is sparse and not yet capable of covering GB to the detail required to underpin the forecasts. Therefore, we developed an approach where temporal and spatial variations in soil moisture can be obtained from a water balance model, representing processes in the near-surface and configured on a relatively coarse grid of 1 km2. Model outputs are not intended to be relevant to the slope scale. The assumption is that the likelihood of landslides being triggered by rainfall is dependent upon the soil moisture conditions of the near-surface, in combination with how much rain is forecast to occur for the following day. These variables form the basis for establishing thresholds to guide the issuing of DLHA and early warnings. The main aim is to obtain an insight into regional patterns of change and threshold exceedance. The BGS water balance model is still in its infancy and it requires substantial work to fine-tune and validate it. To test the performance of the BGS model we focused on an analysis of Scottish landslides (2004-2015) comprising translational slides and debris flows where the BGS model is conditionally evaluated against the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) Model. G2G is

  2. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-12-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers; results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  3. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers, results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  4. Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon

    2017-12-01

    Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.

  5. 800Gb/s (8x128Gb/s) unrepeatered transmission over 515-km large-area ultra-low-loss fiber using 2nd-order Raman pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B; Borel, P I; Geisler, T; Jensen, R; Leng, L; Jiang, X; Peckham, D W; Lingle, R L; Vaidya, D; Yan, M F; Wisk, P W; DiGiovanni, D J

    2016-10-31

    We demonstrate unrepeatered transmission of 8x128Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals over a 515k-m fiber link. This ultra-long distance of 800 Gb/s unrepeatered transmission in a single fiber configuration is achieved by employing enabling techniques such as large-effective-area ultra-low-attenuation fibers, co-propagating and counter-propagating 2nd-order-pumped distributed Raman amplification, and remote optically pumped amplifier (ROPA). The ROPA itself is also counter-propagating 2nd-order Raman pumped. The designs and characteristics of the ROPA and 2nd-order pumped distributed Raman amplification are described, and optimization of the transmission performance of this ultra-long reach 800Gb/s unrepeatered transmission fiber link is discussed in this paper.

  6. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  7. DWDM Transmission with LEAF and RDF Structure in 40 Gb/s Single MZM with RZ-DPSK Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Sheng; Lai, Po-Chou

    2017-06-01

    We propose the experiment transport of 48 Chs 40 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system that uses larger effective area fiber (LEAF) in combination with reverse dispersion fiber (RDF), which is a dispersion compensation device, in C band (1,530-1,560 nm) and L band (1,570-1,610 nm) wavelength range to solve the dispersion program. The single Mach-Zehnder modulation (MZM) format with erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) configuration to generate return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) modulation signal can compensate dispersion impairment in 48×40 Gb/s DWDM system. The proposed 48×40 Gb/s DWDM system successfully employs single MZM RZ-DPSK modulation format to reduce modulation complex configuration with EDFA to promote the power signal and using LEAF and RDF in 28 spans over 3,360 km ultra-long-haul fiber transmission successfully.

  8. Developments of two 4 × 10 Gb/s VCSEL array drivers in 65 nm CMOS for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, D.; Gong, D.; Xiang, A. C.; Moreira, P.; Kulis, S.; Chen, J.; Hou, S.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Prosser, A.; He, H.; Sun, Q.; Wang, J.; Yang, D.; Ye, J.; Zhou, W.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the designs and test results of two radiation tolerant 4 × 10 Gb/s vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array drivers VLAD and lpVLAD, both fabricated in a 1.2 V 65 nm CMOS technology. VLAD adopts a power efficient bandwidth-boost technology, and lpVLAD employs a novel high-efficiency output structure to achieve an ultra-low power consumption of 2.2 mW/Gb/ch with 2 mA bias current and 6 mA modulation current. Both drivers are optically tested passing 10 Gb/s eye mask with all channels active under the radiation of a total dose up to 350 Mrad(SiO2).

  9. Influence of point defects on grain boundary diffusion in oxides. Final technical report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubican, V.S.

    1993-11-01

    Grain boundary diffusion coefficients of {sup 57}Co and {sup 59}Co in polycrys. NiO, NiO bicrystal, and polycrys. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were determined at various oxygen pressures at 750 C. For NiO, the low oxygen pressure region (<10{sup {minus}10} MPa) displayed constant grain boundary diffusion coefficients as the oxygen pressure decreased, indicating an extrinsic region in which the impurity-induced defects dominated the intrinsic defects. At greater oxygen pressures, the intrinsic defects (Ni vacancies) dominated the extrinsic defects, causing the diffusion to increase with pressure. For Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, at low oxygen pressures (<10{sup {minus}16} MPa), the grain boundary diffusion coefficient increased when the pressure decreased, owing to interstitial type diffusion; at >10{sup {minus}15} MPa, the diffusion increased with pressure, owing to vacancy type diffusion. D{sub gb} of Co ions in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is proportional to pO{sub 2}{sup {minus}2/3} in the low pressure region and to pO{sub 2}{sup 2/3} in the high pressure region, indicating similar mechanisms in the grain boundary diffusion and volume diffusion. Ratio of D{sub gb}/D was about 10{sup 3}.

  10. Lung diffusion testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003854.htm Lung diffusion testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This ...

  11. Nucleotide sequences of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) affecting virus entry, cell fusion, and production of glycoprotein gB (VP7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.J.; Bond, V.C.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1982-10-30

    The tsB5 strain of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) contains at least two mutations; one mutation specifies the syncytial phenotype and the other confers temperature sensitivity for virus growth. These functions are known to be located between the prototypic map coordinates 0.30 and 0.42. In this study it was demonstrated that tsB5 enters human embryonic lung (HEL) cells more rapidly than KOS, another strain of HSV-1. The EcoRI restriction fragment F from the KOS strain (map coordinates 0.315 to 0.421) was mapped with eight restriction endonucleases, and 16 recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained varying portions of the KOS genome. Recombinant viruses were generated by marker-rescue and marker-transfer cotransfection procedures, using intact DNA from one strain and a recombinant plasmid containing DNA from the other strain. The region of the crossover between the two nonisogenic strains was inferred by the identification of restriction sites in the recombinants that were characteristic of the parental strains. The recombinants were subjected to phenotypic analysis. Syncytium formation, rate of virus entry, and the production of gB were all separable by the crossovers that produced the recombinants. The KOS sequences which rescue the syncytial phenotype of tsB5 were localized to 1.5 kb (map coordinates 0.345 to 0.355), and the temperature-sensitive mutation was localized to 1.2 kb (0.360 to 0.368), giving an average separation between the mutations of 2.5 kb on the 150-kb genome. DNA sequences that specify a functional domain for virus entry were localized to the nucleotide sequences between the two mutations. All three functions could be encoded by the virus gene specifying the gB glycoprotein.

  12. Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, Sanggi; Lee, Jong Moo; Park, Gun Sik; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Sun Ae; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Do-Won; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon; Hwang, Moon-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Kyoum; Park, Kyu-Sang; Chi, Han-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Mu Hee

    2011-12-19

    We present high performance silicon photonic circuits (PICs) defined for off-chip or on-chip photonic interconnects, where PN depletion Mach-Zehnder modulators and evanescent-coupled waveguide Ge-on-Si photodetectors were monolithically integrated on an SOI wafer with CMOS-compatible process. The fabricated silicon PIC(off-chip) for off-chip optical interconnects showed operation up to 30 Gb/s. Under differential drive of low-voltage 1.2 V(pp), the integrated 1 mm-phase-shifter modulator in the PIC(off-chip) demonstrated an extinction ratio (ER) of 10.5dB for 12.5 Gb/s, an ER of 9.1dB for 20 Gb/s, and an ER of 7.2 dB for 30 Gb/s operation, without adoption of travelling-wave electrodes. The device showed the modulation efficiency of V(π)L(π) ~1.59 Vcm, and the phase-shifter loss of 3.2 dB/mm for maximum optical transmission. The Ge photodetector, which allows simpler integration process based on reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition exhibited operation over 30 Gb/s with a low dark current of 700 nA at -1V. The fabricated silicon PIC(intra-chip) for on-chip (intra-chip) photonic interconnects, where the monolithically integrated modulator and Ge photodetector were connected by a silicon waveguide on the same chip, showed on-chip data transmissions up to 20 Gb/s, indicating potential application in future silicon on-chip optical network. We also report the performance of the hybrid silicon electronic-photonic IC (EPIC), where a PIC(intra-chip) chip and 0.13μm CMOS interface IC chips were hybrid-integrated.

  13. GbPDF1 is involved in cotton fiber initiation via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fenglin; Tu, Lili; Tan, Jiafu; Li, Yang; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber cells are seed trichomes derived from the epidermal layer of the cotton seed coat. The molecular components responsible for regulating fiber cell differentiation have not been fully elucidated. A cotton PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 gene (GbPDF1) was found to be expressed preferentially during fiber initiation and early elongation, with highest accumulation in fiber cells 5 d post anthesis. PDF1 silencing caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers and lower lint percentage compared with the wild type, indicating that the gene is required for cotton fiber development. Further analysis showed that a higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide occurred in the RNA interference transgenic cotton lines. Meanwhile, the expression of several genes related to ethylene and pectin synthesis or sugar transport during cotton fiber growth was found to be significantly reduced in the PDF1-suppressed cotton. Three proteins interacting with GbPDF1 in yeast and in planta might involve cellular signaling or metabolism. GbPDF1 promoter::GUS constructs in transgenic cotton were predominantly expressed in the epidermis of ovules and developing fibers. Progressive deletions of the GbPDF1 promoter showed that a 236-bp promoter fragment was sufficient for basal GbPDF1 transcription in cotton. Mutation of putative regulatory sequences showed that HDZIP2ATATHB2, an element within the fragment, was essential for PGbPDF1-1 expression. The binding activity between this cis-element and nuclear extracts from fiber-bearing cotton ovules at 5 d post anthesis was specific. We conclude that GbPDF1 plays a critical role together with interaction partners in hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and steady biosynthesis of ethylene and pectin during fiber development via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2.

  14. Diffusion MR of hyperpolarized 13C molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Bertram L; Keshari, Kayvan R; Peeters, Tom H; Larson, Peder E Z; Wilson, David M; Kurhanewicz, John

    2013-02-21

    We combined the high MR signal enhancement achieved using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) with a pulsed gradient double spin echo diffusion MR sequence to rapidly and accurately measure the diffusion coefficients of various hyperpolarized (13)C molecules in solution. Furthermore, with a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence we generate diffusion coefficient maps of multiple hyperpolarized metabolites simultaneously. While hyperpolarized experiments can measure rapid, non-equilibrium processes by avoiding signal averaging, continuous signal loss due to longitudinal relaxation (T(1)) complicates quantitation. By correcting for this signal loss, we demonstrate the feasibility of using hyperpolarized (13)C diffusion-weighted MR to accurately measure real-time (seconds) molecular transport phenomena. Potential applications include rapidly measuring molecular binding, cellular membrane transport, in vivo metabolite distribution and establishing a magnetic field independent hyperpolarized parameter.

  15. A Student Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration…

  16. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  17. Clock recovery for 320 Gb/s OTDM Data using filtering-assisted XPM in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Zibar, Darko; Galili, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve the effic......In this paper, we report on a novel technique, which enables clock recovery at 320 Gb/s and relies on a filtering-assisted cross-phase modulation (f-a XPM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This technique is more spectrally efficient than four wave mixing (FWM) and can improve...

  18. 41.6 Gb/s RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK Format Conversion in a Microring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Ozolins, Oskars; Ding, Yunhong

    2012-01-01

    RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme........RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme.....

  19. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER switched packet. The use of optical burst switching protocols could eliminate the need for optical buffering in silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  20. 56 Gb/s multi-band CAP for data center interconnects up to an 80 km SMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Sanchez, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance for opti......We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance...

  1. Genetics and pharmacogenomics of diffuse gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijl, H.F. van; Ylstra, B.; Wurdinger, T.; Nieuwenhuizen, D. van; Heimans, J.J.; Wesseling, P.; Reijneveld, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly evolving techniques for analysis of the genome provide new opportunities for cancer therapy. For diffuse gliomas this has resulted in molecular markers with potential for personalized therapy. Some drugs that utilize pharmacogenomics are currently being tested in clinical trials. In

  2. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; fluctuation phenomena; relativistic diffusion model; net-proton rapidly ... cients on the available relativistic energy, results at 40 A•GeV/c are obtained. Extrapolat- ing to higher ... proached for times t ^τs larger than the time τs that is characteristic for strong coupling. – when all secondary ...

  3. 8 x 120 Gb/s unrepeatered transmission over 444 km (76.6 dB) using distributed Raman amplification and ROPA without discrete amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Do Il; Pelouch, Wayne; Patki, Pallavi; McLaughlin, John

    2011-12-12

    Unrepeatered transmission of 8 x 120 Gb/s over 444.2 km (76.6 dB) and multi-rate transmission of 8 x 120 Gb/s and 9 x 10.7 Gb/s over a 75.4 dB span have been demonstrated with off-line digital processing for the coherent 120 Gb/s channels. Transmission of 2 x 120 Gb/s with 7 x 12.5 Gb/s over 78 dB is also demonstrated with a real-time ASIC processor. All transmission results have been achieved using standard effective-area pure-silica-core fiber using forward and backward distributed Raman amplification and remotely-pumped erbium fiber. ASIC real-time processed results match well with off-line processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  5. Determinants Involved in Hepatitis C Virus and GB Virus B Primate Host Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnata, Caroline; Saulnier, Aure; Mompelat, Dimitri; Krey, Thomas; Cohen, Lisette; Boukadida, Célia; Warter, Lucile; Fresquet, Judith; Vasiliauskaite, Ieva; Escriou, Nicolas; Cosset, François-Loïc; Rey, Felix A.; Lanford, Robert E.; Karayiannis, Peter; Rose, Nicola J.; Lavillette, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) only infects humans and chimpanzees, while GB virus B (GBV-B), another hepatotropic hepacivirus, infects small New World primates (tamarins and marmosets). In an effort to develop an immunocompetent small primate model for HCV infection to study HCV pathogenesis and vaccine approaches, we investigated the HCV life cycle step(s) that may be restricted in small primate hepatocytes. First, we found that replication-competent, genome-length chimeric HCV RNAs encoding GBV-B structural proteins in place of equivalent HCV sequences designed to allow entry into simian hepatocytes failed to induce viremia in tamarins following intrahepatic inoculation, nor did they lead to progeny virus in permissive, transfected human Huh7.5 hepatoma cells upon serial passage. This likely reflected the disruption of interactions between distantly related structural and nonstructural proteins that are essential for virion production, whereas such cross talk could be restored in similarly designed HCV intergenotypic recombinants via adaptive mutations in NS3 protease or helicase domains. Next, HCV entry into small primate hepatocytes was examined directly using HCV-pseudotyped retroviral particles (HCV-pp). HCV-pp efficiently infected tamarin hepatic cell lines and primary marmoset hepatocyte cultures through the use of the simian CD81 ortholog as a coreceptor, indicating that HCV entry is not restricted in small New World primate hepatocytes. Furthermore, we observed genomic replication and modest virus secretion following infection of primary marmoset hepatocyte cultures with a highly cell culture-adapted HCV strain. Thus, HCV can successfully complete its life cycle in primary simian hepatocytes, suggesting the possibility of adapting some HCV strains to small primate hosts. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects over 150 million individuals worldwide and leads to chronic liver disease. The lack of a small animal

  6. Determinants Involved in Hepatitis C Virus and GB Virus B Primate Host Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnata, Caroline; Saulnier, Aure; Mompelat, Dimitri; Krey, Thomas; Cohen, Lisette; Boukadida, Célia; Warter, Lucile; Fresquet, Judith; Vasiliauskaite, Ieva; Escriou, Nicolas; Cosset, François-Loïc; Rey, Felix A; Lanford, Robert E; Karayiannis, Peter; Rose, Nicola J; Lavillette, Dimitri; Martin, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) only infects humans and chimpanzees, while GB virus B (GBV-B), another hepatotropic hepacivirus, infects small New World primates (tamarins and marmosets). In an effort to develop an immunocompetent small primate model for HCV infection to study HCV pathogenesis and vaccine approaches, we investigated the HCV life cycle step(s) that may be restricted in small primate hepatocytes. First, we found that replication-competent, genome-length chimeric HCV RNAs encoding GBV-B structural proteins in place of equivalent HCV sequences designed to allow entry into simian hepatocytes failed to induce viremia in tamarins following intrahepatic inoculation, nor did they lead to progeny virus in permissive, transfected human Huh7.5 hepatoma cells upon serial passage. This likely reflected the disruption of interactions between distantly related structural and nonstructural proteins that are essential for virion production, whereas such cross talk could be restored in similarly designed HCV intergenotypic recombinants via adaptive mutations in NS3 protease or helicase domains. Next, HCV entry into small primate hepatocytes was examined directly using HCV-pseudotyped retroviral particles (HCV-pp). HCV-pp efficiently infected tamarin hepatic cell lines and primary marmoset hepatocyte cultures through the use of the simian CD81 ortholog as a coreceptor, indicating that HCV entry is not restricted in small New World primate hepatocytes. Furthermore, we observed genomic replication and modest virus secretion following infection of primary marmoset hepatocyte cultures with a highly cell culture-adapted HCV strain. Thus, HCV can successfully complete its life cycle in primary simian hepatocytes, suggesting the possibility of adapting some HCV strains to small primate hosts. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects over 150 million individuals worldwide and leads to chronic liver disease. The lack of a small animal model for this

  7. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada

    2017-01-01

    model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...... dependence of the diffusion tensors, which causes the measured isotropic diffusivity to depend on gradient frame orientation. In turn, this conflates orientation dispersion with ensemble variance in isotropic diffusivity. Second, additional contributions to the apparent variance in isotropic diffusivity...

  8. Rapid 3D Track Reconstruction with the BaBar Trigger Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S

    2004-05-24

    As the PEP-II luminosity increases the BaBar trigger and dataflow systems must accommodate the increasing data rate. A significant source of background events at the first trigger level comes from beam particle interactions with the beampipe and synchrotron masks, which are separated from the interaction region by more than 20 cm. The BaBar trigger upgrade will provide 3D tracking capabilities at the first trigger level in order to remove background events by distinguishing the origin of particle tracks. Each new z{sub 0} p{sub T} Discriminator (ZPD) board processes over 1 gigabyte of data per second in order to reconstruct the tracks and make trigger decisions based upon the 3D track parameters.

  9. SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing in a lab trial of 640-Gb/s OTDM transmission over 50-km fibre link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Waardt, H. de

    2007-01-01

    We report for the first time SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing of 40-Gb/s channels from 640 Gb/s OTDM signals over 50-km link. The system operates at low power and has the potential to be integrated.......We report for the first time SOA-based clock recovery and demultiplexing of 40-Gb/s channels from 640 Gb/s OTDM signals over 50-km link. The system operates at low power and has the potential to be integrated....

  10. A 5 Gb/s low power current-mode transmitter with pre-emphasis for serial links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsheng, Lü; Hao, Ju; Mao, Ye; Feng, Zhang; Jianzhong, Zhao; Yumei, Zhou

    2013-07-01

    A multi-standard compatible transmitter with pre-emphasis for high speed serial links is presented. Based on the comparison between voltage mode (VM) and current mode (CM) output driver architectures, a low power CM output driver with reverse scaling and bias current filtering technique is proposed. A 2-tap pre-emphasis filter is used to reduce the intersymbol interference caused by the low-pass channel, and a high speed, low power combined serializer is implemented to convert 10 bit parallel data into a serial data stream. The whole transmitter is fabricated in 65 nm 1.2 V/2.5 V CMOS technology. It provides an eye height greater than 800 mV for data rates of both 2.5 Gb/s and 5 Gb/s. The output root mean square jitter of the transmitter at 5 Gb/s is only 9.94 ps without pre-emphasis. The transmitter consumes 41.2 mA at 5 Gb/s and occupies only 240 × 140 μm2.

  11. Analyses of spectral efficiency and nonlinear tolerance of DPSK formats in 160-Gb/s Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    Five-channel 160-Gb/s wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems using ABA dispersion map and Raman amplification are investigated numerically. Transmission distance and system margin are evaluated for return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) and carrier-suppressed return...

  12. Modeling the green building (GB) investment decisions of developers and end-users with transaction costs (TCs) considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Visscher, H.J.; Lehmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper, through a “regenerative” lens, has focused upon a new conceptual game system involving transaction costs (TCs) for creating a more accessible green buildings (GB) market. Individual stakeholders steadfastly guard their own interests in any investment decision, which seldom considers any

  13. Wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Pol-MUX signals in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time....

  14. Optimisation of 40 Gb/s wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, K.; Petersen, Martin Nordal; Herrera, J.

    2007-01-01

    The optimum operating powers and wavelengths for a 40 Gb/s wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor 14 optical amplifier are inferred from experimental results. From these measurements, some general rules of thumb are derived for this kind of devices. Generally, the optimum...

  15. 100-Gb/s Transmission Over a 2520-km Integrated MCF System Using Cladding-Pumped Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Carlos; Jain, Saurabh; De Man, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A 10.5-Tb/s optical transmission (15 x 100 Gb/s QPSK channels per core) over 2520 km of multicore fiber is achieved using an integrated multicore transmission link consisting of directly spliced multicore components, such as fan-in/fan-out fiber couplers, a 60-km trench-assisted seven...

  16. 3Gb/s monolithically integrated photodiode and pre-amplifier in standard 0.18μm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, S.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    A 3 Gb/s optical detector with integrated photodiode and pre-amplifier for 850 nm light is presented. The IC is implemented in standard 0.18 μm CMOS. The data rate is achieved by using an inherently robust analog equalizer without sacrificing responsivity.

  17. 3Gb/s monolithically integrated photodiode and pre-amplifier in standard 0.18µm CMOS _slides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, S.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    A 3 Gb/s optical detector with integrated photodiode and pre-amplifier for 850 nm light is presented. The IC is implemented in standard 0.18 /spl mu/m CMOS. The data rate is achieved by using an inherently robust analog equalizer without sacrificing responsivity.

  18. Fermi-LAT detection of renewed gamma-ray activity from the radio source GB6 J0713+5738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, R.; Buson, S.; Cheung, C. C.; Ojha, R.; Carpen, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed enhanced gamma-ray emission from a source positionally consistent with the radio source GB6 J0713+5738, with coordinates R.A. = 108.268946 deg, Decl.

  19. All-Optical 9.35 Gb/s Wavelength Conversion in an InP Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 9.35 Gb/s RZ signal is demonstrated using an InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity. A clear eye is observed for the converted signal showing a pre-FEC bit error ratio down to 10-3....

  20. 45  Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei; Yang, Zih-Yi; Lin, Xin-Yao; Cheng, Ming-Te; Lu, Chang-Kai; Shih, Tien-Tsorng

    2016-11-01

    A 45 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission based on an 850 nm/7.4 GHz vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is proposed. Experimental results show that such an 850 nm/7.4 GHz VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is powerful enough for a 45 Gb/s PAM4 signal transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this Letter is the first to adopt a VCSEL transmitter with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a 45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system. Good bit error rate performance and three independent clear eye diagrams are achieved over a 200-m OM4 multimode fiber transport. This proposed 45 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission system has great potential for providing effective bandwidth in short-reach optical data communications.

  1. GB-InSAR monitoring and observational method for landslide emergency management: the Montaguto earthflow (AV, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Federica; Gigli, Giovanni; Fanti, Riccardo; Intrieri, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    On 10 March 2010, because of the heavy rainfall in the preceding days, the Montaguto landslide (Southern Italy) reactivated, affecting both state road 90 Delle Puglie and the Rome-Bari railway. A similar event occurred on May 2005 and on September 2009. As a result, the National Civil Protection Department (DPC) started an accurate monitoring and analysis program. A monitoring project using the GB-InSAR (ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar) system was emplaced to investigate the landslide kinematics, plan urgent safety measures for risk mitigation and design long-term stabilization work.Here, we present the GB-InSAR monitoring system results and its applications in the observational method (OM) approach. GB-InSAR is an established instrument for long-term campaigns aimed at early warning and monitoring during construction works. Our paper further develops these aspects in that it highlights how the OM based on the GB-InSAR technique can produce savings in terms of cost and time in engineering projects without compromising safety. This study focuses on the key role played by the monitoring activities during the design and planning activities, with special reference to the emergency phase.

  2. Reference quality assembly of the 3.5 Gb genome of Capsicum annuum form a single linked-read library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of multiple human genomes, however the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5 gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Cap...

  3. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...

  4. Optical Switching and Detection of 640 Gb/s OTDM Data Packets Transmitted over 50 km of fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Agis, Fausto; Hu, Hao; Luo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate 1X4 optical-packet switching with error-free transmission of 640 Gb/s single-wavelength OTDM data-packets including instantaneous clock extraction and short pulse generation for optical time-demultiplexing based on a cavity-less pulse source....

  5. 10-m 9.51-Gb/s RGB laser diodes-based WDM underwater wireless optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Meiwei; Lv, Weichao; Ali, Tariq; Sarwar, Rohail; Yu, Chuying; Qiu, Yang; Qu, Fengzhong; Xu, Zhiwei; Han, Jun; Xu, Jing

    2017-08-21

    The availability of the underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based on red (R), green (G) and blue (B) lights makes the realization of the RGB wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) UWOC system possible. By properly mixing RGB lights to form white light, the WDM UWOC system has prominent potentiality for simultaneous underwater illumination and high-speed communication. In this work, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate a 9.51-Gb/s WDM UWOC system using a red-emitting laser diode (LD), a single-mode pigtailed green-emitting LD and a multi-mode pigtailed blue-emitting LD. By employing 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation in the demonstration, the red-light, the green-light and the blue-light LDs successfully transmit signals with the data rates of 4.17 Gb/s, 4.17 Gb/s and 1.17 Gb/s, respectively, over a 10-m underwater channel. The corresponding bit error rates (BERs) are 2.2 × 10-3, 2.0 × 10-3 and 2.3 × 10-3, respectively, which are below the forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10-3.

  6. Traumatic Analepsis and Ligne Claire in GB Tran’s Vietnamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet E H Earle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of analepsis in representations of traumatic experience is not a new phenomenon in traumatic art in general or comics in particular. However, in GB Tran’s family narrative of the Vietnam War, 'Vietnamerica' (2011, this trope is used in a particular fashion. While discussing his father’s imprisonment at the hands of the Vietnamese Government, Tran uses heavy black art before ‘flashing back’ into his father’s past, all of which is drawn in a style highly reminiscent of 'Ligne Claire'. The high contrast of Tran’s two artistic styles is especially interesting when we consider that he is trying to recreate a traumatic experience told in analepsis and also when we remember the French occupation of Vietnam and, invariably, the influence of French art on Tran’s father. Why does Tran use this iconic style for the flashback? How does this shift in style affect the narrative? How does it assist in the representation of the traumatic experience within the text?

  7. Black Bleeds and the Sites of a Trauma in GB Tran’s Vietnamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘The gutter’ is the space between panels where panel transitions happen—readers fill in the blank space by connecting panels to make sense of the story. In GB Tran’s 'Vietnamerica' (2010, however, black gutters become part of black ‘bleeds’ (pages congruent with single panels in them to portray the sites of a trauma. This article argues that if bleeds, as Scott McCloud claims, can depict timeless space, they could also represent the sites of a trauma where the memory of the past is intervened by the future interpretation of the memory. In 'Vietnamerica', the panels in black in a waffle-iron grid are simultaneously black gutters and a black bleed, where reinterpretation of trauma takes place as speech balloons are later imposed on the same recurrent waffle-iron grid. While Cathy Caruth’s trauma theory helps read Tran’s black bleeds as the sites of a trauma, the latter also extends Caruth’s notion of ‘traumatic awakenings’ since the black bleeds as the sites of a trauma turn into the places of reconciliation and healing.

  8. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV): still looking for a disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, M; Soni, P; York, D

    2000-10-01

    GB Virus C and Hepatitis G Virus (GBV-C/HGV) are positive, single-stranded flaviviruses. GBV-C and HGV are independent isolates of the same virus. Transmission via the blood-borne route is the commonest mode, although vertical and sexual transmission is well documented. GBV-C/HGV is distributed globally; its prevalence in the general population is 10 fold higher in African countries than in non-African countries. High prevalences of GBV-C/HGV have been found in subjects with frequent parenteral exposure and in groups at high risk of exposure to blood and blood products. The clinical significance of human infection with GBV-C/HGV is currently unclear. The virus can establish both acute and chronic infection and appears to be sensitive to interferon. Only some 12-15% of chronic Non-A, B, C hepatitis cases are infected with GBV-C/HGV. A direct association with liver pathology is still lacking and it is not yet clear as to whether GBV-C/HGV is indeed a hepatotropic virus. Current evidence suggests that the spectrum of association of GBV-C/HGV infection with extrahepatic diseases ranges from haematalogical diseases, aplastic anaemia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive idiopathic thrombocytopenia and thalassemia, through to common variable immune deficiency and cryoglobunemia.

  9. Evidence for extensive genotypic diversity and recombination of GB virus C (GBV-C) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neibecker, Markus; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Spengler, Ulrich; Blackard, Jason T

    2011-04-01

    Multiple genotypes of GB virus C (GBV-C)-a non-pathogenic flavivirus-have been identified to date, although they are not uniformly distributed worldwide. It has also been suggested that GBV-C genotype may play a role in modulating HIV disease; however, the prevalence and genotype distribution of GBV-C has not been adequately studied in most countries. Among 408 HIV positive subjects in Germany, 97 (23.8%) had detectable GBV-C RNA. Based on sequencing of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR), the GBV-C genotypes were 1 (n=8; 8.2%), 2 (n=81; 83.5%), and 3 (n=2; 2.1%), as well as a unique genotype not previously reported (n=6; 6.2%). Among 17 samples also sequenced in the envelope 2 (E2) region, 14 had concordant genotype results when comparing the 5'-UTR and E2, while evidence of intergenotypic recombination was observed among E2 sequences from 3 individuals. These results suggest that genotypic diversity and viral recombination contribute to the overall genetic variability of GBV-C. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. 128 Gb/s TWDM PON system using dispersion-supported transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhaiq, Salem; Zulkifli, Nadiatulhuda; Supa'at, Abusahmah M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Salleh, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) trend is considered as the most extraordinary trend of the next generation solution to accommodate exponential traffic growth for converged new services. In this paper, we briefly review recent progress on TWDM-PON system through the use of low cost directly modulated lasers (DMLs) transmission for various line rate transmissions to date. Furthermore, through simulation, we propose and evaluate a cost effective way to upgrade TWDM-PON up to a symmetric capacity of 128 Gb/s using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in optical line terminal (OLT) as a paramount dispersion manager in high speed light-wave systems in both upstream and downstream directions. A low cost and potential chirpless directed modulated grating laser (DMGL) is employed for downstream link and DML with a single delay-interferometer (DI) is employed for upstream link. After illustrating the demonstrated system architecture and configuration, we present the results and analysis to prove the system feasibility. The results show that a successful transmission is achieved over 40 km single mode fiber with a power budget of 33.7 dB, which could support 1:256 splitting ratio.

  11. [Physician Assisted Suicide - Survey on § 217 StGB in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Julia; Rissing-van Saan, Ruth; Zenz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Background In late 2015, Germany passed a law (§ 217 StGB) prohibiting persons from aiding others in committing suicide on a regular, repetitive basis. Despite intensive societal debate and surveys about assisted dying, the present study was the first to examine attitudes towards the new legal regulation among professionals. Methods In early 2016, all participants of a congress on palliative care received a one-page anonymous questionnaire to complete until the end of the conference. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding assisted suicide and the new law. The participants were asked to express their agreement or disagreement on a 4 to 5-point Likert scale. Results 457 questionnaires (48 %) were completed, 138 from physicians, 318 from nurses, 1 non specified. More than 80 % knew about the new law. Only half of the respondents supported it. 54 % felt that the law did not sufficiently differentiate between an illegal form of assisted suicide and a form exempt from prosecution. For more than 40 % the new law made no sense. Conclusion Professionals engaged in terminal care were reluctant to support a criminal liability of "business-like" physician-assisted suicide and suspected greater uncertainty among professionals in end of life care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  13. A Single Point Mutation in the Gene Encoding Gb3/CD77 Synthase Causes a Rare Inherited Polyagglutination Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Duk, Maria; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Smolarek, Dorota; Majorczyk, Edyta; Jaskiewicz, Ewa; Laskowska, Anna; Wasniowska, Kazimiera; Grodecka, Magdalena; Lisowska, Elwira; Czerwinski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Rare polyagglutinable NOR erythrocytes contain three unique globoside (Gb4Cer) derivatives, NOR1, NORint, and NOR2, in which Gal(α1–4), GalNAc(β1–3)Gal(α1–4), and Gal(α1–4)GalNAc(β1–3)Gal(α1–4), respectively, are linked to the terminal GalNAc residue of Gb4Cer. NOR1 and NOR2, which both terminate with a Gal(α1–4)GalNAc- sequence, react with anti-NOR antibodies commonly present in human sera. While searching for an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of Gal(α1–4)GalNAc, we identified a mutation in the A4GALT gene encoding Gb3/CD77 synthase (α1,4-galactosyltransferase). Fourteen NOR-positive donors were heterozygous for the C>G mutation at position 631 of the open reading frame of the A4GALT gene, whereas 495 NOR-negative donors were homozygous for C at this position. The enzyme encoded by the mutated gene contains glutamic acid instead of glutamine at position 211 (substitution Q211E). To determine whether this mutation could change the enzyme specificity, we transfected a teratocarcinoma cell line (2102Ep) with vectors encoding the consensus Gb3/CD77 synthase and Gb3/CD77 synthase with Glu at position 211. The cellular glycolipids produced by these cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, enzymatic degradation, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Cells transfected with either vector expressed the P1 blood group antigen, which was absent from untransfected cells. Cells transfected with the vector encoding the Gb3/CD77 synthase with Glu at position 211 expressed both P1 and NOR antigens. Collectively, these results suggest that the C631G mutation alters the acceptor specificity of Gb3/CD77 synthase, rendering it able to catalyze synthesis of the Gal(α1–4)Gal and Gal(α1–4)GalNAc moieties. PMID:22965229

  14. A single point mutation in the gene encoding Gb3/CD77 synthase causes a rare inherited polyagglutination syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Duk, Maria; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Smolarek, Dorota; Majorczyk, Edyta; Jaskiewicz, Ewa; Laskowska, Anna; Wasniowska, Kazimiera; Grodecka, Magdalena; Lisowska, Elwira; Czerwinski, Marcin

    2012-11-02

    Rare polyagglutinable NOR erythrocytes contain three unique globoside (Gb4Cer) derivatives, NOR1, NOR(int), and NOR2, in which Gal(α1-4), GalNAc(β1-3)Gal(α1-4), and Gal(α1-4)GalNAc(β1-3)Gal(α1-4), respectively, are linked to the terminal GalNAc residue of Gb4Cer. NOR1 and NOR2, which both terminate with a Gal(α1-4)GalNAc- sequence, react with anti-NOR antibodies commonly present in human sera. While searching for an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of Gal(α1-4)GalNAc, we identified a mutation in the A4GALT gene encoding Gb3/CD77 synthase (α1,4-galactosyltransferase). Fourteen NOR-positive donors were heterozygous for the C>G mutation at position 631 of the open reading frame of the A4GALT gene, whereas 495 NOR-negative donors were homozygous for C at this position. The enzyme encoded by the mutated gene contains glutamic acid instead of glutamine at position 211 (substitution Q211E). To determine whether this mutation could change the enzyme specificity, we transfected a teratocarcinoma cell line (2102Ep) with vectors encoding the consensus Gb3/CD77 synthase and Gb3/CD77 synthase with Glu at position 211. The cellular glycolipids produced by these cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, enzymatic degradation, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Cells transfected with either vector expressed the P1 blood group antigen, which was absent from untransfected cells. Cells transfected with the vector encoding the Gb3/CD77 synthase with Glu at position 211 expressed both P1 and NOR antigens. Collectively, these results suggest that the C631G mutation alters the acceptor specificity of Gb3/CD77 synthase, rendering it able to catalyze synthesis of the Gal(α1-4)Gal and Gal(α1-4)GalNAc moieties.

  15. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light.

  16. k190gb.m77t and k190gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-90-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 06/14/1990 to 06/24/1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with SINS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise K-1-90-GB. The cruise was conducted in Glacier...

  17. a194gb.m77t and a194gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity A-1-94-GB in Prince William Sound, Yakutat Bay, Glacier Bay and Icy Strait, Alaska from 08/08/1994 to 08/17/1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise A-1-94-GB. The cruise was conducted in Prince...

  18. t198gb.m77t and t198gb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity T-1-98-GB in Glacier Bay, Alaska from 08/21/1998 to 09/01/1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise T-1-98-GB. The cruise was conducted in Glacier...

  19. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  20. Diffusion formalism and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2013-01-01

    Within a unifying framework, Diffusion: Formalism and Applications covers both classical and quantum domains, along with numerous applications. The author explores the more than two centuries-old history of diffusion, expertly weaving together a variety of topics from physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The book examines the two distinct paradigms of diffusion-physical and stochastic-introduced by Fourier and Laplace and later unified by Einstein in his groundbreaking work on Brownian motion. The author describes the role of diffusion in probability theory and stochastic calculus and

  1. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  2. Novel recombinant insulin analogue with flexible C-terminus in B chain. NMR structure of biosynthetic engineered A22G-B31K-B32R human insulin monomer in water/acetonitrile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Piotr; Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bednarek, Elżbieta; Mikiewicz-Syguła, Diana; Błażej-Sosnowska, Sylwia; Bogiel, Monika; Rusek, Dorota; Kurzynoga, Dariusz; Kozerski, Lech

    2011-11-01

    A tertiary structure of recombinant A22(G)-B31(K)-B32(R)-human insulin monomer (insulin GKR) has been characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR at natural isotopic abundance using NOESY, TOCSY, (1)H/(13)C-GHSQC, and (1)H/(13)C-GHSQC-TOCSY spectra. Translational diffusion studies indicate the monomer structure in water/acetonitrile (65/35vol.%). CSI analysis confirms existence of secondary structure motifs present in human insulin standard (HIS). Both techniques allow to establish that in this solvent recombinant insulin GKR exists as a monomer. Starting from structures calculated by the program CYANA, two different refinement protocols used molecular dynamics simulated annealing with the program AMBER; in vacuum (AMBER_VC), and including a generalized Born solvent model (AMBER_GB). From these calculations an ensemble of 20 structures of lowest energy was chosen which represents the tertiary structure of studied insulin. Here we present novel insulin with added A22(G) amino acid which interacts with β-turn environment resulting in high flexibility of B chain C-terminus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  4. Transmission of GB Virus Type C via Transfusion in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.; Rutherford, G.; Busch, M.; Assmann, S.; Stapleton, J. T.; Custer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is transmitted by blood exposure and associated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load and slower HIV disease progression. Few studies describe predictors of acute GBV-C infection following transfusion in HIV-infected patients. Methods. We used a limited-access database from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s Viral Activation Transfusion Study, a randomized controlled trial of leukoreduced versus nonleukoreduced transfusions received by HIV-infected, transfusion-naive patients. Blood samples from 489 subjects were tested for GBV-C markers in pretransfusion and posttransfusion samples. We estimated the risk of acquiring GBV-C RNA and predictors of GBV-C acquisition, using pooled logistic regression. Results. GBV-C RNA was detected ≤120 days following the first transfusion in 22 (7.5%) of 294 subjects who were GBV-C negative before transfusion. The risk of GBV-C RNA acquisition increased with each unit transfused (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.11). Lower baseline HIV load and use of antiretroviral therapy were associated with subsequent GBV-C RNA acquisition, after control for units of blood transfused. Leukoreduced status of transfused units was not associated with GBV-C transmission. Conclusions. Blood transfusion is associated with a significant risk of GBV-C acquisition among HIV-infected patients. Transmission of GBV-C by blood transfusion was inversely related to HIV load. PMID:22438325

  5. The natural history of non-human GB virus C in captive chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Emma L.; Murthy, Krishna K.; McLinden, James H.; Xiang, Jinhua; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2011-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a common, non-pathogenic human virus that infects lymphocytes. Persistent GBV-C infection of humans with coexistent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with prolonged survival, and GBV-C replication inhibits HIV replication in vitro. A GBV-C virus variant was identified in chimpanzees in 1998 and was named GBV-Ctrog or GBV-Ccpz. The prevalence and natural history of GBV-C in chimpanzees remains uncharacterized. We examined the sera from 235 captive chimpanzees for the presence of GBV-C viraemia, viral persistence and clearance, E2 antibody kinetics and RNA sequence diversity. Sequences from six isolates shared more sequence identity with GBV-Ccpz than with human GBV-C. The prevalence of GBV-Ccpz viraemia and E2 antibody in chimpanzees (2.5 and 11 %, respectively) was similar to human GBV-C prevalence in healthy human blood donors (1.8 and 9 %, respectively). Persistent GBV-Ccpz infection occurred in two of the six viraemic animals and was documented for 19 years in one animal. Host subspecies troglodyte GBV-C isolates and published verus GBV-C isolates shared a high degree of sequence identity, suggesting that GBV-C in chimpanzees should be identified with a chimpanzee designation (GBV-Ccpz). The prevalence and natural history of chimpanzee GBV-C variant (GBV-Ccpz) appears to be similar to human GBV-C infection. The chimpanzee could serve as an animal model to study HIV–GBV-C co-infection. PMID:20861317

  6. Acquisition of GB Virus Type C and Lower Mortality in Patients With Advanced HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Farnaz; Petersen, Maya; Stapleton, Jack T.; Rutherford, George W.; Busch, Michael; Custer, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background. GB virus type C (GBV-C) is transmitted by sexual or parenteral exposure and is prevalent among patients receiving blood products. GBV-C is associated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA and better survival among HIV-infected patients. Open questions are the presence and the direction of any causal relationship between GBV-C infection and HIV disease markers in the context of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. We used a limited access database obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Viral Activation Transfusion Study (VATS), a randomized controlled trial of leukoreduced vs nonleukoreduced transfusions to HIV-infected transfusion-naive patients. Blood samples from 489 subjects were tested for GBV-C markers. Cox regression models and inverse probability of treatment weights were used to examine the association between GBV-C coinfection and mortality in the VATS cohort. Results. We found a significant reduction in mortality among GBV-C coinfected VATS subjects, after adjusting for HAART status, HIV RNA level, and CD4 cell count at baseline. Acquisition of GBV-C RNA (n = 39) was associated with lower mortality in 294 subjects who were GBV-C negative at baseline, adjusting for baseline covariates (hazard ratio = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .08–.58) and in models in which weights were used to control for time-updated covariates (odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI: .08–.60). Conclusions. GBV-C viremia is associated with lower mortality, and GBV-C acquisition via transfusion is associated with a significant reduction in mortality in HIV-infected individuals, controlling for HIV disease markers. These findings provide the first evidence that incident GBV-C infection alters mortality in HIV-infected patients. PMID:22752515

  7. Flank instability of Stromboli volcano detected by long-term GB-InSAR monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Di Traglia, Federico; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Mugnai, Francesco; Luzi, Guido; Casagli, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Stromboli is a volcanic island in Southern Italy characterized by explosions of variable energy every 10-20 minutes and periodically interrupted by more energetic blasts emitting large volumes of material. The pressurization of volatile-poor, high-porphyritic magma column that is gas-recharged by the deep-seated, volatile-rich, low-porphyritic magma precedes such events and produces deformations on the NW flank of the volcano, called Sciara del Fuoco. By integrating geomorphological observations with long-term deformations measured by a ground-based interferometric radar since December 2007, we managed to map two landslides whose movements are strongly related with volcanic activity. Deformation patterns obtained through a novel long-term analysis of GB-InSAR data, usually exploited for real time monitoring and early warning of slope with high risk, permitted us to hypothesize the type of movement and depth for both landslides. During the last 5 years their deformation velocity reached a maximum of more than 2 mm/day. Furthermore their position allowed us to affirm that the effusive vent formed in 2007 at 400 m a.s.l., was the result of the deflection of a feeder dike operated by landslide fractures, thus showing the important role of geomorphological discontinuities in volcanic environments. The study of slope instability of the Sciara del Fuoco is also relevant with reference to tsunami risk, especially considering that mass movements similar to those detected may take place also in other portions of the volcano flank not visible by the current installation.

  8. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. A simple experiment for visualizing diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helseth, L E, E-mail: Lars.Helseth@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    We propose a simple and fascinating experiment for studying diffusion in gels using a pH-sensitive dye. By doping agar with methyl red, we obtain a gel which rapidly reacts to changes in pH by changing its absorption spectrum. The pH gradients can be followed using a digital camera, and we demonstrate here that the pH-sensitive colour changes can be used to print colour patterns in the gel which due to diffusion of ions may disappear entirely.

  10. Real-Time 200 Gb/s (4x56.25 Gb/s) PAM-4 Transmission over 80 km SSMF using Quantum-Dot Laser and Silicon Ring-Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC......We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC...

  11. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gD function in a redundant fashion to promote secondary envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David C; Wisner, Todd W; Wright, Catherine C

    2011-05-01

    Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpesviruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment and deenvelopment steps. HSV glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Capsids in the nucleus undergo primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and then enveloped virus particles undergo deenvelopment by fusing with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Capsids delivered into the cytoplasm then undergo secondary envelopment, involving trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes. The deenvelopment step involves HSV glycoproteins gB and gH/gL acting in a redundant fashion. This fusion has features common to the fusion that occurs between the virion envelope and cellular membranes when HSV enters cells, a process requiring gB, gD, and gH/gL. Whether HSV gD also participates (in a redundant fashion with gB or gH/gL) in deenvelopment has not been characterized. Secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm is known to involve HSV gD and gE/gI, also acting in a redundant fashion. Whether gB might also contribute to secondary envelopment, collaborating with gD and gE/gI, is also not clear. To address these questions, we constructed an HSV double mutant lacking gB and gD. The HSV gB(-)/gD(-) mutant exhibited no substantial defects in nuclear egress. In contrast, secondary envelopment was markedly reduced, and there were numerous unenveloped capsids that accumulated in the cytoplasm, as well as increased numbers of partially enveloped capsids and morphologically aberrant enveloped particles with thicker, oblong tegument layers. These defects were different from those observed with HSV gD(-)/gE(-)/gI(-) mutants, which accumulated capsids in large, aggregated masses in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that HSV gB functions in secondary envelopment, apparently acting downstream of gE/gI.

  12. 56 Gb/s DMT transmission with VCSELs in 1.5 um wavelength range over up to 12 km for DWDM intra-data center connects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dochhan, Annika; Eiselt, Nicklas; Hohenleitner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate up to 12 km, 56 Gb/s DMT transmission using high-speed VCSELs in the 1.5 um wavelength range for future 400Gb/s intra-data center connects, enabled by vestigial sideband filtering of the transmit signal....

  13. Characterization of a Novel Cotton Subtilase Gene GbSBT1 in Response to Extracellular Stimulations and Its Role in Verticillium Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xingpeng; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Jin; Zuo, Kaijing

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is a disastrous vascular disease in plants caused by Verticillium dahliae. Verticillium pathogens secrete various disease-causing effectors in cotton. This study identified a subtilase gene GbSBT1 from Gossypium babardense and investigated the roles against V. dahliae infection. GbSBT1 gene expression is responsive to V. dahliae defense signals, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatments. Moreover, the GbSBT1 protein is mainly localized in the cell membrane and moves into the cytoplasm following jasmonic acid and ethylene treatments. Silencing GbSBT1 gene expression through virus-induced GbSBT1 gene silencing reduced the tolerance of Pima-90 (resistant genotype), but not facilitated the infection process of V. dahliae in Coker-312 (sensitive genotype). Moreover, the ectopically expressed GbSBT1 gene enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis to Fusarium oxysporum and V. dahliae infection and activated the expression levels of defense-related genes. Furthermore, pull-down, yeast two-hybrid assay, and BiFC analysis revealed that GbSBT1 interacts with a prohibitin (PHB)-like protein expressed in V. dahliae pathogens during infection. In summary, GbSBT1 recognizes the effector PHB protein secreted from V. dahliae and is involved in Verticillium-induced resistance in cotton.

  14. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel...

  15. Low level exposure to GB vapor in air: Diagnosis/dosimetry, lowest observable effect level (LOEL) and lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Groen, B.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Phillippens, I.H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish for both saline-pretreated and pyridostigmine-pretreated conscious guinea pigs whole-body exposed to low levels of GB vapor: (i) The Lowest Observable Effect Level (LOEL) for GB, i.e., the C.t-value (t = 5-h) of exposure at which an internal dose

  16. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tyler@medbio.umu.se [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Johansson, Anders [Department of Odontology, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Karlsson, Terese [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz [Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, S-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  17. Confusion, Diffusion, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyestone, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Examines several possible models of public policy diffusion, then presents and illustrates the use of a technique for identifying clusters of similar policies on the bases of their diffusion patterns. Available from: American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036; $10.50 single copy. (JG)

  18. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission ...

  19. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  20. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  1. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  2. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  3. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...... momentum supply. In addition, this ventilation system uses a ceiling plenum to deliver air and requires less energy consumption for air transport than full-ducted systems. There is a growing interest in applying diffuse ceiling ventilation in offices and other commercial buildings due to the benefits from...... both thermal comfort and energy efficient aspects. The present study aims to characterize the air distribution and thermal comfort in the rooms with diffuse ceiling ventilation. Both the stand-alone ventilation system and its integration with a radiant ceiling system are investigated. This study also...

  4. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  5. Long-term effect of antibodies against infused alpha-galactosidase A in Fabry disease on plasma and urinary (lysoGb3 reduction and treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M Rombach

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alpha-Galactosidase A (aGal A may cause antibody (AB formation against aGal A in males with Fabry disease (FD. Anti agalsidase ABs negatively influence globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 reduction. We investigated the impact of agalsidase AB on Gb3 and lysoGb3 and clinical outcome in Fabry patients on ERT. METHODS: Adult male and female patients on ERT for at least one year were included. Urinary Gb3 was measured by HPLC, plasma lysoGb3 by LC-ESI-MS/MS and AB with a neutralization assay. RESULTS: Of the 59 patients evaluable patients, 0/30 females and 17/29 males developed anti-agalsidase antibodies (AB+. Only 3/17 males had transient (low titers (tolerized. All AB+ patients developed antibodies during the first year of treatment. Change of agalsidase preparation (or dose did not induce antibody formation. AB+ males had significant less decline in plasma lysoGb3 compared to AB- males (p = 0.04. Urinary Gb3 levels decreased markedly in AB- but remained comparable to baseline in AB+ males (p<0.01. (LysoGb3 reduction in plasma and urine on ERT was correlated with LVmass reduction in females and development white matter lesions and stroke. CONCLUSION: In male patients antibodies against aGal A remained present up to 10 years of ERT. The presence of these antibodies is associated with a less robust decrease in plasma lysoGb3 and a profound negative effect on urinary Gb3 reduction, which may reflect worse treatment outcome.

  6. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom......A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock...

  7. Demostration of 520 Gb/s/λ pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM-OFDM signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yu, Jianjun; Cao, Zizheng; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Junwen; Li, Xinying

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, we successfully transmit 8 × 520 Gb/s pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal over 840 km SMF with BER under 2.4 × 10(-2). We discuss how to obtain accurate tranceivers' response during pre-equalization for DFT-spread OFDM with coherent detection and we find conventional OFDM symbols training sequences (TSs) outperform DFT-spread OFDM symbols TSs in obtaining channel response for pre-equalization and equalization. Additionally, the optimal IFFT/FFT size is explored for the pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM-OFDM transmission systems. It is the first time to realize 400 Gb/s/λ net rate OFDM signal transmission.

  8. 160 Gb/s all-optical AND gate using bulk SOA turbo-switched Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Salgado, I.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2017-09-01

    A novel architecture to implement an all-optical AND gate that relies on the use of a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier-based active Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the turbo-switch effect is presented. Its performance is analyzed in terms of relevant physical parameters and its power consumption calculated. Error-free operation at 160 Gb/s is numerically demonstrated, thus becoming the fastest AND gate of its kind. Accurate simulations using a well-tested design suite predict a 2.7 dB improvement in terms of quality factor when compared to a conventional scheme. The performance advantages of the proposed architecture remain when combined with a turbo-switched XOR gate: the resulting all-optical half-adder also operates error-free at 160 Gb/s. Our research work boosts the potential of interferometric turbo-switched photonic structures as ultra-fast all-optical processing elements.

  9. Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate......, and extrapolation hereof to estimate trends, and main challenges, towards 2030. According to our results, in 2020 the receiver power consumption exceeds 3 W, and is thus a challenge to be addressed. Assuming the performance evolution continues as observed in this work, the 5G receiver will be on par...... the impact from these physical layer requirements to the power consumption of main receiver components, including LNA, ADC and baseband processor with Turbo decoding, in a Direct Conversion Architecture. The estimate of power consumption results from a comprehensive survey of component performance evolution...

  10. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  11. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Experimental demonstration of 110-Gb/s unsynchronized band-multiplexed superchannel coherent optical OFDM/OQAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Tao; Li, Haibo; Zhang, Xuebing; Li, Cai; Li, Chao; Hu, Rong; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Xu; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Qi; Yu, Shaohua

    2013-09-23

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the first 110-Gb/s multi-band superchannel coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM/OQAM) system. Unlike the conventional orthogonal band-multiplexed OFDM system, no timing or frequency synchronization is required for the OFDM/OQAM system. We further investigate the influence of guard band, and find that very trivial guard band spacing (OFDM system.

  13. Total Ionizing Dose Influence on the Single Event Effect Sensitivity in Samsung 8Gb NAND Flash Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Larry D.; Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    A recent model provides risk estimates for the deprogramming of initially programmed floating gates via prompt charge loss produced by an ionizing radiation environment. The environment can be a mixture of electrons, protons, and heavy ions. The model requires several input parameters. This paper extends the model to include TID effects in the control circuitry by including one additional parameter. Parameters intended to produce conservative risk estimates for the Samsung 8 Gb SLC NAND flash memory are given, subject to some qualifications.

  14. Transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over up to 635 km of multimode optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason E; Kuksenkov, Dmitri V; Lynn, Christopher M; Korolev, Andrey E; Nazarov, Vladimir N

    2011-12-12

    We investigate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over 50 μm core diameter OM3 multimode fiber using the center launch approach. We demonstrate successful transmission of 16 DWDM channels over a distance of 635 km for a capacity-distance product of 1016 Tb/s-km. The limiting impairment appears due to mode coupling and multipath interference effects. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. 8×40 Gb/s 55-km WDM transmission over conventional fiber using a new RZ optical source

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jianjun; Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    A multiwavelength RZ optical source with equal amplitudes and pulsewidths is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of a common dispersion shifted fiber. The converted wavelengths of the eight signal pulses are in agreement with the ITU-T proposal and a commercial arrayed-waveguide grating is used for demultiplexing in the frequency-domain. By using the new source 8×40 Gb/s WDM transmission over 55 km conventional fiber was realized.

  16. A Novel Noise Free Transmission Technique for Designing 100Gb/s Future Generation Optical Communication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L.; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    that BER of 10-12+, Q-factor 98 at power penalty of 14 dB is attained using the designed technique for transmitting 100Gb/s at 300 Km. Whereas, existing NRZ technique achieved a BER of 10-6, Q-factor 32 at power penalty of 11 dB for same similar transmission data rate and distance. The designed offers...

  17. 8×40 Gb/s 55-km WDM transmission over conventional fiber using a new RZ optical source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai

    2000-01-01

    A multiwavelength RZ optical source with equal amplitudes and pulsewidths is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of a common dispersion shifted fiber. The converted wavelengths of the eight signal pulses are in agreement with the ITU-......-T proposal and a commercial arrayed-waveguide grating is used for demultiplexing in the frequency-domain. By using the new source 8×40 Gb/s WDM transmission over 55 km conventional fiber was realized....

  18. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  19. 16 Gb/s PAM4 UWOC system based on 488-nm LD with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Tsai, Wen-Shing; Cheng, Ming-Te; Ho, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Yang, Zih-Yi; Chen, De-Yu

    2017-05-15

    A 16 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system based on 488-nm laser diode (LD) with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Experimental results show that such a 1.8-GHz 488-nm blue light LD with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is enough forceful for a 16 Gb/s PAM4 signal underwater link. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to successfully adopt a 488-nm LD transmitter with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a PAM4 UWOC system. By adopting a 488-nm LD transmitter with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques, good bit error rate performance (offline processed by Matlab) and clear eye diagrams (measured in real-time) are achieved over a 10-m underwater link. The proposed system has the potential to play a vital role in the future UWOC infrastructure by effectively providing high transmission rate (16 Gb/s) and long underwater transmission distance (10 m).

  20. Simultaneous multiple DWDM channel NRZ-to-RZ regenerative format conversion at 10 and 20 Gb/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang; Rosas-Fernández, Jose B; Huang, Dexiu; Penty, Richard V; White, Ian H

    2009-03-02

    We propose and demonstrate simultaneous optoelectronic NRZ-to-RZ regenerative format conversion for multiple DWDM channels using a single phase modulator (PM) and a fibre delay-interferometer (DI). In order to accommodate multiple DWDM channels, the DI is designed to have a free spectral range (FSR) equal to the channel spacing. This thus extracts the chirp induced by the phase modulation for all the channels at the same time. Since the original carriers are suppressed to some extent, the NRZ-to-RZ conversions can be achieved with regeneration. Multi-channel format conversion is successfully demonstrated for 16 channels at 10 Gb/s and 8 channels at 20 Gb/s, with a channel spacing of 100 GHz. Bit error ratio (BER) measurements at 10 Gb/s show 3.5 and 4.2 dB penalty improvements for 50 and 75 km transmission without dispersion compensation, respectively. Significant extinction ratio (ER) improvement and timing jitter reduction is observed for the converted channels.

  1. Performance Investigation of 40 GB/s DWDM over Free Space Optical Communication System Using RZ Modulation Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooraj Parkash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We successfully demonstrate 40 GB/s 8 channels’ Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM over free space optical (FSO communication system. Each channel is transmitting 5 GB/s data rate in downstream separated by 0.8 nm (100 GHz channel spacing with 1.8 GHz filter bandwidth. DWDM over FSO communication system is very effective in providing high data rate transmission with very low bit error rate (BER. The maximum reach of designed system is 4000 m without any compensation scheme. The simulation work reports minimum BER for Return-to-Zero (RZ modulation format at different channels 1, 4, and 8 are found to be 2.32e-17, 1.70e-16, and 9.51e-15 at 4000 m distance, respectively. Sharp increase in BER occurs if data rate and distance increase up to 10 GB/s and 5000 m.

  2. Systematic identification of rhythmic genes reveals camk1gb as a new element in the circadian clockwork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Tovin

    Full Text Available A wide variety of biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes are known to have daily rhythms driven by an endogenous circadian clock. While extensive research has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that constitute the circadian clock, the links between this clock and dependent processes have remained elusive. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and DNA microarrays to systematically identify clock-controlled genes in the zebrafish pineal gland. In addition to a comprehensive view of the expression pattern of known clock components within this master clock tissue, this approach has revealed novel potential elements of the circadian timing system. We have implicated one rhythmically expressed gene, camk1gb, in connecting the clock with downstream physiology of the pineal gland. Remarkably, knockdown of camk1gb disrupts locomotor activity in the whole larva, even though it is predominantly expressed within the pineal gland. Therefore, it appears that camk1gb plays a role in linking the pineal master clock with the periphery.

  3. Diffusion Regulation in the Vitreous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsdorf, Benjamin Tillmann; Arends, Fabienna; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The efficient treatment of many ocular diseases depends on the rapid diffusive distribution of solutes such as drugs or drug delivery vehicles through the vitreous humor. However, this multicomponent hydrogel possesses selective permeability properties, which allow for the diffusion of certain molecules and particles, whereas others are immobilized. In this study, we perform an interspecies comparison showing that the selective permeability properties of the vitreous are conserved across several mammalian species. We identify the polyanionic glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate as two key macromolecules that establish this selective permeability. We show that electrostatic interactions between the polyanionic macromolecules and diffusing solutes can be weakened by charge screening or enzymatic glycosaminoglycan digestion. Furthermore, molecule penetration into the vitreous is also charge-dependent and only efficient as long as the net charge of the molecule does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26588575

  4. Water diffusion to assess meat microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Luca; Venturi, Luca; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Petracci, Massimiliano

    2017-12-01

    In the quest for setting up rapid methods to evaluate water retention ability of meat microstructures, time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) has gained a prominent role, due to the possibility to observe water located outside the myofibrils, easily lost upon storage or cooking. Diffusion weighted signals could be used to monitor the shape and dimension of the pores in which water is confined, thus boosting the information offered by TD-NMR. The work outlines a parsimonious model to describe relative abundance and diffusion coefficient of intra and extra myofibrillar water populations, exchange rate between them, diameter of the myofibrillar cells. To test our model, we registered diffusion and T2 weighted NMR signals at 20MHz on fresh meat from pectoralis major muscle of 100days old female turkey. We then purposely altered water distribution and myofibrils shape by means of freezing. The model predicted nicely the consequences of the imposed modifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Study on diffusion anisotropy of cerebral ischemia using diffusion weighted echo-planar MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajima, Toshio [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-08-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by occlusion of the intracranial main cerebral artery with a silicone cylinder in Wistar rats. Diffusion-weighted echo-planar images (DW-EPls) using the motion-probing gradient (MPG) method were acquired at 1-3 hours and 24-48 hours after occlusion. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from these images in ischemic lesions and in normal unoccluded regions. Results were as follows. Ischemic lesions could be detected on the DW-EPIs at 1 hour after occlusion. The ADC of water in the brain tissue was smaller than that of free water as a result of restricted diffusion. Anisotropic diffusion that probably can be attributed to the myelin sheath was observed in the normal white matter. In the ischemic lesions, the ADC decreased rapidly within 1-3 hours after occlusion and then decreased gradually after 24-48 hours. In the ischemic white matter, diffusion anisotropy disappeared at 24-48 hours after occlusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging may have applications in the examination of pathophysiological mechanisms in cerebral ischemia by means of evaluation of ADC and diffusion anisotropy. (author)

  6. Diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, E.; Boecker, W.; Buecheler, E.

    1984-06-01

    Nineteen patients with various types of lipoma in the pelvis are described. Clinical findings, radiological examinations, and follow-up studies constitute a particular type of lipoma, diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis; this can be distinguished from other fatty tumours because of its localisation, extent, therapeutic results and long course. Computed tomography enables us to differentiate simple lipomatosis pelvis from diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis. Histological examination is essential for excluding a liposarcoma. Growth or malignant change of diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis is most easily recognized by computed tomographic serial observation.

  7. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... in applying diffuse ceiling ventilation in offices and other commercial buildings because of the benefits from both thermal comfort and energy efficiency aspects. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation and the design...

  8. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  9. Theories on diffusion of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark....

  10. Diffusion in late stages of stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Georges

    The abundances of the chemical elements observed at the surface of white dwarfs are the result of diffussion in the external regions of these stars. It is described how diffusion determines the abundances of such elements as carbon, that are now being observed in the far UV Diffusion is shown to play a minor role in giants but its effects start to appear rapidly after the planetary nebula stage. While the basic physical process of gravitational settling is well understood, the quantitative values of the diffusion coefficients involved are uncertain in some cases. They pose interesting statistical physics problems specially for the thermal diffusion coefficients. Depending on the model used it can vary by orders of magnitude. A number of the possible sources of uncertainty of the diffusion coefficients are described as well as the astrophysical context where the coefficients are most uncertain. L'abondance des éléments chimiques à la surface des naines blanches est le fruit de la diffusion des particules dans les régions externes de ces étoiles. On décrit comment la diffusion détermine l'abondance du carbone que l'on observe dans l'UV. La diffusion joue une rôle mineur dans les géantes mais ses effets commencent à faire sentir peu après l'étape des nébuleuses planétaires. Le tri gravitationnel est un processus bien compris mais les coefficients de diffusion impliqués sont incertains dans plusieurs cas. Leur détermination, en particulier celle du coefhcient de diffusion thermique, pose des problèmes intéressants de physique statistique. Dépendant du modèle utilisé, la valeur du coefficient de diffusion thermique peut varier par plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Plusieurs des causes d'incertitude sont décrites de même que le contexte astrophysique où les coefficients sont le plus incertains.

  11. Ipsilateral Putamen and Insula Activation by Both Left and Right GB34 Acupuncture Stimulation: An fMRI Study on Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; van den Noort, Maurits; Bosch, Peggy; Lim, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The modulatory effects on the brain during right versus left side acupuncture stimulation of the same acupuncture point have been a subject of controversy. For clarification of this important methodological issue, the present study was designed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent responses of acupuncture stimulation on the right versus left Yanglingquan (GB34). Twenty-two healthy subjects received right or left GB34 acupuncture. Our results show that acupuncture on the left GB34 induced neural responses in the left putamen, caudate body, insula, postcentral gyrus, claustrum, right and left thalamus, right middle frontal gyrus, hypothalamus, and subthalamic nucleus. Acupuncture on the right GB34 induced neural responses in the right middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, thalamus, putamen, lateral globus pallidus, medial globus pallidus, and insula. Interestingly, the putamen and insula were ipsilaterally activated by acupuncture on either the left or right GB34; therefore, they seem to be the main target areas affected by GB34 acupuncture. This is the first reported functional magnetic resonance imaging study directly comparing needling on the right and left GB34. Although more replication studies are needed, our preliminary results prove that acupuncture has different modulatory effects on the brain when performed on the right versus left side.

  12. The foundations of diffusion revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligen, B. P. van; Carreras, B. A.; Sanchez, R.

    2005-07-01

    Fick's Law lies at the basis of the study of particle and heat transport in many fields of physics. The detailed analysis of transport in magnetically confined plasmas has revealed a very rich phenomenology, including some rather unusual behaviour, such as an unexpected scaling of confinement with system size, power degradation, stiff profiles, rapid transient phenomena (cold and heat pulses) and non-local behaviour, and profile peaking during off axis fueling. It has been extremely difficult to capture these phenomena in the standard transport modelling framework, i.e. local Fickian transport. Ad-hoc modifications of the standard transport paradigm have been proposed, but no unified framework has emerged that is capable of reproducing all phenomena. In the present talk, we review the foundations of the diffusive transport paradigm in terms of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW), which is a generalization of standard Brownian motion. Using a simplified one-dimensional single-field model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, we will present a number of highly suggestive results, demonstrating that all mentioned phenomena arise in a natural fashion in this type of model. In addition, we discuss the fluid limit and show that the model produces a radially increasing effective diffusion and an inward directed pinch, very similar to the actual situation in confined plasmas. Finally, we will discuss the general relevance of this type of model for a more profound understanding of transport in magnetic confinement systems, while indicating future developments in this line of investigation. (Author)

  13. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  14. Isomorphism, Diffusion and Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Jonsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of the core theoretical constructs of isomorphism, decoupling and diffusion in organizational institutionalism. We first review the original theoretical formulations of these constructs and then examine their evolution in empirical research conducted over the past...

  15. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...

  16. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  17. Brownian yet Non-Gaussian Diffusion: From Superstatistics to Subordination of Diffusing Diffusivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Chechkin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of biological, soft, and active matter systems are observed to exhibit normal diffusive dynamics with a linear growth of the mean-squared displacement, yet with a non-Gaussian distribution of increments. Based on the Chubinsky-Slater idea of a diffusing diffusivity, we here establish and analyze a minimal model framework of diffusion processes with fluctuating diffusivity. In particular, we demonstrate the equivalence of the diffusing diffusivity process with a superstatistical approach with a distribution of diffusivities, at times shorter than the diffusivity correlation time. At longer times, a crossover to a Gaussian distribution with an effective diffusivity emerges. Specifically, we establish a subordination picture of Brownian but non-Gaussian diffusion processes, which can be used for a wide class of diffusivity fluctuation statistics. Our results are shown to be in excellent agreement with simulations and numerical evaluations.

  18. Chimpanzee GB virus C and GB virus A E2 envelope glycoproteins contain a peptide motif that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human CD4+ T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, James H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Klinzman, Donna; Murthy, Krishna K.; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Bhattarai, Nirjal

    2013-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus that can cause persistent infection in humans. GBV-C is not associated with any disease, but is associated with reduced mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Related viruses have been isolated from chimpanzees (GBV-Ccpz) and from New World primates (GB virus type A, GBV-A). These viruses are also capable of establishing persistent infection. We determined the nucleotide sequence encoding the envelope glycoprotein (E2) of two GBV-Ccpz isolates obtained from the sera of captive chimpanzees. The deduced GBV-Ccpz E2 protein differed from human GBV-C by 31 % at the amino acid level. Similar to human GBV-C E2, expression of GBV-Ccpz E2 in a tet-off human CD4+ Jurkat T-cell line significantly inhibited the replication of diverse HIV-1 isolates. This anti-HIV-replication effect of GBV-Ccpz E2 protein was reversed by maintaining cells in doxycycline to reduce E2 expression. Previously, we found a 17 aa region within human GBV-C E2 that was sufficient to inhibit HIV-1. Although GBV-Ccpz E2 differed by 3 aa differences in this region, the chimpanzee GBV-C 17mer E2 peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication. Similarly, the GBV-A peptide that aligns with this GBV-C E2 region inhibited HIV-1 replication despite sharing only 5 aa with the human GBV-C E2 sequence. Thus, despite amino acid differences, the peptide region on both the GBV-Ccpz and the GBV-A E2 protein inhibit HIV-1 replication similar to human GBV-C. Consequently, GBV-Ccpz or GBV-A infection of non-human primates may provide an animal model to study GB virus–HIV interactions. PMID:23288422

  19. Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Alm, Jan

    2007-01-01

    with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation....... One patient had a paternal KCNJ11 mutation and focal disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. One patient had a de novo heterozygous ABBC8 mutation and unexplained diffuse disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. CONCLUSION: A rapid analysis...

  20. Coupling GB-SAR and visual photography for 3D modelling of an Alpine glacier surface kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematteis, Niccolò; Luzi, Guido; Giordan, Daniele; Zucca, Francesco; Allasia, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    We present the 3-dimensional modelling of a glacier kinematics, obtained by coupling the results of two monitoring campaigns, simultaneously collecting data from two different and independent remote sensing devices, focused on the surface deformation of the Planpincieux glacier, on the Italian side of the Mont Blanc massif. The analysed period lasted 25 days and occurred in correspondence of the beginning of the Alpine cold season. The unstable weather conditions, affecting both the monitored surfaces and the signal propagation, demanded an accurate understanding of the atmospheric effect and the development of a specific correction procedure for radar data. The considered devices are a low-cost optical photography station (OPS) and a ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR). The OPS is placed frontally to the glacier surface and measures the daily motion components orthogonal to the line of sight (LOS). The processing is performed through spatial cross-correlation between consecutive images, acquired at the same hours to limit shadow effects. The images are orthorectified on a 1 m-resolution digital surface model (DSM) of the glacier and a pixel-to-metric conversion is performed. The GB-SAR acquires data every 16 minutes. The GB-SAR location is decided aiming at maximising the parallel condition to the LOS and the estimated direction of the main flow. The main processing steps include i) a coherence-driven pixel-selection criterion to identify glacier areas, ii) 2D unwrapping algorithm, iii) atmosphere phase screen (APS) filtering with a newly 2D polynomial model, function of the elevation. The radar maps are also georeferenced on the DSM. Finally, from the 3 different components of the glacier surface motion it is possible to reconstruct the actual deformation vector. The results are mapped on the DSM. The proposed method allows to determine the evolution of the 3-dimensional kinematics of the observed surface; it can be applied in general to the

  1. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF. The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. Methods. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. Results. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1 had the lowest score (average value 2.98, while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2 had the highest score (average value 3.15. The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8, which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively among the all evaluated competencies. Conclusion. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  2. Efficient method for near real-time diffuse optical tomography of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Culver, Joseph P.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have showed only regions with a sensitivity higher that 1% of the maximum value can affect the recovery result for diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Two methods of efficient sensitivity map generation based on Finite Element Models (FEM) are developed based on (1) reduced sensitivity matrix and (2) parallelisation process. Time and memory efficiency of these processes are evaluated and compared with conventional methods. It is shown that the computational time for a full head model containing 200k nodes is reduced from 3 hours to 48 minutes and the required memory is reduced from 5.5 GB to 0.5 GB. For a range of mesh densities up to 320k nodes, the required memory is improved by ~1000% and computational time by ~400% to allow near real-time image recovery.

  3. Interface dynamics and banding in rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A.; Sarkissian, A. (Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Rapid-solidification experiments on metallic alloys in the last decade have provided widespread observations of a novel banded structure.'' We report the results of numerical and analytical studies of the interface dynamics underlying the formation of this structure in a model of directional solidification which includes both solute and heat diffusion and nonequilibrium effects. The thrust of these studies is on the unsteady dynamics of the planar interface and thermal effects. The main conclusion is that the origin of banding can be related to relaxation oscillations of the solidification front, characterized by large variations of the interface velocity, which are dramatically affected by latent-heat diffusion. Without the latter, the oscillations are found to be reasonably well approximated by the phenomenological model of Carrard [ital et] [ital al]. [Acta Metall. 40, 983 (1992)], and the band spacing is inversely proportional to the temperature gradient. In contrast, with latent-heat diffusion the band spacing is insensitive to the temperature gradient, but is controlled instead by the interplay of solute and heat diffusion. The smallness of the solutal diffusivity to thermal diffusivity ratio is exploited to explain analytically this effect and to derive considerably simpler equations of interface motion that provide an efficient numerical means to study the nonplanar interface dynamics expected to cause dark bands. A reasonable agreement with experiment is found for the spacing of banded structures dominated by light-band microsegregation-free regions in Al-Fe alloys.

  4. The efficacy of HSV-2 vaccines based on gD and gB is enhanced by the addition of ICP27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Helen; Perez, David Lucia; Christy, Clare; Cockle, Paul; Eyles, Jim E; Hammond, Daisy; Khodai, Tansi; Lang, Susanne; West, Kate; Loudon, Peter T

    2012-12-14

    DNA vaccines expressing HSV-2 gD, gB, ICP27, VP22 and VP13/14 were shown to be immunogenic in mice; gD and gB elicited neutralising antibody, and all five antigens induced T cell responses measured by IFNγ ELISPOT. In murine HSV-2 challenge studies, gD and gB provided moderate to high levels of protection while ICP27 provided a lower level of protection depending on the model (intravaginal or intranasal) and the challenge dose. Combining vaccines expressing gB or gD with vaccines expressing ICP27 provided greater protection than any antigen alone. We conclude that the addition of ICP27 to enhance the anti-viral T cell response can improve the efficacy of gD- and gB-based vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  6. Time-lens based synchronizer and retimer for 10 Gb/s Ethernet packets with up to ±1MHz frequency offset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results....

  7. Dual mode 1.25-2.5 Gb/s CMOS limiting amplifier circuit for optical receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albina, Cristian M.

    2009-01-01

    A 1.25-2.5Gb/s burst-mode limiting amplifier for gigabit passive optical networks (GPON) is presented in this paper. It supports both PIN-PD and APD diodes. A response time of 5 ns and sensitivity of 4 mVpp is achieved by introducing a modified amplified stage with active feedback and negative Miller capacitance compensation techniques. This circuit operates with a supply voltage 3 V and it is fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology. The influence of the parasitic layout elements and their effects on the performance of the limiting amplifier will be illustrated using RC and RLC parasitic extraction and simulation results.

  8. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Presumed apathogenic viruses have been suggested to play a role in HIV infection. In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS. We set out to address whether GBVC infection had any influence on survival in a cohort of 112...... homosexual white HIV-1 positive Danish men. Patients were enrolled between 1984 and 1987 and followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Follow-up was censored in May 1996 when the first patient in the cohort received HAART. Plasma samples were screened at baseline using polymerase chain reaction methods for GBVC...

  9. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...... the United States Federal Communications Commission and the European Electronic Communications Committee, achieving a BER below the limit for a 7% overhead FEC of 3.8 · 10−3 up to respective wireless distances of 3.5m and 2m....

  10. Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals in a silicon polarization diversity circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion of a 40 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) data signal is demonstrated using four-wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon nanowire circuit. Polarization independence is achieved using a diversity circuit based on polarization...... rotators and splitters, which is fabricated by a simple process on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Error-free performance is achieved with only 0.5 dB of power penalty compared to the wavelength conversion of a signal with well optimized input polarization. Additionally, data transmission over 161...

  11. High resolution PolInSAR with the ground-based SAR (GB-SAR) System: measurement and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, K; Williams, M L

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based work is necessary for a comprehensive assessment of the operational potential and limitations of PolInSAR in airborne and satellite SAR applications. A study is made of the performance and usefulness of the UK’s Ground-Based SAR (GB-SAR) Outdoor System in high-resolution PolInSAR studies of vegetation using modeling results. The facility provides fully-polarimetric L- through X-band imagery down to a resolution of several wavelengths. However, the measurem...

  12. Demodulation of DPSK signals up to 40 Gb/s using a highly birefringent photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Geng, Yan; Zsigri, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Phase-to-intensity modulation conversion of differential phase-shift keying signals is successfully demonstrated at 10 and 40 Gb/s using a polarization Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer implemented with only 2.4 m of a highly birefringent air-guiding photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber. Such a PBG fiber...... exhibits a birefringence one order of magnitude larger than that of conventional polarization-maintaining fibers, thus enabling the realization of compact interferometers. Furthermore, its single material nature is expected to result in reduced temperature sensitivity....

  13. Free-Running 1550 nm VCSEL for 10.7 Gb/s Transmission in 99.7 km PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Ma, Ming; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2011-01-01

    We present a cooler-less, free-running 1550 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) directly modulated at 10.7 Gb/s. We also report on error-free transmission through 40 km of standard single-mode optical fiber, achieved without the use of dispersion-mitigation or mid-span amplification....... Inverse-dispersion fiber was utilized to realize a dispersion-matched 99.7 km optical access uplink supporting error-free transmission with 27 dB loss margin. These results indicate the feasibility of implementing cooler-less long-wavelength VCSEL devices in long-reach optical access networks....

  14. Adjustable-chirp VCSEL-to-VCSEL injection locking for 10-Gb/s transmission at 1.55 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Alberto; Boletti, Anna; Boffi, Pierpaolo; Martinelli, Mario

    2009-11-23

    1.55-microm single-mode VCSEL frequency chirp behavior is investigated in under-threshold and above-threshold operating conditions for different VCSEL-to-VCSEL injection locking configurations with respect to free-running case. We experimentally evaluated the capability of adjusting the frequency chirp, reducing its value and inverting the sign. The control over the frequency chirp is obtained changing the wavelength detuning and power injection ratio between the VCSEL master and the VCSEL slave. Advantages of the chirp inversion are demonstrated for 10 Gb/s error-free propagation at 1.55-microm over 40-km standard single mode fiber without any dispersion compensation.

  15. An ethylene response-related factor, GbERF1-like, from Gossypium barbadense improves resistance to Verticillium dahliae via activating lignin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weifeng; Jin, Li; Miao, Yuhuan; He, Xin; Hu, Qin; Guo, Kai; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-06-01

    An ethylene response-related factor, GbERF1-like, from Gossypium barbadense cv. '7124' involved in the defence response to Verticillium dahliae was characterized. GbERF1-like transcripts present ubiquitously in various tissues, with higher accumulation in flower organs. GbERF1-like was also responsive to defence-related phytohormones and V. dahliae infection. The downregulation of GbERF1-like increased the susceptibility of cotton plants to V. dahliae infection, while overexpression of this gene improved disease resistance in both cotton and Arabidopsis, coupled with activation of the pathogenesis-related proteins. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in lignin synthesis, such as PAL, C4H, C3H, HCT, CCoAOMT, CCR and F5H, showed higher expression levels in the overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis lines and lower expression levels in the RNAi cotton lines. The expression levels of these genes increased obviously when the GbERF1-like-overexpressing plants were inoculated with V. dahliae. Meanwhile, significant differences in the content of whole lignin could be found in the stems of transgenic and wild-type plants after inoculation with V. dahliae, as revealed by metabolic and histochemical analysis. More lignin could be detected in GbERF1-like-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis but less in GbERF1-like-silencing cotton compared with wild-type plants. The ratio of S and G monomers in GbERF1-like-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis increased significantly after infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, our results showed that the promoters of GhHCT1 and AtPAL3 could be transactivated by GbERF1-like in vivo based on yeast one-hybrid assays and dual-luciferase reporter assays. Knockdown of GhHCT1 in GbERF1-like over-expressing cotton decreases resistance to V. dahliae. Collectively, our results suggest that GbERF1-like acts as a positive regulator in lignin synthesis and contributes substantially to resistance to V. dahliae in plants.

  16. Bicarbonate diffusion through mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, E H; Miller, J; Engel, E

    1995-09-01

    The mucus layer overlying duodenal epithelium maintains a pH gradient against high luminal acid concentrations. Despite these adverse conditions, epithelial surface pH remains close to neutrality. The exact nature of the gradient-forming barrier remains unknown. The barrier consists of mucus into which HCO3- is secreted. Quantification of the ability of HCO3- to establish and maintain the gradient depends on accurate measurement of this ion's diffusion coefficient through mucus. We describe new experimental and mathematical methods for diffusion measurement and report diffusion coefficients for HCO3- diffusion through saline, 5% mucin solutions, and rat duodenal mucus. The diffusion coefficients were 20.2 +/- 0.10, 3.02 +/- 0.31, and 1.81 +/- 0.12 x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. Modeling of the mucobicarbonate layer with this latter value suggests that for conditions of high luminal acid strength the neutralization of acid by HCO3- occurs just above the epithelial surface. Under these conditions the model predicts that fluid convection toward the lumen could be important in maintaining the pH gradient. In support of this hypothesis we were able to demonstrate a net luminal fluid flux of 5 microliters.min-1.cm-2 after perfusion of 0.15 N HCl in the rat duodenum.

  17. Amplitude Equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals using Saturation of Four-Wave Mixing in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Yan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal......We report the first experimental demonstration of amplitude equalization of 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals using saturation of FWM in a HNLF. We show effective power penalty reduction after wavelength conversion of an amplitude distorted signal...

  18. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jack T; Foung, Steven; Muerhoff, A Scott; Bukh, Jens; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-02-01

    In 1967, it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G.B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation with the 11th GB passage. Neither virus infects humans, and a number of GBV-A variants were identified in wild New World monkeys that were captured. Subsequently, a related human virus was identified [named GBV-C or hepatitis G virus (HGV)], and recently a more distantly related virus (named GBV-D) was discovered in bats. Only GBV-B, a second species within the genus Hepacivirus (type species hepatitis C virus), has been shown to cause hepatitis; it causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. The other GB viruses have however not been assigned to a genus within the family Flaviviridae. Based on phylogenetic relationships, genome organization and pathogenic features of the GB viruses, we propose to classify GBV-A-like viruses, GBV-C and GBV-D as members of a fourth genus in the family Flaviviridae, named Pegivirus (pe, persistent; g, GB or G). We also propose renaming 'GB' viruses within the tentative genus Pegivirus to reflect their host origin.

  19. Lack of induction of autoantibody responses following immunization with cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) in healthy CMV-seronegative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, Mark R; Bernstein, David I; Passo, Murray; Parker, Susan; Meric, Claude; Verdier, François; Newkirk, Marianna M

    2004-12-16

    Possible correlations have been proposed between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV). The recent observation that an adenovirus expressing the immunodominant envelope glycoprotein of CMV, glycoprotein B (gB), may be capable of inducing autoantibodies in certain mouse strains has prompted interest in exploring potential relationships between gB immunization and autoimmune disease. We examined whether a recombinant CMV gB vaccine, or a gB canarypox vectored vaccine (ALVAC-CMVgB), administered to a total of 76 CMV-seronegative subjects, was capable of inducing cross-reactive antibodies to Smith antigen (Sm), ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP), and the U1-70 kDa component of the RNP complex. Using immunofluorescence, EIA and immunoblot analyses, we failed to identify induction of autoantibodies following vaccination with gB, whether administered alone as a purified protein subunit with adjuvant, or in combination with expression in a vectored approach using a recombinant canarypox. These data reinforce the favorable safety profile of CMV gB vaccines.

  20. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  1. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  2. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  3. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...... cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...

  4. Diffuse scattering and the fundamental properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    EIce, Gene; Barabash, Rozaliya

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse Scattering-the use of off-specular X-Rays and neutrons from surfaces and interfaces-has grown rapidly as a tool for characterizing the surface properties of materials and related fundamental structural properties. It has proven to be especially useful in the understanding of local properties within materials. This book reflects the efforts of physicists and materials scientists around the world who have helped to refine the techniques and applications of diffuse scattering. Major topics specifically covered include: -- Scattering in Low Dimensions -- Elastic and Thermal Diffuse Scattering from Alloys -- Scattering from Complex and Disordered Materials -- Scattering from Distorted Crystals.

  5. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  6. Diffusion in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Murch, Graeme; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the first chapter Prof. Kozubski and colleagues present atomisticsimulations of superstructure transformations of intermetallic nanolayers.In Chapter 2, Prof. Danielewski and colleagues discuss a formalism for themorphology of the diffusion zone in ternary alloys. In Chapter 3, ProfessorsSprengel and Koiwa discuss the classical contributions of Boltzmann andMatano for the analysis of concentration-dependent diffusion. This isfollowed by Chapter 4 by Professor Cserháti and colleagues on the use of Kirkendall porosity for fabricating hollow hemispheres. In Chapter 5,Professor Morton-Blake rep

  7. SOLITON DIFFUSION IN POLYACETYLENE

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, K.

    1983-01-01

    Making use of the Su, Schrieffer and Heeger (SSH) model for polyacetylene, we study theoretically the soliton difusion in pristine trans-(CH)x. The soliton in the SSH model couples linearly both optical and acoustic phonons. Since the coupling to the optical phonon is stronger, the optical phonon dominates the soliton diffusion in high temperature (T>400K). However, below the room temperature the acoustic phonon dominates the soliton diffusion. For temperature T>To≡2mc2, where m is the solito...

  8. The Trouble with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. DeHoff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological formalism, which yields Fick's Laws for diffusion in single phase multicomponent systems, is widely accepted as the basis for the mathematical description of diffusion. This paper focuses on problems associated with this formalism. This mode of description of the process is cumbersome, defining as it does matrices of interdiffusion coefficients (the central material properties that require a large experimental investment for their evaluation in three component systems, and, indeed cannot be evaluated for systems with more than three components. It is also argued that the physical meaning of the numerical values of these properties with respect to the atom motions in the system remains unknown. The attempt to understand the physical content of the diffusion coefficients in the phenomenological formalism has been the central fundamental problem in the theory of diffusion in crystalline alloys. The observation by Kirkendall that the crystal lattice moves during diffusion led Darken to develop the concept of intrinsic diffusion, i.e., atom motion relative to the crystal lattice. Darken and his successors sought to relate the diffusion coefficients computed for intrinsic fluxes to those obtained from the motion of radioactive tracers in chemically homogeneous samples which directly report the jump frequencies of the atoms as a function of composition and temperature. This theoretical connection between tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion behavior would provide the basis for understanding the physical content of interdiffusion coefficients. Definitive tests of the resulting theoretical connection have been carried out for a number of binary systems for which all three kinds of observations are available. In a number of systems predictions of intrinsic coefficients from tracer data do not agree with measured values although predictions of interdiffusion coefficients appear to give reasonable agreement. Thus, the complete

  9. Virtual Genome Walking across the 32 Gb Ambystoma mexicanum genome; assembling gene models and intronic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Teri; D Johnson, Andrew; Loose, Matthew

    2018-01-12

    Large repeat rich genomes present challenges for assembly using short read technologies. The 32 Gb axolotl genome is estimated to contain ~19 Gb of repetitive DNA making an assembly from short reads alone effectively impossible. Indeed, this model species has been sequenced to 20× coverage but the reads could not be conventionally assembled. Using an alternative strategy, we have assembled subsets of these reads into scaffolds describing over 19,000 gene models. We call this method Virtual Genome Walking as it locally assembles whole genome reads based on a reference transcriptome, identifying exons and iteratively extending them into surrounding genomic sequence. These assemblies are then linked and refined to generate gene models including upstream and downstream genomic, and intronic, sequence. Our assemblies are validated by comparison with previously published axolotl bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. Our analyses of axolotl intron length, intron-exon structure, repeat content and synteny provide novel insights into the genic structure of this model species. This resource will enable new experimental approaches in axolotl, such as ChIP-Seq and CRISPR and aid in future whole genome sequencing efforts. The assembled sequences and annotations presented here are freely available for download from https://tinyurl.com/y8gydc6n . The software pipeline is available from https://github.com/LooseLab/iterassemble .

  10. Two orthogonal carriers assisted 101-Gb/s dual-band DDO-OFDM transmission over 320-km SSMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi; Luo, Ming; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Wei

    2015-05-04

    We propose a novel fading-free direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) scheme for 100-Gb/s medium-reach transmission. In the proposed scheme, we adopts two bands spaced at 100-GHz to accommodate the same complex-valued OFDM signal. However, the signals are coupled with a pair of orthogonal optical carriers. By doing so, real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued OFDM signal can be recovered from the two bands, respectively. We also propose a cost-effective scheme to generate such DDO-OFDM signal using an optical 90-degree hybrid and an optical I/Q modulator. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is fading-free, and the electrical spectral efficiency (SE) is doubled compared to traditional direct-detection method. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated a 101-Gb/s dual-band transmission over 320-km SSMF within only 30-GHz electrical bandwidth, which is highly competitive in both capacity and cost.

  11. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  12. Superconducting single flux quantum 20 Gb/s clock recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplunenko, V.; Borzenets, V.; Dubash, N. [Conductus, 969 West Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States); Van Duzer, T. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A clock recovery circuit has been successfully tested at frequencies up to 20 GHz. This cell is designed for a rapid-single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) telecommunication data switch. It serves to set the receiver clock in phase with the incoming digital signal. The circuit consists of a dc-to-SFQ converter, ring oscillator [(RO) is a closed-loop RSFQ Josephson transmission line], confluence buffer, and an 8-bit binary counter. The input signal transforms to SFQ pulses, and each pulse resets the phase of the ring oscillator, giving a locking time of 1 bit. Thus, the pull-in (capture) range and hold-in (tracking) range are the same, and strictly depend on the encoding of the input signal. This range is estimated to be about 1 GHz at frequency 20 GHz, if the sequence of consecutive ONEs or ZEROs does not exceed 20 bits. The quality factor Q{sub RO} of ring oscillator is about 2000, which gives a jitter of 50 fs for a 35-junction RO. A sampling technique was used to demonstrate phase recovery (phase locking) with only one incoming pulse per 512 clock periods. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. A receptor-like kinase gene (GbRLK) from Gossypium barbadense enhances salinity and drought-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Gao, Yulong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Tianzi; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-08-06

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is widely cultivated due to the important economic value of its fiber. However, extreme environmental degradation impedes cotton growth and production. Receptor-like kinase (RLK) proteins play important roles in signal transduction and participate in a diverse range of processes in response to plant hormones and environmental cues. Here, we introduced an RLK gene (GbRLK) from cotton into Arabidopsis and investigated its role in imparting abiotic stress tolerance. GbRLK transcription was induced by exogenously supplied abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, mock drought conditions and high salinity. We cloned the promoter sequence of this gene via self-formed adaptor PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the promoter region contains many cis-acting stress-responsive elements such as ABRE, W-Box, MYB-core, W-Box core, TCA-element and others. We constructed a vector containing a 1,890-bp sequence in the 5' region upstream of the initiation codon of this promoter and transformed it into Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS histochemical staining analysis showed that GbRLK was expressed mainly in leaf veins, petioles and roots of transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the cotyledons or root hairs. GbRLK promoter activity was induced by ABA, PEG, NaCl and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic Arabidopsis with constitutive overexpression of GbRLK exhibited a reduced rate of water loss in leaves in vitro, along with improved salinity and drought tolerance and increased sensitivity to ABA compared with non-transgenic Col-0 Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of stress-responsive genes in GbRLK Arabidopsis revealed that there was increased expression of genes involved in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway (AtRD20, AtRD22 and AtRD26) and antioxidant genes (AtCAT1, AtCCS, AtCSD2 and AtCSD1) but not ion transporter genes (AtNHX1, AtSOS1). GbRLK is involved in the drought and high salinity stresses pathway by activating or participating in the ABA signaling

  14. Diffusion in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick’s second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-ca...

  15. Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  16. Bronnen van diffuse bodembelasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijzen JPA; Ekelenkamp A; LBG; DGM/BO

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to support the policy on preventive soil protection with information on the diffuse (non-local) emissions to soil and the influence on future soil quality. This study is related to inventories on (potential) sources of local soil pollution (e.g. industrial areas,

  17. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  18. National Diffusion Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Raymond H.

    1981-01-01

    Address at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, Baltimore, Maryland, October 1980, describes the National Diffusion Network, the marketing arm of the Department of Education. State facilitators share innovations in education with school systems. Many adaptions from Maryland schools are usable in other…

  19. Parameter estimation in fractional diffusion models

    CERN Document Server

    Kubilius, Kęstutis; Ralchenko, Kostiantyn

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to parameter estimation in diffusion models involving fractional Brownian motion and related processes. For many years now, standard Brownian motion has been (and still remains) a popular model of randomness used to investigate processes in the natural sciences, financial markets, and the economy. The substantial limitation in the use of stochastic diffusion models with Brownian motion is due to the fact that the motion has independent increments, and, therefore, the random noise it generates is “white,” i.e., uncorrelated. However, many processes in the natural sciences, computer networks and financial markets have long-term or short-term dependences, i.e., the correlations of random noise in these processes are non-zero, and slowly or rapidly decrease with time. In particular, models of financial markets demonstrate various kinds of memory and usually this memory is modeled by fractional Brownian diffusion. Therefore, the book constructs diffusion models with memory and provides s...

  20. The Pearson diffusions: A class of statistically tractable diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Julie Lyng; Sørensen, Michael

    The Pearson diffusions is a flexible class of diffusions defined by having linear drift and quadratic squared diffusion coefficient. It is demonstrated that for this class explicit statistical inference is feasible. Explicit optimal martingale estimating func- tions are found, and the corresponding...

  1. Enhancing Cation Diffusion and Suppressing Anion Diffusion via Lewis-Acidic Polymer Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Savoie, Brett M; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to increase both the energy density and stability of lithium-based batteries, but low Li-ion conductivity remains a barrier to technological viability. SPEs are designed to maximize Li-ion diffusivity relative to the anion, while maintaining sufficient salt solubility. It is thus remarkable that polyethylene oxide (PEO), the most widely used SPE, exhibits Li-ion diffusivity that is an order of magnitude smaller than that of typical counter-ions, such as TFSI, at moderate salt concentrations. Here, we show that Lewis-basic polymers like PEO intrinsically favor slow cation and rapid anion diffusion while this relationship can be reversed in Lewis-acidic polymers. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Lewis-acidic polyboranes are identified that achieve up to a ten-fold increase in Li-ion diffusivity and a significant decrease in anion diffusivity, relative to PEO. The results for this new class of Lewis-acidic SPEs illustrate a general principle for incre...

  2. Fractional diffusion models of transport in magnetically confined plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.

    2005-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas deviates from the standard diffusion paradigm. Some examples include the confinement time scaling in L-mode plasmas, rapid pulse propagation phenomena, and inward transport in off-axis fueling experiments. The limitations of the diffusion paradigm can be traced back to the restrictive assumptions in which it is based. In particular, Fick's law, one of the cornerstones of diffusive transport, assumes that the fluxes only depend on local quantities, i. e. the spatial gradient of the field (s). another key issue is the Markovian assumption that neglects memory effects. Also, at a microscopic level, standard diffusion assumes and underlying Gaussian, uncorrelated stochastic process (i. e. a Brownian random walk) with well defined characteristic spatio-temporal scales. Motivated by the need to develop models of non-diffusive transport, we discuss here a class of transport models base on the use of fractional derivative operators. The models incorporates in a unified way non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian processes or memory effects, and non-diffusive scaling. At a microscopic level, the models describe an underlying stochastic process without characteristic spatio-temporal scales that generalizes the Brownian random walk. As a concrete case study to motivate and test the model, we consider transport of tracers in three-dimensional, pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We show that in this system transport is non-diffusive and cannot be described in the context of the standard diffusion parading. In particular, the probability density function (pdf) of the radial displacements of tracers is strongly non-Gaussian with algebraic decaying tails, and the moments of the tracer displacements exhibit super-diffusive scaling. there is quantitative agreement between the turbulence transport calculations and the proposed fractional diffusion model. In particular, the model

  3. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ultra-long-haul 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission systems using longer spans and Raman amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Pikula, Dragan; Zhu, Xianming

    2012-04-23

    Ultra-long-haul transmission at distances greater than 10,000 km is investigated for 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals using span lengths of 75 km and 100 km and all-Raman amplification. Two different ultra-low loss and large effective area optical fibers are studied. We demonstrate a reach length of 10,200 km for a 40 channel system using a fiber with effective area 112 μm(2) with 100 km spans, and a reach length of 13,288 km for a system with 75 km spans using a fiber with effective area of 134 μm(2). © 2012 Optical Society of America

  5. An upstream burst-mode equalization scheme for 40 Gb/s TWDM PON based on optimized SOA cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chang, Qingjiang; Gao, Zhensen; Ye, Chenhui; Xiao, Simiao; Huang, Xiaoan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Kaibin

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel upstream burst-mode equalization scheme based on optimized SOA cascade for 40 Gb/s TWDMPON. The power equalizer is placed at the OLT which consists of two SOAs, two circulators, an optical NOT gate, and a variable optical attenuator. The first SOA operates in the linear region which acts as a pre-amplifier to let the second SOA operate in the saturation region. The upstream burst signals are equalized through the second SOA via nonlinear amplification. From theoretical analysis, this scheme gives sufficient dynamic range suppression up to 16.7 dB without any dynamic control or signal degradation. In addition, a total power budget extension of 9.3 dB for loud packets and 26 dB for soft packets has been achieved to allow longer transmission distance and increased splitting ratio.

  6. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan H; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Briese, Thomas; Street, Craig; Jabado, Omar; Conlan, Sean; Ali Khan, Shahneaz; Verdugo, Dawn; Hossain, M Jahangir; Hutchison, Stephen K; Egholm, Michael; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter; Lipkin, W Ian

    2010-07-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C). Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5%) from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

  7. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Epstein

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C. Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5% from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

  8. Power budget improvement of symmetric 40 Gb/s TWDM based PON2 system utilizing DMLs and DCF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhaiq, Salem; Zulkifli, Nadiatulhuda; Supa'at, Abu Sahmah M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Salleh, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to use optical dispersion compensation based on the widely deployed compensating fiber (DCF) employing directly modulated lasers (DMLs) to improve the power budget in a symmetric 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (TWDM-PON) systems. The DML output waveforms in terms of output optical power, bandwidth enhancement factor (α) characteristics are investigated in order to minimize the effect of DML chirp and improve the transmission performance. Simulation results show dispersion compensation of up to 140 km of SMF with power budget of 56.6 dB and less than 2 dB dispersion penalty. The feasibility of bandwidth enhancement factor and power budget is also investigated. The simulation results indicate sufficient dispersion compensation for TWDM-PON based on DML transmission, which may vary considerably in their practical demonstration due to different system characterization.

  9. Experimental demonstration of 30 Gb/s direct-detection optical OFDM transmission with blind symbol synchronisation using virtual subcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouziane, R; Milder, P A; Erkılınç, S; Galdino, L; Kilmurray, S; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Killey, R I

    2014-02-24

    The paper investigates the performance of a blind symbol synchronisation technique for optical OFDM systems based on virtual subcarriers. The test-bed includes a real-time 16-QAM OFDM transmitter operating at a net data rate of 30.65 Gb/s using a single OFDM band with a single FPGA-DAC subsystem and demonstrates transmission over 23.3 km SSMF with direct detection at a BER of 10(-3). By comparing the performance of the proposed synchronisation scheme with that of the Schmidl and Cox algorithm, it was found that the two approaches achieve similar performance for large numbers of averaging symbols, but the performance of the proposed scheme degrades as the number of averaging symbols is reduced. The proposed technique has lower complexity and bandwidth overhead as it does not rely on training sequences. Consequently, it is suitable for implementation in high speed optical OFDM transceivers.

  10. Numerical study of CSRZ, RZ-DPSK, and ODB formats in 32 × 40 Gb/s DWDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Kefei

    2016-10-01

    The differential phase Q value method is adopted to investigate carried-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ), return-to-zero differential phase shift keying (RZ-DPSK), and optical duobinary (ODB) codes in 32 × 40 Gb/s DWDM system. The relationship between the transmission distance and optical output power is compared in order to select the optimal code. Furthermore, mixed phase noise of the spontaneous emission noise (ASE), Gordon-Mollenauer (GM) noise, and intrachannel four wave mixing (IFWM) effect has been analyzed. The numerical results show that DPSK is the most suitable for the DWDM system and adjustable range of output optical power is up to 10.2 dBm at 1200 km. Besides, ASE noise is dominant in degradation of received signal quality. However, RZ-DPSK and CSRZ show better performance for suppression of ASE noise, which can serve as a guideline for upgrading in current state-of-art deployed system.

  11. Impacts of environmental factors to bi-directional 2×40 Gb/s WDM free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Hsu, Kuang-Yu; Yeh, Jai-Ger; Lin, Yu-Ming; Yu, Yi-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Bi-directional short-range free-space optical (FSO) communication with bi-directional 2×4×10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channel signals is demonstrated by using a transmission distance of 25 m. The single-mode-fiber components are used in the optical terminals for both optical transmitting and receiving functions. The measured power penalties for the 25-m bi-directional four-channel FSO communication compared with the back-to-back link and uni-directional transmission system are less than 0.8 dB and 0.2 dB, respectively. The environmental factor effects, including the oblique incidence through the building window glasses, thermally induced non-uniform air index as well as rainfall on the FSO performance are investigated and analyzed. The experimental results show that rainfall is influential for free space optical transmission.

  12. A CMOS 0.13 mu m, 5-Gb/s laser driver for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Soos, C; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2012-01-01

    The GigaBit Laser Driver (GBLD) is a radiation tolerant ASIC designed to drive both edge emitting lasers and VCSELs at data rates up to 5 Gb/s. It is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) and Versatile Link projects, which are designing a bi-directional optical data transmission system capable of operating in the radiation environment of a typical HEP experiment. The GBLD can provide laser diode modulation currents up to 24 mA and laser bias currents up to 43 mA. Pre- and de-emphasis functions are implemented to compensate for high external capacitive loads and asymmetric laser response. The chip, designed in a 0.13 $\\mu$m CMOS technology, is powered by a single 2.5 V power supply and can be programmed via an $I2C$ interface.

  13. Optical Backplane Based on Ring-Resonators: Scalability and Performance Analysis for 10 Gb/s OOK-NRZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Rizzelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of architectures that implement optical switching without any need of optoelectronic conversion allows us to overcome the limits imposed by today’s electronic backplane, such as power consumption and dissipation, as well as power supply and footprint requirements. We propose a ring-resonator based optical backplane for router line-card interconnection. In particular we investigate how the scalability of the architecture is affected by the following parameters: number of line cards, switching-element round-trip losses, frequency drifting due to thermal variations, and waveguide-crossing effects. Moreover, to quantify the signal distortions introduced by filtering operations, the bit error rate for the different parameter conditions are shown in case of an on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ input signal at 10 Gb/s.

  14. Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buset, Jonathan M; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Plant, David V

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate an improved overlapped-subcarrier multiplexed (O-SCM) WDM PON architecture transmitting over a single feeder using cost sensitive intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers, data re-modulation and simple electronics. Incorporating electronic equalization and Reed-Solomon forward-error correction codes helps to overcome the bandwidth limitation of a remotely seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based ONU transmitter. The O-SCM architecture yields greater spectral efficiency and higher bit rates than many other SCM techniques while maintaining resilience to upstream impairments. We demonstrate full-duplex 5 Gb/s transmission over 20 km and analyze BER performance as a function of transmitted and received power. The architecture provides flexibility to network operators by relaxing common design constraints and enabling full-duplex operation at BER ∼ 10(-10) over a wide range of OLT launch powers from 3.5 to 8 dBm.

  15. Compiled data set of exact NOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings and scalar couplings for the protein GB3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Vögeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compiled an NMR data set consisting of exact nuclear Overhauser enhancement (eNOE distance limits, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs and scalar (J couplings for GB3, which forms one of the largest and most diverse data set for structural characterization of a protein to date. All data have small experimental errors, which are carefully estimated. We use the data in the research article Vogeli et al., 2015, Complementarity and congruence between exact NOEs and traditional NMR probes for spatial decoding of protein dynamics, J. Struct. Biol., 191, 3, 306–317, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.07.008 [1] for cross-validation in multiple-state structural ensemble calculation. We advocate this set to be an ideal test case for molecular dynamics simulations and structure calculations.

  16. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  17. Diffused Religion and Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite likely that the origins of prayer are to be found in ancient mourning and bereavement rites. Primeval ritual prayer was codified and handed down socially to become a deep-rooted feature of people’s cultural behavior, so much so, that it may surface again several years later, in the face of death, danger, need, even in the case of relapse from faith and religious practice. Modes of prayer depend on religious experience, on relations between personal prayer and political action, between prayer and forgiveness, and between prayer and approaches to religions. Various forms of prayer exist, from the covert-hidden to the overt-manifest kind. How can they be investigated? How can one, for instance, explore mental prayer? These issues regard the canon of diffused religion and, therefore, of diffused prayer.

  18. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... in the presence of two concordant factors. On the context side, the qualities of the selected opinion leader were necessary to provide the subjective norm described in TPB. On the best practice side, the technological qualities of the best practice itself were necessary to instill the ideal attitude (belief...

  19. Activation of amygdala opioid receptors by electroacupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints exacerbates focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pei-Lu; Lu, Chin-Yu; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yi-Fong; Lin, Chung-Tien; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2013-10-29

    The effect of seizure suppression by acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints has been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot), however, there is a lack of scientific evidence to prove it. This current study was designed to elucidate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on the epileptic activity by employing an animal model of focal epilepsy. Administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced the focal epilepsy in rats. Rats received a 30-min 100 Hz EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints per day, beginning at 30 minutes before the dark period and performing in three consecutive days. The broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone), μ-receptor antagonist (naloxonazine), δ-receptor antagonist (naltrindole) and κ-receptor antagonist (nor-binaltorphimine) were administered directly into the CeA to elucidate the involvement of CeA opioid receptors in the EA effect. High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints did not suppress the pilocarpine-induced epileptiform electroencephalograms (EEGs), whereas it further increased the duration of epileptiform EEGs. We also observed that epilepsy occurred while 100 Hz EA stimulation of Feng-Chi acupoints was delivered into naïve rats. EA-induced augmentation of epileptic activity was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors in the CeA mediates EA-exacerbated epilepsy. The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints has no effect to protect against pilocarpine-induced focal epilepsy; in contrast, EA further exacerbated focal epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA-induced exacerbation of focal epilepsy.

  20. Improved diffusion Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Hairer, Martin; Weare, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a modification, based on the RESTART (repetitive simulation trials after reaching thresholds) and DPR (dynamics probability redistribution) rare event simulation algorithms, of the standard diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm. The new algorithm has a lower variance per workload, regardless of the regime considered. In particular, it makes it feasible to use DMC in situations where the "na\\"ive" generalisation of the standard algorithm would be impractical, due to an exponential e...

  1. Diffusion in hydrogeology

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The field of hydrogeology is primarily concerned with the flow of water below the ground surface and with transport, normally of solutes and heat, within that water. Many disciplines have contributed to this endeavor which requires skills from across the spectrum of science, engineering and beyond. The diffusion equation describes not only solute transport but also the flow of water, via Darcy’s law. Of particular interest is transport in fractured rock where most of the flow is through th...

  2. [The diffusion of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Between August 19 and 21, the Feria del Libro de las Ciencias de la Salud (Healthcare Book Fair) took place in the Palacio de Medicina in Mexico City. Archives of Medical Research, Revista Médica del IMSS, and Saber IMSS, three of the main instruments of knowledge diffusion of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, assisted to this book fair, which was organized by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM.

  3. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... temperature as well as optimizing the radiant cooling potential by combining with thermal mass is conducted and gives a direction for further investigation....

  4. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Ultrafast palladium diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, Hassan Ali

    2015-01-01

    The slow transport of dopants through crystal lattices has hindered the development of novel devices. Typically atoms are contained within deep potential energy wells which necessitates multiple attempts to hop between minimum energy positions. This is because the bonds that constrain atoms are strongest at the minimum positions. As they hop between sites the bonds must be broken, only to re-form as the atoms slide into adjacent minima. Here we demonstrate that the Pd atoms introduced into the Ge lattice behave differently. They retain bonds as the atoms shift across so that at the energy maximum between sites Pd still exhibits strong bonding characteristics. This reduces the energy maximum to almost nothing (a migration energy of only 0.03 eV) and means that the transport of Pd through the Ge lattice is ultrafast. We scrutinize the bonding characteristics at the atomic level using quantum mechanical simulation tools and demonstrate why Pd behaves so differently to other metals we investigated (i.e. Li, Cu, Ag, Pt and Au). Consequently, this fundamental understanding can be extended to systems where extremely rapid diffusion is desired, such as radiation sensors, batteries and solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. Electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.; Ohshima, H.

    2006-01-01

    A theory is presented for the electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles in a steady dc electric field. The particles investigated consist of an uncharged impenetrable core and a charged diffuse polyelectrolytic shell, which is to some extent permeable to ions and solvent molecules. The diffuse

  7. Trends Prediction Using Social Diffusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Yaniv; Pan, Wei; Pentland, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the ability to predict trends in social media has been growing rapidly in the past few years with the growing dominance of social media in our everyday’s life. Whereas many works focus on the detection of anomalies in networks, there exist little theoretical work on the prediction of the likelihood of anomalous network pattern to globally spread and become “trends”. In this work we present an analytic model for the social diffusion dynamics of spreading network patterns. Our...

  8. A hybrid continuous-discrete method for stochastic reaction-diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Cheong; Zheng, Likun; Nie, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic fluctuations in reaction-diffusion processes often have substantial effect on spatial and temporal dynamics of signal transductions in complex biological systems. One popular approach for simulating these processes is to divide the system into small spatial compartments assuming that molecules react only within the same compartment and jump between adjacent compartments driven by the diffusion. While the approach is convenient in terms of its implementation, its computational cost may become prohibitive when diffusive jumps occur significantly more frequently than reactions, as in the case of rapid diffusion. Here, we present a hybrid continuous-discrete method in which diffusion is simulated using continuous approximation while reactions are based on the Gillespie algorithm. Specifically, the diffusive jumps are approximated as continuous Gaussian random vectors with time-dependent means and covariances, allowing use of a large time step, even for rapid diffusion. By considering the correlation among diffusive jumps, the approximation is accurate for the second moment of the diffusion process. In addition, a criterion is obtained for identifying the region in which such diffusion approximation is required to enable adaptive calculations for better accuracy. Applications to a linear diffusion system and two nonlinear systems of morphogens demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the new hybrid method.

  9. Reaction Diffusion and Chemotaxis for Decentralized Gathering on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Girau

    2009-01-01

    and rapid simulations of the complex dynamics of this reaction-diffusion model. Then we describe the FPGA implementation of the environment together with the agents, to study the major challenges that must be solved when designing a fast embedded implementation of the decentralized gathering model. We analyze the results according to the different goals of these hardware implementations.

  10. VCSEL Transmission at 10 Gb/s for 20 km Single Mode Fiber WDM-PON without Dispersion Compensation or Injection Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Prince, Kamau; Pham, Tien Thang

    2011-01-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are extremely cost effective, energy efficient optical sources ideal for passive optical access networks. However, wavelength chirp and chromatic dispersion severely limit VCSEL performance at bit rates of 10 Gb/s and above. We experimentally show...... how off-center wavelength filtering of the VCSEL spectrum at an array waveguide grating can be used to mitigate the effect of chirp and the dispersion penalty. Transmission at 10Gb/s VCSEL over 23.6 km of single mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated, with a dispersion penalty of only 2.9 d......B. Simulated results are also presented which show that off-center wavelength filtering can extend the 10 Gb/s network reach from 11.7 km to 25.8 km for a 4 dB dispersion penalty. This allows for cheap and simple dispersion mitigation in next generation VCSEL based optical access networks....

  11. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  12. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  13. GbPDF1 Is Involved in Cotton Fiber Initiation via the Core cis-Element HDZIP2ATATHB21[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fenglin; Tu, Lili; Tan, Jiafu; Li, Yang; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber cells are seed trichomes derived from the epidermal layer of the cotton seed coat. The molecular components responsible for regulating fiber cell differentiation have not been fully elucidated. A cotton PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 gene (GbPDF1) was found to be expressed preferentially during fiber initiation and early elongation, with highest accumulation in fiber cells 5 d post anthesis. PDF1 silencing caused retardation of fiber initiation and produced shorter fibers and lower lint percentage compared with the wild type, indicating that the gene is required for cotton fiber development. Further analysis showed that a higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide occurred in the RNA interference transgenic cotton lines. Meanwhile, the expression of several genes related to ethylene and pectin synthesis or sugar transport during cotton fiber growth was found to be significantly reduced in the PDF1-suppressed cotton. Three proteins interacting with GbPDF1 in yeast and in planta might involve cellular signaling or metabolism. GbPDF1 promoter::GUS constructs in transgenic cotton were predominantly expressed in the epidermis of ovules and developing fibers. Progressive deletions of the GbPDF1 promoter showed that a 236-bp promoter fragment was sufficient for basal GbPDF1 transcription in cotton. Mutation of putative regulatory sequences showed that HDZIP2ATATHB2, an element within the fragment, was essential for PGbPDF1-1 expression. The binding activity between this cis-element and nuclear extracts from fiber-bearing cotton ovules at 5 d post anthesis was specific. We conclude that GbPDF1 plays a critical role together with interaction partners in hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and steady biosynthesis of ethylene and pectin during fiber development via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2. PMID:22123900

  14. Diffusion of combined heat and power in Dutch greenhouses : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Kasmire, J.; Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the case study of the rapid diffusion of combined heat and power (CHP) units in the Dutch greenhouse horticulture in the period 2003-2009. The aim of the case study is to find explanations for this particular transition, and to generalize on the nature of technology diffusion

  15. 40 Gb/s Wavelength Conversion in a Cascade of an SOA and a NOLM and Demonstration of Extinction Ratio Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that ER can be improved when a NOLM is used as a wavelength conversion media. At 40 Gb/s, and ER of 7 dB for a converted signal generated by XGM in an SOA is improved to an ER of 10 dB after wavelength conversion in a NOLM.......We demonstrate that ER can be improved when a NOLM is used as a wavelength conversion media. At 40 Gb/s, and ER of 7 dB for a converted signal generated by XGM in an SOA is improved to an ER of 10 dB after wavelength conversion in a NOLM....

  16. 160-Gb/s all-optical phase-transparent wavelength conversion through cascaded SFG-DFG in a broadband linear-chirped PPLN waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-03-15

    We experimentally demonstrated ultra-fast phase-transparent wavelength conversion using cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation (cSFG-DFG) in linear-chirped periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Error-free wavelength conversion of a 160-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signal was successfully achieved. Thanks to the enhanced conversion bandwidth in the PPLN with linear-chirped periods, no optical equalizer was required to compensate the spectrum distortion after conversion, unlike a previous demonstration of 160-Gb/s RZ on-off keying (OOK) using fixed-period PPLN.

  17. 38.2-Gb/s Optical-Wireless Transmission in 75-110 GHz Based on Electrical OFDM with Optical Comb Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz.......We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz....

  18. Carrier Recovery and Equalization for Photonic-Wireless Links with Capacities up to 40 Gb/s in 75-110 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Novel robust digital carrier phase/frequency recovery structure is experimentally demonstrated for single carrier and multi-carrier, up to 40Gb/s, photonic-wireless links in 75-110 GHz band. We show that nonlinear equalization also improves system performance.......Novel robust digital carrier phase/frequency recovery structure is experimentally demonstrated for single carrier and multi-carrier, up to 40Gb/s, photonic-wireless links in 75-110 GHz band. We show that nonlinear equalization also improves system performance....

  19. Experimental 2.5-Gb/s QPSK WDM phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) link, employing digital coherent detection, is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3$,times,$ 2.5 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed RoF channels is achieved after 79 km...... of transmission through deployed fiber. Error-free performance (bit-error rate corresponding to $10^{{-}4}$) is achieved using a digital coherent receiver in combination with a $K$-means algorithm for radio-frequency phase recovery....

  20. 100-GHz Wireless-Over-Fiber Links With Up to 16-Gb/s QPSK Modulation Using Optical Heterodyne Generation and Digital Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    -running unmodulated laser for the wireless signal generation is employed. To correct for the phase and frequency offset originating from the heterodyne mixing of the two free-running lasers, wireless signal demodulation based on optical coherent detection in combination with baseband digital signal processing...... is implemented. As a proof of concept, 5-Gb/s amplitude-shift keying and up to a 16-Gb/s QPSK wireless signal in the band of 75–110 GHz was generated and successfully demodulated. All-photonic millimeter-wave wireless signal generation and digital coherent detection at baud-rate are employed without complex...

  1. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  2. 4x10Gb/s WDM Bi-directional Gating in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by Using Polarization Multiplexing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s.......Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s....

  3. Modified hybrid subcarrier/amplitude/ phase/polarization LDPC-coded modulation for 400 Gb/s optical transmission and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshon, Hussam G; Djordjevic, Ivan; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-06-21

    In this paper, we present a modified coded hybrid subcarrier/ amplitude/phase/polarization (H-SAPP) modulation scheme as a technique capable of achieving beyond 400 Gb/s single-channel transmission over optical channels. The modified H-SAPP scheme profits from the available resources in addition to geometry to increase the bandwidth efficiency of the transmission system, and so increases the aggregate rate of the system. In this report we present the modified H-SAPP scheme and focus on an example that allows 11 bits/Symbol that can achieve 440 Gb/s transmission using components of 50 Giga Symbol/s (GS/s).

  4. 428-Gb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 960-km SSMF with constellation expansion and LDPC coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Al Amin, Abdullah; Chen, Xi; Ma, Yiran; Chen, Simin; Shieh, William

    2010-08-02

    High-order modulation formats and advanced error correcting codes (ECC) are two promising techniques for improving the performance of ultrahigh-speed optical transport networks. In this paper, we present record receiver sensitivity for 107 Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission via constellation expansion to 16-QAM and rate-1/2 LDPC coding. We also show the single-channel transmission of a 428-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over 960-km standard-single-mode-fiber (SSMF) without Raman amplification.

  5. Error-free Dispersion-uncompensated Transmission at 20 Gb/s over SSMF using a Hybrid III-V/SOI DML with MRR Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    Error-free 20-Gb/s directly-modulated transmission is achieved by enhancing the dispersion tolerance of a III-V/SOI DFB laser with a silicon micro-ring resonator. Low (∼0.4 dB) penalty compared to back-to-back without ring is demonstrated after 5-km SSMF.......Error-free 20-Gb/s directly-modulated transmission is achieved by enhancing the dispersion tolerance of a III-V/SOI DFB laser with a silicon micro-ring resonator. Low (∼0.4 dB) penalty compared to back-to-back without ring is demonstrated after 5-km SSMF....

  6. Demonstration of 10.7-Gb/s transmission in 50-km PON with uncooled free-running 1550-nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Ma, M.; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2010-01-01

    First-known demonstration of an uncooled, free-running 1550 nm VCSEL at 10.7 Gb/s over 50 km PON uplink with 35 km SMF and 15 km inverse dispersion fiber, achieving 24 dB margin for 10−9 BER.......First-known demonstration of an uncooled, free-running 1550 nm VCSEL at 10.7 Gb/s over 50 km PON uplink with 35 km SMF and 15 km inverse dispersion fiber, achieving 24 dB margin for 10−9 BER....

  7. 107.5 Gb/s 850 nm multi- and single-mode VCSEL transmission over 10 and 100 m of multi-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Agustin, M.; Chorchos, L.

    2016-01-01

    First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case.......First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case....

  8. 10 Gb/s 1550 nm VCSEL transmission over 23.6 km SMF with no Dispersion Compensation and no Injection Locking for WDM PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Prince, Kamau; Neumeyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    demonstrate 10Gb/s VCSEL transmission for WDM PON over 23.6km single mode fiber. Dispersion penalty is limited to 2.9dB by introducing a wavelength offset with respect to the remote array waveguide grating to reduce chirp.......demonstrate 10Gb/s VCSEL transmission for WDM PON over 23.6km single mode fiber. Dispersion penalty is limited to 2.9dB by introducing a wavelength offset with respect to the remote array waveguide grating to reduce chirp....

  9. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  10. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  11. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and 28Si enriched layers, enables the observation of 30Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the 28Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly

  12. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape....... The prototype relies on a simple virtual machine with a dedicated instruction set, allowing mobile programs to migrate between the modules that constitute a robot. Through a number of simulated experiments, we should how a single rule-based controller program implemented using distributed control diffusion can...

  13. Diffusion MRI/NMR magnetization equations with relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Dilip; Daniel, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Bloch-Torrey diffusion magnetization equation ignores relaxation effects of magnetization. Relaxation times are important in any diffusion magnetization studies of perfusion in tissues(Brain and heart specially). Bloch-Torrey equation cannot therefore describe diffusion magnetization in a real-life situation where relaxation effects play a key role, characteristics of tissues under examination. This paper describes derivations of two equations for each of the y and z component diffusion NMR/MRI magnetization (separately) in a rotating frame of reference, where rf B1 field is applied along x direction and bias magnetic field(Bo) is along z direction. The two equations are expected to further advance the science & technology of Diffusion MRI(DMRI) and diffusion functional MRI(DFMRI). These two techniques are becoming increasingly important in the study and treatment of neurological disorders, especially for the management of patients with acute stroke. It is rapidly becoming a standard for white matter disorders, as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal abnormalities in white matter fibre structure and provide models of brain connectivity.

  14. Kumu film räägib Mehhiko ikoonmaalidest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    KUMU juuliprogrammis saab näha Tartu Maailmafilmi festivali programmi filme. Esimesena näidatakse 5. juulil mehhiko dokumentaalfilmi "Imedele pühendatud" mehhiko kunstnikust Alfredo Vilchis't, ikoonimaali ex voto'de tegijast

  15. Peaminister räägib... / Andrus Villem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villem, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Järva Teataja 16. juuli, lk. 2, Nädaline 19. juuli, lk. 4, Lääne Elu 19, juuli, lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 19. juuli, lk. 2, Põhjarannik 19. juuli, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 19. juuli lk. 2, Meie Maa 20. juuli lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja, Sakala 21. juuli lk. 7, 2. Autori sõnul pole ükski Eesti varasem peaminister sattunud ajakirjanduse hammaste vahele nii ruttu kui praegu Andrus Ansip

  16. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  17. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  18. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  19. Diffusion in Tube Dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Nigatie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, kidney failure is a problem of many peoples in the world. We know that the main function of kidney is maintaining the chemical quality of blood particularly removing urea through urine. But when they malfunction, the pathologic state known as uremia results in a condition in which the urea is retained in the body. Failure of the kidney results in building up of harmful wastes and excess fluids in the body. Kidney diseases (failures can be due to infections, high blood pressure (hypertension, diabetes, and/or extensive use of medication. The best form of treatment is the implantation of a healthy kidney from a donor. However, this is often not possible due to the limited availability of human organs. Chronic kidney failure requires the treatment using a tube dialyzer called dialysis. Blood is taken out of the body and passes through a special membrane that removes waste and extra fluids. The clean blood is then returned to the body. The process is controlled by a dialysis machine (tube dialyzer which is equipped with a blood pump and monitoring systems to ensure safety. So this article investigates the real application of mathematics (diffusion in medical science, and it also contains the mathematical formulation and interpretation of tube dialyzer in relation to diffusion.

  20. The diffusion of microfinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Chandrasekhar, Arun G; Duflo, Esther; Jackson, Matthew O

    2013-07-26

    To study the impact of the choice of injection points in the diffusion of a new product in a society, we developed a model of word-of-mouth diffusion and then applied it to data on social networks and participation in a newly available microfinance loan program in 43 Indian villages. Our model allows us to distinguish information passing among neighbors from direct influence of neighbors' participation decisions, as well as information passing by participants versus nonparticipants. The model estimates suggest that participants are seven times as likely to pass information compared to informed nonparticipants, but information passed by nonparticipants still accounts for roughly one-third of eventual participation. An informed household is not more likely to participate if its informed friends participate. We then propose two new measures of how effective a given household would be as an injection point. We show that the centrality of the injection points according to these measures constitutes a strong and significant predictor of eventual village-level participation.

  1. The oxidative TCA cycle operates during methanotrophic growth of the Type I methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanfen; Li, Yi; Lidstrom, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of bacteria that use methane as sole carbon and energy source. Type I methanotrophs are gamma-proteobacterial methanotrophs using the ribulose monophosphate cycle (RuMP) cycle for methane assimilation. In order to facilitate metabolic engineering in the industrially promising Type I methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1, flux analysis of cellular metabolism is needed and 13C tracer analysis is a foundational tool for such work. This biological system has a single-carbon input and a special network topology that together pose challenges to the current well-established methodology for 13C tracer analysis using a multi-carbon input such as glucose, and to date, no 13C tracer analysis of flux in a Type I methanotroph has been reported. In this study, we showed that by monitoring labeling patterns of several key intermediate metabolites in core metabolism, it is possible to quantitate the relative flux ratios for important branch points, such as the malate node. In addition, it is possible to assess the operation of the TCA cycle, which has been thought to be incomplete in Type I methanotrophs. Surprisingly, our analysis provides direct evidence of a complete, oxidative TCA cycle operating in M. buryatense 5GB1 using methane as sole carbon and energy substrate, contributing about 45% of the total flux for de novo malate production. Combined with mutant analysis, this method was able to identify fumA (METBUDRAFT_1453/MBURv2__60244) as the primary fumarase involved in the oxidative TCA cycle, among 2 predicted fumarases, supported by 13C tracer analysis on both fumA and fumC single knockouts. Interrupting the oxidative TCA cycle leads to a severe growth defect, suggesting that the oxidative TCA cycle functions to not only provide precursors for de novo biomass synthesis, but also to provide reducing power to the system. This information provides new opportunities for metabolic engineering of M. buryatense for the production of

  2. Decoupling of translational and rotational diffusion in quasi-2D colloidal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R.

    2017-10-01

    We observe the translational and rotational diffusion of dimer tracer particles in quasi-2D colloidal samples. The dimers are in dense samples of two different sizes of spherical colloidal particles, with the area fraction ϕ of the particles varying from dilute to nearly glassy. At low ϕ, rotational and translational diffusion have a ratio set by the dimer size, as expected. At higher ϕ, dimers become caged by their neighboring particles, and both rotational and translational diffusion become slow. For short dimers, we observe rapid reorientations so that the rotational diffusion is faster than the translational diffusion: the two modes of diffusion are decoupled and have different ϕ dependence. Longer dimers do not exhibit fast rotations, and we find that their translational and rotational diffusion stay coupled for all ϕ. Our results bridge prior results that used spheres (very fast rotation) and long ellipsoids (very slow rotation).

  3. Mapping of Diffusion and Nanohardness Properties of Fcc Co-Al-V Alloys Using Ternary Diffusion Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Xu, Guanglong; Cui, Yuwen

    2017-09-01

    Ternary diffusion behavior in Co-Al-V ternary alloys was investigated at 1373 K and 1473 K (1100 °C and 1200 °C) by the solid-state diffusion-couple technique. The extraction and interpolation of diffusion data allows the diffusion properties of Fcc Co-Al-V alloys to be mapped in the composition arrays of Al and V. A full picture of the diffusion properties was then constructed by interpolating all accessible interdiffusivities and impurity diffusivities of Co-Al binary and Co-Al-V ternary with a Redlich-Kister polynomial, in a graphic manner depicting a rapid increase of Al diffusion with increasing Al and a weak decrease with the V addition alone. Further incorporation of a nanoindentation technique enables the nanohardness property of the Co-Al-V fcc alloys to be screened in the Al and V arrays. The hardenability in the Co-Al-V alloy system has been evidenced; specifically, the alloy arrays containing higher contents of V, being solution-and-quenching processed, exhibit more effective strengthening than those with the addition of Al. The discovery of Co-Al-V alloys with comparable nanohardness but differing alloy compositions could facilitate the strengthening design of next generation Co-based alloys.

  4. Characterization, Function, and Transcriptional Profiling Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Gene (GbHMGS1 towards Stresses and Exogenous Hormone Treatments in Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. In this study, A HMGS gene (designated as GbHMGS1 was cloned from Ginkgo biloba for the first time. GbHMGS1 contained a 1422-bp open-reading frame encoding 474 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that GbHMGS1 was extensively homologous to HMGSs from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the GbHMGS1 belonged to the plant HMGS superfamily, sharing a common evolutionary ancestor with other HMGSs, and had a further relationship with other gymnosperm species. The yeast complement assay of GbHMGS1 in HMGS-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YSC6274 demonstrated that GbHMGS1 gene encodes a functional HMGS enzyme. The recombinant protein of GbHMGS1 was successfully expressed in E. coli. The in vitro enzyme activity assay showed that the kcat and Km values of GbHMGS1 were 195.4 min−1 and 689 μM, respectively. GbHMGS1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, female flowers, male flowers and fruits. The transcript accumulation for GbHMGS1 was highest in the leaves. Expression profiling analyses revealed that GbHMGS1 expression was induced by abiotic stresses (ultraviolet B and cold and hormone treatments (salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon in G. biloba, indicating that GbHMGS1 gene was involved in the response to environmental stresses and plant hormones.

  5. Apparent diffusion profile estimation from high angular resolution diffusion images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descoteaux, Maxime; Angelino, Elaine; Fitzgibbons, Shaun; Deriche, Rachid

    2006-03-01

    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) has recently been of great interest to characterize non-Gaussian diffusion process. In the white matter of the brain, this occurs when fiber bundles cross, kiss or diverge within the same voxel. One of the important goal is to better describe the apparent diffusion process in these multiple fiber regions, thus overcoming the limitations of classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this paper, we design the appropriate mathematical tools to describe noisy HARDI data. Using a meaningful modified spherical harmonics basis to capture the physical constraints of the problem, we propose a new regularization algorithm to estimate a smoother and closer diffusivity profile to the true diffusivities without noise. We exploit properties of the spherical harmonics to define a smoothing term based on the Laplace-Beltrami for functions defined on the unit sphere. An additional contribution of the paper is the derivation of the general transformation taking the spherical harmonics coefficients to the high order tensor independent elements. This allows the careful study of the state of the art high order anisotropy measures computed from either spherical harmonics or tensor coefficients. We analyze their ability to characterize the underlying diffusion process. We are able to recover voxels with isotropic, single fiber anisotropic and multiple fiber anisotropic diffusion. We test and validate the approach on diffusion profiles from synthetic data and from a biological rat phantom.

  6. The Water Footprint of Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Ristic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end. It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect.

  7. Experimental investigation at 10 Gb/s of the noise suppression capabilities in a pass-through configuration in SOA-based interferometric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigate a pass-through scheme for all-optical noise suppression in a SOA-based interferometric structure at 10 Gb/s. An input power dynamic range of ~8 dB as well as a noise suppression capability of ~4.5 dB has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the transmission properties have...

  8. 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Kloch, Allan; Fjelde, Tina

    2000-01-01

    All-optical 2R and 3R regeneration techniques are investigated at 40 Gb/s, It is shown that an all-active SOA-based Mach-Zehnder device, employed as a,wavelength converter, is capable of improving the OSNR by more than 20 dB at this bit rate, thereby resulting in penalty reduction. Furthermore...

  9. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gH function in fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Aaron; Wisner, Todd W; Webb, Michael; Roller, Richard; Cohen, Gary; Eisenberg, Roselyn; Johnson, David C

    2007-06-12

    Herpesviruses must traverse the nuclear envelope to gain access to the cytoplasm and, ultimately, to exit cells. It is believed that herpesvirus nucleocapsids enter the perinuclear space by budding through the inner nuclear membrane (NM). To reach the cytoplasm these enveloped particles must fuse with the outer NM and the unenveloped capsids then acquire a second envelope in the trans-Golgi network. Little is known about the process by which herpesviruses virions fuse with the outer NM. Here we show that a herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutant lacking both the two putative fusion glycoproteins gB and gH failed to cross the nuclear envelope. Enveloped virions accumulated in the perinuclear space or in membrane vesicles that bulged into the nucleoplasm (herniations). By contrast, mutants lacking just gB or gH showed only minor or no defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that either HSV gB or gH can promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. It is noteworthy that fusion associated with HSV entry requires the cooperative action of both gB and gH, suggesting that the two types of fusion (egress versus entry) are dissimilar processes.

  10. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapleton, Jack T; Foung, Steven; Muerhoff, A Scott

    2011-01-01

    In 1967, it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G.B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation wi...

  11. 4 Gb/s two-level to 2 symbol/s four-level converter GaAs IC for semiconductor optical amplifier modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, J.; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1993-01-01

    A design of a 50 Ω impedance matched two-to-four level converter GaAs IC for two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier modulators is presented. Eye diagrams with good eye openings and 0.33 V spacing between adjacent logic levels are demonstrated for input bit rates up to 4 Gb/s. A novel...

  12. Using a newly developed long-period grating filter to improve the timing tolerance of a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2007-01-01

    A 0.8 ps flat top pulse is generated using a long-period fibre grating and used as control pulse for the first time in a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer. The effect is an increased error-free timing tolerance...

  13. Transmission of 112(4×28)-Gb/s PAM-4 Signal over 48.6-km SSMF within only 50-GHz Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Hu, Rong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a transmission of 112(4×28)-Gb/s PAM-4 signal is experimentally demonstrated within only 50-GHz grid, achieving an optical spectral efficiency (SE) of 2.24 b/s/Hz. For the intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) based PAM-4 transmission, it is the first time to the best of our knowledge that 112-Gb/s PAM-4 signal has been transmitted over 48.6-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF), which is compatible with 50-GHz standard gridding. By employing digital pre-equalization, duobinary encoding/decoding and 7-level based training sequence aided least-mean square (TS-LMS) algorithm, each lane of the 28-Gb/s PAM-4 signal occupies less than 11-GHz optical spectral (3-dB bandwidth), resulting in negligible inter-channel interference for the 4-lane 112-Gb/s PAM-4 signals within 50-GHz grid. The proposed method is bandwidth and computationally efficient, which is thought feasible in the low-cost short reach optical networks.

  14. CMOS Transmitter using Pulse-Width Modulation Pre-Emphasis achieving 33dB Loss Compensation at 5-Gb/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    A digital transmitter pre-emphasis technique is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation, instead of finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The technique fits well to future high-speed low-voltage CMOS processes. A 0.13 /spl mu/m CMOS transmitter achieves more than 5 Gb/s (2-PAM) over 25

  15. CMOS Transmitter using Pulse-Width Modulation Pre-Emphasis achieving 33dB Loss Compensation at 5-Gb/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram

    A digital transmitter pre-emphasis technique is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation, instead of finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The technique fits well to future high-speed low-voltage CMOS processes. A 0.13 μm CMOS transmitter achieves more than 5 Gb/s (2-PAM) over 25 m of

  16. 1550 nm VCSEL-based 10 Gb/s optical NRZ signal transmission over 20 km SMF using RSOA gain saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beomsoo; Jeong, Jichai; Yoon, Won-Sang; Lee, Jaehoon

    2017-07-01

    A method for a 1550 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based 10 Gb/s optical non-return to zero (NRZ) signal transmission over 20 km single mode fiber (SMF) using reflective semiconductor optical laser amplifier (RSOA) gain saturation is presented. The optical signal distortion of 10 Gb/s optical NRZ signals caused by the inherent frequency chirp of the VCSEL and the chromatic dispersion of SMF were investigated through numerical simulations and experiments. For 20 km transmission over SMF, VCSEL-based 10 Gb/s optical NRZ signals were severely distorted and '1' bit signals had different amplitudes with respect to their bit patterns. The gain saturation of RSOA can equalize the different amplitudes of '1' bit signals and can mitigate the optical pulse distortion after 20 km transmission over SMF. The experimental results showed that VCSEL-based 10 Gb/s optical NRZ signals can achieve a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 with a 2.4 dB dispersion penalty for 20 km transmission of SMF with RSOA gain saturation.

  17. Experimental Demonstration of 84 Gb/s PAM-4 Over up to 1.6 km SSMF Using a 20-GHz VCSEL at 1525 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate 84-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) over up to 1.6-km standard single mode fiber using a 20-GHz single mode short cavity vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode at a transmission wavelength of 1525 nm. Different equalizer approaches including a common feedfor...

  18. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9-3.3-m...

  19. 640 Gb/s timing jitter-tolerant data processing using a long-period fiber-grating-based flat-top pulse shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of a novel all-fiber flat-top pulse shaping technique for improving performance and timing jitter tolerance of a switch made for 640–10 Gb/s signal demultiplexing. The jitter tolerance is increased to almost 30% of the one-bit time window, and an increase of the receiver sens...

  20. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time...

  1. Cloning and expression of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (gB) in a recombinant baculovirus: utility for vaccine studies for the prevention of experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, Mark R; Jensen, Nancy J

    2003-03-01

    The guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) is unique among the cytomegaloviruses of small mammals, insofar as during pregnancy it crosses the placenta, causing infection of the fetus. Although the guinea pig model is well suited to vaccine studies, the lack of cloned, recombinant forms of immunogenic GPCMV proteins, such as envelope glycoproteins, has hindered experimental evaluations of subunit immunization for prevention of fetal disease. Since the glycoprotein B (gB) is a major target of neutralizing antibody responses, the GPCMV gB was cloned and expressed in a recombinant baculovirus. A recombinant was generated which expressed gB, truncated at codon 692, upstream of the putative transmembrane domain. Processing and expression of the recombinant protein, designated Bac-gB, was assessed, and the protein was characterized immunologically. Anti-gB antibodies were immunoreactive with Bac-gB by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot assay. Immunoprecipitation with polyclonal anti-GPCMV antisera identified protein species of 120, 80 and 30 kDa by reducing SDS-PAGE, suggesting that authentic cleavage and processing of Bac-gB occurred in insect cells. Sera from guinea pigs immunized with lectin-column purified native glycoproteins had high ELISA titers to Bac-gB. Recombinant GPCMV gB expressed in insect cells should prove useful in defining correlates of protective immunity in the GPCMV congenital infection model.

  2. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...... tracers) for a better determination of the diffusivity. The diffusivity was higher in the below-till soil than the plowed soil at the same soil water matric potential due to higher water content but also due to higher continuity and lower tortuosity of the soil pores. We measured identical solute...... diffusivities independent of the tracer set used. We analyzed the whole data set using Archie's law and found a linear relation between Archie's exponent and the logarithm of the soil water matric suction in centimeters of water (pF). An analysis of seven data sets from the literature showed...

  3. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  4. GB virus-C – a virus without a disease: We cannot give it chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves William C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is an illness in search of an infectious etiology. GB virus-C (GBV-C virus is a flavivirus with cell tropism and host defense induction qualities compatible with a role in producing the syndrome. The GBV-C genome is detectable in 4% of the population and 12% of the population is seropositive. The present study evaluated the association between infection with GBV and CFS. Methods We used a commercial EIA to detect antibodies against the GBV-C E2 protein and a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay to detect active GBV-C infection. Sera were from a case control study of CFS in Atlanta, Georgia. The Fisher's exact two-tailed test was used for statistical analysis. Results Two of 12 CFS patients and one of 21 controls were seropositive for prior GBV-C infection and one control had viral RNA detected, indicating active infection. The results are not statistically different. Conclusion We found no evidence that active or past infection with GBV is associated with CFS.

  5. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Ramos Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil and also to analyze the virus genotypes distribution, a total of 123 patients including 98 on hemodialysis, 13 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment, and 12 who received kidney transplantation were interviewed in one unit of dialysis treatment in Goiânia city. Blood samples were collected and serum samples tested for GBV-C/HGV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. Genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Eighteen samples were GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.6% (95% CI: 9.2-21.7. A high positivity for GBV-C/HGV RNA was observed in patients who had received kidney transplant (16.7%, followed by those on hemodialysis (15.3%, and peritoneal dialysis (7.7%. RFLP analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1, 2, and 3 of GBV-C/HGV; more precisely, 9 (50% samples were found belonging to the 2b subtype, 4 (22% to the 2a subtype, 3 (17% to genotype 1, and 2 (11% to genotype 3. The present data indicate an intermediate prevalence of GBV-C/HGV infection among dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil. Genotype 2 (subtype 2b seems to be the most prevalent GBV-C/HGV genotype in our region.

  6. Characterization of a peptide domain within the GB virus C envelope glycoprotein (E2) that inhibits HIV replication☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Mohr, Emma L.; Bhattarai, Nirjal; Chang, Qing; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected cohorts, and GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV entry when added to CD4+ T cells. To further characterize E2 effects on HIV replication, stably transfected Jurkat cell lines expressing GBV-C E2 or control sequences were infected with HIV and replication was measured. HIV replication (all 6 isolates studied) was inhibited in all cell lines expressing a region of 17 amino acids of GBV-C E2, but not in cell lines expressing E2 without this region. In contrast, mumps and yellow fever virus replication was not inhibited by E2 protein expression. Synthetic GBV-C E2 17mer peptides did not inhibit HIV replication unless they were fused to a tat-protein-transduction-domain (TAT) for cellular uptake. These data identify the region of GBV-C E2 protein involved in HIV inhibition, and suggest that this GBV-C E2 peptide must gain entry into the cell to inhibit HIV. PMID:22608061

  7. Practical 12.5-Gb/s, 12.5-GHz spaced ultra-dense WDM PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, H K; Kim, Hoon; Chung, Y C

    2014-11-17

    We report a practical 12.5-Gb/s, 12.5-GHz-spaced ultra-dense wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (UD-WDM PON). For the cost-effectiveness, we implement the downstream links by using electro-absorption modulated lasers (EMLs) in the 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (4PAM) format and PIN receivers, and the upstream links by using reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) modulated in the quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) format and low-cost self-homodyne receivers. To further enhance its cost-effectiveness, we also utilize an optical frequency comb generator, instead of a large number of wavelength-selected lasers, to provide the seed light for these colorless RSOAs. We optimize the operating conditions of the EMLs and RSOAs to maximize the power margins in the presence of the crosstalk arising from closely spaced neighboring channels and the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by the narrow passband of the cascaded arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) as well as the limited modulation bandwidths of RSOAs. The experimental results show that we can secure the power margins of >2.5 dB for both upstream and downstream links of the proposed UD-WDM PON.

  8. Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Faulk, Kristina N

    2010-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B) causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. We compared evolutionary features in acute resolving and persistent GBV-B infection. We detected no evidence of evolution in four animals with clearance during weeks 9-12, whereas three animals with clearance during......(-3) substitutions per site year(-1) during weeks 1-52 and 53-104, respectively. Thus, there was a significant decrease in evolution over time, as found for hepatitis C virus. The rate of non-synonymous substitution per non-synonymous site compared with that of synonymous substitution per synonymous site decreased...... weeks 13-26 had several substitutions in their polyprotein sequence. A single tamarin had long-term GBV-B viraemia; analysis of virus recovered at weeks 2, 5, 12, 20, 26, 52 and 104 demonstrated that mutations accumulated over time. Overall, the amino acid substitution rate was 3.5x10(-3) and 1.1x10...

  9. LDQ10: a compact ultra low-power radiation-hard 4 × 10 Gb/s driver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z.; Zhang, T.; Wang, G.; Gui, P.; Kulis, S.; Moreira, P.

    2017-02-01

    A High-speed and low-power VCSEL driver is an important component of the Versatile Link for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments. A compact low-power radiation-hard 4 × 10 Gb/s VCSEL driver array (LDQ10) has been developed in 65 nm CMOS technology. Each channel in LDQ10 can provide a modulation current up to 8 mA and bias current up to 12 mA. Edge pre-emphasis is employed to compensate for the bandwidth limitations due to parasitic and the turn-on delay of VCSEL devices. LDQ10 occupies a chip area of 1900 μm × 1700 μm and consumes 130 mW power for typical current settings. The modulation amplitude degrades less than 5% after 300 Mrad total ionizing dose. LDQ10 can be directly wire-bonded to the VCSEL array and it is a suitable candidate for the Versatile Link.

  10. Integration of GB-InSAR, laser scanning and in situ monitoring on the rockslope instability of Mannen/Børa (western Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyet, Line; Kristensen, Lene; Derron, Marc-Henri; Michoud, Clément; Harald, Blikra Lars; Michel, Jaboyedoff

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of a master thesis about the use of Ground-Based InSAR for the monitoring of rock instabilities (University of Lausanne in cooperation with the Åknes/Tafjord Early Warning Centre in Norway). Main goals are (1) the evaluation of the GB-InSAR potential to investigate different kinds of instabilities, (2) the combination of data from GB-InSAR, conventional in situ devices and laser scanning to get information about instability behavior and geometry. The rockslope instability of Mannen/Børa is located in Møre of Romsdal County (western Norway). Mannen is a complex rockslide of 15-25 mill. m3 of volume, affecting the left side of the Romsdalen valley. Børa is a large plateau directly located on its south-eastern side and showing signs of activity. In this case, the analysis included GB-InSAR data of 2011 and 2012 campaigns in Børa compared with results of a permanent GB-InSAR in Mannen. The results of continuous monitoring in Mannen (GPS, extensometers, laser-reflectors and tiltmeters) since end of 2009, as well as periodical GPS campaigns on Børa plateau were integrated. The analysis showed a quite regular inter-annual velocity with seasonal effects in Mannen site and a slower movement in Børa. Moreover, it allowed highlighting an area in mid-slope, affected by high variations and periodical inversions of movement in the overlap sector between the two GB-InSAR. The first interpretation of this pattern involves networks of water flow across the slope. A novel point of this site is to have two GB-InSAR systems (one permanent and one temporary) imaging the rockslope with an overlap of views. GB-InSAR results were compared to other types of monitoring data, in terms of spatial coverage (punctual vs. large area), temporal scale (continuous monitoring vs. periodical campaigns) or recorded information (eg. 3D vs. 1D along the LOS). Moreover, a structural geology analysis based on terrestrial and airborne laser scanning data provided information about

  11. Driven diffusion in nanoscaled materials

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Tony; Bauer, Michael; Borczyskowski, Christian Von; Gerlach, Frank; Heidernätsch, Mario; Kärger, Jörg; Kondrashova, Daria; Radons, Günter; Schubert, Sebastian; Shakhov, Alexander; Täuber, Daniela; Valiullin, Rustem; Zeigermann, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Mass transfer processes in which specific interactions with environments lead to complex diffusion patterns, such as the occurrence of transient sub-diffusive behaviors or of heterogeneous diffusion, were studied by means of two different experimental techniques, namely single-particle tracking operating with single molecules and nuclear magnetic resonance operating with large molecular ensembles. As an important point, the combined application of these techniques allowed for a deeper insight...

  12. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-01-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An...

  13. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing ...

  14. Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient threshold for delineation of ischemic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, Archana; Campbell, Bruce C V; Straka, Matus; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Bammer, Roland; Kemp, Stephanie M; Albers, Gregory W; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2015-04-01

    MRI-based selection of patients for acute stroke interventions requires rapid accurate estimation of the infarct core on diffusion-weighted MRI. Typically used manual methods to delineate restricted diffusion lesions are subjective and time consuming. These limitations would be overcome by a fully automated method that can rapidly and objectively delineate the ischemic core. An automated method would require predefined criteria to identify the ischemic core. The aim of this study is to determine apparent diffusion coefficient-based criteria that can be implemented in a fully automated software solution for identification of the ischemic core. Imaging data from patients enrolled in the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) study who had early revascularization following intravenous thrombolysis were included. The patients' baseline restricted diffusion and 30-day T2 -weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions were manually delineated after coregistration. Parts of the restricted diffusion lesion that corresponded with 30-day infarct were considered ischemic core, whereas parts that corresponded with normal brain parenchyma at 30 days were considered noncore. The optimal apparent diffusion coefficient threshold to discriminate core from noncore voxels was determined by voxel-based receiver operating characteristics analysis using the Youden index. 51,045 diffusion positive voxels from 14 patients who met eligibility criteria were analyzed. The mean DWI lesion volume was 24 (± 23) ml. Of this, 18 (± 22) ml was ischemic core and 3 (± 5) ml was noncore. The remainder corresponded to preexisting gliosis, cerebrospinal fluid, or was lost to postinfarct atrophy. The apparent diffusion coefficient of core was lower than that of noncore voxels (P core was an apparent diffusion coefficient ≤ 620 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s (sensitivity 69% and specificity 78%). Our data suggest that the ischemic core can be identified

  16. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  17. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3......) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50). Additionally, CDH1 testing could be considered in patients with bilateral or familial LBC before the age of 50, patients with DGC and cleft lip/palate, and those with precursor lesions for signet ring cell carcinoma. Given...

  18. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  19. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  20. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  1. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...... of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O...

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR images and pineoblastoma. Diagnosis and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Cruz Junior, L. Celso Hygino; Doring, Thomas M.; Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: egasparetto@gmail.com; Araujo, Bertha; Dantas, Mario Alberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. of Radiology; Chimelli, Leila [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. of Pathology

    2008-07-01

    Pineoblastomas are uncommon pineal tumors, which demonstrate rapid growing and poor prognosis. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with an enhancing pineal region mass, which showed restriction of the diffusion on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images. The surgical biopsy defined the diagnosis of pineoblastoma and the therapy was initiated with radiation and chemotherapy. Three months later, the follow-up MR imaging showed areas suggestive of necrosis and the DW images demonstrate no significant areas of restricted diffusion. The differential diagnosis of pineal region masses that could show restriction of diffusion is discussed. (author)

  3. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  4. NS2 Proteins of GB Virus B and Hepatitis C Virus Share Common Protease Activities and Membrane Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, Célia; Marnata, Caroline; Montserret, Roland; Cohen, Lisette; Blumen, Brigitte; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius; Penin, François

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT GB virus B (GBV-B), which is hepatotropic in experimentally infected small New World primates, is a member of the Hepacivirus genus but phylogenetically relatively distant from hepatitis C virus (HCV). To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Together, our data show that despite limited amino acid sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 proteins share a membrane topology with 3 N-terminal transmembrane segments, which is also predicted to apply to other recently discovered hepaciviruses. Based on these data and using trans-complementation systems, we found that intragenotypic hybrid NS2 proteins with heterologous N-terminal membrane segments were able to efficiently trans-complement an assembly-deficient HCV mutant with a point mutation in the NS2 C-terminal domain, while GBV-B/HCV or intergenotypic NS2 chimeras were not. These studies indicate that virus- and genotype-specific intramolecular interactions between N- and C-terminal domains of NS2 are critically involved in HCV morphogenesis. IMPORTANCE Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a multifunctional protein critically involved in polyprotein processing and virion

  5. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  6. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  7. Models of diffuse solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Brown, Bruce [Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore)

    2008-04-15

    For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from trigonometry, we need to have diffuse on the horizontal available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse radiation on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia [Spencer JW. A comparison of methods for estimating hourly diffuse solar radiation from global solar radiation. Sol Energy 1982; 29(1): 19-32]. Boland et al. [Modelling the diffuse fraction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Environmetrics 2001; 12: 103-16] developed a validated model for Australian conditions. We detail our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the approach reported therein, particularly the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Additionally, we have also constructed a method, using quadratic programming, for identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. This allows us to eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. (author)

  8. Anomalous diffusion in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.

    1985-09-01

    In view of the interest in the occurrence of anomalous diffusion ( ∼ t 2H, 0 ∼ t2 H; the diffusive spread of the initial condition is given by xε( t) ∼ tH; and the first passage time from the origin to the point x has a stable Lévy distribution with an exponent equal to H.

  9. Persistent diffusion on a line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Chaturvedi, S.

    1988-02-01

    We consider solutions to the telegraph equation describing persistent diffusion on a line under various initial conditions. The first passage time distribution is evaluated in closed form. Biased persistent diffusion is also considered. A direct derivation of the telegraph equation from the stochastic equation for the displacement is presented in an appendix.

  10. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  11. Gas Diffusion in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Konsman, Jan-Pieter

    2018-02-01

    Gases have been long known to have essential physiological functions in the CNS such as respiration or regulation of vascular tone. Since gases have been classically considered to freely diffuse, research in gas biology has so far focused on mechanisms of gas synthesis and gas reactivity, rather than gas diffusion and transport. However, the discovery of gas pores during the last two decades and the characterization of diverse diffusion patterns through different membranes has raised the possibility that modulation of gas diffusion is also a physiologically relevant parameter. Here we review the means of gas movement into and within the brain through "free" diffusion and gas pores, notably aquaporins, discussing the role that gas diffusion may play in the modulation of gas function. We highlight how diffusion is relevant to neuronal signaling, volume transmission, and cerebrovascular control in the case of NO, one of the most extensively studied gases. We point out how facilitated transport can be especially relevant for gases with low permeability in lipid membranes like NH3 and discuss the possible implications of NH3 -permeable channels in physiology and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. We identify novel research questions about how modulation of gas diffusion could intervene in CNS pathologies. This emerging area of research can provide novel and interesting insights in the field of gas biology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures...

  13. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  14. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  15. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  16. Channel Analysis for a 6.4 Gb s-1 DDR5 Data Buffer Receiver Front-End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stefanie; Gerfers, Friedel

    2017-09-01

    In this contribution, the channel characteristic of the next generation DDR5-SDRAM architecture and possible approaches to overcome channel impairments are analysed. Because modern enterprise server applications and networks demand higher memory bandwidth, throughput and capacity, the DDR5-SDRAM specification is currently under development as a follow-up of DDR4-SDRAM technology. In this specification, the data rate is doubled to DDR5-6400 per IO as compared to the former DDR4-3200 architecture, resulting in a total per DIMM data rate of up to 409.6 Gb s-1. The single-ended multi-point-to-point CPU channel architecture in DDRX technology remains the same for DDR5 systems. At the specified target data rate, insertion loss, reflections, cross-talk as well as power supply noise become more severe and have to be considered. Using the data buffer receiver front-end of a load-reduced memory module, sophisticated equalisation techniques can be applied to ensure target BER at the increased data rate. In this work, the worst case CPU back-plane channel is analysed to derive requirements for receiver-side equalisation from the channel response characteristics. First, channel impairments such as inter-symbol-interference, reflections from the multi-point channel structure, and crosstalk from neighboring lines are analysed in detail. Based on these results, different correction methods for DDR5 data buffer front-ends are discussed. An architecture with 1-tap FFE in combination with a multi-tap DFE is proposed. Simulation of the architecture using a random input data stream is used to reveal the required DFE tap filter depth to effectively eliminate the dominant ISI and reflection based error components.

  17. Prevalence and genotypes of GB Virus C/Hepatitis G virus among blood donors in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in a blood donor population of Central Brazil aiming to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV infection and also to analyze the virus genotypes distribution. A total of 241 voluntary blood donors were interviewed at the State Blood Bank in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. Blood samples were collected and serum samples tested for GBV-C/HGV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. Genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Seventeen samples were GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive, resulting in a prevalence of 7.1% (95% CI: 4.2-11.1. A significant trend of GBV-C/HGV RNA positivity in relation to age was observed, with the highest prevalence in donors between 29-39 years old. Ten infected individuals were characterized by reporting parenteral (30%, sexual (18%, both (6% and intrafamiliar (6% transmission. However, 7 (40% GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive donors did not mention any potential transmission route. RFLP analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 2 of GBV-C/HGV; more precisely, 10 (58.9% samples were found belonging to the 2b subtype, 4 (23.5% to the 2a subtype, and 3 (17.6% to genotype 1. The present data indicate an intermediate endemicity of GBV-C/HGV infection among this blood donor population, and a predominant circulation of genotype 2 (subtype 2b in Central Brazil.

  18. A Novel Genotype of GB Virus C: Its Identification and Predominance among Injecting Drug Users in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Zhao, Wenhua; Feng, Yuemei; Dai, Jiejie; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Li; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Huatang; Lu, Ling; Xia, Xueshan

    2011-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is prevalent globally and particularly among individuals at risk of parental exposures. Based on genetic diversity, this virus is now classified into six genotypes and many subtypes with distinct geographical distribution. In this study, 120 Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) were recruited from Yunnan province, China. Among them, 43 (35.8%) were positive for GBV-C RNA, 70 (58.3%) and 103 (85.8%) sero-positive for HIV-1 and HCV respectively. This revealed 18.3% of IDUs having GBV-C/HIV/HCV triple infection, which is significantly higher than 7.5% of GBV-C/HIV-1 and 10% of GBV-C/HCV dual infection rates (PGBV-C group was further confirmed by characterizing the E2 region and full-length genome sequences. Analysis of 187 nt 5′UTR sequence showed three previous reported isolates from Southeast Asia were re-classified into this new group. It implies they have the same origin with strains from Yunnan. Although we provisionally assigned this new group as GBV-C genotype 7, a simpler five groups of GBV-C nomenclature is recommended. Genotype 4, 6 and the newly designated genotype 7 could be reclassified as one group, which may represent a single GBV-C genotype. The classification of the other four groups was corresponding to that of previous reported genotype 1, 2, 3 and 5. Furthermore, the diversity of amino acid sequence in the E2 region was analyzed. The inhibitory effect of GBV-C genotype 7 on HIV-1 cell entry could be deduced. Since GBV-C may have a beneficial effect on AIDS disease progression and interact with HCV during co-infection, this finding may raise interests in future studies on this virus that was previously thought to be a “non-pathogenic virus”. PMID:21998624

  19. Downregulation of Cytokines and Chemokines by GB Virus C After Transmission Via Blood Transfusion in HIV-Positive Blood Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, Marion C; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Tan, Sylvia; Stapleton, Jack T; Norris, Philip J; Heitman, John; Deng, Xutao; Keating, Sheila M; Brambilla, Don; Busch, Michael P; Custer, Brian

    2015-05-15

    An association between GB virus C (GBV-C) and improved outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been reported in HIV-positive individuals with active GBV-C coinfection. This study provides insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the protective role of GBV-C in HIV-infected patients. The concentrations of 64 cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma samples obtained from the Viral Activation Transfusion Study cohort before transfusion and longitudinally from 30 patients positive for both HIV and GBV-C (hereafter, "cases") and 30 patients positive for HIV and negative for GBV-C (hereafter, "controls"). Cases had lower HIV viral loads and higher CD4 T-cell counts than controls after acquisition of GBV-C infection. Most of the modulated cytokines and chemokines were reduced after GBV-C detection, including many proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting an overall antiinflammatory effect of GBV-C in HIV-positive subjects. Most pathways and functions of the measured cytokines were downregulated in cases, except cell death pathways, which were upregulated in various cell subsets in the 3 months after GBV-C detection. GBV-C has a protective effect, in part through a competition mechanism leading to decreased inflammation and improved HIV disease outcome in cases. Further studies are necessary to establish whether GBV-C may have deleterious effects on the host at the cellular level, including depleting the cells that are the targets of HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Potential impacts on ecosystem services of land use transitions to second-generation bioenergy crops in GB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Suzanne; Holland, Robert A; Lovett, Andrew; Sunnenberg, Gilla; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Wang, Shifeng; Taylor, Gail

    2016-03-01

    We present the first assessment of the impact of land use change (LUC) to second-generation (2G) bioenergy crops on ecosystem services (ES) resolved spatially for Great Britain (GB). A systematic approach was used to assess available evidence on the impacts of LUC from arable, semi-improved grassland or woodland/forest, to 2G bioenergy crops, for which a quantitative 'threat matrix' was developed. The threat matrix was used to estimate potential impacts of transitions to either Miscanthus , short-rotation coppice (SRC, willow and poplar) or short-rotation forestry (SRF). The ES effects were found to be largely dependent on previous land uses rather than the choice of 2G crop when assessing the technical potential of available biomass with a transition from arable crops resulting in the most positive effect on ES. Combining these data with constraint masks and available land for SRC and Miscanthus (SRF omitted from this stage due to lack of data), south-west and north-west England were identified as areas where Miscanthus and SRC could be grown, respectively, with favourable combinations of economic viability, carbon sequestration, high yield and positive ES benefits. This study also suggests that not all prospective planting of Miscanthus and SRC can be allocated to agricultural land class (ALC) ALC 3 and ALC 4 and suitable areas of ALC 5 are only minimally available. Beneficial impacts were found on 146 583 and 71 890 ha when planting Miscanthus or SRC, respectively, under baseline planting conditions rising to 293 247 and 91 318 ha, respectively, under 2020 planting scenarios. The results provide an insight into the interplay between land availability, original land uses, bioenergy crop type and yield in determining overall positive or negative impacts of bioenergy cropping on ecosystems services and go some way towards developing a framework for quantifying wider ES impacts of this important LUC.

  1. Reference quality assembly of the 3.5-Gb genome of Capsicum annuum from a single linked-read library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Maheshwari, Shamoni; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa A; Jaffe, David; Williams, Stephen R; Weisenfeld, Neil; Ramakrishnan, Srividya; Kumar, Vijay; Shah, Preyas; Schatz, Michael C; Church, Deanna M; Van Deynze, Allen

    2018-01-01

    Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of human genomes, however, the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5-gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Capsicum annuum) genome with a single Linked-Read library. Plant genomes, including pepper, are characterized by long, highly similar repetitive sequences. Accordingly, significant effort is used to ensure that the sequenced plant is highly homozygous and the resulting assembly is a haploid consensus. With a phased assembly approach, we targeted a heterozygous F1 derived from a wide cross to assess the ability to derive both haplotypes and characterize a pungency gene with a large insertion/deletion. The Supernova software generated a highly ordered, more contiguous sequence assembly than all currently available C. annuum reference genomes. Over 83% of the final assembly was anchored and oriented using four publicly available de novo linkage maps. A comparison of the annotation of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated the completeness of assembly. The validity of the phased assembly is further demonstrated with the complete recovery of both 2.5-Kb insertion/deletion haplotypes of the PUN1 locus in the F1 sample that represents pungent and nonpungent peppers, as well as nearly full recovery of the BUSCO2 gene set within each of the two haplotypes. The most contiguous pepper genome assembly to date has been generated which demonstrates that Linked-Read library technology provides a tool to de novo assemble complex highly repetitive heterozygous plant genomes. This technology can provide an opportunity to cost-effectively develop high-quality genome assemblies for other complex plants and compare structural and gene differences through accurate haplotype reconstruction.

  2. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  3. Addimer diffusions on Si(100)

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G D; Lu, Z Y; Ho, K M

    1999-01-01

    The diffusion pathways along the trough and between the trough and the dimer row on the Si(100) surface are investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics calculations using the environment dependent tight-binding silicon potential and by ab initio calculations using the Car-Parrinello method. The studies discover new diffusion pathways consisting of rotation of addimer. The calculated energy barrier are in excellent agreement with experiment. The rotational diffusion pathway between the trough and the dimer row is much more energetically favorable than other diffusion pathways by parallel and perpendicular addimer. The new pathway along the trough is nearly same as the energy barrier of the diffusion pathway by dissociation of the addimer.

  4. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm

    1954-01-01

    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  5. Lithium diffusion in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G. J.; Henderson, P.; Lowry, R. K.; Nolan, J.; Reed, S. J. B.; Long, J. V. P.

    1983-10-01

    The diffusion properties of Li in an andesitic and pitchstone melt have been determined over the temperature range 1300-1400°C. The diffusion data have been fitted to an Arrhenius relationship between log D0 and 1/ T, and give relatively small activation energies of diffusion: 21.4±5.8 kcal mol -1 in the andesite and 20.1±2.8 kcal mol -1 in the pitchstone. Li +, unlike several other cations, shows similar diffusivities in these melt compositions to that in a basaltic melt. Despite the similar ionic radius of Li + to that of Co 2+, the diffusion properties of the two ions are very different from each other.

  6. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppozini Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  7. IBM 3380 E

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    In 1985 IBM announced a double density version. The Extended Capability Models of the 3380 (3380 E) having 5.04 gigabytes per chassis, that is, two 1.26 gigabyte actuators on two hard disk assemblies in one chassis.

  8. The sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave of a strong magnetic field diffusing into a solid metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Kan, Ming-Xian; Wang, Gang-Hua; Zhao, Jian-Heng; Computational Physics Team

    2016-10-01

    When a mega-gauss magnetic field diffuses into a solid metal, the Joule heat would rise rapidly the temperature of the metal, and the rise of temperature leads to an increase of the metal's resistance, which in turn accelerates the magnetic field diffusion. Those positive feedbacks acting iteratively would lead to an interesting sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave. By assuming that the metal's resistance has an abrupt change from a small value ηS to larger value ηL at some critical temperature Tc, the sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave can be solved analytically. The conditions for the emerging of the sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave are B0 >Bc , ηL /ηS >> 1 , and ηL/ηSB0/-Bc Bc >> 1 , where Bc =√{ 2μ0Jc } , B0 is the vacuum magnetic field strength, and Jc is the critical Joule heat density. The wave-front velocity of the diffusion wave is Vc =ηL/μ0B0/-Bc Bc1/xc , where xc is the depth the wave have propagated in the metal. In this presentation we would like to discuss the derivation of the formulas and its impact to magnetically driven experiments. The work is supported by the Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2015B0201023).

  9. Multidimensional diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    1997-01-01

    From the reviews: "… Both the Markov-process approach and the Itô approach … have been immensely successful in diffusion theory. The Stroock-Varadhan book, developed from the historic 1969 papers by its authors, presents the martingale-problem approach as a more powerful - and, in certain regards, more intrinsic-means of studying the foundations of the subject. […] … the authors make the uncompromising decision not "to proselytise by intimidating the reader with myriad examples demonstrating the full scope of the techniques", but rather to persuade the reader "with a careful treatment of just one problem to which they apply". […] Most of the main tools of stochastic-processes theory are used, ..but it is the formidable combination of probability theory with analysis … which is the core of the work. […] I have emphasized the great importance of the Stroock-Varadhan book. It contains a lot more than I have indicated; in particular, its many exercises conain much interesting material. For immediat...

  10. Diffusion-Reorganized Aggregates: Attractors in Diffusion Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoche, Marcel; Sapoval, Bernard

    2000-12-01

    A process based on particle evaporation, diffusion, and redeposition is applied iteratively to a two-dimensional object of arbitrary shape. The evolution spontaneously transforms the object morphology, converging to branched structures. Independently of initial geometry, the structures found after a long time present fractal geometry with a fractal dimension around 1.75. The final morphology, which constantly evolves in time, can be considered as the dynamic attractor of this evaporation-diffusion-redeposition operator. The ensemble of these fractal shapes can be considered to be the dynamical equilibrium geometry of a diffusion-controlled self-transformation process.

  11. Domainal cleavage as an Anisotropic Reaction-diffusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchrone, Kieran; Meere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Domainal cleavage comprises zones dominated by quartz and feldspar (QF-domains) and zones dominated by Mica (M-domains) which form at low metamorphic grades. The protolith is typically fairly homogeneous mudstone, siltstone, sandstone or limestone. Wet diffusion or pressure solution along grain boundaries is a key mechanism in the development of domanial cleavage. However, this does not explain why M-domains become sub-regularly spaced, visually evident in coarser-grained rocks, and take on an anastomising morphology. The ratio of M to QF-domains by volume can range from 1 to 0.1 and lower i.e. in extreme cases M-domains are intermittent but regularly spaced. It is suggested here that an anisotropic reaction-diffusion process model can explain these features. The imposed stress field instantaneously leads to anisotropy of diffusion by narrowing intergranular channels perpendicular to the principal stress. This leads to a preferred diffusion of chemicals parallel to the principal stress direction and lower diffusion rates in the normal direction. Combining this with the chemical reaction of pressure solution produces an anisotropic reaction-diffusion system. Both isotropic and anistropic reaction diffusion systems lead to pattern formation as discovered by Alan Turing on the 1950's as an explanation for patterns found in animal skins such as spots and stripes. Thus domanial cleavage is a striped pattern induced by diffusion anisotropy combined with a chemical reaction. Furthermore, rates of chemical reaction in intergranular fluids is likely to be many orders of magnitude greater that rates of deformation. Therefore we expect domanial cleavage to form relatively rapidly. As deformation progresses the M-domains behave less competently and may be the site of enhanced shearing. An example from Co. Cork, Ireland demonstrates shear folding in low-grade metasedimentary rocks with reverse shear along M-domains at a high angle to the maximum compressive stress.

  12. Diffusion of Telecommunications Services in a Complex Socio-Economic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Abdullah

    . Hence, the study reveals 47 major attributes (indicators) that fully explain why some telecom services successfully diffuse in the market; whereas the others fail to produce similar results. The thesis also conducts a detailed impact analysis of the diffused telecommunications services within the local...... of perspective on the diffusion research in order to help other diffusion scholars in designing an analytical framework to conduct similar sort of studies on the other cases that would have similarities with the specific case that this thesis deals with. However, it is further assumed that most......This research aims at creating a detailed account on the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic context, taking Pakistan as a case study. The core research question of this thesis is to investigate why the successful experience of the rapid and an effective diffusion...

  13. Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Smith, Lloyd V.; Shutthanandan, V.

    2014-11-01

    Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMC’s). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick’s Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60]s, was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.

  14. Interestingness-Driven Diffusion Process Summarization in Dynamic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Qiang; Liu, Siyuan; Jensen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of social networks enables the rapid diffusion of information, e.g., news, among users in very large communities. It is a substantial challenge to be able to observe and understand such diffusion processes, which may be modeled as networks that are both large and dynamic. A key...... tool in this regard is data summarization. However, few existing studies aim to summarize graphs/networks for dynamics. Dynamic networks raise new challenges not found in static settings, including time sensitivity and the needs for online interestingness evaluation and summary traceability, which...... render existing techniques inapplicable. We study the topic of dynamic network summarization: how to summarize dynamic networks with millions of nodes by only capturing the few most interesting nodes or edges over time, and we address the problem by finding interestingness-driven diffusion processes...

  15. Dynamics of information diffusion and its applications on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Word Wide Web (WWW) greatly increases the information of effective transmission from heterogeneous individuals to various systems. Extensive research for information diffusion is introduced by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and empirical studies, unification and comparison of different theories and approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in information diffusion and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available models and algorithms to respectively investigate their physical roles and optimization designs. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that information diffusion has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  16. Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.

  17. Quantification of [{sup 11}C]GB67 binding to cardiac {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors with positron emission tomography: validation in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park-Holohan, So-Jin; Turton, David R.; Hume, Susan P. [Hammersmith Hospital, Hammersmith Imanet Ltd., GE HealthCare, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); Asselin, Marie-Claude [Hammersmith Hospital, Hammersmith Imanet Ltd., GE HealthCare, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Williams, Sharron L.; Camici, Paolo G. [Hammersmith Hospital, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); Rimoldi, Ornella E. [Hammersmith Hospital, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Cyclotron Building, London (United Kingdom); New York Medical College, Cardiovascular Research Institute Department of Medicine, Valhalla, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    An increase in human cardiac {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor ({alpha}{sub 1}-AR) density is associated with various diseases such as myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate radioligand offers the possibility of imaging receptor function in the normal and diseased heart. [{sup 11}C]GB67, an analogue of prazosin, has been shown in rats to have potential as a PET ligand with high selectivity to {alpha}{sub 1}-AR. However, {alpha}{sub 1}-AR density is up to ten times higher in rat heart compared to that in man. The aim of the present preclinical study was to extend the previous evaluation to a large mammal heart, where the {alpha}{sub 1}-AR density is comparable to man, and to validate a method for quantification before PET studies in man. Seven [{sup 11}C]GB67 PET studies, with weight-adjusted target dose of either 5.29 MBq kg{sup -1} (pilot, test-retest and baseline-predose studies) or 8.22 MBq kg{sup -1} (baseline-displacement studies), were performed in four anaesthetised pigs (39.5 {+-} 3.9 kg). Total myocardial volume of distribution (V{sub T}) was estimated under different pharmacological conditions using compartmental analysis with a radiolabelled metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. A maximum possible blocking dose of 0.12 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} of unlabeled GB67 was given 20 min before [{sup 11}C]GB67 administration in the predose study and 45 min after administration of [{sup 11}C]GB67 in the displacement study. In addition, [{sup 15}O]CO (3,000 MBq) and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O, with weight adjusted target dose of 10.57 MBq kg{sup -1}, were also administered for estimation of blood volume recovery (RC) of the left ventricular cavity and myocardial perfusion (MBF), respectively. [{sup 11}C]GB67 V{sub T} values (in ml cm{sup -3}) were estimated to be 24.2 {+-} 5.5 (range, 17.3-31.3), 10.1 (predose) and 11.6 (displacement). MBF did not differ within

  18. 100.29-Gb/s direct detection optical OFDM/OQAM 32-QAM signal over 880  km SSMF transmission using a single photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Qi; Luo, Ming; He, Zhixue; Li, Haibo; Hu, Rong; Yu, Shaohua

    2015-04-01

    We propose a novel guard-band-shared direct-detection (GBS-DD) scheme for a 100-Gb/s single-photodiode direct-detection transmission system. The 100.29 Gb/s signal is successfully transmitted over 880 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) with Raman amplification under the 20% forward error correction (FEC) threshold within 52 GHz optical bandwidth. The signal is modulated with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing/offset quadrature-amplitude-modulation 32-ary QAM (OFDM/OQAM 32-QAM). The signal-to-signal beat interference (SSBI) terms fall and overlap in the same guard band. Adopting the proposed approach, the bandwidth usage efficiency of the photodiode is greatly enhanced, which brings benefits on the data rate and transmission performance.

  19. Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850-nm Multi- and Single-Mode VCSEL Transmission Through OM4 MMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Agustin, Mikel; Chorchos, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    the performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based transmission links, which constitute a cost-effective solution desirable for massive deployments. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate intensity-modulation direct-detection transmissions with a data rate of 107.5 Gb/s over 10 m...... of OM4 multimode fiber (MMF) using a multimode VCSEL at 850 nm, and up to 100 m of OM4 MMF using a single-mode VCSEL at 850 nm. Measured bit error rates were below 7% overhead forward error correction limit of 3.8e−03, thus, achieving an effective bit rate of 100.5 Gb/s. These successful transmissions...

  20. A 4 Gb/s 2-level to 2 Gsymbol/s 4-level converter GaAs IC for semiconductor optical amplifier QPSK modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, J.; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1994-01-01

    The design of a 50 Ω impedance matched two-to-four level converter GaAs IC for two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) modulators is presented. The designed IC exhibits eye diagrams with eye openings of better than 0.30 V and a spacing between adjacent output signal levels of 0.33 V f...... transmission experiment using a packaged sample of the designed IC and a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier phase modulator has been conducted...... for output symbol rates of up to 2 Gsymbol/s corresponding to input bit rates of up to 4 Gb/s. A novel differential super buffer output driver is applied, for which output reflection coefficients |S22| of less than -12 dB for frequencies up to 10 GHz are obtained. A 1 Gb/s optical QPSK microwave link...