Sample records for rapid future progress

  1. Progress Toward Future Runway Management (United States)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab


    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  2. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirolimus, a potent inhibitor of B- and T-cell activation, is a commonly used immunosuppressant after renal transplantation. Withdrawal of sirolimus from the immunosuppression regimen may reduce B-cell surveillance. We present a case of rapidly progressive central nervous system (CNS) polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus ...

  3. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia. (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A


    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  4. Rapidly progressive periodontitis. A distinct clinical condition. (United States)

    Page, R C; Altman, L C; Ebersole, J L; Vandesteen, G E; Dahlberg, W H; Williams, B L; Osterberg, S K


    We report radiographic, clinical, historical, and laboratory observations on seven patients selected to illustrate the features and characteristics of rapidly progressive periodontitis, with the aim of establishing this disease as a distinct clinical entity. This form of periodontitis is seen most commonly in young adults in their twenties, but it can occur in postpubertal individuals up to approximately 35 years of age. During the active phase, the gingival tissues are extremely inflamed and there is hemorrhage, proliferation of the marginal gingiva, and exudation. Destruction is very rapid, with loss of much of the alveolar bone occurring within a few weeks or months. This phase may be accompanied by general malaise, weight loss, and depression, although these symptoms are not seen in all patients. The disease may progress, without remission, to tooth loss, or alternatively, it may subside and become quiescent with or without therapy. The quiescent phase is characterized by the presence of clinically normal gingiva that may be tightly adapted to the roots of teeth with very advanced bone loss and deep periodontal pockets. The quiescent phase may be permanent, it may persist for an indefinite period, or the disease activity may return. Most patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis have serum antibodies specific for various species of Bacteroides, Actinobacillus, or both, and manifest defects in either neutrophil or monocyte chemotaxis. Affected patients generally respond favorably to treatment by scaling and open or closed curettage, especially when accompanied by standard doses of antibiotics for conventional time periods. A small minority of patients do not respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and the disease progresses inexorably to tooth loss even in the presence of aggressive periodontal therapy and maintenance. At the present time it is not possible to distinguish prior to treatment which individuals will respond to therapy and which will

  5. Bioorthogonal chemistry: recent progress and future directions. (United States)

    Lim, Reyna K V; Lin, Qing


    The ability to use covalent chemistry to label biomolecules selectively in their native habitats has greatly enhanced our understanding of biomolecular dynamics and function beyond what is possible with genetic tools alone. To attain the exquisite selectivity that is essential in this covalent approach a "bottom-up" two-step strategy has achieved many successes recently. In this approach, a bioorthogonal chemical functionality is built into life's basic building blocks-amino acids, nucleosides, lipids, and sugars-as well as coenzymes; after the incorporation, an array of biophysical probes are selectively appended to the tagged biomolecules via a suitable bioorthogonal reaction. While much has been accomplished in the expansion of non-natural building blocks carrying unique chemical moieties, the dearth of robust bioorthogonal reactions has limited both the scope and utility of this promising approach. Here, we summarize the recent progress in the development of bioorthogonal reactions and their applications in various biological systems. A major emphasis has been placed on the mechanistic and kinetic studies of these reactions with the hope that continuous improvements can be made with each reaction in the future. In view of the gap between the capabilities of the current repertoire of bioorthogonal reactions and the unmet needs of outstanding biological problems, we also strive to project the future directions of this rapidly developing field.

  6. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

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    Kimberly M. Thornton


    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  7. Rapid progress on the vertebrate tree of life

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    Shaffer H Bradley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the greatest challenges for biology in the 21st century is inference of the tree of life. Interest in, and progress toward, this goal has increased dramatically with the growing availability of molecular sequence data. However, we have very little sense, for any major clade, of how much progress has been made in resolving a full tree of life and the scope of work that remains. A series of challenges stand in the way of completing this task but, at the most basic level, progress is limited by data: a limited fraction of the world's biodiversity has been incorporated into a phylogenetic analysis. More troubling is our poor understanding of what fraction of the tree of life is understood and how quickly research is adding to this knowledge. Here we measure the rate of progress on the tree of life for one clade of particular research interest, the vertebrates. Results Using an automated phylogenetic approach, we analyse all available molecular data for a large sample of vertebrate diversity, comprising nearly 12,000 species and 210,000 sequences. Our results indicate that progress has been rapid, increasing polynomially during the age of molecular systematics. It is also skewed, with birds and mammals receiving the most attention and marine organisms accumulating far fewer data and a slower rate of increase in phylogenetic resolution than terrestrial taxa. We analyse the contributors to this phylogenetic progress and make recommendations for future work. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that a large majority of the vertebrate tree of life will: (1 be resolved within the next few decades; (2 identify specific data collection strategies that may help to spur future progress; and (3 identify branches of the vertebrate tree of life in need of increased research effort.

  8. The usefulness and significance of assessing rapidly progressive spermatozoa (United States)

    Björndahl, Lars


    It is possible and clinically relevant to distinguish between slow and rapid progressive spermatozoa in basic semen analysis. This is discussed in light of the different purposes of semen analysis for the subfertile couple and the male patient. The two groups of progressive spermatozoa should be distinguished to help ensure that pertinent information available in the semen sample is not neglected. PMID:20111079

  9. Rapidly Progressive Atrioventricular Block in a Patient with Sarcoidosis

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    Nagham Saeed Jafar


    Full Text Available Cardiac sarcoidosis is a major cause of death in patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Cardiac manifestations are seen in 2.3% of the patients. Atrioventricular (AV block is one of the common manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis. Other presentations of cardiac involvement include congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. The presence of AV block in young patients should raise the suspicion of sarcoidosis. AV block may be the only manifestation and patients may not have clinical evidence of pulmonary involvement. Here we describe a young male presented with exercise induced AV block rapidly progressing to complete heart block with recurrent syncope needing urgent pacemaker implantation. Factors that suggested an infiltrative process included his young age, rapidly progressive conduction abnormalities in the ECG in the absence of coronary disease, and previous history of cutaneous sarcoidosis.

  10. Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects

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    Philippe Jeandet


    Full Text Available Phytoalexins are low molecular weight antimicrobial compounds that are produced by plants as a response to biotic and abiotic stresses. As such they take part in an intricate defense system which enables plants to control invading microorganisms. In the 1950s, research on phytoalexins started with progress in their biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity, as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins also permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. This has led to potential applications for increasing plant resistance to diseases. Phytoalexins display an enormous diversity belonging to various chemical families such as for instance, phenolics, terpenoids, furanoacetylenes, steroid glycoalkaloids, sulfur-containing compounds and indoles.[...

  11. Attachment theory: progress and future directions. (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I


    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine


    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  13. Syndromes of rapidly progressive cognitive decline-our experience

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    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra


    Full Text Available Background: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. Aims: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center. Settings and Design: Patients who presented with rapid deterioration of cognitive functions within weeks to 1 year between 2011 and December 2016 were evaluated. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent all mandatory tests for dementia including brain imaging. Complete vasculitis workup, autoimmune encephalitis profile including Voltage Gated Potassium Channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, glutamic acid-decarboxylase, thyroid-peroxidase antibody, cerebrospinal fluid, and other special tests such as duodenal biopsy and paraneoplastic workup were done based on clinical indications. Results and Conclusions: Out of 144 patients 42 had immune-mediated encephalopathy, 18 had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 3 had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 63 had infection with neurocysticercosis, 7 had tuberculosis, 2 had HIV, 1 had herpes simplex encephalitis, 1 had neurosyphilis, 1 Whipples disease, 1 had Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, 1 had Mass lesion, 3 had Frontotemporal dementia, and 3 had small vessel disease. Good majority of these patients have infective and immune-mediated causes and less number belong to degenerative group. Therefore, caution is needed to look for treatable cause as it carries a different treatment options and outcome.

  14. Progress in ultrafast laser processing and future prospects (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji


    The unique characteristics of ultrafast lasers have rapidly revolutionized materials processing after their first demonstration in 1987. The ultrashort pulse width of the laser suppresses heat diffusion to the surroundings of the processed region, which minimizes the formation of a heat-affected zone and thereby enables ultrahigh precision micro- and nanofabrication of various materials. In addition, the extremely high peak intensity can induce nonlinear multiphoton absorption, which extends the diversity of materials that can be processed to transparent materials such as glass. Nonlinear multiphoton absorption enables three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication by irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials. Thus, ultrafast lasers are currently widely used for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review presents progress in ultrafast laser processing, including micromachining, surface micro- and nanostructuring, nanoablation, and 3D and volume processing. Advanced technologies that promise to enhance the performance of ultrafast laser processing, such as hybrid additive and subtractive processing, and shaped beam processing are discussed. Commercial and industrial applications of ultrafast laser processing are also introduced. Finally, future prospects of the technology are given with a summary.

  15. Adult-onset phenylketonuria with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism. (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Zeynep; Cakar, Arman; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Gurvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat


    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 25/30, and neuropsychological evaluation revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with simultanagnosia and constructional apraxia. His Clinical Dementia Rating score (CDR) was 1. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter in T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion weighted images. Diagnostic workup for rapidly progressive dementias was all normal except PHE level which was found to be highly elevated (1075 μmol/L, normal 39-240 μmol/L) with normal tyrosine level (61.20 μmol/L, normal 35-100 μmol/L). Three months after PHE-restricted diet, his cognitive impairment and signs of parkinsonism significantly improved, with MRI scan unchanged. This case demonstrates that late-onset PKU is a rare, treatable cause of rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism with certain constellations such as consanguinity and white matter abnormalities (WMAs) in imaging.

  16. Graphene as Cancer Theranostic Tool: Progress and Future Challenges (United States)

    Orecchioni, Marco; Cabizza, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma


    Nowadays cancer remains one of the main causes of death in the world. Current diagnostic techniques need to be improved to provide earlier diagnosis and treatment. Traditional therapy approaches to cancer are limited by lack of specificity and systemic toxicity. In this scenario nanomaterials could be good allies to give more specific cancer treatment effectively reducing undesired side effects and giving at the same time accurate diagnosis and successful therapy. In this context, thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties, graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene (rGO) have recently attracted tremendous interest in biomedicine including cancer therapy. Herein we analyzed all studies presented in literature related to cancer fight using graphene and graphene-based conjugates. In this context, we aimed at the full picture of the state of the art providing new inputs for future strategies in the cancer theranostic by using of graphene. We found an impressive increasing interest in the material for cancer therapy and/or diagnosis. The majority of the works (73%) have been carried out on drug and gene delivery applications, following by photothermal therapy (32%), imaging (31%) and photodynamic therapy (10%). A 27% of the studies focused on theranostic applications. Part of the works here discussed contribute to the growth of the theranostic field covering the use of imaging (i.e. ultrasonography, positron electron tomography, and fluorescent imaging) combined to one or more therapeutic modalities. We found that the use of graphene in cancer theranostics is still in an early but rapidly growing stage of investigation. Any technology based on nanomaterials can significantly enhance their possibility to became the real revolution in medicine if combines diagnosis and therapy at the same time. We performed a comprehensive summary of the latest progress of graphene cancer fight and highlighted the future challenges and the innovative possible

  17. Rapid Response Fault Drilling Past, Present, and Future

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    Demian M. Saffer


    Full Text Available New information about large earthquakes can be acquired by drilling into the fault zone quickly following a large seismic event. Specifically, we can learn about the levels of friction and strength of the fault which determine the dynamic rupture, monitor the healing process of the fault, record the stress changes that trigger aftershocks and capture important physical and chemical properties of the fault that control the rupture process. These scientific and associated technical issues were the focus of a three-day workshop on Rapid Response Fault Drilling: Past, Present, and Future, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The meeting drewtogether forty-four scientists representing ten countries in Tokyo, Japan during November 2008. The group discussed the scientific problems and how they could be addressed through rapid response drilling. Focused talks presented previous work on drilling after large earthquakes and in fault zones in general, as well as the state of the art of experimental techniques and measurement strategies. Detailed discussion weighed the tradeoffs between rapid drilling andthe ability to satisfy a diverse range of scientific objectives. Plausible drilling sites and scenarios were evaluated. This is a shortened summary of the workshop report that discusses key scientific questions, measurement strategies, and recommendations. This report can provide a starting point for quickly mobilizing a drilling program following future large earthquakes. The full report can be seen at

  18. Rapidly progressive cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting as a lung mass (United States)

    Akram, Saeed; Irfan, Muhammad; Aftab, Kanwal


    A very rare case of a rapidly progressive variant of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) presenting as a focal mass-like lesion with compression of the large airways leading to respiratory failure is described. A 60-year-old lady presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital Emergency Department in hypoxaemic respiratory failure with a 6-day history of dyspnoea, productive cough and fever. Chest x ray showed a right upper lobe mass-like lesion compressing the large airways and right pleural effusion. She deteriorated in the Emergency Department and was intubated due to worsening hypoxaemic respiratory failure. The pleural fluid and bronchoscopic specimens were negative on microbiological and cytological examination. CT-guided right lung biopsy revealed chronic non-specific inflammation without granuloma and malignancy. COP was diagnosed on video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lung biopsy. She was successfully treated with high dose steroids and discharged in a stable condition; her 3-month follow-up chest x rays showed complete resolution of the lung lesion with some residual fibrosis. PMID:21686529

  19. Attosecond Optics and Technology: Progress to Date and Future Prospects [Invited (United States)


    shown to depend on Rabi frequencies with intermediate excited states [116]. Circularly polarized attosecond pulses are theoretically proposed to inves... lattice of 6 pm. The results clearly separate the electronic and nuclear time scales through the experiment. 5. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES The rapid progress in...step-like features in the electronic response, (c) conduction band shift, and (d) slower lattice response. From [119]. Reprinted with permission from

  20. Progress of modern agricultural chemistry and future prospects. (United States)

    Jeschke, Peter


    Agriculture is facing an enormous challenge: it must ensure that enough high-quality food is available to meet the needs of a continually growing population. Current and future agronomic production of food, feed, fuel and fibre requires innovative solutions for existing and future challenges, such as climate change, resistance to pests, increased regulatory demands, renewable raw materials or requirements resulting from food chain partnerships. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers to manage these tasks. Today, the so-called 'side effects' of agrochemicals regarding yield and quality are gaining more importance. Agrochemical companies with a strong research and development focus will have the opportunity to shape the future of agriculture by delivering innovative integrated solutions. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the innovative products launched over the past 10 years and describes the progress of modern agricultural chemistry and its future prospects. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Healthcare and healthcare systems: inspiring progress and future prospects. (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad


    growth will occur in the urban areas of poor countries. The rapid, unplanned and unsustainable style of urban development will make developing countries cities the key focal points for emerging environmental and health hazards. Changes will be seen in design, culture and practices of hospitals to better meet the needs of patients, families and providers. Top driving factors of global healthcare system for next 30 years will be leading causes of mortalities, non-health factors (impact of nutrition, sanitation and women's empowerment), investment in health workforce and growth of medical tourism in future healthcare scenario. Evaluating the patterns of previous 30 years and predicting the progress and challenges of future health system are no rocket science. Medical care will be more self-directed in a more tech-savvy population as information will be more accessible and user friendly with higher quality. Health driving factors such as clean water, sanitation and food will take the center stage in humanities struggle and even increase population size.

  2. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions. (United States)

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel


    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  3. Case of Rapid Progression of Hemiatrophy on the Face: A New Clinical Entity?

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    Hisashi Nomura


    Full Text Available A lot of diseases, including lupus profundus, morphea, lipodystrophy, and Parry-Romberg syndrome, may manifest progressive hemifacial atrophy. These diseases usually progress slowly and rapid progression of atrophy is extremely rare. We report a case of elderly-onset rapid progression of hemifacial atrophy only in three weeks. Our case did not meet variable differential diagnoses. We discuss the clinical character of the patient against the past of literature and suppose it may be a new clinical entity.

  4. The Progress of Science—Past, Present and Future

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    Arthur Rörsch


    Full Text Available Scientific orthodoxy based on the acquired authority of some scientists has seriously hampered the progress of the natural sciences in the past and continues to do so today because of new societal influences, such as directive funding and political interference in the setting of research objectives. Enhancing the progress of science must continue to be an important priority in order to meet the future needs of mankind. Yet priority setting between different branches of research is currently controversial because of the limited availability of funds and the political interference. For sound priority setting, an adequate level of scientific literacy is required among policy makers, a subject that will attract attention throughout this paper. The “introduction” gives an overview of the issues at stake. Prevailing pessimistic views of the future of our complex society are viewed as being similar to a medieval doomsday syndrome. Pathways to a new renaissance and age of reason are suggested. Three major recommendations are made: (i Freedom of inquiry must be protected; (ii The political misuse of potential environmental scares needs to be investigated before doomsday predictions alarm public perceptions and hence shape policies; (iii The search for excellence in the leadership of science should be emphasized because it should not be based largely on acquired authority. The current controversy over possible impacts of rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere on climate is analyzed as a case study.

  5. Clinical reasoning: rapidly progressive quadriparesis in a forgetful patient. (United States)

    Mantoan Ritter, Laura; Isaacs, Jeremy D; McEntagart, Meriel; O'Dwyer, John P


    A 50-year-old right-handed retired family business manager developed progressive left-sided weakness over 5 days after a mechanical fall. She remembered catching her foot on the carpet and falling down a flight of stairs, followed by severe neck pain over C4-C5 and inability to get up for nearly an hour. Over the subsequent month her symptoms progressed and she presented to hospital with an asymmetric spastic paraparesis, loss of pinprick sensation in her arms and legs, loss of vibration sense to both hips, and double incontinence.

  6. Renal hemosiderosis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with primary hemochromatosis. (United States)

    Ozkurt, Sultan; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Temiz, Gokhan; Akay, Olga Meltem; Soydan, Mehmet


    Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to the accumulation of iron in many organs including the liver, spleen and heart and results in injury and dysfunction of these organs. On the other hand, iron accumulation and functional impairment in kidney is extremely rare. We report a 61-year-old male patient with hereditary hemochromatosis, in whom the renal function was deteriorated rapidly. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomeruli and hemosiderin accumulation in tubular epithelial cells.

  7. Treatment of nephrotic syndrome associated with idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and cyclosporin A. (United States)

    Maduell, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, A; Sigüenza, F; Caridad, A; Sangrador, G


    Recent reports suggest that cyclosporin A is beneficial in inducing remission of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is seen in 10-30% of patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. We report a case of a 69-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome, associated with idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, who was treated initially with corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. Three months later he developed thrombophlebitis and leucopenia and cyclophosphamide was suspended. Relapse of nephrotic syndrome associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis developed and therapy with cyclosporin A was used with a good response.

  8. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Devices: Recent Progress and Future Prospects. (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Li, Ruizhi; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jianlong; Liu, Jinping


    Design and fabrication of electrochemical energy storage systems with both high energy and power densities as well as long cycling life is of great importance. As one of these systems, Battery-supercapacitor hybrid device (BSH) is typically constructed with a high-capacity battery-type electrode and a high-rate capacitive electrode, which has attracted enormous attention due to its potential applications in future electric vehicles, smart electric grids, and even miniaturized electronic/optoelectronic devices, etc. With proper design, BSH will provide unique advantages such as high performance, cheapness, safety, and environmental friendliness. This review first addresses the fundamental scientific principle, structure, and possible classification of BSHs, and then reviews the recent advances on various existing and emerging BSHs such as Li-/Na-ion BSHs, acidic/alkaline BSHs, BSH with redox electrolytes, and BSH with pseudocapacitive electrode, with the focus on materials and electrochemical performances. Furthermore, recent progresses in BSH devices with specific functionalities of flexibility and transparency, etc. will be highlighted. Finally, the future developing trends and directions as well as the challenges will also be discussed; especially, two conceptual BSHs with aqueous high voltage window and integrated 3D electrode/electrolyte architecture will be proposed.

  9. Progress on high-performance rapid prototype aluminum mirrors (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Myrick, Bruce H.


    Near net shape parts can be produced using some very old processes (investment casting) and the relatively new direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. These processes have significant advantages for complex blank lightweighting and costs but are not inherently suited for producing high performance mirrors. The DMLS process can provide extremely complex lightweight structures but the high residual stresses left in the material results in unstable mirror figure retention. Although not to the extreme intricacy of DMLS, investment casting can also provide complex lightweight structures at considerably lower costs than DMLS and even conventional wrought mirror blanks but the less than 100% density for casting (and also DMLS) limits finishing quality. This paper will cover the progress that has been made to make both the DMLS and investment casting processes into viable near net shape blank options for high performance aluminum mirrors. Finish and figure results will be presented to show performance commensurate with existing conventional processes.

  10. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

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    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  11. Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: progress and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RA


    Full Text Available Roshni A Patel,1 Jennifer G Goldman2 1Rush Medical College, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Section of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: This review focuses on methods for diagnosing Parkinson’s disease (PD, highlighting clinical, pathological, and biomarker-driven approaches. For each of these diagnostic approaches, the past, present, and future prospects of diagnosing PD will be explored. Our understanding of PD – its pathogenesis and clinical spectrum – is ever changing. PD is now recognized as a complex multisystem disorder with motor and nonmotor features, including those preceding the onset of classic motor features as well as different phenotypes, often associated with different genetic mutations. Theories regarding the pathophysiology of PD and the role of α-synuclein, its deposition outside of the central nervous system, and possible progression or propagation are discussed. It has been almost 200 years since James Parkinson first described this disorder, and since then, our understanding of the disease process has evolved and become more sophisticated. However, the clinical diagnostic criteria used have remained fairly static for decades. Proposals for redefining PD’s diagnostic criteria incorporate clinical, pathological, and biomarker-driven elements, individually and/or collectively, and may need to consider whether individualized risk and personalized profiles could be ascertained. Keywords: α-synuclein, biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid, imaging, neuropathology

  12. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael


    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data Collec...

  13. Improved Vaccine against PRRSV: Current Progress and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan


    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, one of the most economically significant pathogens worldwide, has caused numerous outbreaks during the past 30 years. PRRSV infection causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in growing and finishing pigs, leading to huge economic losses for the swine industry. This impact has become even more significant with the recent emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV strains from China, further exacerbating global food security. Since new PRRSV variants are constantly emerging from outbreaks, current strategies for controlling PRRSV have been largely inadequate, even though our understanding of PRRSV virology, evolution and host immune response has been rapidly expanding. Meanwhile, practical experience has revealed numerous safety and efficacy concerns for currently licensed vaccines, such as shedding of modified live virus (MLV, reversion to virulence, recombination between field strains and MLV and failure to elicit protective immunity against heterogeneous virus. Therefore, an effective vaccine against PRRSV infection is urgently needed. Here, we systematically review recent advances in PRRSV vaccine development. Antigenic variations resulting from PRRSV evolution, identification of neutralizing epitopes for heterogeneous isolates, broad neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV, chimeric virus generated by reverse genetics, and novel PRRSV strains with interferon-inducing phenotype will be discussed in detail. Moreover, techniques that could potentially transform current MLV vaccines into a superior vaccine will receive special emphasis, as will new insights for future PRRSV vaccine development. Ultimately, improved PRRSV vaccines may overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines and minimize the PRRS impact to the swine industry.

  14. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs (United States)


    UAVs , the DOD defines UAVs as “powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator; use aerodynamic forces to provide lift; can be autonomously...25 B. UAV ...25 1. UAV Background ...............................................................................25 2. Rapid Acquisition in UAV

  15. B-Cell Depletion Salvage Therapy in Rapidly Progressive Dermatomyositis Related Interstitial Lung Disease. (United States)

    Eissa, Khaled; Palomino, Jaime


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Glucocorticoids are the initial standard treatment. However, many patients fail to respond and continue to progress despite treatment with high dose glucocorticoids. The efficacy of rituximab has been suggested in case reports and case series of refractory antisynthetase (AS) syndrome, but data on patients without auto-antibodies or with rapidly progressive ILD are scarce. We report a case of rapidly progressive dermatomyositis (DM) associated ILD treated successfully with B-cell depletion therapy.

  16. Rapid progression of gliomatosis cerebri to secondary glioblastoma, factors that affects the progression rate: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Glioblastomas may develop de novo or through progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas. The term 'primary glioblastoma' refers to a glioblastoma that lacks a precursor lesion and has a clinical history of less than three months. On the other hand, the term 'secondary glioblastoma' indicates that the glioblastoma has progressed from a low-grade tumor after a long latency period and often manifests in younger patients. These subtypes of glioblastoma develop via different genetic pathways, and they differ in prognosis and response to therapy. Thus, differential diagnosis of these subtypes and prediction of the factors that affect the progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma to secondary glioblastoma would be clinically very important. We present a rare case of secondary glioblastoma, which developed only three months after the follow up imaging evaluations, with a history of low grade glioma, and present the factors that cause rapid progression.

  17. Snow in Earth System Models: Recent Progress and Future Challenges (United States)

    Clark, M. P.; Slater, A. G.


    Snow is the most variable of terrestrial boundary conditions. Some 50 million km^2 of the Northern Hemisphere typically sees periods of accumulation and ablation in the annual cycle. The wonderous properties of snow, such as high albedo, thermal insulation and its ability to act as a water store make it an integral part of the global climate system. Earliest inclusions of snow within climate models were simple adjustments to albedo and a moisture store. Modern Earth Syetem Models now represent snow through a myriad of model architectures and parameterizations that span a broad range of complexity. Understanding the impacts of modeling decisions upon simulation of snow and other Earth System components (either directly or via feedbacks) is an ongoing area of research. Snow models are progressing with multi-layer representations and capabilities such as complex albedo schemes that include contaminants. While considerable advances have been made, numerous challenges also remain. Simply getting a grasp on the mass of snow (seasonal or permanent) has proved more difficult than expected over the past 30 years. Snow interactions with vegetation has improved but the details of vegetation masking and emergence are still limited. Inclusion of blowing snow processes, in terms of transport and sublimation, is typically rare and sublimation remains a difficult quantity to measure. Contemplation of snow crystal form within models and integration with radiative transfer schemes for better understanding of full spectrum interations (from UV to long microwave) may simultaneously advance simulation and remote sensing. A series of international modeling experiments and directed field campaigns are planned in the near future with the aim of pushing our knowledge forward.

  18. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: Progress and Future Directions. (United States)

    Albersen, Maarten; Weyne, Emmanuel; Bivalacqua, Trinity J


    treatment of ED. Albersen M, Weyne E, and Bivalacqua TJ. Stem cell therapy for erectile dysfunction: Progress and future directions. Sex Med Rev 2013;1:50-64. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive young-onset dementia. (United States)

    Chakor, Rahul Tryambak; Santosh, Nandanavana Subbareddy


    Onset of dementia before 65 years of age is termed as young-onset dementia (YOD). Very little literature exists regarding the clinical features and diagnoses of dementia in younger individuals. We present a case series of four patients of age 10 to 23 years with severe dementia within 18 months of clinical onset (rapidly progressive dementia). Three patients had generalised periodic complexes typical of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) on electroencephalogram (EEG). All patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG measles antibodies. Our case series highlights that SSPE is an important cause of rapidly progressive YOD in developing countries like India.

  20. Obesity induced rapid melanoma progression is reversed by orlistat treatment and dietary intervention: Role of adipokines‡


    Malvi, Parmanand; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pandey, Vimal; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Boreddy, Purushotham Reddy; Mohammad, Naoshad; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Bhat, Manoj Kumar


    Obesity, owing to adiposity, is associated with increased risk and development of various cancers, and linked to their rapid growth as well as progression. Although a few studies have attempted to understand the relationship between obesity and melanoma, the consequences of controlling body weight by reducing adiposity on cancer progression is not well understood. By employing animal models of obesity, we report that controlling obesity either by orlistat treatment or by restricting caloric i...

  1. Rapidly progressing and resistant warts in an immuno-competent male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahidullah Sikder


    Full Text Available Cutaneous warts are common skin conditions caused by different specific strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV, mostly affect children as localized lesion on the hands and feet. They are slowly progressing and disseminated lesions are found in immuno-compromised situations. Usually majority of warts disappear by few months to two years. This is a case of extensive, giant, rapidly progressing and resistant warts in an immuno-competent adult male. 

  2. Progress and future of a cashmere industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the progress that has been made with the utilisation and promotion of fine down (cashmere type) fibre production from indigenous goat breeds in South Africa and on the results obtained on samples received during the past two...

  3. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review]. (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P


    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightpuberty in a 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21) mosaic Turner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  4. Rapidly progressive systemic sclerosis with a fatal outcome in male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Widuchowska


    Full Text Available Objectives: Retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes of malepatients with particularly severe and rapidly progressive diffusesystemic sclerosis (SSc with a fatal outcome with emphasis onorgan involvement and results of diagnostic tests, and tentativedistinction of a subgroup of especially progressive SSc. Material and methods: In the last few years among patients withSSc hospitalized in our centres, five patients with particularlyrapidly progressive disease were distinguished. Despiteaggressive treatment, the disease led to a fatal outcome ina short time. Their clinical history and results of diagnostic testswere evaluated. Results: All of them were smokers and three of them did not stopsmoking after the diagnosis. Laboratory findings revealed hightitres of Scl70 antibodies and enhanced erythrocytesedimentation rate (ESR in all of the patients. Most of them hadincreased serum creatine kinase (CK values. During the diseaserapidly progressive severe organ involvement was observed(pulmonary fibrosis, renal failure, cardiac failure, pulmonaryarterial hypertension. The skin thickening increased rapidly andthey died within 12-24 months after the first signs of skinthickening. Acute cardiac failure was the cause of death. Conclusions: The described cases suggest possible distinction ofa subset of a subgroup of patients with a particularly severe and rapidly progressive disease. It might be a population of patientswith the following characteristics: males over 40 years of agewith high titres of anti-Scl70 antibodies and elevated serum CKlevels. This is consistent with the presently published data onfactors associated with fatal prognosis in patients with SSc.

  5. Apathy associated with neurocognitive disorders: Recent progress and future directions. (United States)

    Lanctôt, Krista L; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Brodaty, Henry; Francis, Paul T; Geda, Yonas E; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marshall, Gad A; Mortby, Moyra E; Onyike, Chiadi U; Padala, Prasad R; Politis, Antonios M; Rosenberg, Paul B; Siegel, Emma; Sultzer, David L; Abraham, Eleenor H


    Apathy is common in neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) such as Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the definition of apathy is inconsistent in the literature, apathy is primarily defined as a loss of motivation and decreased interest in daily activities. The Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART) Neuropsychiatric Syndromes Professional Interest Area (NPS-PIA) Apathy workgroup reviewed the latest research regarding apathy in NCDs. Progress has recently been made in three areas relevant to apathy: (1) phenomenology, including the use of diagnostic criteria and novel instruments for measurement, (2) neurobiology, including neuroimaging, neuropathological and biomarker correlates, and (3) interventions, including pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and noninvasive neuromodulatory approaches. Recent progress confirms that apathy has a significant impact on those with major NCD and those with mild NCDs. As such, it is an important target for research and intervention. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Herbaceous energy crop development: recent progress and future prospects. (United States)

    Heaton, Emily A; Flavell, Richard B; Mascia, Peter N; Thomas, Steven R; Dohleman, Frank G; Long, Stephen P


    Oil prices and government mandates have catalyzed rapid growth of nonfossil transportation fuels in recent years, with a large focus on ethanol from energy crops, but the food crops used as first-generation energy crops today are not optimized for this purpose. We show that the theoretical efficiency of conversion of whole spectrum solar energy into biomass is 4.6-6%, depending on plant type, and the best year-long efficiencies realized are about 3%. The average leaf is as effective as the best PV solar cells in transducing solar energy to charge separation (ca. 37%). In photosynthesis, most of the energy that is lost is dissipated as heat during synthesis of biomass. Unlike photovoltaic (PV) cells this energetic cost supports the construction, maintenance, and replacement of the system, which is achieved autonomously as the plant grows and re-grows. Advances in plant genomics are being applied to plant breeding, thereby enabling rapid development of next-generation energy crops that capitalize on theoretical efficiencies while maintaining environmental and economic integrity.

  7. Aptamer-siRNA Chimeras: Discovery, Progress, and Future Prospects (United States)

    Kruspe, Sven; Giangrande, Paloma H.


    Synthetic nucleic acid ligands (aptamers) have emerged as effective delivery tools for many therapeutic oligonucleotide-based drugs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In this review, we summarize recent progress in the aptamer selection technology that has made possible the identification of cell-specific, cell-internalizing aptamers for the cell-targeted delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. In addition, we review the original, proof-of-concept aptamer-siRNA delivery studies and discuss recent advances in aptamer-siRNA conjugate designs for applications ranging from cancer therapy to the development of targeted antivirals. Challenges and prospects of aptamer-targeted siRNA drugs for clinical development are further highlighted. PMID:28792479

  8. Polysaccharide Nanosystems for Future Progress in Cardiovascular Pathologies (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Karine Andriola; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric


    Natural polysaccharides have received a lot of attention in the biomedical field. Indeed, sources of polysaccharides, extracted or produced from plants, bacteria, fungi or algae, are diverse and renewable. Moreover, recent progresses in polysaccharide chemistry and nanotechnologies allow elaborating new dedicated nanosystems. Polysaccharide-based nanosystems may be designed for interacting in several biological processes. In particular, the atherothrombotic pathology is highly concerned by polysaccharide-mediated recognition. Atherothrombotic diseases, regardless of the anatomical localization, remain the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. This review intends to provide an overview on polysaccharide-based nanosystems as drug delivery systems and targeted contrast agents for molecular imaging with an emphasis on the treatment and imaging of cardiovascular pathologies. PMID:24723980

  9. Computational Social Science: Exciting Progress and Future Challenges (United States)

    Watts, Duncan

    The past 15 years have witnessed a remarkable increase in both the scale and scope of social and behavioral data available to researchers, leading some to herald the emergence of a new field: ``computational social science.'' Against these exciting developments stands a stubborn fact: that in spite of many thousands of published papers, there has been surprisingly little progress on the ``big'' questions that motivated the field in the first place--questions concerning systemic risk in financial systems, problem solving in complex organizations, and the dynamics of epidemics or social movements, among others. In this talk I highlight some examples of research that would not have been possible just a handful of years ago and that illustrate the promise of CSS. At the same time, they illustrate its limitations. I then conclude with some thoughts on how CSS can bridge the gap between its current state and its potential.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol: current progress and future prospectives. (United States)

    Nostro, Antonia; Papalia, Teresa


    During the last few years the scientific community has shown a considerable interest in the study of plant materials as sources of new compounds to be processed into antimicrobial agents. In this context, carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, has emerged for its wide spectrum activity extended to food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria as well as human, animal and plant pathogenic microorganisms including drug-resistant and biofilm forming microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of carvacrol has been attributed to its considerable effects on the structural and functional properties of cytoplasmatic membrane. The data reported in this review provide an overview of the published literature regarding the antimicrobial properties of carvacrol and the recent patents claimed in order to highlight its future applications as a new antimicrobial agent. These could concern either the natural preservation in the cosmetic and food industries or an alternative which supports the conventional antimicrobial protocols. Interestingly, carvacrol alone or associated with one or more synergistic products could be incorporated in different formulations for biomedical and food packaging applications. However, more detailed safety investigations and in vivo studies should be carried out so that this molecule could be used in the future.

  11. [A young man with rapidly progressing dyspnoea and a mediastinal mass]. (United States)

    van Spronsen, D J; van den Berkmortel, F W P J; Bootsma, G P; de Mulder, P H M


    An 18-year-old male presented with a 2-week history of rapid progressive dyspnoea and dry cough due to a large mediastinal mass with compression of the trachea. Based on the raised serum values of the tumour markers chorionogonadotrophin and alphafoetoprotein the diagnosis of germ-cell tumour was made. Because of the severity of his symptoms chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin was begun on the same day and before the results of the histology investigations were known. The next day the symptoms were diminished and after completing four courses of chemotherapy there was complete remission. The differential diagnosis of a rapid progressive mediastinal mass is limited and mainly relates to malignant lymphoma and germ-cell tumours. In emergency situations if tumour markers are raised then anti-tumour therapy may be begun before any histological confirmation is available.

  12. Myopia-The future progression of myopia: Seeing where we are going. (United States)

    Mackey, David A


    The Marshall Parks Lecture 2015, entitled "Myopia-The future progression of myopia: Seeing where we are going," was presented by Professor David A. Mackey at the American Academy of Ophthalmology meeting held in Las Vegas in November 2015.

  13. Case report of rapidly progressive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and a proposal for aetiology in mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Xin


    Full Text Available Abstract Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL is a rare oral leukoplakia and has four features such as chronic proliferation, multiple occurrences, refractoriness to treatment and high rate of malignant transformation. As mentioned above, most PVL cases processed to malignancy over many years, sometimes 20 years. However, this report described a case of rapid progress, which had malignant transformation in a short period. Additionally, the aetiology of PVL was discussed and immunity was proposed as the possible cause.

  14. 75 FR 9232 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled Measuring Progress on Food...

  15. Rapidly Progressive Frontotemporal Dementia Associated with MAPT Mutation G389R. (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Chen, Kathryn; Li, Xia; Xiao, Shifu


    Frontotemporal dementia includes a large spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report the case of a young patient with MAPT mutation G389R, who was 27 years old when he progressively developed severe behavioral disturbances. Initially, he presented with slowly progressive personality change. After 1 year, he exhibited moderate dementia with extrapyramidal and pyramidal symptoms. MRI showed frontotemporal atrophy. He rapidly progressed to severe dementia 3 years after onset. Genetic testing revealed a heterozygous guanine to cytosine mutation at the first base of codon 389 (c.1165G>A) of MAPT, the tau gene, resulting in a glycine to arginine substitution in the patient and two unaffected relatives. We predicted the model of mutant tau protein through I-TASSER software, and speculated the structural change of tau protein caused by mutant site. We also detected the MAPT gene transcript and methylation of samples from peripheral blood leucocytes in an attempt to explain the possible mechanisms of incomplete penetrance, although there were not positive findings. This case is remarkable because of the early onset and rapid progression of the disease.

  16. Proteomics Standards Initiative: Fifteen Years of Progress and Future Work. (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Bittremieux, Wout; Eisenacher, Martin; Hermjakob, Henning; Kawano, Shin; Lam, Henry; Mayer, Gerhard; Menschaert, Gerben; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Salek, Reza M; Tabb, David L; Tenzer, Stefan; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Walzer, Mathias; Jones, Andrew R


    The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has now been developing and promoting open community standards and software tools in the field of proteomics for 15 years. Under the guidance of the chair, cochairs, and other leadership positions, the PSI working groups are tasked with the development and maintenance of community standards via special workshops and ongoing work. Among the existing ratified standards, the PSI working groups continue to update PSI-MI XML, MITAB, mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, and the MIAPE (Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment) guidelines with the advance of new technologies and techniques. Furthermore, new standards are currently either in the final stages of completion (proBed and proBAM for proteogenomics results as well as PEFF) or in early stages of design (a spectral library standard format, a universal spectrum identifier, the qcML quality control format, and the Protein Expression Interface (PROXI) web services Application Programming Interface). In this work we review the current status of all of these aspects of the PSI, describe synergies with other efforts such as the ProteomeXchange Consortium, the Human Proteome Project, and the metabolomics community, and provide a look at future directions of the PSI.

  17. USGCRP's Sustained Assessment Process: Progress to date and future plans (United States)

    DeAngelo, B. J.; Reidmiller, D.; Lipschultz, F.; Cloyd, E. T.


    One of the four main objectives of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's (USGCRP's) Strategic Plan is to "Conduct Sustained Assessments", which seeks to build a process that synthesizes and advances the state of scientific knowledge on global change, develops future scenarios and potential impacts, and evaluates how effectively science is being and can be used to inform and support the Nation's response to climate change. To do so, USGCRP strives to establish a standing capacity to conduct national climate assessments with sectoral and regional information to evaluate climate risks and opportunities, and to inform decision-making, especially with regard to resiliency planning and adaptation measures. Building on the success of the 3rd National Climate Assessment (NCA) (2014), we discuss the range of USGCRP activities that embody the sustained assessment concept. Special reports, such as the recent Climate and Human Health Assessment and upcoming Climate Science Special Report, fill gaps in our understanding and provide crucial building blocks for next NCA report (NCA4). To facilitate the use of consistent assumptions across NCA4, new scenario products for climate, population, and land use will be made available through initiatives such as NOAA's Climate Resilience Toolkit. NCA4 will be informed by user engagement to advance the customization of knowledge. The report will strive to advance our ability to quantify various risks, monetize certain impacts, and communicate the benefits (i.e., avoided impacts) of various mitigation pathways. NCAnet (a national network of climate-interested stakeholders) continues to grow and foster collaborations across levels of governance and within civil society. Finally, USGCRP continues to actively engage with other assessment processes, at international, state, city, and tribal levels, to exchange ideas and to facilitate the potential for "linked" assessments across spatial scales.

  18. Obesity induced rapid melanoma progression is reversed by orlistat treatment and dietary intervention: role of adipokines. (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pandey, Vimal; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Boreddy, Purushotham Reddy; Mohammad, Naoshad; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Bhat, Manoj Kumar


    Obesity, owing to adiposity, is associated with increased risk and development of various cancers, and linked to their rapid growth as well as progression. Although a few studies have attempted to understand the relationship between obesity and melanoma, the consequences of controlling body weight by reducing adiposity on cancer progression is not well understood. By employing animal models of obesity, we report that controlling obesity either by orlistat treatment or by restricting caloric intake significantly slows down melanoma progression. The diminished tumor progression was correlated with decreased fat mass (adiposity) in obese mice. Obesity associated factors contributing to tumor progression were decreased in the experimental groups compared to respective controls. In tumors, protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), caveolin (Cav)-1 and pAkt, which are tumor promoting molecules implicated in melanoma growth under obese state, were decreased. In addition, increased necrosis and reduction in angiogenesis as well as proliferative markers PCNA and cyclin D1 were observed in tumors of the orlistat treated and/or calorically restricted obese mice. We observed that growth of melanoma cells cultured in conditioned medium (CM) from orlistat-treated adipocytes was reduced. Adipokines (leptin and resistin), via activating Akt and modulation of FASN as well as Cav-1 respectively, enhanced melanoma cell growth and proliferation. Together, we demonstrate that controlling body weight reduces adipose mass thereby diminishing melanoma progression. Therefore, strategic means of controlling obesity by reduced caloric diet or with antiobesity drugs treatment may render obesity-promoted tumor progression in check and prolong survival of patients. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Large Scale Observatories for Changing Cold Regions - Recent Progress and Future Vision (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Carey, S. K.; DeBeer, C. M.


    Observatories are at the core of hydrological science and a critical resource for the detection and analysis of environmental change. The combination of multiple pressures on the water environment and new scientific opportunities provides a context where a broader vision is urgently needed. Human activities are increasingly affecting land and water management at multiple scales, so our observatories now need to more fully include the human dimensions of water, including their integration across jurisdictional boundaries and at large basin scales. And large scales are also needed to diagnose and predict impacts of climate change at regional and continental scales, and to address land-water-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks. We argue the need to build on the notable past successes of the World Climate Research Programme and move forward to a new era of globally-distributed large scale observatories. This paper introduces 2 such observatories in rapidly warming western Canada - the 405,000 km2 Saskatchewan and the 1.8 million km2 Mackenzie river basins. We review progress in these multi-scale observatories, including the use of point and small basin-scale observatory sites to observe and diagnose complex regional patterns of hydrological change. And building on new opportunities for observational systems and data assimilation, we present a vision for a pan-Canadian observing system to support the science needed for the management of future societal risk from extreme events and environmental change.

  20. Rapidly progressive atherosclerosis after domino liver transplantation from a teenage donor with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. (United States)

    Golbus, Jessica R; Farhat, Linda; Fontana, Robert J; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by impaired clearance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Given limitations in pharmacologic therapy and the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, liver transplantation may be offered to select homozygous FH patients in childhood in an effort to slow progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In rare cases, domino liver transplantation can be performed, transplanting the livers of patients with various metabolic disorders into elderly recipients whose projected survival precludes prolonged waiting on the transplant list. Herein, we report a case of domino liver transplantation using the liver of a 14-year-old boy with homozygous FH into a 65-year-old man with primary sclerosing cholangitis and cirrhosis who developed rapidly progressive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease involving the arteries of his proximal bilateral lower extremities, carotid arteries and superior mesenteric artery. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Research progress on the pathogenesis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yang JIANG


    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a sleep disorder characterized by the disappearance of muscle relaxation and enacting one's dreams during rapid eye movement (REM, with most of the dreams being violent or aggressive. Prevalence of RBD, based on population, is 0.38%-2.01%, but it becomes much higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially α - synucleinopathies. RBD may herald the emergence of α-synucleinopathies by decades, thus it may be used as an effective early marker of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized the progress on the pathogenesis of RBD and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.003

  2. Rapidly progressing dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus: when soil inhabitants become deadly invaders. (United States)

    Bhagat, Milind; Rapose, Alwyn


    We present a case report of a 61-year-old patient with acute pulmonary and cerebral infections with Aspergillus and Rhizopus. The only risk factor for invasive fungal disease was high-dose corticosteroids used to treat her chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. She had rapid progression and succumbed to her infections within 2 weeks of diagnosis in spite of aggressive antifungal therapy and surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapidly fatal dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus Our case highlights the role of high-dose corticosteroids as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in patients without traditional risk factors like haematological malignancies, solid organ transplantation or uncontrolled diabetes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Rapidly progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute loss of vision. (United States)

    Ekici, Bariş; Calişkan, Mine; Tatli, Burak; Aydinli, Nur; Ozmen, Meral


    A 10-year-old male presented with vision loss and behavioral changes. He had midpoint pupils with no reaction to light and normal funduscopic examination. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cortical lesions at parieto-occipital lobes. Elevated measles antibody titers in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite oral inosiplex and supportive care, patient developed generalized seizures with frequent myoclonic jerks and rapidly progressed into coma. Cortical blindness in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be an early indicator for fulminant course.

  4. Rapidly Progressive Encephalopathy: Initial Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Afonso Mendes


    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, incurable and fatal condition that can only be confirmed through neuropathological investigation, such as brain biopsy or post-mortem study. However, a probable diagnosis can be made using clinical criteria. CJD manifests as rapidly progressive dementia with myoclonus and to a lesser extent visual impairment and cerebellar and pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs. We report the case of a previously independent adult male that met all the clinical criteria. Taken together, the investigation results suggested probable CJD.

  5. Recent progress in Bacillus subtilis spore-surface display: concept, progress, and future. (United States)

    Wang, He; Wang, Yunxiang; Yang, Ruijin


    With the increased knowledge on spore structure and advances in biotechnology engineering, the newly developed spore-surface display system confers several inherent advantages over other microbial cell-surface display systems including enhanced stability and high safety. Bacillus subtilis is the most commonly used Bacillus species for spore-surface display. The expression of heterologous antigen or protein on the surface of B. subtilis spores has now been practiced for over a decade with noteworthy success. As an update and supplement to other previous reviews, we comprehensively summarize recent studies in the B. subtilis spore-surface display technique. We focus on its benefits as well as the critical factors affecting its display efficiency and offer suggestions for the future success of this field.

  6. Imiquimod 5% cream treatment for rapidly progressive genital condyloma in a 3-year-old girl. (United States)

    Leclair, Emily; Black, Amanda; Fleming, Nathalie


    The incidence of genital warts in children has increased in the last 50 years. Although pediatric genital warts may resolve spontaneously, the treatment of extensive perianal genital warts in children can be challenging. Imiquimod, although not approved in the pediatric population, may avoid the pain or extensive scarring associated with other treatment modalities. A 3-year-old female was scheduled for surgical resection of genital warts. At surgery, she had extensive condylomas that had progressed rapidly from initial presentation. They were not amenable to surgical treatment due to concerns of incomplete resection, post-operative pain, and genital scarring. After 6 weeks of imiquimod treatment, the condylomatous lesions had completely resolved with minimal side effects. Imiquimod 5% cream is an effective treatment option for children with extensive and rapidly progressive perianal warts and is associated with minimal side effects. Its use should be considered in children with extensive condyloma in order to avoid the pain and possible scarring associated with other approved treatment modalities. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapidly progressive osteoarthritis after arthroscopic labral repair in patients with hip dysplasia. (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Khatod, Monti


    Recent reports of poor clinical outcomes after arthroscopic surgery in hips with marked dysplasia have emerged. Arthroscopic resection of the hypertrophic labrum in cases of dysplasia, especially in the absence of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), has been implicated. Some patients will refuse PAO because it is a major open procedure, opting for a less invasive arthroscopic procedure. We present the cases of 2 young adults with marked dysplasia who had rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis despite arthroscopic labral repair. Though perhaps beneficial as an isolated procedure in borderline or mild dysplasia cases, arthroscopic hip surgery, even labral repair, may best be performed with PAO in cases with more severe dysplasia. Albeit attractive as a less invasive labral-preserving surgery, arthroscopic labral repair not only may fail to provide symptomatic improvement but may compromise or preclude a later PAO if rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis ensues. Hip arthroscopy may best be performed concurrently with or after PAO but not proceeding PAO in patients requiring both procedures. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A rapidly progressive defective spermatogenesis in a Mexican family affected by spino-bulbar muscular atrophy. (United States)

    Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel; Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Chacón-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Gallegos-Rivas, Mayra Celina; Kazakova, Ekaterina; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Zenteno, Juan Carlos


    Spino-bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked recessive adult progressive disorder affecting motor neurons. It is caused by a poly-glutamine tract expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) which generates protein aggregates that cannot be processed by proteasomes. A secondary mild androgen resistance is developed by AR dysfunction and patients present endocrine abnormalities including gynecomastia and poor function of testosterone in tissues; however, normally they are fertile. In this report we describe a Mexican family with three affected brothers with primary infertility caused by a progressive impairment of spermatogenesis leading to azoospermia before 40 years of age. They presented common features associated to patients affected by SMBA, such as gynecomastia, high level of CPK, muscle cramps, fasciculations, muscle wastage, and impaired swallowing. Two intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were performed in one of the patients resulting in fertilization failure. Molecular analysis of AR gene exon 1 revealed 54 CAG repeats in DNA extracted from leukocytes in affected patients and 22 repeats in the fertile non-affected brother. Severe impaired spermatogenesis of rapid progression has not been associated before to SBMA. This is the first report of assisted reproduction techniques indicated by male infertility in patients with this rare disorder. Further studies are required to confirm the unusual result of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. We discuss the implications and possible pathogenesis of these unique features of SBMA in this family.

  9. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease. (United States)

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos


    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. 75 FR 37752 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing that the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), the Food and Drug...

  11. Conference Scene: From innovative polymers to advanced nanomedicine: Key challenges, recent progress and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, Jan; Hennink, W.E.; Zhong, Zhiyuan


    Recent developments in polymer-based controlled delivery systems have made a significant clinical impact. The second Symposium on Innovative Polymers for Controlled Delivery (SIPCD) was held in Suzhou, China to address the key challenges and provide up-to-date progress and future perspectives in the

  12. An unusual case of rapidly progressive contractures: Case report and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasree R


    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, diagnosed as cervical dystonia, was referred to our tertiary center. After a trivial trauma he had developed painful lumps in the axial region, which was followed by restricted movements of neck, shoulder, and abdominal muscles over 4 months. He had kyphoscoliosis, torticollis, rigid abdomen, and multiple muscle contractures. He also had short great toes. A detailed skeletal survey showed calcification in the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder anterior chest wall, thorax, and paraspinal muscles; there was also beaking of vertebrae, which was confirmed by CT thorax. This report showcases the diagnostic challenge posed by myositis ossificans progressiva, which can rarely cause rapidly progressing muscle contractures. A brief review of literature is also presented.

  13. Non-inflammatory cerebral amyloid angiopathy as a cause of rapidly progressive dementia: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Tadao Takada

    Full Text Available Abstract A 77 year-old men developed a subacute-onset, rapidly progressive cognitive decline. After 6 months of evolution, he scored 6 on the Mini-Mental State Examination and had left hemiparesis and hemineglect. The patient died 11 months after the onset of cognitive symptoms. Brain MRI showed microhemorrhages on gradient-echo sequence and confluent areas of white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted images. Brain biopsy revealed amyloid-b peptide deposition in vessel walls, some of them surrounded by micro-bleeds. In this case report, we discuss the role of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA in cognitive decline, due to structural lesions associated with hemorrhages and infarcts, white matter lesions and co-morbidity of Alzheimer's disease, as well as the most recently described amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation.

  14. Male patients presenting with rapidly progressive puberty associated with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Kim


    Full Text Available In males, precocious puberty (PP is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 9 years. PP is usually idiopathic; though, organic abnormalities including tumors are more frequently found in male patients with PP. However, advanced puberty in male also can be an important clinical manifestation in tumors. We report 2 cases of rapidly progressive puberty in males, each associated with a germ-cell tumor. First, an 11-year-old boy presented with mild fever and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 10-mL testes. Investigations revealed advanced bone age (16 years with elevated basal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. An anterior mediastinal tumor was identified by chest radiography and computed tomography, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels were noted. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a yolk-sac tumor. Second, a 12-year-old boy presented with diplopia, polydipsia, and polyuria for 4 months. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 8-mL testes. Bone age was advanced (16 years and laboratory tests indicated panhypopituitarism with elevated testosterone level. A mixed germ-cell tumor was diagnosed with elevated AFP and β-hCG levels. Of course, these patients also have other symptoms of suspecting tumors, however, rapidly progressive puberty can be the more earlier screening sign of tumors. Therefore, in male patients with accelerated or advanced puberty, malignancy should be considered, with evaluation of tumor markers. In addition, advanced puberty in male should be recognized more widely as a unique sign of neoplasm.

  15. Peranan Terapi Awal dan Terapi Pemeliharaan pada Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita H. Joedo


    Full Text Available Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis (RPP is a severe form of a periodontal disease which starts since a puberty age. The disease if a generalized periodontal destruction without a specific distribution mode: it develops more progressively but does not in accordance to local factors. The first step to the RPP treatment is initial therapy: i.e. DHE, scaling and root planing, and eliminating predisposing local factors and continued with a maintence therapy which will support the success of a surgery later. A study case: a 21-year old RPP woman showed hyperaemia, an abscess, a 10 mm mesial pocket depth, a 5 mm distal pocker depth, a 5 mm buccal pocket depth, a 2nd degree tooth mobility and a 3 mm buccal recession on 25. In the initial therapy she was given an amoxicillin, a metronidazole for killing a supra and subgingival baterial, vitamins B and C, and also a chlorhexidine 0.2% mouth wash for a week. After a week the abscess and the inflammation decreased, but the mobility was still in the same condition and the DHE was still evaluated because of the patient's social factor, the FO was delayed. The next visit was done every 2 monts for a year for maintenance care. The clinical result showed the gingival inflammation and the tooth mobility disappeared. Radiographically, the alveolar bone showed more radiopaque and the lamina dura was seen. In conclusio, the initial and the maintenance therapy was seen to heal the RPP.

  16. Wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Kakoi, H; Hiraide, F; Nishizawa, S; Inouye, T; Yoshizawa, N


    A patient with the classic form of Wegener's granulomatosis with severe dabetes mellitus and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is described. This 61-year-old male presented with epistaxis and nasal pain and obstruction. The nasal cavities were filled with crusts covering eroded mucosa. The diagnosis was made by biopsy of nasal and bronchial mucosa, and laboratory data. The epistaxis was stopped by 10 Gy irradiation over the nasal cavities. The patient had severe diabetes mellitus. His blood sugar was not controlled by diet and insulin injection. His general condition worsened rapidly as the growth of granuloma in the nose and lung. Accordingly, prednisolone therapy reinitiated to suppress the granuloma although it has a reverse effect on diabetes mellitus. Approximately one month after admission, he died of acute renal failure. Autopsy was carried out. Granulomatous lesions were noted in the nasal cavities, lungs and spleen. Many petechiae were found macroscopically over the cortex of the kidney. Hyalinization or sclerosis with crescent formation was found microscopically in estimated 85% of the glomeruli. Immunohistologic analysis of the renal tissue demonstrated an irregular linear pattern deposition of IgG, IgA and C3 and a granular pattern deposition of IgM and C1q.


    Hershfield, Hal E; Goldstein, Daniel G; Sharpe, William F; Fox, Jesse; Yeykelis, Leo; Carstensen, Laura L; Bailenson, Jeremy N


    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

  18. Rapidly progressive polyneuropathy due to dry beriberi in a man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekwuwa Godwin


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of rapidly progressive and severely debilitating polyneuropathy in a patient with confirmed hypovitaminosis B1, consistent with dry beriberi. Crucially, this is a treatable condition, although sometimes with incomplete recovery, but it is probably under-recognized yet increasingly common given increasing levels of alcohol abuse in the western world. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian British man presented with progressive weakness of both lower limbs of approximately seven months' duration. He noted difficulty climbing stairs. He also complained of lethargy, and loss of muscle bulk, including his thighs. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and admitted prior alcohol abuse but denied excessive alcohol intake in the five years prior to presentation. Initial clinical and neurophysiological examinations were consistent with a mild peripheral neuropathy and probable proximal myopathy. However, over the subsequent four months he evolved a marked tetraparesis, with profound sensory disturbance of all limbs. Repeat neurophysiology revealed a widespread polyneuropathy with extensive acute and sub-acute denervation changes in all four limbs, and reduced or absent sensory nerve action potentials. Hypovitaminosis B1 was confirmed (45 nmol/L, reference range 66-200 nmol/L. His rapid clinical deterioration was in keeping with dry beriberi. He was treated with thiamine. Subsequent follow-up revealed slow but significant improvement, such that by 15-16 months from the initial onset of symptoms, and approximately six months after the onset of his marked tetraparesis, he was able to stand independently and was gradually gaining confidence in walking pending a period of in-patient neurorehabilitation. Conclusion A potentially wide differential diagnosis exists for this type of presentation. Confirming hypovitaminosis B1 by requesting the assay prior to vitamin replacement ensures accurate diagnosis and

  19. Critical Role for Monocytes/Macrophages in Rapid Progression to AIDS in Pediatric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chie; Merino, Kristen M; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Wang, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Xavier A; Wakao, Hiroshi; Mori, Kazuyasu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Veazey, Ronald S; Didier, Elizabeth S; Kuroda, Marcelo J


    Infant humans and rhesus macaques infected with the human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV or SIV), respectively, express higher viral loads and progress more rapidly to AIDS than infected adults. Activated memory CD4(+) T cells in intestinal tissues are major primary target cells for SIV/HIV infection, and massive depletion of these cells is considered a major cause of immunodeficiency. Monocytes and macrophages are important cells of innate immunity and also are targets of HIV/SIV infection. We reported previously that a high peripheral blood monocyte turnover rate was predictive for the onset of disease progression to AIDS in SIV-infected adult macaques. The purpose of this study was to determine if earlier or higher infection of monocytes/macrophages contributes to the more rapid progression to AIDS in infants. We observed that uninfected infant rhesus macaques exhibited higher physiologic baseline monocyte turnover than adults. Early after SIV infection, the monocyte turnover further increased, and it remained high during progression to AIDS. A high percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end label (TUNEL)-positive macrophages in the lymph nodes (LNs) and intestine corresponded with an increasing number of macrophages derived from circulating monocytes (bromodeoxyuridine positive [BrdU(+)] CD163(+)), suggesting that the increased blood monocyte turnover was required to rapidly replenish destroyed tissue macrophages. Immunofluorescence analysis further demonstrated that macrophages were a significant portion of the virus-producing cells found in LNs, intestinal tissues, and lungs. The higher baseline monocyte turnover in infant macaques and subsequent macrophage damage by SIV infection may help explain the basis of more rapid disease progression to AIDS in infants.IMPORTANCE HIV infection progresses much more rapidly in pediatric cases than in adults; however, the mechanism for this difference is unclear. Using the rhesus macaque model

  20. HPLC method for rapidly following biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction progress using a core-shell column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Samuel J.; Ott, Lisa S. [California State University, Chico, CA (United States)


    There are a wide and growing variety of feedstocks for biodiesel fuel. Most commonly, these feedstocks contain triglycerides which are transesterified into the fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) which comprise biodiesel fuel. While the tranesterification reaction itself is simple, monitoring the reaction progress and reaction products is not. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is useful for assessing the FAAE products, but does not directly address either the tri-, di-, or monoglycerides present from incomplete transesterification or the free fatty acids which may also be present. Analysis of the biodiesel reaction mixture is complicated by the solubility and physical property differences among the components of the tranesterification reaction mixture. In this contribution, we present a simple, rapid HPLC method which allows for monitoring all of the main components in a biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction, with specific emphasis on the ability to monitor the reaction as a function of time. The utilization of a relatively new, core-shell stationary phase for the HPLC column allows for efficient separation of peaks with short elution times, saving both time and solvent. (orig.)

  1. A rapidly progressing Pancoast syndrome due to pulmonary mucormycosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiatt Kim M


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pancoast syndrome is characterized by Horner syndrome, shoulder pain radiating down the arm, compression of the brachial blood vessels, and, in long-standing cases, atrophy of the arm and hand muscles. It is most commonly associated with lung carcinoma but rarely is seen with certain infections. Case presentation We present the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man who had acute myeloid leukemia and who developed a rapidly fulminating pneumonia along with signs and symptoms of acute brachial plexopathy and left Horner syndrome. Also, a purpuric plaque developed over his left chest wall and progressed to skin necrosis. The skin biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage showed a Rhizopus species, leading to a diagnosis of mucormycosis. This is a rare case of pneumonia due to mucormycosis associated with acute Pancoast syndrome. Conclusions According to our review of the literature, only a few infectious agents have been reported to be associated with Pancoast syndrome. We found only three case reports of mucormycosis associated with acute Pancoast syndrome. Clinicians should consider mucormycosis in their differential diagnosis in a patient with pulmonary lesions and chest wall invasion with or without neurological symptoms, especially in the setting of neutropenia or other immunosuppressed conditions. It is important to recognize this condition early in order to target therapy and interventions.

  2. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael


    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  3. Injury Markers but not Amyloid Markers are Associated with Rapid Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, I.A.; Visser, P.J.; Knol, D.L.; van der Flier, W.M.; Teunissen, C.E.; Barkhof, F.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Scheltens, P.


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the time between the diagnosis of MCI and the diagnosis of dementia is highly variable. In this study we investigated which known risk factors and biomarkers of AD pathology were associated with rapid progression

  4. Rapid Progression of Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification and Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure and Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Seong Ho [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. The authors experienced a patient with chronic renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism by parathyroid adenoma accompanied with rapid progressions of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage. Recent chest radiographs, compared with previous chest radiographs, showed rapid accumulation of calcification in both upper lungs. Following up on the high-resolution CT scan after five years demonstrates more increased nodules in size and ground glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with MPC and alveolar hemorrhage by transbronchial lung biopsy. We assumed rapid progression of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage in underlying chronic renal failures could be a primary hyperparathyroidism which may be caused by parathyroid adenoma detected incidentally. Therefore parathyroid adenoma was treated with ethanol injections. Herein, we have reported on CT findings of MPC with alveolar hemorrhage and reviewed our case along with other articles.

  5. Neurocognitive features distinguishing primary central nervous system lymphoma from other possible causes of rapidly progressive dementia. (United States)

    Deutsch, Mariel B; Mendez, Mario F


    Define the neurocognitive features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) presenting with dementia, and compare with other causes of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). PCNSL can present as an RPD. Differentiating PCNSL from other RPDs is critical because lymphomatous dementia may be reversible, and untreated PCNSL is fatal. We performed a meta-analysis of case reports of dementia from PCNSL (between 1950 and 2013); 20 patients (14 with lymphomatosis cerebri) met our criteria. We compared these patients to a case series of patients with RPD from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other non-PCNSL etiologies (Sala et al, 2012. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 26:267-271). Median age was 66 years (range 41 to 81); 70% were men. Time from symptom onset to evaluation was <6 months in 65%. No patients had seizures; 5% had headaches; 45% had non-aphasic speech difficulty. There was significantly more memory impairment in patients with PCNSL than other RPDs and significantly less myoclonus and parkinsonism. Behavioral changes and cerebellar signs were not significantly different. Significantly more patients with PCNSL than other RPDs had white matter changes; significantly fewer had atrophy. Elevated CSF protein and pleocytosis were more frequent in PCNSL; patients with other RPDs tended to have normal CSF±14-3-3 protein. Unlike patients with RPD from other causes, those with PCNSL commonly present with impaired memory, apathy, and abnormal speech and gait, without headache, seizure, or myoclonus. White matter changes and CSF abnormalities predominate. Improved clinical awareness of PCNSL can prompt earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Over the past 10 years, DOE has built a solid foundation for a robust CHP marketplace. We have aligned with key partners to produce innovative technologies and spearhead market-transforming projects. Our commercialization activities and Clean Energy Regional Application Centers have expanded CHP across the nation. More must be done to tap CHP’s full potential. Read more about DOE’s CHP Program in “Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future.”

  7. Primary Cutaneous Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Not Otherwise Specified: A Rapidly Progressive Variant of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Aderhold


    Full Text Available Primary Cutaneous Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma NOS (PTL-NOS is a rare, progressive, fatal dermatologic disease that presents with features similar to many common benign plaque-like skin conditions, making recognition of its distinguishing features critical for early diagnosis and treatment (Bolognia et al., 2008. A 78-year-old woman presented to ambulatory care with a single 5 cm nodule on her shoulder that had developed rapidly over 1-2 weeks. Examination was suspicious for malignancy and a biopsy was performed. Biopsy results demonstrated CD4 positivity, consistent with Mycosis Fungoides with coexpression of CD5, CD47, and CD7. Within three months her cancer had progressed into diffuse lesions spanning her entire body. As rapid progression is usually uncharacteristic of Mycosis Fungoides, her diagnosis was amended to PTL-NOS. Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL should be suspected in patients with patches, plaques, erythroderma, or papules that persist or multiply despite conservative treatment. Singular biopsies are often nondiagnostic, requiring a high degree of suspicion if there is deviation from the anticipated clinical course. Multiple biopsies are often necessary to make the diagnosis. Physicians caring for patients with rapidly progressive, nonspecific dermatoses with features described above should keep more uncommon forms of CTCL in mind and refer for early biopsy.

  8. Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhisa Masaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples included 11 autopsied cases with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, six with MS, and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND. Methods of analysis included immunohistochemical expression of astrocytic Cx43/Cx30, oligodendrocytic Cx47/Cx32 relative to AQP4 and other astrocytic and oligodendrocytic proteins, extent of demyelination, the vasculocentric deposition of complement and immunoglobulin, and lesion staging by CD68 staining for macrophages. Lesions were classified as actively demyelinating (n=59, chronic active (n=58 and chronic inactive (n=23. Sera from 120 subjects including 30 MS, 30 NMO, 40 OND and 20 healthy controls were examined for anti-Cx43 antibody by cell-based assay. Six NMO/NMOSD and three MS cases showed preferential loss of astrocytic Cx43 beyond the demyelinated areas in actively demyelinating and chronic active lesions, where heterotypic Cx43/Cx47 astrocyte oligodendrocyte gap junctions were extensively lost. Cx43 loss was significantly associated with a rapidly progressive disease course as six of nine cases with Cx43 loss, but none of eight cases without Cx43 loss regardless of disease phenotype, died within two years after disease onset (66.7% vs. 0%, P=0.0090. Overall, five of nine cases with Cx43 loss and none of eight cases without Cx43 loss had distal oligodendrogliopathy characterized by selective myelin associated glycoprotein loss (55.6% vs. 0.0%, P=0.0296. Loss of oligodendrocytic Cx32 and Cx47 expression was observed in most active and chronic lesions from all MS and NMO/NMOSD cases. Cx43-specific antibodies were absent in NMO/NMOSD and MS patients. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Key indicators to track current progress and future ambition of the Paris Agreement (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Fuss, Sabine; Jackson, Robert B.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Le Quéré, Corinne; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa


    Current emission pledges to the Paris Agreement appear insufficient to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet, details are missing on how to track progress towards the `Paris goal', inform the five-yearly `global stocktake', and increase the ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). We develop a nested structure of key indicators to track progress through time. Global emissions track aggregated progress, country-level decompositions track emerging trends that link directly to NDCs, and technology diffusion indicates future reductions. We find the recent slowdown in global emissions growth is due to reduced growth in coal use since 2011, primarily in China and secondarily in the United States. The slowdown is projected to continue in 2016, with global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry similar to the 2015 level of 36 GtCO2. Explosive and policy-driven growth in wind and solar has contributed to the global emissions slowdown, but has been less important than economic factors and energy efficiency. We show that many key indicators are currently broadly consistent with emission scenarios that keep temperatures below 2 °C, but the continued lack of large-scale carbon capture and storage threatens 2030 targets and the longer-term Paris ambition of net-zero emissions.

  10. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.


    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Karpenko


    Full Text Available In modern stomatology the problem ofatypicalforms ofinflammatoryperiodontaldiseases origination, namely of rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP, has got special importance due to its widespread. The article presents one of the impotant parts of the pathogenesis- the disturbance of microcirculation processes caused by the decrease of blood clot resistencyofa vascularwall in pathogenesis ofmicrocirculatori disorders in patients with RPP. These disturbances are predetermined by endothelial dysfunction with the subsequent degradation of the clinical presentation of disease, the stomatologic status and quality of patients life.

  12. Stratification by Genetic and Demographic Characteristics Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Rapidly Progressive Dementia. (United States)

    Karch, André; Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep Singh; Zafar, Saima; Lange, Peter; Schmidt, Christian; Zerr, Inga


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are routinely used for the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia, but are also affected by patients' characteristics. To assess if stratification by age, sex, and genetic risk factors improves the accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in patients with rapidly progressive dementia. 1,538 individuals with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 173 with classic Alzheimer's disease (cAD), 37 with rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease (rpAD), and 589 without signs of dementia were included in this retrospective diagnostic study. The effect of age, sex, PRNP codon 129, and APOE genotype on CSF levels of tau, p-tau, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-40 values measured at time of diagnostic work-up was assessed. Tau was a better marker for the differentiation of CJD and rpAD in older (AUC:0.97; 95% CI:0.96-1.00) than in younger (AUC:0.91; 95% CI:0.87-0.94) patients as tau levels increased with age in CJD patients, but not in rpAD patients. PRNP codon 129 and APOE genotype had complex effects on biomarkers in all diseases, making stratification by genotype a powerful tool. In females (AUC:0.78; 95% CI:0.65-0.91) and patients older than 70 (AUC:0.78; 95% CI:0.62-0.93), tau was able to differentiate with moderate accuracy between cAD and rpAD patients. Implementation of stratum-specific reference ranges improves the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia. Diagnostic criteria developed for this setting have to take this into account.

  13. Imaging Spectroscopy Techniques for Rapid Assessment of Geologic and Cryospheric Science Data from future Satellite Sensors (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Hill, R.


    Several efforts are currently underway to develop and launch the next generation of imaging spectrometer systems on satellite platforms for a wide range of Earth Observation goals. Systems that include the reflected solar wavelength range up to 2.5 μm will be capable of detailed mapping of the composition of the Earth's surface. Sensors under development include EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, HERO, and HyspIRI. These systems are expected to be able to provide global data for insights and constraints on fundamental geological processes, natural and anthropogenic hazards, water, energy and mineral resource assessments. Coupled with the development of these sensors is the challenge of bringing a multi-channel user community (from Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER) into the rich science return available from imaging spectrometer systems. Most data end users will never be spectroscopy experts so that making the derived science products accessible to a wide user community is imperative. Simple band parameterizations have been developed for the CRISM instrument at Mars, including mafic and alteration minerals, frost and volatile ice indices. These products enhance and augment the use of that data set by broader group of scientists. Summary products for terrestrial geologic and water resource applications would help build a wider user base for future satellite systems, and rapidly key spectral experts to important regions for detailed spectral mapping. Summary products take advantage of imaging spectroscopy's narrow spectral channels with band depth calculations in addition to band ratios that are commonly used by multi-channel systems (e.g. NDVI, NDWI, NDSI). We are testing summary products for Earth geologic and snow scenes over California using AVIRIS data at 18m/pixel. This has resulted in several algorithms for rapid mineral discrimination and mapping and data collects over the melting Sierra snowpack in spring 2016 are expected to generate algorithms for snow grain size and surface

  14. Current Scientific Progress and Future Scientific Prospects Enabled by Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurements (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Yang, Song


    First, we examine current scientific progress and understanding that have been possible through use of spaceborne precipitation radar measurements being provided by the TRMM and CloudSat satellites. Second, we look across a future 20-year time frame to assess how and why anticipated improvements in space radar systems will further advance scientific progress into topic areas once considered beyond the realm of space-based remote sensing. JAXA's 13.8 GHz Ku-band cross-track scanning Precipitation Radar (PR) developed for flight on NASA's non-sun-synchronous, diurnally-precessing TRMM satellite, was the first Earth radar flown in space that was designed specifically for precipitation measurement. Its proven accuracy in measuring global rainfall in the tropics and sub-tropics and its unanticipated longevity in continuing these measurements beyond a full decade have established the standards against which all follow-up and future space radars will be evaluated. In regards to the current PR measurement time series, we will discuss a selection of major scientific discoveries and impacts which have set the stage for future radar measuring systems. In fact, the 2nd contemporary space radar applicable for terrestrial precipitation measurement, i.e., JPL-CSA's 94 GHz nadir-staring Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) flown on NASA's sun-synchronous CloudSat satellite, although designed primarily for measurement of non-precipitating cloud hydrometeors and aerosols, has also unquestionably advanced precipitation measurement because CPR's higher frequency and greatly increased sensitivity (approximately 30 dBZ) has enabled global observations of light rain rate spectrum processes (i.e., rain rates below 0.05 mm per hourand of precipitation processes in the high troposphere (particularly ice phase processes). These processes are beyond reach of the TRMM radar because the PR sensitivity limit is approximately 17 dBZ which means its lower rain rate cutoff is around 0.3 mm per hour and its

  15. Lower corneal hysteresis is associated with more rapid glaucomatous visual field progression. (United States)

    De Moraes, Carlos V Gustavo; Hill, Victoria; Tello, Celso; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert


    We investigated the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal hysteresis (CH) and their relationship with the rate of visual field (VF) change. Glaucoma patients who underwent complete ophthalmic examination and tonometry using both the Goldmann applanation tonometer and the Ocular Response Analyzer were prospectively enrolled. Only eyes with ≥5 SITA Standard 24-2 VF tests were included. Automated pointwise linear regression analysis was used to determine VF progression. One hundred fifty-three eyes (153 patients; mean age, 61.3 ± 14.0 y; mean number of VF, 8.5 ± 3.4; mean follow-up time, 5.3 ± 2.0 y) met the enrollment criteria. The mean global rate of VF change was -0.34 ± 0.7 dB/y. Twenty-five eyes (16%) reached a progression endpoint. Progressing eyes had lower CCT (525.0 ± 34.2 vs 542.3 ± 3 8.5 μm, P=0.04) and lower CH (7.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.0 ± 1.8 mm Hg, PCorneal biomechanical and physical properties, such as CH and CCT, are highly correlated and associated with VF progression. As CH may describe corneal properties more completely than thickness alone, it may be a parameter that is better associated with progression.

  16. Climate change and alpine stream biology: progress, challenges, and opportunities for the future. (United States)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S; Joseph Giersch, J; Weisrock, David W; Jacobsen, Dean


    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities. Herein, we describe the current state of alpine stream biology from an organism-focused perspective. We begin by reviewing seven standard and emerging approaches that combine to form the current state of the discipline. We follow with a call for increased synthesis across existing approaches to improve understanding of how these imperiled ecosystems are responding to rapid environmental change. We then take a forward-looking viewpoint on how alpine stream biologists can make better use of existing data sets through temporal comparisons, integrate remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) technologies, and apply genomic tools to refine knowledge of underlying evolutionary processes. We conclude with comments about the future of biodiversity conservation in alpine streams to confront the daunting challenge of mitigating the effects of rapid environmental change in these sentinel ecosystems. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. Climate change and alpine stream biology: progress, challenges, and opportunities for the future (United States)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Giersch, J. Joseph; Weisrock, David W.; Jacobsen, Dean


    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities. Herein, we describe the current state of alpine stream biology from an organism-focused perspective. We begin by reviewing seven standard and emerging approaches that combine to form the current state of the discipline. We follow with a call for increased synthesis across existing approaches to improve understanding of how these imperiled ecosystems are responding to rapid environmental change. We then take a forward-looking viewpoint on how alpine stream biologists can make better use of existing data sets through temporal comparisons, integrate remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) technologies, and apply genomic tools to refine knowledge of underlying evolutionary processes. We conclude with comments about the future of biodiversity conservation in alpine streams to confront the daunting challenge of mitigating the effects of rapid environmental change in these sentinel ecosystems.

  18. Progress towards Rapid Detection of Measles Vaccine Strains: a Tool To Inform Public Health Interventions. (United States)

    Hacker, Jill K


    Rapid differentiation of vaccine from wild-type strains in suspect measles cases is a valuable epidemiological tool that informs the public health response to this highly infectious disease. Few public health laboratories sequence measles virus-positive specimens to determine genotype, and the vaccine-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assay described by F. Roy et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:735-743, 2017, offers a rapid, easily adoptable method to identify measles vaccine strains in suspect cases. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. A rapidly progressing, deadly disease ofActias selene (Indian moon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A mixed baculoviral–bacterial infection observed among Actias selene (Hübner 1807), the Indian moon moth (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), larvae was characterized and followed by a photographic documentation of the disease progression. The etiological agents were determined using mass spectrometry and ...

  20. Mobile Technology in the Perioperative Arena: Rapid Evolution and Future Disruption. (United States)

    Rothman, Brian S; Gupta, Rajnish K; McEvoy, Matthew D


    Throughout the history of medicine, physicians have relied upon disruptive innovations and technologies to improve the quality of care delivered, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. The implementation of mobile technology in health care is quickly becoming the next disruptive technology. We first review the history of mobile technology over the past 3 decades, discuss the impact of hardware and software, explore the rapid expansion of applications (apps), and evaluate the adoption of mobile technology in health care. Next, we discuss how technology serves as the vehicle that can transform traditional didactic learning into one that adapts to the learning behavior of the student by using concepts such as the flipped classroom, just-in-time learning, social media, and Web 2.0/3.0. The focus in this modern education paradigm is shifting from teacher-centric to learner-centric, including providers and patients, and is being delivered as context-sensitive, or semantic, learning. Finally, we present the methods by which connected health systems via mobile devices increase information collection and analysis from patients in both clinical care and research environments. This enhanced patient and provider connection has demonstrated benefits including reducing unnecessary hospital readmissions, improved perioperative health maintenance coordination, and improved care in remote and underserved areas. A significant portion of the future of health care, and specifically perioperative medicine, revolves around mobile technology, nimble learners, patient-specific information and decision-making, and continuous connectivity between patients and health care systems. As such, an understanding of developing or evaluating mobile technology likely will be important for anesthesiologists, particularly with an ever-expanding scope of practice in perioperative medicine.

  1. Consumer Health Informatics: Past, Present, and Future of a Rapidly Evolving Domain. (United States)

    Demiris, G


    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a rapidly growing domain within the field of biomedical and health informatics. The objective of this paper is to reflect on the past twenty five years and showcase informatics concepts and applications that led to new models of care and patient empowerment, and to predict future trends and challenges for the next 25 years. We discuss concepts and systems based on a review and analysis of published literature in the consumer health informatics domain in the last 25 years. The field was introduced with the vision that one day patients will be in charge of their own health care using informatics tools and systems. Scientific literature in the field originally focused on ways to assess the quality and validity of available printed health information, only to grow significantly to cover diverse areas such as online communities, social media, and shared decision-making. Concepts such as home telehealth, mHealth, and the quantified-self movement, tools to address transparency of health care organizations, and personal health records and portals provided significant milestones in the field. Consumers are able to actively participate in the decision-making process and to engage in health care processes and decisions. However, challenges such as health literacy and the digital divide have hindered us from maximizing the potential of CHI tools with a significant portion of underserved populations unable to access and utilize them. At the same time, at a global scale consumer tools can increase access to care for underserved populations in developing countries. The field continues to grow and emerging movements such as precision medicine and the sharing economy will introduce new opportunities and challenges.

  2. Overview of Maternal, Neonatal and Child Deaths in South Africa: Challenges, Opportunities, Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musawenkosi H L Mabaso, PhD


    Full Text Available Background: The fact that most sub-Saharan Africa countries including South Africa (SA are not on track to meet the 2015 target of improving maternal, neonate and child health (MNCH is a major public health concern. The aim of this paper to give an overview of the current state of MNC deaths in SA, their relative causes, highlight challenges, existing opportunities, progress made and future prospects. Methods: The overview involved a synthesis and review of recent data and information from key national representative peer reviewed articles and grey literature from the National Department of Health and related stakeholder reports. Results: Since 1990 the situation in SA aroused a lot of research interest in tracing the historical context of the problem, evaluating progress made and actions for improving MNCH. In 2009 the SA government established three national committees for confidential enquiry on MNC deaths. Multifactorial systems’ related challenges were identified. Subsequently, the new National Strategic Plan for MNC and Women’s Health and Nutrition has, in addition to provision of comprehensive interventions, been linked and aligned with efforts to strengthen the health systems particularly through the re-engineering of the Primary Health Care (PHC services and district health systems. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The overview gives an insight of the process that has influenced MNCH policy and programs in the country. The SA experience and current MNCH situation may be different compared to other African countries, however, the political commitment and government stewardship coupled with critical and yet complimentary research is exemplary, especially, given several global and regional plans and commitments to improve MNCH in the continent.

  3. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  4. A Case of Immunotactoid Glomerulopathy with Rapid Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain


    Full Text Available Immunotactoid glomerulopathy (IGN is a rare immunoglobulin deposition disease. It is often mistaken for cryoglobulinemia or amyloidosis due to the similarities on biopsy findings. The disease progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD within 7 months to 10 years. This is the first case reported of a patient with a diagnosis of IGN who developed acute kidney injury (AKI and ESRD within 1 week of initial presentation.

  5. Association of AIDS and Bipolar Mania with Rapid Progression to Dementia and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Yang


    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS may present clinically as acute or chronic organic brain syndrome, or mimic functional psychiatric diseases. Among such psychiatric diseases, mania tends to occur with increased frequency after the onset of AIDS. We report a case in which manic manifestations were noted before the diagnosis of AIDS. The patient had no past or family history of mood disorders, but had risk factors for HIV infection. He had a rapid downhill course from initial manic symptoms to depression, dementia and then death within 10 months. Such rapid cognitive deterioration into AIDS dementia after mania is consistent with previous reports. Cases like this will become more common with spread of the AIDS pandemic in Asian regions, including Taiwan. Clinicians should be mindful of HIV infection/AIDS as a differential diagnosis in patients with manic episodes and risk factors for HIV infection.

  6. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sato


    Full Text Available Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis.

  7. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease (United States)

    Nogi, Shinichi; Sasaki, Noriko; Chinen, Naofumi; Honda, Kiri; Saito, Eiko; Wakabayashi, Takayuki; Yamada, Chiho; Suzuki, Yasuo


    Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM) from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis. PMID:25431723

  8. A Case of Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Popliteal Artery Progressing Rapidly after Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Aspiration. (United States)

    Seo, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Hiromichi; Aoyama, Takanobu; Sasako, Yoshikado


    Adventitial cystic disease is a rare non-atherosclerotic vascular disease. We report a 36-year-old man with right intermittent claudication by adventitial cystic disease. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an ovoid cystic mass compressing the right popliteal artery and causing severe stenosis of the lumen. Percutaneous aspiration was performed, which improved his symptoms. However, he complained of identical intermittent claudication two weeks later. Radiographic findings revealed that the cystic lesion had progressed rapidly. The cystic lesion was resected and the affected arterial segment was interposed. We consider that conventional surgical intervention remains the favored treatment option in the management of adventitial cystic disease.

  9. Rapid progression of mediastinal tumor within a few days: A case report of T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae Ran; Lee, Young Kyung; Jun, Hyun Jung; Jung, Eun Ah; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is a highly aggressive tumor derived from lymphocyte of the thymus, which accounts for 2% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease occurs most commonly in adolescent and young adult males. It often results in respiratory emergency because of high proliferation rate. In this case, we confirmed the rapid progression of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma through the chest CT scan with one week interval. Three days of empirical chemotherapy resulted in substantial reduction of mediastinal mass, pleural thickening and pleural effusion.

  10. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba. (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke


    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  11. Advanced and rapidly progressing head and neck cancer: good palliation following intralesional bleomycin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, Keith Ian


    The authors herein report the case of a 61-year-old man undergoing adjuvant therapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer, who developed parastomal recurrence in his radiation field around his tracheotomy site, while he was undergoing radiation therapy, and compromised the secure placement of his tracheotomy tube and maintenance of his upper airway. MRI restaging and biopsy confirmed recurrence and progressive disease in his mediastinum. He underwent local therapy with intralesional bleomycin with good palliation, and ability to maintain the patency of his upper airway.

  12. Petal Growth Physiology of Cut Rose Flowers: Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori


    Full Text Available Roses are the most important crop in the floriculture industry and attract both pollinators and human admirers. Until now, a lot of research focusing on postharvest physiology including flower senescence has been conducted, leading to improvement in vase life. However, few studies have focused on the physiology of petal growth, the perception of light by petals, and the relationship between petal growth and environmental conditions. Regarding roses, whose ornamental value lies in the process of blooming from buds, it is also important to understand their flowering mechanisms and establish methods to control such mechanisms, as well as focus on slowing the aging process, in order to achieve high quality of postharvest cut roses. Elucidation of the mechanisms of rose flower opening would contribute to enhanced quality and commercial production of floricultural crops as well as greatly advance basic scientific knowledge regarding plant biology. In this review, we describe the progress and future prospects in the study of petal growth physiology of cut roses.

  13. Microbial synthesis of poly-γ-glutamic acid: current progress, challenges, and future perspectives. (United States)

    Luo, Zhiting; Guo, Yuan; Liu, Jidong; Qiu, Hua; Zhao, Mouming; Zou, Wei; Li, Shubo


    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a naturally occurring biopolymer made from repeating units of l-glutamic acid, d-glutamic acid, or both. Since some bacteria are capable of vigorous γ-PGA biosynthesis from renewable biomass, γ-PGA is considered a promising bio-based chemical and is already widely used in the food, medical, and wastewater industries due to its biodegradable, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic properties. In this review, we consider the properties, biosynthetic pathway, production strategies, and applications of γ-PGA. Microbial biosynthesis of γ-PGA and the molecular mechanisms regulating production are covered in particular detail. Genetic engineering and optimization of the growth medium, process control, and downstream processing have proved to be effective strategies for lowering the cost of production, as well as manipulating the molecular mass and conformational/enantiomeric properties that facilitate screening of competitive γ-PGA producers. Finally, future prospects of microbial γ-PGA production are discussed in light of recent progress, challenges, and trends in this field.

  14. 50 years of pediatric immunology: progress and future, a clinical perspective. (United States)

    Singh, Surjit; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit


    Rapidly evolving advances in the field of immunology over the last few decades have impacted the practice of clinical medicine in many ways. In fact, understanding the immunological basis of disease has been pivotal in deciphering the pathogenesis of several disease processes, infective or otherwise. As of today, there is hardly any specialty of medicine which is not influenced by immunology. Pediatric rheumatological disorders, vasculitides, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PIDs) and autoimmune disorders fall under the domain of clinical immunology. This specialty is poised to emerge as a major clinical specialty in our country. The gulf between bench and bedside is narrowing down as our understanding of the complex immunological mechanisms gets better. However, a lot still needs to be done in this field as the morbidity and mortality of some of these conditions is unacceptably high in the Indian setup. A number of medical schools and institutes in the country now have the resources and the wherewithal to develop into specialized centres of clinical immunology. We need to concentrate on training more physicians and pediatricians in this field. The future is bright and the prospects exciting.

  15. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study. (United States)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J


    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study from 2004 to 2011. Two definitions were evaluated; RP definition A: An average eGFR decline (slope) ≥5 ml/min/1.73 m2/year over four years of follow-up with ≥3 eGFR measurements/year, last eGFR definition B: An absolute annual decline ≥5 ml/min/1.73 m2/year in each year and last eGFR definition A; similar proportions were observed when considering follow-up periods of three (n=195/6375; 3.1%) and two years (n=355/10756; 3.3%). In contrast under RP definition B, greater proportions experienced RP when considering two years (n=476/10756; 4.4%) instead of three (n=48/6375; 0.8%) or four (n=15/3655; 0.4%) years' follow-up. For RP definition A, 13 (12%) individuals who experienced RP progressed to CKD, and only (21) 0.6% of those without RP progressed to CKD (sensitivity 38.2% and specificity 97.4%); whereas for RP definition B, fewer RP individuals progressed to CKD. Our results suggest using three years' follow-up and at least two eGFR measurements per year is most appropriate for a RP definition, as it allows inclusion of a reasonable number of individuals and is associated with the known risk factors. The definition does not necessarily identify all those that progress to incident CKD, however, it can be used alongside other renal measurements to early identify and assess those at risk of developing CKD. Future analyses will use this definition to identify other risk factors for RP, including the role of antiretrovirals.

  16. Acute Q Fever Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin with Rapidly Progressive Hepatic Failure in a Patient with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Han Lin


    Full Text Available We report a case of fulminant acute Q fever presenting as fever of unknown origin with rapidly progressive hepatic failure in a patient with alcoholism. A 51-year-old electrician, who was a habitual drinker, presented with a 2-week history of intermittent high fever, acute hepatomegaly and rapidly progressive jaundice after being accidentally exposed to dust from bird nests when he was repairing electrical equipment and circuitry at an abandoned factory in Taipei County. Ascites and prolonged prothrombin time were noted at admission. Transjugular liver biopsy and bone marrow biopsy found multiple small fibrinoid-ring granulomas in liver parenchyma and bone marrow. Doxycycline therapy was empirically started. The fever gradually subsided over a 2-week period, along with the recovery of liver function. The diagnosis of acute Q fever was confirmed by high titers of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (phase I IgM 1:160 and IgG 1:2560, phase II IgM > 1:320 and IgG 1:5120 and a four-fold elevation of phase II IgG titer in the paired serum. The experience of this case shows that the possibility of Q fever should not be overlooked in patients who have an unexplained febrile illness and severe liver function impairment following exposure to a contaminated environment in Taiwan.

  17. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.


    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  18. Difficult preoperative diagnosis in a case of rapidly progressive carcinomatous pericarditis. (United States)

    Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Shuto, Takashi; Okamoto, Keitaro; Kawano, Madoka; Kozaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Jun; Miyamoto, Shinji


    A 54-year-old woman initially diagnosed with stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. After 8 months, she developed dyspnea, leg edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and liver congestion. Her cardiac ejection fraction was normal and cardiomegaly was not evident. Metastatic carcinomatous pericarditis or pleurisy was suspected, but laboratory findings, including tumor markers, were normal. She was transferred to our hospital for the repair a cardiac injury caused by a pericardial drainage procedure. Emergency surgery was performed for the misplaced drainage catheter in the right atrium and for an abnormal mass in her right and left atria. The clinical diagnosis of carcinomatous pericarditis was made; however, her condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died 6 days postoperatively. At autopsy, metastasis was identified in a large area of the pericardium and myocardium.

  19. Systemic and rapidly progressive light-chain deposition disease initially presenting as tubulointerstitial nephritis. (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Soma, Jun; Nakaya, Izaya; Yahata, Mayumi; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Yaegashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Akiyoshi; Wano, Masaharu; Sato, Hiroshi


    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital after first-time detection of proteinuria and hematuria during a routine medical check-up. Because her serum creatinine level had rapidly increased from 0.9 to 3.2 mg/dl since measurement 3 months earlier, she was referred to our hospital. Renal biopsy revealed extensive tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis with mild leukocyte infiltration. Glomeruli showed minimal changes, and no immunoglobulin or complement deposition was observed by immunofluorescence. Oral prednisolone was commenced under the diagnosis of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and she discharged once. However, its effects were transient; her renal function deteriorated rapidly and hemodialysis was initiated 5 months after her initial check-up. On readmission, urinary Bence-Jones protein κ-type was detected, and examination of bone marrow led to a diagnosis of Bence-Jones κ-type multiple myeloma. Light-chain staining using a renal biopsy specimen obtained 2 months earlier showed κ-light-chain deposition on tubular basement membranes but not glomeruli. Despite undergoing chemotherapy with vincristine, doxirubicin, and dexamethasone, the patient died suddenly from a cardiac arrhythmia. Autopsy showed κ-light-chain deposition in the heart, thyroid, liver, lungs, spleen, and ovaries. Congo red staining yielded negative results. Typical light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) characterized by nodular glomerulosclerosis was observed in the kidneys. This case demonstrates that tubulointerstitial nephritis can be an early pathological variant of LCDD, which may be followed by accelerated and massive light-chain deposition in glomeruli.

  20. Rapidly progressive antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies associated with pulmonary-renal syndrome in a 10-year-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Blanco Filho


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The term pulmonary-renal syndrome has been used frequently to describe the clinical manifestations of a great number of diseases in which pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis coexist. The classic example of this type of vasculitis is Goodpasture´s syndrome, a term used to describe the association of pulmonary hemorrhage, glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM. Among the several types of systemic vasculitides that can present clinical manifestations of the pulmonary-renal syndrome, we focus the discussion on two types more frequently associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA, microscopic polyangiitis and Wegener´s granulomatosis, concerning a 10 year old girl with clinical signs and symptoms of pulmonary-renal syndrome, with positive ANCA and rapidly progressive evolution. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl referred to our hospital for evaluation of profound anemia detected in a primary health center. Five days before entry she had experienced malaise, pallor and began to cough up blood-tinged sputum that was at first attributed to dental bleeding. She was admitted to the infirmary with hemoglobin = 4 mg/dL, hematocrit = 14%, platelets = 260,000, white blood cells = 8300, 74% segmented, 4% eosinophils, 19% lymphocytes and 3% monocytes. Radiographs of the chest revealed bilateral diffuse interstitial alveolar infiltrates. There was progressive worsening of cough and respiratory distress during the admission day, when she began to cough up large quantities of blood and hematuria was noted. There was rapid and progressive loss of renal function and massive lung hemorrhage. The antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA test with antigen specificity for myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO was positive and the circulating anti-GBM showed an indeterminate result.

  1. Rapid progression to glioblastoma in a subset of IDH-mutated astrocytomas: a genome-wide analysis. (United States)

    Richardson, Timothy E; Snuderl, Matija; Serrano, Jonathan; Karajannis, Matthias A; Heguy, Adriana; Oliver, Dwight; Raisanen, Jack M; Maher, Elizabeth A; Pan, Edward; Barnett, Samuel; Cai, Chunyu; Habib, Amyn A; Bachoo, Robert M; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J


    According to the recently updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2016), grade II-III astrocytomas are divided into IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant groups, the latter being significantly less aggressive in terms of both progression-free and total survival. We identified a small cohort of WHO grade II-III astrocytomas that harbored the IDH1 R132H mutation, as confirmed by both immunohistochemistry and molecular sequence analysis, which nonetheless had unexpectedly rapid recurrence and subsequent progression to glioblastoma. Among these four cases, the mean time to recurrence as glioblastoma was only 16 months and the mean total survival among the three patients who have died during the follow-up was only 31 months. We hypothesized that these tumors had other, unfavorable genetic or epigenetic alterations that negated the favorable effect of the IDH mutation. We applied genome-wide profiling with a methylation array (Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450k) to screen for genetic and epigenetic alterations in these tumors. As expected, the methylation profiles of all four tumors were found to match most closely with IDH-mutant astrocytomas. Compared with a control group of four indolent, age-similar WHO grade II-III astrocytomas, the tumors showed markedly increased levels of overall copy number changes, but no consistent specific genetic alterations were seen across all of the tumors. While most IDH-mutant WHO grade II-III astrocytomas are relatively indolent, a subset may rapidly recur and progress to glioblastoma. The precise underlying cause of the increased aggressiveness in these gliomas remains unknown, although it may be associated with increased genomic instability.

  2. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions. (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S


    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  3. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.


    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  4. Recent progress in the biology of multiple myeloma and future directions in the treatment. (United States)

    Pico, J L; Castagna, L; Bourhis, J H


    A great amount of scientific information, accumulated over recent years on the biology of Multiple Myeloma (MM), has fuelled speculation about the origin of malignant plasma cells, about a purported critical role played by the bone marrow stroma, and further still, on cytokine interactions and in particular that of IL-6 and its relationship with the immune system. Among the growth factors secreted by stroma cells, IL-6 is a potent stimulator of myeloma cells in vitro but does not induce a malignant phenotype in normal plasma cells. Many efforts have been produced to identify the stem cell in MM and probably memory B lymphocytes are the best candidates. The demonstration of a Graft vs Myeloma effect in the allogeneic setting strongly supports the immunotherapy in MM. Recent data also suggest that a virus (Kaposi-associated herpes virus, HHV-8) may be significantly associated with the development of MM. In parallel, progress has been achieved in the treatment of this incurable disease with well defined prognostic factors, more efficient supportive care and its corollary, improved quality of life and dose-intensified chemo-radiotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell support. Improving the quality of grafts with the selection of CD34 positive cells is another approach aimed at reducing plasma cell contamination without impairing haematological recovery. An EBMT randomized study assessing the role of CD34 selection has been initiated by our group Increasingly efficient first-line therapy, better quality autografts and improved post-remission treatment with, for example, anti-idiopathic vaccination are the most promising future directions.

  5. Acute gouty arthritis and rapidly progressive renal failure as manifestation of multiple myeloma: clinical case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Gudym


    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of multiple myeloma in 78-year-old man, its clinical onset was as an acute attack of gout. The patient was admitted to hospital due to the development of the first acute attack of gout. The attack was characterized by polyarthricular joint lesion of the upper and lower extremities, pronounced inflammatory reaction, insufficient response to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and a high level of hyperuricemia. The serum uric acid concentration ranged from 636 to 712 μmol/l. The study of the synovial fluid of the inflamed knee joint made it possible to reveal uric acid crystals and to confirm the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritis. Simultaneously, the patient had significant renal impairment: creatinine was 574 μmol/l, urea — 39.9 mmol/l, glomerular filtration rate according to CKD-EPI — 8 ml/min. The daily proteinuria was 1.8 g. A retrospective assessment of laboratory parameters allowed to reveal completely normal indicators of renal function 6 months ago. Considering the development of acute gouty arthritis, its polyarticular nature, persistent course, rapid involvement of new joints, high uric acid levels during an acute attack exceeding 600 μmol/l (10 mg/dL, rapid development of renal failure within 6 months until the terminal stage, it was suggested the secondary nature of gout on the background of kidney damage by another pathological process. Further clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies allowed verifying multiple myeloma with renal damage. Bence Jones protein in the urine was not detected, there was also no evidence of hyperproteinemia. However, pain in the spine, ribs and chest was the basis for carrying out an X-ray study of the bones of the skeleton. Changes in the skeleton typical for multiple myeloma have been identified. Myelogram showed a high content of plasma cells (21.1 %, electrophoresis of blood proteins showed a high M-gradient (30.42 %, and a cytochemical

  6. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity. (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A


    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapidly Progressive Pancreatic Lipomatosis in a Young Adult Patient with Transfusion-dependent Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lin


    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipomatosis is defined as deposition of fat cells in pancreatic parenchyma. Although the etiology of this condition is still unclear, it is not uncommon in the elderly obese individuals, and a variety of transfusion-dependent hematologic diseases such as β-thalassemia major. Pancreatic lipomatosis associated with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS has never been reported. We present a 17-year-old male patient with transfusion-dependent MDS. He received transfusion of a total of 345 units of blood in a period of 18 months but without iron chelating agent. Progressive fatty replacement of the pancreas parenchyma was found by a series of computed tomography images over seven hospital admissions due to repeated infections. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemosiderin deposition. Because of his poor response to induction chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation was suggested, but the patient died of sepsis before the therapeutic procedure could take place. Although most patients with pancreatic lipomatosis have neither clinical symptoms nor abnormal laboratory data, it may cause endocrine and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. In this reported case, mild exocrine dysfunction was noted on the last admission. Clinicians should be cautious of hemosiderin deposition after large amount of blood transfusion and chelating therapy should be given to avoid iron overload.

  8. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma with rapid progression and fatal outcome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Ghizlane


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Leiomyosarcomas are neoplasms of smooth muscles that most commonly arise from the uterus, gastrointestinal tract, or soft tissue. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only nine cases have been published to date. Because of the rarity of pleural leiomyosarcoma and its similarity (clinical and histological to other pleural neoplasms, particularly sarcomatous mesothelioma, diagnosis is often difficult. Case presentation A 58-year-old North African man was admitted with complaints of dyspnea and chest pain to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion and pleural thickening. A transthoracic needle biopsy yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, and tumor cells were strongly and uniformly positive for vimentin, a smooth muscle actin at immunohistochemical analysis. A general examination did not show any metastatic lesions in other areas. One month after diagnosis, the tumor grew rapidly, with pulmonary invasion, and therefore he was treated only by palliative care. He died from respiratory failure one month later. Because no organ of origin of the leiomyosarcoma, other than the pleura, was detected, this case was diagnosed as a primary pleural leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions Although leiomyosarcoma originating from the pleura is rare, this entity is increasingly described. The purpose of presenting this case report is to raise awareness among clinicians to consider this clinical entity as a differential diagnosis when a pleural mass is identified.

  9. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A.; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A.; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D.; Smith, Colette J.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Phillips, A.; Mocroft, A.; Tverland, J.; Mansfeld, M.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Brandt, R. Salbøl; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundström, A.; Delforge, M.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Kjær, J.; Sjøl, A.; Meidahl, P.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Iversen, J. Schmidt; Kirk, O.; Ross, M.; Fux, C. A.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Kesselring, A. M.; Kamara, D. A.; Weber, R.; Pradier, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Kowalska, J.; Sabin, C.; Law, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Bower, M.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Donald, A.; Grulich, A.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, dr T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, Drs J. C.; van der Valk, Drs M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Pronk, M. J. H.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; Branger, J.; Schippers, F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R. W.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Bauer, M. P.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, Drs G.; Kortmann, W.; Stuart, J. W. T. Cohen; Diederen, B. M. W.; Leyten, M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Barth, R. E.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Durand, N. N.; Voigt, R.; Chêne, G.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Bernard, N.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Dauchy, F. A.; de Witte, S.; Dupon, M.; Duffau, P.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Gemain, M. C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lataste, P.; Lafarie, S.; Lazaro, E.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J. P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Receveur, M. C.; Tchamgoué, S.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Viallard, J. F.; Moreau, J. F.; Pellegrin, I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M. E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; D'Ivernois, C.; Hanapier, C.; Leleux, O.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Sicard, X.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Petoumenos, K.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Watson, K.; Roth, N.; Nicholson, J.; Bloch, M.; Franic, T.; Baker, D.; Vale, R.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Calvo, G.; Mateu, S.; Domingo, P.; Sambeat, M. A.; Gatell, J.; del Cacho, E.; Cadafalch, J.; Fuster, M.; Codina, C.; Sirera, G.; Vaqué, A.; de Wit, S.; Clumeck, N.; Necsoi, C.; Gennotte, A. F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Payen, M. C.; Semaille, P.; van Laethem, Y.; Neaton, J.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; Abrams, D. I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L. R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Lundgren, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Grint, D.; Podlekareva, D.; Peters, L.; Reekie, J.; Fischer, A. H.; Losso, M.; Elias, C.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Machala, L.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Gerstoft, J.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.- P.; Girard, P.- M.; Livrozet, J. M.; Vanhems, P.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Staszewski, S.; Bickel, M.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Panos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; Hassoun, G.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Chirianni, A.; Montesarchio, E.; Gargiulo, M.; Antonucci, G.; Testa, A.; Narciso, P.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Pynka, M.; Parczewski, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Babes, Victor; Zakharova, N.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Gutierrez, M.; Karlsson, A.; Mateo, G.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Francioli, P.; Cavassini, M.; Hirschel, B.; Boffi, E.; Kravchenko, E.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A. M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M. A.; Murphy, M.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Morfeldt, L.; Thulin, G.; Åkerlund, B.; Koppel, K.; Håkangård, C.; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, Massimo; Ammassari, Adriana; Antinori, Andrea; Balotta, Claudia; Bonfanti, Paolo; Bonora, Stefano; Borderi, Marco; Capobianchi, M. Rosaria; Castagna, Antonella; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Cingolani, Antonella; Cinque, Paola; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; de Luca, Andrea; Di Biagio, Antonio; Girardi, Enrico; Gianotti, Nicola; Gori, Andrea; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Lichtner, Miriam; Madeddu, Giordano; Maggiolo, Franco; Marchetti, Giulia; Marcotullio, Simone; Monno, Laura; Mussini, Cristina; Puoti, Massimo; Quiros, Eugenia; Rusconi, Stefano; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Marchetti, G.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.; Onofrio, M.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Guida, M. G.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Andreoni, M.; Cingolani, A.; d' Avino, A.; Ammassari, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Mura, M. S.; Madeddu, G.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Bonora, S.; Sciandra, M.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Caissotti, C.; Dellamonica, P.; Bernard, E.; Cua, E.; de Salvador- Guillouet, F.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pillet, S.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P. M.; Dollet, K.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton- Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Egger, M.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Martinetti, G.; de Tejada, B. Martinez; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, A.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Yerly, S.


    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data

  10. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons : the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.


    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  11. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, D.A.; Ryom, L.; Ross, M.; Kirk, O.; Reiss, P.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Fux, C.A.; Mocroft, A.; Sabin, C.; Lundgren, J.D.; Smith, C.J.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Crevel, R. van


    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in

  12. Key indicators to track current progress and future ambition of the Paris Agreement


    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Fuss, Sabine; Jackson, Robert B.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Le Quéré, Corinne; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa


    Current emission pledges to the Paris Agreement appear insufficient to hold the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet, details are missing on how to track progress towards the â € Paris goal', inform the five-yearly â € global stocktake', and increase the ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). We develop a nested structure of key indicators to track progress through time. Global emissions track aggregated progress, country-lev...

  13. Clinical follow-up data and the rate of development of precocious and rapidly progressive puberty in patients with premature thelarche. (United States)

    Çiçek, Dilek; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Cetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra


    We aimed to evaluate the clinical follow-up data of patients with premature thelarche and determine the rate of development of precocious and early puberty in these patients. The charts of 158 girls with premature thelarche who were followed-up in our pediatric endocrinology polyclinic were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the age at onset: group 1 (0-1 month) (n=12), group 2 (1-24 months) (n=40) and group 3 (2-8 years) (n=106). At admission, the mean height standard deviation score (SDS), body weight (BW)-SDS, body mass index (BMI) and BMI-SDS were significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 and group 2. At admission, 8.8% of the patients were obese and 24% of the patients were overweight. The majority of patients who were obese and overweight were in group 3. At the end of the follow-up, thelarche regressed in 24.7%, persisted in 32.9%, progressed in 25.9% and had a cyclic pattern in 16.5% of the patients. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 47 of the 158 patients (29.7%). The mean age at progression to early or rapidly progressive puberty was 98.1±17.6 months. A total of 89.3% of the patients who progressed to early or rapidly progressive puberty were in group 3. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 29.7% of subjects with premature thelarche. As patients who developed rapidly progressive puberty had a higher BW-SDS and BMI-SDS than those who did not, it is suggested that the increase in weight could stimulate rapidly progressive puberty in cases with premature thelarche.

  14. Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression. (United States)

    Wolf, Norman; Pendergrass, William; Singh, Narendra; Swisshelm, Karen; Schwartz, Jeffrey


    This study was directed to assess the DNA damage and DNA repair response to X-ray inflicted lens oxidative damage and to investigate the subsequent changes in lens epithelial cell (LEC) behavior in vivo that led to long delayed but then rapidly developing cataracts. Two-month-old C57Bl/6 female mice received 11 Grays (Gy) of soft x-irradiation to the head only. The animals' eyes were examined for cataract status in 30 day intervals by slit lamp over an 11 month period post-irradiation. LEC migration, DNA fragment, free DNA retention, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) presence were established in the living lenses with fluorescent dyes using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The extent and removal of initial LEC DNA damage were determined by comet assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the presence of oxidized DNA and the response of a DNA repair protein in the lenses. This treatment resulted in advanced cortical cataracts that developed 5-11 months post-irradiation but then appeared suddenly within a 30 day period. The initially incurred DNA strand breaks were repaired within 30 min, but DNA damage remained as shown 72 h post-irradiation by the presence of the DNA adduct, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), and a DNA repair protein, XRCC1. This was followed months later by abnormal behavior by LEC descendant cells with abnormal differentiation and migration patterns as seen with LSCM and fluorescent dyes. The sudden development of cortical cataracts several months post-irradiation coupled with the above findings suggests an accumulation of damaged descendants from the initially x-irradiated LECs. As these cells migrate abnormally and leave acellular lens surface sites, eventually a crisis point may arrive for lens entry of environmental O(2) with resultant ROS formation that overwhelms protection by resident antioxidant enzymes and results in the coagulation of lens proteins. The events seen in this study indicate the retention and transmission of

  15. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke


    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  16. The status of sandy beach science: Past trends, progress, and possible futures (United States)

    Nel, Ronel; Campbell, Eileen E.; Harris, Linda; Hauser, Lorenz; Schoeman, David S.; McLachlan, Anton; du Preez, Derek R.; Bezuidenhout, Karien; Schlacher, Thomas A.


    Open-ocean sandy beaches are coastal ecosystems with growing relevance in the face of global change. They provide key ecosystem services, such as storm buffering, nutrient cycling, water purification, nursery habitats for resource species, and feeding-breeding habitats for focal species (e.g. endangered sea turtles and shorebirds), and have also become nodes for economic development and cultural use. As a result, beaches face a range of threats, primarily from extractive use, habitat modification and development, sea-level rise and coastal squeeze. Consequently, balancing conservation of the ecosystem and sustainable use of the goods and services is particularly important for sandy shores. Thus, the only way to ensure their protection and continued provision of their valuable services, especially in a period of rapid global change, will be to apply knowledge generated from sound science in beach conservation and management. Here we aim to (1) identify and outline the broad ecological paradigms in sandy beach science; (2) report on a citation analysis of the published literature of the past 63 years (1950-2013) to provide context regarding the topics and location of research, the size and institutional composition of the research teams; and (3) investigate whether beach ecology can and has been incorporated into integrated coastal zone management practices. Past research was framed by specific paradigms (chiefly the Swash Exclusion Hypothesis and derivatives), which can be identified with distinct principles and concepts unique to beaches. Most of the sandy beach literature comes from only a few countries (dominated by USA, South Africa, Brazil and Italy), published by small research teams (institutes. The field has yet to establish large multi-disciplinary teams to undertake rigorous experimental science in order to contribute to general ecological theory. Despite the constraints, beach science is responding to new challenges, with increasing use of the latest

  17. Nursing Leadership in a Rapidly Aging Society: Implications of “The Future of Nursing” Report in Japan (United States)

    Masaki, Harue; Nagae, Hiroko; Teshima, Megumi; Izumi, Shigeko


    The recent US Institute of Medicine (IOM) report about the future of nursing highlights the areas where nurses can serve, contribute, and move forward to improve health care in the United States. Japanese nursing scholars examined the IOM report for its implications in the Japanese context and explored the future of nursing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to provide support for the premise that the report's recommendations could have implications for the future of nursing outside of the United States, especially in Japan. Particular areas and activities by nurses in Japan will be presented as examples of nurses taking leadership in designing care for the rapidly aging society of Japan. PMID:22830009

  18. Nursing Leadership in a Rapidly Aging Society: Implications of “The Future of Nursing” Report in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harue Masaki


    Full Text Available The recent US Institute of Medicine (IOM report about the future of nursing highlights the areas where nurses can serve, contribute, and move forward to improve health care in the United States. Japanese nursing scholars examined the IOM report for its implications in the Japanese context and explored the future of nursing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to provide support for the premise that the report’s recommendations could have implications for the future of nursing outside of the United States, especially in Japan. Particular areas and activities by nurses in Japan will be presented as examples of nurses taking leadership in designing care for the rapidly aging society of Japan.

  19. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, manifesting as rapidly progressive dementia without any mass or enhancing brain lesion. (United States)

    Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Nakano, Yuta; Tsuyama, Naoko; Murayama, Shigeo; Oki, Ryosuke; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Murakami, Nagahisa; Fujita, Koji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Uehara, Hisanori; Abe, Takashi; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji


    Among the many potential etiologies for rapidly progressive dementia (RPD), primary central nervous system extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKL) is a rare entity. We present the first reported case of autopsy-proven RPD due to ENKL without any mass or enhancing lesion of the brain. A 54-year-old immunocompetent man presented with RPD, myoclonus and ataxia. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score was 22/30. His brain MRI revealed progressive brain atrophy without gadolinium enhancement or mass lesion. Five months after the initial evaluation, cognitive impairment further worsened with an MMSE score of 3/30. At the advanced stage, lumbar MRI showed swollen cauda equina with gadolinium enhancement. The number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid had gradually increased. Twelve months after onset, the patient died of respiratory failure. Pathological findings revealed that lymphoma cells had diffusely invaded the meninges, parenchyma of the brain, spinal cord and cauda equina. Cells were positive for CD3, CD56 and EBV-encoded small RNAs and negative for CD20. No evidence of malignancy was identified in the visceral organs. This report indicates that ENKL should be recognized as one of the rare causes of RPD. Early testing for EBV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and imaging of cauda equina would be useful diagnostic tools. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Rapidly progressive psychotic symptoms triggered by infection in a patient with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: a case report. (United States)

    Iida, Shin; Nakamura, Masataka; Asayama, Shinya; Kunieda, Takenobu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Osaka, Hitoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi


    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism inherited in autosomal recessive pattern and is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological abnormalities. We herein describe a 15-year-old boy with MTHFR deficiency who presented with a slowly progressive decline of school performance and a spastic gait. Rapidly deteriorating psychosis and repetitive seizures triggered by a febrile infection prompted neurological investigation. He had significantly elevated total plasma homocysteine and urinary homocystine levels, as well as a decreased plasma methionine level. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed leukoencephalopathy. DNA gene sequencing showed c.446_447 del GC ins TT and c.137G > A, and c.665C > T heterozygous mutations in the MTHFR gene of the patient. Oral administration of betaine drastically improved his clinical symptoms within a few months. After 8 months of treatment, his total plasma homocysteine level moderately decreased; and the plasma methionine concentration became normalized. Furthermore, the white matter lesions on MRI had disappeared. This patient demonstrates the possibility that MTHFR deficiency should be considered in mentally retarded adolescents who display an abnormally elevated plasma level of homocysteine in association with progressive neurological dysfunction and leukoencephalopathy. Febrile infections may be an aggravating factor in patients with MTHFR deficiency.

  1. Immunological Basis for Rapid Progression of Diabetes in Older NOD Mouse Recipients Post BM-HSC Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D, mediated by autoreactive T cell destruction of insulin-producing islet beta cells, has been treated with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell (BM-HSC transplantation. Older non-obese diabetic (NOD mice recipients (3m, at disease-onset stage receiving syngeneic BM-HSC progressed more rapidly to end-stage diabetes post-transplantation than younger recipients (4-6w, at disease-initiation stage. FACS analyses showed a higher percentage and absolute number of regulatory T cells (Treg and lower proportion of proliferating T conventional cells (Tcon in pancreatic lymph nodes from the resistant mice among the younger recipients compared to the rapid progressors among the older recipients. Treg distribution in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, blood and thymus between the two groups was similar. However, the percentage of thymic Tcon and the proliferation of Tcon in MLN and blood were lower in the young resistants. These results suggest recipient age and associated disease stage as a variable to consider in BM-HSC transplantation for treating T1D.

  2. Is Sordac’s Rapid Acquisition Process Best Prepared To Field Solutions For Future Technological Challenges (United States)


    views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the...SORDAC) is the Department of Defense (DoD) leader in rapid acquisitions, and its culture and practices should be benchmarked by the other services. This...should be benchmarked by all other services. This essay first examines SORDAC’s acquisition environment and assesses SORDAC’s unique culture. This

  3. A Personalized Approach in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: The Current Status of Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs) and Future Perspectives (United States)

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Patti, Francesco; Zanghì, Aurora; Zappia, Mario


    Using the term of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), we considered a combined population of persons with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). These forms of MS cannot be challenged with efficacy by the licensed therapy. In the last years, several measures of risk estimation were developed for predicting clinical course in MS, but none is specific for the PMS forms. Personalized medicine is a therapeutic approach, based on identifying what might be the best therapy for an individual patient, taking into account the risk profile. We need to achieve more accurate estimates of useful predictors in PMS, including unconventional and qualitative markers which are not yet currently available or practicable routine diagnostics. The evaluation of an individual patient is based on the profile of disease activity.Within the neurology field, PMS is one of the fastest-moving going into the future. PMID:27763513

  4. The search for life's origins: Progress and future directions in planetary biology and chemical evolution (United States)


    The current state is reviewed of the study of chemical evolution and planetary biology and the probable future is discussed of the field, at least for the near term. To this end, the report lists the goals and objectives of future research and makes detailed, comprehensive recommendations for accomplishing them, emphasizing those issues that were inadequately discussed in earlier Space Studies Board reports.

  5. Secure Military Social Networking and Rapid Sensemaking in Domain Specific Concept Systems: Research Issues and Future Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Picking


    Full Text Available This paper identifies the need for a secure military social networking site and the underlying research issues linked to the successful development of such sites. The paper further proposes a solution to the most basic issues by identifying and tackling known potential security threats to military personnel and their families. The paper further defines the base platform for this development to facilitate rapid sensemaking to inform critical communications and rapid decision making processes during abrupt governance and eco-system change, and how the plethora of information (termed as Big Data on social networking sites can be analysed and harnessed. Underlying architectural issues, efficiency and complexity are explored and their future development is considered.

  6. The performance of matrices in daily clinical practice to predict rapid radiologic progression in patients with early RA. (United States)

    De Cock, D; Vanderschueren, G; Meyfroidt, S; Joly, J; Van der Elst, K; Westhovens, R; Verschueren, P


    To compare in daily clinical practice the reliability of matrices that forecast rapid radiologic progression (RRP) at year one, at year two, and over 2 years in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Overall, 74 early RA patients with X-rays of hands and feet at baseline, year one, and year two were included. Initial DMARD combination therapy with steroids (ICTS) or DMARD monotherapy (IMT) was initiated according to patients' RA severity, based on rheumatologist opinion. The images were scored via the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH) method. A total Sharp score progression of equal or higher than five per year was considered RRP. Six matrices were tested: ASPIRE CRP/ESR matrices, the BEST matrix, two SWEFOT matrices, and the ESPOIR matrix. Patients were placed in each of them yielding a RRP probability. The performance was tested by Area Under the Curve analysis reflecting the predictive value. Four patients developed RRP in year one, five in year two, and four over 2 years. With regard to face validity, the predicted probability did not correspond to the risk in reality: the one ICTS patient who developed RRP over 2 years was always found in the lowest RRP categories of all matrices. The ASPIRE CRP matrix yielded at least a moderate predicting value for the three time points. The other matrices showed moderate to no predicting value. The performance of all matrices was disappointing and it is impossible to fully rely on the existing matrices in daily clinical practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Genomic tools to improve progress and preserve variation for future generations (United States)

    Use of genomic tools has greatly decreased generation intervals and increased genetic progress in dairy cattle, but faster selection cycles can also increase rates of inbreeding per unit of time. Average pedigree inbreeding of Holstein cows increased from 4.6% in 2000 to 5.6% in 2009 to 6.6% in 201...

  8. Effects of episodic future thinking on discounting: Personalized age-progressed pictures improve risky long-term health decisions. (United States)

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Jarmolowicz, David P


    Many everyday choices are associated with both delayed and probabilistic outcomes. The temporal attention hypothesis suggests that individuals' decision making can be improved by focusing attention on temporally distal events and implies that environmental manipulations that bring temporally distal outcomes into focus may alter an individual's degree of discounting. One such manipulation, episodic future thinking, has shown to lower discount rates; however, several questions remain about the applicability of episodic future thinking to domains other than delay discounting. The present experiments examine the effects of a modified episodic-future-thinking procedure in which participants viewed age-progressed computer-generated images of themselves and answered questions related to their future, on probability discounting in the context of both a delayed health gain and loss. Results indicate that modified episodic future thinking effectively altered individuals' degree of discounting in the predicted directions and demonstrate the applicability of episodic future thinking to decision making of socially significant outcomes. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennum P


    Full Text Available Poul Jennum, Julie AE Christensen, Marielle Zoetmulder Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. Keywords: motor control, brain stem, hypothalamus, hypocretin

  10. Current progress and future prospect of microalgal biomass harvest using various flocculation technologies. (United States)

    Wan, Chun; Alam, Md Asraful; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Yue; Guo, Suo-Lian; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu


    Microalgae have been extensively studied for the production of various valuable products. Application of microalgae for the production of renewable energy has also received increasing attention in recent years. However, high cost of microalgal biomass harvesting is one of the bottlenecks for commercialization of microalgae-based industrial processes. Considering harvesting efficiency, operation economics and technological feasibility, flocculation is a superior method to harvest microalgae from mass culture. In this article, the latest progress of various microalgal cell harvesting methods via flocculation is reviewed with the emphasis on the current progress and prospect in environmentally friendly bio-based flocculation. Harvesting microalgae through bio-based flocculation is a promising component of the low-cost microalgal biomass production technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges. (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Brewster, Luke P; Caves, Jeffrey M; Chaikof, Elliot L


    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (engineered replacement vessels represent an ideal solution to this clinical problem. Ongoing progress requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research.

  12. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc


    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, solar cells, or all-optical switches. In the present document, we choose to focus the discussion on organic all-optical switching applications. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  13. The Genetics of Human Autoimmune Disease: A Perspective on Progress in the Field and Future Directions (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.


    Progress in defining the genetics of autoimmune disease has been dramatically enhanced by large scale genetic studies. Genome-wide approaches examining hundreds or for some diseases thousands of cases and controls have been implemented using high throughput genotyping and appropriate algorithms to provide a wealth of data over the last decade. These studies have identified hundreds of non-HLA loci as well as further defining HLA region variations that predispose to different autoimmune diseases. These studies to identify genetic risk loci are also complemented by progress in gene expression studies including definition of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), various alterations in chromatin structure including histone marks, DNase I sensitivity, repressed chromatin regions as well as transcript factor binding sites. Integration of this information can partially explain why particular variations can alter proclivity to autoimmune phenotypes. Despite our incomplete knowledge base with only partial definition of hereditary factors and possible functional connections, this progress has and will continue to facilitate a better understanding of critical pathways and critical changes in immunoregulation. Advances in defining and understanding functional variants potentially can lead to both novel therapeutics and personalized medicine in which therapeutic approaches are chosen based on particular molecular phenotypes and genomic alterations. PMID:26343334

  14. Piecemeal journey to "HALCYON" world of pervasive computing: from past progress to future challenges:


    Seth, Rolly; Kapoor, Rishi; Al-Qaheri, Hameed; Sanyal, Sugata


    Although 'Halcyon' means serene environment which pervasive computing aims at, we have tried to present a different interpretation of this word. Through our approach, we look at it in context of achieving future 'calm technology'. The paper gives a general overview of the state of pervasive computing today, proposes the 'HALCYON Model' and outlines the 'social' challenges faced by system designers.

  15. The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Education: Current Progress and Future Prospects (United States)

    McArthur, David; Lewis, Matthew; Bishary, Miriam


    This report begins by summarizing current applications of ideas from artificial intelligence (Al) to education. It then uses that summary to project various future applications of Al--and advanced technology in general--to education, as well as highlighting problems that will confront the wide­ scale implementation of these technologies in the…

  16. Restoration for the future: Setting endpoints and targets and selecting indicators of progress and success (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Callie Jo Schweitzer; John M. Kabrick


    Setting endpoints and targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that is best accomplished in cooperative partnerships that account for the ecology of the system, production of desired ecosystem goods and services, economics and well-being of society, and future environments. Clearly written and quantitative endpoints and intermediary targets need to be...

  17. Restoration for the future: endpoints, targets, and indicators of progress and success (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Callie Jo. Schweitzer


    Setting endpoints and targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that is best accomplished in cooperative partnerships that account for the ecology of the system, production of desired ecosystem goods and services, economics and well-being of society, and future environments. Clearly described and quantitative endpoints and intermediary targets are needed to...

  18. Use of Social Emotional Learning Skills to Predict Future Academic Success and Progress toward Graduation (United States)

    Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove


    This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…

  19. ChIP-seq in studying epigenetic mechanisms of disease and promoting precision medicine: progresses and future directions. (United States)

    Yan, Huihuang; Tian, Shulan; Slager, Susan L; Sun, Zhifu


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used for mapping histone modifications, histone proteins, chromatin regulators, transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins. It has played a significant role in our understanding of disease mechanisms and in exploring epigenetic changes for potential clinical applications. However, the conventional protocol requires large amounts of starting material and does not quantify the actual occupancy, limiting its applications in clinical settings. Herein we summarize the latest progresses in utilizing ChIP-seq to link epigenetic alterations to disease initiation and progression, and the implications in precision medicine. We provide an update on the newly developed ChIP-seq protocols, especially those suitable for scare clinical samples. Technical and analytical challenges are outlined together with recommendations for improvement. Finally, future directions in expediting ChIP-seq use in clinic are discussed.

  20. Current and future disease progression of the chronic HCV population in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zalesak

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection can lead to advanced liver disease (AdvLD, including cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The aim of this study was to determine recent historical rates of HCV patient progression to AdvLD and to project AdvLD prevalence through 2015. We first determined total 2008 US chronic HCV prevalence from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. Next, we examined disease progression and associated non-pharmacological costs of diagnosed chronic HCV-infected patients between 2007-2009 in the IMS LifeLink and CMS Medicare claims databases. A projection model was developed to estimate AdvLD population growth through 2015 in patients diagnosed and undiagnosed as of 2008, using the 2007-2009 progression rates to generate a "worst case" projection of the HCV-related AdvLD population (i.e., scenario where HCV treatment is the same in the forecasted period as it was before 2009. We found that the total diagnosed chronic HCV population grew from 983,000 to 1.19 million in 2007-2009, with patients born from 1945-1964 accounting for 75.0% of all patients, 83.7% of AdvLD patients, and 79.2% of costs in 2009, indicating that HCV is primarily a disease of the "baby boomer" population. Non-pharmacological costs grew from $7.22 billion to $8.63 billion, with the majority of growth derived from the 60,000 new patients that developed AdvLD in 2007-2009, 91.5% of whom were born between 1945 and 1964. The projection model estimated the total AdvLD population would grow from 195,000 in 2008 to 601,000 in 2015, with 73.5% of new AdvLD cases from patients undiagnosed as of 2008. AdvLD prevalence in patients diagnosed as of 2008 was projected to grow 6.5% annually to 303,000 patients in 2015. These findings suggest that strategies to diagnose and treat HCV-infected patients are urgently needed to increase the likelihood that progression is interrupted, particularly for patients born from 1945-1964.

  1. Potential use of Plastic Waste as Construction Materials: Recent Progress and Future Prospect (United States)

    Kamaruddin, M. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Zawawi, M. H.; Zainol, M. R. R. A.


    Plastic associates products based have been considered as the world most consumer packaging solution. However, substantial quantities of plastic consumption have led to exponential increase of plastic derived waste. Recycling of plastic waste as valued added product such as concrete appears as one of promising solution for alternative use of plastic waste. This paper summarized recent progress on the development of concrete mixture which incorporates plastic wastes as partial aggregate replacement during concrete manufacturing. A collection of data from previous studies that have been researched which employed plastic waste in concrete mixtures were evaluated and conclusions are drawn based on the laboratory results of all the mentioned research papers studied.

  2. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda


    in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels...

  3. Panacea in progress: CRISPR and the future of its biological research introduction. (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Zhou, Xiaohui


    The elucidation of the CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats) adaptive immune system endogenous to most microbial life has culminated in progress in a diversity of scientific disciplines. The concurrently promising and eccentric nature of its theoretically plausible applications has wrought enthusiasm in the research community globally, potentiating advancements in human and animal health, ecological stability, and economic wellbeing, that would hitherto be considered the unattainable fancies of a futurist. It may be supposed that the tomes of science fiction are the true books of prophecy. Here, we narrate the scientific dialogue regarding CRISPR/Cas biotechnologies, from the happenstantial initial observation of the locus to the litany of intriguing contemporary endeavors. We discuss the mechanistic underpinnings in detail, and the corpulent body of literature on CRISPR-based biotech is digested into a germane and informative review. CRISPR applications such as microbiome engineering in order to enhance the human immune system beyond the fortitude of the wild type, bacterial genome editing in industrial and medical aspects, conquering antibiotic resistance, the development of novel antimicrobial techniques, the harvesting of solventogenic microbes, the development of antifungal therapies, and investigation of the genetic properties of fungi, are here represented, and the authors posit unconventional, and at times gainfully tangential, thoughts and concepts in order to encourage a reflective disposition towards this sophisticated device of nature: a panacea in progress, such that the most impassive and technical writing still carries the ring of poetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orihuela Guerrero


    Advance of the Main Conclusions: The future proposal is related to the conception of the educational inspection as an educative changing agent and therefore, we are going to propose the placement of these professionals as a teaching character organ and as a dependent entity on the legislature, which should have a selection system based on a professional career and on a democratic system of internal organization.

  5. The Czech Contribution to Future Large X-Ray Astronomy Telescopes: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec


    Full Text Available We briefly review the recent status of the Czech contribution to future space X-ray astronomy missions with emphasis on the development of new technologies and test samples of X-ray mirrors with precise surfaces based on new materials and alternative designs. We report on further investigations and tests of X-ray optical arrangements, such as Kirkpatrick-Baez systems and Multi-Foil Optics.

  6. The performance of the progressive resolution optimizer (PRO) for RapidArc planning in targets with low-density media. (United States)

    Kan, Monica W K; Leung, Lucullus H T; Yu, Peter K N


    A new version of progressive resolution optimizer (PRO) with an option of air cavity correction has been implemented for RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of this new PRO with the use of air cavity correction option (PRO10_air) against the one without the use of the air cavity correction option (PRO10_no-air) for RapidArc planning in targets with low-density media of different sizes and complexities. The performance of PRO10_no-air and PRO10_air was initially compared using single-arc plans created for four different simple heterogeneous phantoms with virtual targets and organs at risk. Multiple-arc planning of 12 real patients having nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) and ten patients having non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were then performed using the above two options for further comparison. Dose calculations were performed using both the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm with the dose to medium option and the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA). The effect of using intermediate dose option after the first optimization cycle in PRO10_air and PRO10_no-air was also investigated and compared. Plans were evaluated and compared using target dose coverage, critical organ sparing, conformity index, and dose homogeneity index. For NSCLC cases or cases for which large volumes of low-density media were present in or adjacent to the target volume, the use of the air cavity correction option in PRO10 was shown to be beneficial. For NPC cases or cases for which small volumes of both low- and high-density media existed in the target volume, the use of air cavity correction in PRO10 did not improve the plan quality. Based on the AXB dose calculation results, the use of PRO10_air could produce up to 18% less coverage to the bony structures of the planning target volumes for NPC cases. When the intermediate dose option in PRO10 was used, there was negligible difference observed in plan quality between

  7. High Fidelity Solar and Heliospheric Imaging at Low Radio Frequencies: Progress and Future Prospects (United States)

    Lonsdale, C.; Oberoi, D.; Kozarev, K. A.; Morgan, J.; Benkevitch, L. V.; Erickson, P. J.; Crowley, M.; McCauley, P.; Cairns, I.


    The latest generation of low frequency interferometric arrays is revolutionizing solar and heliospheric imaging capabilities. Via a combination of large numbers of independent antennas and greatly increased computing capacity, sufficient information can now be gathered and processed to generate high fidelity images at high time and frequency resolution. For the first time, it is possible to reconstruct spatially, temporally and spectrally complex solar emissions in detail, to measure interplanetary scintillation for many sources simultaneously over wide fields of view, and to track heliospheric disturbances via rapidly evolving propagation effects. These new and rapidly improving capabilities will help to address a range of long-standing scientific questions in the field. We review the current state of the art of low frequency imaging instruments, with particular emphasis on, and examples from, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The limitations and challenges of such arrays are explored, and the prospects for next-generation ground and space based arrays yielding additional major advances in capability are reviewed.

  8. Rapid progressing allele HLA-B35 Px restricted anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells recognize vestigial CTL epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian B Willberg

    Full Text Available The HLA-B*35-Px allele has been associated with rapid disease progression in HIV-1 infection, in contrast to the HLA-B*35-Py allele.Immune responses to two HLA-B*35 restricted HIV-1 specific CTL epitopes and their variants were followed longitudinally during early HIV-1 infection in 16 HLA-B*35+ individuals. Subjects expressing HLA-B*35-Px alleles showed no difference in response to the consensus epitopes compared to individuals with HLA-B*35-Py alleles. Surprisingly, all the HLA-B*35-Px+ individuals responded to epitope-variants even in the absence of a consensus response. Sequencing of the viral population revealed no evidence of variant virus in any of the individuals.This demonstrates a novel phenomenon that distinguishes individuals with the HLA-B*35-Px rapid progressing allele and those with the HLA-B*35-Py slower progressing allele.

  9. Polyester micelles for drug delivery and cancer theranostics: Current achievements, progresses and future perspectives. (United States)

    Yi, Yu; Lin, Gan; Chen, Shaoyi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Huaping; Mi, Peng


    The development of tumor-targeting nanocarriers is critical important for effective treatment. The synthetic polyesters have demonstrated high potential for developing nanocarriers for cancer theranostics. Especially, the biocompatible and biodegradable polyester micelles have held great promise for cancer therapy and diagnosis, while some candidates have been translated into clinical applications or under clinical trial. In this review, we have provided the state-of-the-art of polyester micelles for drug delivery and cancer theranostics. In addition, we have summarized several major types of polyesters used in the biomedical fields, the current clinical achievements of polyester micelles and recent progresses of multi-functional polyester micelles for tumor molecular imaging and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li


    Full Text Available Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully.

  11. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective (United States)

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin


    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully. PMID:27087822

  12. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids for cellulose pretreatment: recent progresses and future perspectives. (United States)

    Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Cheng, Tao; Guo, Jing; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou


    As the most abundant biomass in nature, cellulose is considered to be an excellent feedstock to produce renewable fuels and fine chemicals. Due to its hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure, cellulose is hardly soluble in water and most conventional organic solvents, limiting its further applications. The emergence of ionic liquids (ILs) provides an environmentally friendly, biodegradable solvent system to dissolve cellulose. This review summarizes recent advances concerning imidazolium-based ILs for cellulose pretreatment. The structure of cations and anions which has an influence on the solubility is emphasized. Methods to assist cellulose pretreatment with ILs are discussed. The state of art of the recovery, regeneration, and reuse aspects of ILs is also presented in this work. The current challenges and development directions of cellulose dissolution in ILs are put forward. Although further studies are still much required, commercialization of IL-based processes has made great progress in recent years.

  13. Recent Progress in Chitosanase Production of Monomer-Free Chitooligosaccharides: Bioprocess Strategies and Future Applications. (United States)

    Sinha, Sujata; Chand, Subhash; Tripathi, Pushplata


    Biological activities of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) are well documented, and numerous reports of COS production using specific and non-specific enzymes are available. However, strategies for improving the overall yield by making it monomer free need to be developed. Continuous enzymatic production from chitosan derived from marine wastes is desirable and is cost-effective. Isolation of potential microbes showing chitosanase activity from various ecological niches, gene cloning, enzyme immobilization, and fractionation/purification of COS are some areas, where lot of work is in progress. This review covers recent measures to improve monomer-free COS production using chitosanase/non-specific enzymes and purification/fractionation of these molecules using ultrafiltration and column chromatographic techniques. Various bioprocess strategies, gene cloning for enhanced chitosanase enzyme production, and other measures for COS yield improvements have also been covered in this review. COS derivative preparation as well as COS-coated nanoparticles for efficient drug delivery are being focused in recent studies.

  14. Cryopreservation of animal oocytes and embryos: Current progress and future prospects. (United States)

    Mandawala, A A; Harvey, S C; Roy, T K; Fowler, K E


    Cryopreservation describes techniques that permit freezing and subsequent warming of biological samples without loss of viability. The application of cryopreservation in assisted reproductive technology encompasses the freezing of gametes, embryos, and primordial germ cells. Whilst some protocols still rely on slow-freezing techniques, most now use vitrification, or ultra-rapid freezing, for both oocytes and embryos due to an associated decreased risk of damage caused by the lack of ice crystal formation, unlike in slow-freezing techniques. Vitrification has demonstrated its use in many applications, not only following IVF procedures in human embryology clinics but also following in vitro production of embryos in agriculturally important, or endangered animal species, before embryo transfer. Here, we review the various cryopreservation and vitrification technologies that are used in both humans and other animals and discuss the most recent innovations in vitrification with a particular emphasis on their applicability to animal embryology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Science for Today's Energy Challenges: Accelerating Progress for a Sustainable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With a growing population and energy demand in the world, there is a pressing need for research to create secure and accessible energy options with greatly reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. While we work to deploy the clean and efficient technologies that we already have--which will be urgent for the coming decades--we must also work to develop the science for the technologies of the future. This brochure gives examples of some of the most promising developments, and it provides 'snapshots' of cutting edge work of scientists in the field. The areas of greatest promise include biochemistry, nanotechnology, supraconductivity, electrophysics and computing. There are many others.

  16. Predicting responses to sunitinib using single nucleotide polymorphisms: Progress and recommendations for future trials. (United States)

    Ganapathi, Ram N; Bukowski, Ronald M


    Targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has led to a substantial improvement in the standard of care for patients with advanced or metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Because the mechanism of action, metabolism and transport of tyrosine kinase inhibitors can affect outcome and toxicity, several investigators have pursued the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with these actions. We discuss SNPs associated with outcome and toxicity following sunitinib therapy and provide recommendations for future trials to facilitate the use of SNPs in personalized therapy for this disease.

  17. Loco-regional cancer drug therapy: present approaches and rapidly reversible hydrophobization (RRH) of therapeutic agents as the future direction. (United States)

    Budker, Vladimir G; Monahan, Sean D; Subbotin, Vladimir M


    Insufficient drug uptake by solid tumors remains the major problem for systemic chemotherapy. Many studies have demonstrated anticancer drug effects to be dose-dependent, although dose-escalation studies have resulted in limited survival benefit with increased systemic toxicities. One solution to this has been the idea of loco-regional drug treatments, which offer dramatically higher drug concentrations in tumor tissues while minimizing systemic toxicity. Although loco-regional delivery has been most prominent in cancers of the liver, soft tissues and serosal peritoneal malignancies, survival benefits are very far from desirable. This review discusses the evolution of loco-regional treatments, the present approaches and offers rapidly reversible hydrophobization of drugs as the new future direction. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent progress and future plans of heavy-ion cancer radiotherapy with HIMAC (United States)

    Noda, K.; Furukawa, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Hara, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Kanematsu, N.; Mizushima, K.; Mori, S.; Saotome, N.; Saraya, Y.; Sato, S.; Shirai, T.; Takada, M.; Takei, Y.; Tansyo, R.; Yonai, S.


    The HIMAC clinical study has been conducted with a carbon-ion beam since June 1994. Since 2006, as a new treatment research project, NIRS has developed both the accelerator and beam-delivery technologies for the sophisticated heavy-ion radiotherapy, which brings a pencil-beam 3D rescanning technology for both the static and moving-tumor treatments. In this technology, the depth-scanning technique was improved to the full-energy depth scanning by realizing a variable-energy operation of the HIMAC synchrotron itself. At present, a heavy-ion rotating gantry has been developed with the superconducting technology and is in a beam-commissioning stage. As a future plan, we just start a study of a multi-ions irradiation for more sophisticated LET-painting and a design study of a superconducting synchrotron for more compact heavy-ion radiotherapy facility.

  19. Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression: Current Progress and Future Directions. (United States)

    Webb, Christian A; Rosso, Isabelle M; Rauch, Scott L

    The World Health Organization estimates that during a given 12-month period, approximately 34 million people suffering from major depressive disorder go untreated in Europe and the Americas alone. Barriers to treatment include geographic distance, lack of mental health insurance, prohibitive cost of treatment, long wait-lists, and perceived stigma. Over the past two decades, Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) programs have proliferated. A growing body of research supports the efficacy of iCBT for depression and other psychiatric conditions, and these programs may help address barriers that hinder access to effective treatment. The present review describes common iCBT programs along with the evidence base supporting their efficacy in reducing symptoms of depression, reviews research on moderators of treatment response, and provides suggestions for future directions in research and care.

  20. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Mike [Chairman, International Committee for NDT (ICNDT) and Secretariat: The British Institute of NDT, Newton Building, St George' s Avenue, Northampton NN2 6JB (United Kingdom)


    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.

  1. Microalgae Potential and Multiple Roles—Current Progress and Future Prospects—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramani Ravindran


    Full Text Available Substantial progress has been made in algal technologies in past few decades. Initially, microalgae drew the attention of the scientific community as a renewable source of biofuels due to its high productivity over a short period of time and potential of significant lipid accumulation. As of now, a technological upsurge has elaborated its scope in phycoremediation of both organic and inorganic pollutants. The dual role of microalgae—i.e., phycoremediation coupled with energy production—is well established, however, commercially, algal biofuel production is not yet sustainable due to high energy inputs. Efforts are being made to make the algal biofuel economy through modification in the cultivation conditions, harvesting, and extraction of value added products. Recent studies have demonstrated algal biomass production with various types of wastewater and industrial effluents. Similarly, the recent advent of eco-friendly harvesting technologies—such as low-cost green coagulants, electrochemical harvesting, etc.—are energy efficient and economical. Contemporary improvement in efficient lipid extraction from biomass will make algal biodiesel economical. The absolute extraction of all the value added products from algal biomass, either whole cell or lipid extracted biomass, in a complete biorefinery approach will be more economical and eco-friendly.

  2. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future (United States)

    Farley, Mike


    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.

  3. Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research. (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Zhu, Yu-Xian


    Transcription factors (TFs) are a group of proteins that control cellular processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Recent progress has been made in the cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis TFs on the genome scale, especially on the cloning of open reading frames (ORFs), sequence analysis and the expression profiling of different TF families. Huge difference in numbers of subfamily members were found for Arabidopsis MYB, C2H2 (Zn), C3H-type 1 (Zn), C3H-type 2 (Zn) TFs by independent research groups, mainly because of differences in bioinformatic search stringency. However, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain very different numbers of TFs in the WRKY, NAC, bZIP, MADS, ALFIN-like, GRAS and C2C2 (Zn)-dof families, indicating a possible divergence of biological functions from dicots to monocots. TFs have also been found to play key roles in the biosynthesis and signaling of plant hormones, in cell growth and differentiation, and in photomorphogenesis.

  4. Electrochemical energy — progress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  5. Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research. (United States)

    Emilien, G


    The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market.


    Kazan, Kemal; Gardiner, Donald


    Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F. pseudograminearum and cereal hosts but also have provided new disease management options. For instance, significant progress has been made in genetically characterising pathogen populations, developing new tools for disease prediction, and identifying and pyramiding loci that confer quantitative resistance to FCR in wheat and barley. In addition, transcriptome analyses have revealed new insights into the processes involved in host defence. Significant progress has also been made to understand the mechanistic details of the F. pseudograminearum infection process. The sequencing and comparative analyses of the F. pseudograminearum genome have revealed novel virulence factors, possibly acquired through horizontal gene transfer. In addition, a conserved pathogen gene cluster involved in the degradation of wheat defence compounds has been identified, and a role for the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in pathogen virulence has been reported. Overall, a better understanding of cereal host-F. pseudograminearum interactions will lead to the development of new control options for this increasingly important disease problem. Taxonomy: Fusarium pseudograminearum O'Donnell & Aoki; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Subphylum Pezizomycotina; Class Sordariomycetes; Subclass Hypocreomycetidae; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; Genus Fusarium

  7. Replicative nature of Indian research, essence of scientific temper, and future of scientific progress. (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A


    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no.Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.

  8. Progress in the analysis and interpretation of N2O isotopes: Potential and future challenges (United States)

    Mohn, Joachim; Tuzson, Béla; Zellweger, Christoph; Harris, Eliza; Ibraim, Erkan; Yu, Longfei; Emmenegger, Lukas


    will be addressed in the upcoming European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) project "Metrology for Stable Isotope Reference Standards (SIRS)" starting in June 2017. Acknowledgement Part of this work has been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] S. Toyoda et al., Isotopocule analysis of biologically produced nitrous oxide in various environments, Mass Spectrom. Rev., Doi 10.1002/mas.21459 (2015). [2] J. Mohn et al., Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy, Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1601-1609 (2012). [3] B. Wolf et al., First on-line isotopic characterization of N2O above intensively managed grassland, Biogeosci. 12, 2517-2531, (2015). [4] E. Harris et al., Tracking nitrous oxide emission processes at a suburban site with semi-continuous, in-situ measurements of isotopic composition, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., accepted (2016). [5] J. Mohn et al., Interlaboratory assessment of nitrous oxide isotopomer analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy: current status and perspectives, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28, 1995-2007 (2014). [6] J. Mohn et al. Reassessment of the NH4NO3 thermal decomposition technique for calibration of the N2O isotopic composition, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 30, 2487-2496 (2016).

  9. First-year Progress and Future Directions of the USA National Phenology Network (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M. V.


    Background Periodic plant and animal cycles driven by seasonal variations in climate (i.e., phenology) set the stage for dynamics of ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The predictive potential of phenology requires a new data resource-a national network of integrated phenological observations and the tools to access and analyze them at multiple scales. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the Nation's resources. The USA-NPN will establish a wall-to-wall science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN began operation in August 2007 at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. This first year of operation produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement, as well as identification of future directions for the USA NPN. Products include a new web-site ( that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 185 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and monitoring protocols, as well as

  10. The progress and future of enhancing antiviral capacity by transgenic technology in the silkworm Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xia, Qingyou


    Bombyx mori is a common lepidopteran model and an important economic insect for silk production. B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a typical pathogenic baculovirus that causes serious economic losses in sericulture. B. mori and BmNPV are a model of insect host and pathogen interaction including invasion of the host by the pathogen, host response, and enhancement of host resistance. The antiviral capacity of silkworms can be improved by transgenic technology such as overexpression of an endogenous or exogenous antiviral gene, RNA interference of the BmNPV gene, or regulation of the immune pathway to inhibit BmNPV at different stages of infection. Antiviral capacity could be further increased by combining different methods. We discuss the future of an antiviral strategy in silkworm, including possible improvement of anti-BmNPV, the feasibility of constructing transgenic silkworms with resistance to multiple viruses, and the safety of transgenic silkworms. The silkworm model could provide a reference for disease control in other organisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Data Reuse or Secondary Use: Current Status and Potential Future Progress. (United States)

    Meystre, S M; Lovis, C; Bürkle, T; Tognola, G; Budrionis, A; Lehmann, C U


    Objective: To perform a review of recent research in clinical data reuse or secondary use, and envision future advances in this field. Methods: The review is based on a large literature search in MEDLINE (through PubMed), conference proceedings, and the ACM Digital Library, focusing only on research published between 2005 and early 2016. Each selected publication was reviewed by the authors, and a structured analysis and summarization of its content was developed. Results: The initial search produced 359 publications, reduced after a manual examination of abstracts and full publications. The following aspects of clinical data reuse are discussed: motivations and challenges, privacy and ethical concerns, data integration and interoperability, data models and terminologies, unstructured data reuse, structured data mining, clinical practice and research integration, and examples of clinical data reuse (quality measurement and learning healthcare systems). Conclusion: Reuse of clinical data is a fast-growing field recognized as essential to realize the potentials for high quality healthcare, improved healthcare management, reduced healthcare costs, population health management, and effective clinical research. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  12. Progress of information technology in healthcare, current state, outlook toward future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dvořák


    Full Text Available Brief summary of reasons for development of Hospital Information Systems (HIS is described. We mention different concepts of HIS development. Primary negative attitude of physicians to the invasion of information technology to hospitals has been slowly changed. Extended teaching of fundamentals of computer science at medical universities is very important for a new generation of physicians. Modern methods of e‑learning allow using websites and medical atlases including presentations of surgical interventions in different branches of surgical medicine, physiotherapeutic methods, etc. Medical staff in hospitals may also profit from electronic tools used for education in medical informatics or for obligatory postgraduate courses. Software producing companies are obliged to teach potential users how to use implemented information systems effectively. E-learning is a good method how to teach new employees who need to start using the system. Telematics in health service and use of Internet data storages may be a trend in future development of information systems. Large amount of patient data in current databases is a big encouragement for expanded use of data mining and application of artificial intelligence methods in medical expert systems.

  13. Bid rounds: progress and future prospects; Rodadas de licitacoes: evolucao e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorelli Junior, D.C.; Silva, Paulo Alexandre S.; Campos, Thiago N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP is an institution integrating the indirect Federal Administration, under the special autarchic regime, as an entity regulating the petroleum industry, linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. The Minister of MME is the president of the National Council of Energy Policy - CNPE, which has the attribution of proposing national policies and specific measures to the President of the Republic. The ANP aims at promoting the regulation, contraction and inspection of the economic activities related to the petroleum industry, and shall elaborate the bidding protocols and promote the bidding for the concession of exploration, development and production activities, signing the relevant contracts and inspecting its execution. The Brazilian Bidding Rounds of blocks with exploratory risk, promoted by ANP, included areas from 22 of the 38 main Brazilian sedimentary basins divided into three exploratory models: High Potential Areas, New Frontier Areas and Mature Basins Areas. This work presents the framework evolution obtained in Bid Rounds, analyzing the main results of the auctions, and the future perspectives for management of the exploration and production activities according the national energy policy statements. (author)

  14. Organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC): Properties from computation, progress and future perspectives (United States)

    Obotowo, I. N.; Obot, I. B.; Ekpe, U. J.


    The advent of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) came at a time when the quest for alternative energy was high, replacing p-n junction photovoltaic devices. Its uniqueness arises from the fact that unlike the conventional systems where the semiconductor assumes the task of light absorption and charge transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC. Organic sensitizers have been used to harvest a large fraction of sunlight ranging from the UV region to the near infrared region of the spectrum leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to ∼ 10.65 % for metal-free organic sensitizers. Currently, experimental analysis of photo sensitizers utilized in DSSCs is often a trial and error process, often laborious and require extensive and expensive chemical synthesis. In most cases, disappointing results from late-stage of the dye synthesis indicate an urgent need to understand the properties of the dyes at a molecular level, before experiments take place. Fortunately, the use of quantum chemical calculations especially Density Functional Theory (DFT) to screen potential dyes has helped in developing efficient sensitizers and to reduce cost. In the present review article, we discuss the current state of the field, new concepts, design strategies, challenges facing the theoretical design and development of organic sensitizers for DSSCs and future perspectives.

  15. Progress in treatment and risk stratification of neuroblastoma: impact on future clinical and basic research. (United States)

    Øra, Ingrid; Eggert, Angelika


    Close international collaboration between pediatric oncologists has led to marked improvements in the cure of patients, seen as a long-term overall survival rate of about 80%. Despite this progress, neuroblastoma remains a challenging disease for both clinicians and researchers. Major clinical problems include lack of acceptable cure rates in high-risk neuroblastoma and potential overtreatment of subsets of patients at low and intermediate risk of the disease. Many years of intensive international cooperation have recently led to a promising joint effort to further improve risk classification for treatment stratification, the new International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Classification System. This approach will facilitate comparison of the results of clinical trials performed by different international collaborative groups. This, in turn, should accelerate refinement of risk stratification and thereby aid selection of appropriate therapies for individual patients. To be able to identify new therapeutic modalities, it will be necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of the different subtypes of neuroblastoma. Basic and translational research have provided new tools for molecular characterization of blood and tumor samples including high-throughput technologies for analysis of DNA, mRNAs, microRNAs and other non-coding RNAs, as well as proteins and epigenetic markers. Most of these studies are array-based in design. In neuroblastoma research they aim to refine risk group stratification through incorporation of molecular tumor fingerprints and also to enable personalized treatment modalities by describing the underlying pathogenesis and aberrant signaling pathways in individual tumors. To make optimal use of these new technologies for the benefit of the patient, it is crucial to have a systematic and detailed documentation of both clinical and molecular data from diagnosis through treatment to follow-up. Close collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists will

  16. A High-Resolution Merged Wind Dataset for DYNAMO: Progress and Future Plans (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Mecikalski, John; Li, Xuanli; Chronis, Themis; Castillo, Tyler; Hoover, Kacie; Brewer, Alan; Churnside, James; McCarty, Brandi; Hein, Paul; hide


    improve our understanding of the future utility of CYGNSS for documenting key MJO processes.

  17. Plasma Leucine-Rich α-2-Glycoprotein 1 Predicts Rapid eGFR Decline and Albuminuria Progression in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Pek, Sharon Li Ting; Ang, Kevin; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Lim, Su Chi


    Abnormal angiogenesis plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) is a newly identified angiogenic factor. To study whether plasma LRG1 may independently predict progression of DKD in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Prospective cohort study in a regional hospital. In total, 1226 T2DM participants were followed for a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 3.1 ± 0.4 years. Albuminuria progression was defined as elevation in albuminuria level to a higher category. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression [rapid estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline] was defined as a 40% or greater deterioration in eGFR in 3 years. Both participants with albuminuria progression and those with CKD progression had higher plasma LRG1 levels at baseline. LRG1 independently predicted albuminuria progression above traditional risk factors, including baseline eGFR and urine albumin to creatinine ratio. A 1-SD increment in LRG1 was associated with a 1.26-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 to 1.53, P = 0.018] higher adjusted risk for albuminuria progression. The association of LRG1 with microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria progression was stronger than its association with normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria progression [odds ratio (OR), 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.18, P = 0.029 vs OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.37, P = 0.486, per 1-SD LRG1 increment]. Also, LRG1 independently predicted CKD progression above traditional risk factors. A 1-SD increment in LRG1 was associated with a 1.48-fold (95% CI, 1.04 to 2.11, P = 0.032) higher adjusted risk for CKD progression. Plasma LRG1 predicts both albuminuria and CKD progression beyond traditional risk factors. It may play a role in the pathologic pathway leading to progression of DKD in T2DM.

  18. Understanding the future impacts of rapid ocean warming and acidification on the carbonate balance of coral reefs. ecosystems. (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Dove, S. G.


    Marine organisms and ecosystems are undergoing fundamental changes as a consequence of ocean warming and acidification, which must be understood if we are to anticipate and respond to the resulting changes to ecosystem services and functions. We have been investigating potential changes to the calcification and bioerosion rates of coral reefs using flow-through mesocosms at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. In these experiments, we have been manipulating the temperature and pCO2 in order to simulate future ocean conditions described by IPCC scenarios (specifically B2, A1FI). We have also created pre-industrial conditions for comparison. Importantly, our system not only provides fine control over experimental conditions but also allows temperature and pCO2 to fluctuate with daily and seasonal changes measured (integrated over 3 h) at specific locations of interest on the Heron Island Reef, which allows a more 'realistic' analysis of the combined influences of ocean warming and acidification. In our first set of experiments, we have examined the impact of IPCC scenarios (year 2100) for a range of ecosystem phenomena relating to the carbonate balance of coral reefs including (1) phototrophic microborers within the dead skeletons of two coral species; (2) calcareous coralline algae, (3) turf algal communities in the presence and absence of grazing damselfish; (4) the calcification, growth, mortality and recruitment of the reef-building corals, and (5) microbial communities associated with corals. The overall conclusion of the studies conducted to date strongly suggests rapid movement to a negative carbonate balance for shallow water tropical coral reefs even under medium (B2) climate scenarios that involve SST increases of approximately +1.5oC and +250 ppm pCO2. Our conclusion is based on observations regarding key organisms that are involved in establishing the carbonate balance of coral reef organisms, and on the observed impacts of these conditions on

  19. Rapid disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Veugelers, P. J.; Keet, I. P.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Miedema, F.; Lange, J. M.; Coutinho, R. A.


    We studied the relation between the occurrence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis and the subsequent course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a cohort of homosexual men. Adverse reactions to TMP-SMZ were associated with a more rapid

  20. Optic neuritis and rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis as the initial signs of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report with clinical and histopathologic findings. (United States)

    Oray, Merih; Tuncer, Samuray; Kir, Nur; Karacorlu, Murat; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur


    We report a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting first with optic neuritis and rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis at the posterior pole. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, photographic, angiographic, and histopathologic records of a patient with SSPE. A 15-year-old girl was referred after rapid loss of vision due to optic neuritis and macular necrosis in the right eye. She had a history of cardiac valve surgery, but had no systemic symptoms and extensive work-up was unrewarding. Contralateral involvement with rapidly progressive optic neuritis and macular necrotizing retinitis prompted retinochoroidal biopsy of the right eye, which revealed necrosis of inner retinal layers and perivascular lymphoplasmocytic infiltration with intact choroid and outer retina without any findings of inclusion bodies, microorganisms, or atypical cells. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings consistent with SSPE, and detection of elevated measles antibody titers in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. It was further confirmed by development of typical electroencephalography pattern at 6 months and neurological symptoms at 4-year follow-up. Clinicians need to be aware that optic neuritis and necrotizing retinitis at the posterior pole may be the presenting features of SSPE.

  1. Initiatives for community building in an urban semi-marginal village: Progress of the Ajinadai Lively Project and future challenges. (United States)

    Masaki, Naoko; Matsubara, Miyuki; Hayashi, Shinji; Fukuizumi, Maiko; Morimoto, Chiyoko; Mori, Matsue


    Objectives We launched and engaged in the "Ajinadai Lively Project" to examine the ideal state of community building in an urban semi-marginal village. In addition to discussing its progress and describing the activities, we examine future challenges.Methods (1) We gathered existing resources, conducted a district survey and focus group interview, and investigated the community's health issues. (2) We conducted a workshop with local residents and formulated an action plan. (3) We conducted a health volunteer training class to foster community leaders. (4) Local residents interacted with students through nursing school practice and student volunteer activities.Results The health issues in the community were as follows: (1) Few connections existed between residents across generations, and no framework for mutual assistance was established. (2) Many solitary elderly people and elderly households existed, and we found many instances of elderly-to-elderly care and social withdrawal of elderly people. (3) Many slopes and staircases existed, which made mobility difficult for elderly people. Based on these results, we encouraged the state to pursue quality of life as "A community where people connect and help one another across generations" as well as "A healthy community where people greet one another." We also established health, behavioral, and environmental goals. The health volunteer training class became an impetus for residents to realize the necessity of not only protecting their own health, but also encouraging others and the whole community to get involved.Conclusion While the health volunteer training class did not initiate autonomous activity, it increased the motivation of residents themselves for community building. Performing continuous evaluations and offering support for autonomous activity is important in the future.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup


    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  3. Headache attack followed by rapid disease progression in pediatric moyamoya disease--how should we manage it? (United States)

    Vuignier, Sandra; Akioka, Naoki; Hamada, Hideo; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuroda, Satoshi


    A 4-year-old female was presented at our hospital with frequent right frontal headache attack. She was diagnosed with moyamoya disease and was conservatively followed up. One year later, the frequency of headache gradually decreased. However, follow-up MR imaging revealed that the disease stage markedly progressed in the right side and cerebral infarction occurred in the temporal lobe with atrophy of the right frontal lobe. She underwent direct and indirect revascularization on the right side. Aware of this case, we would like to emphasize that headache may be one subtype of ischemic attacks and require frequent MR follow-up to see the disease course. If there is any sign of disease progression, immediate surgical intervention should be indicated to avoid irreversible brain damage.

  4. Tier-scalable reconnaissance: the future in autonomous C4ISR systems has arrived: progress towards an outdoor testbed (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Brooks, Alexander J.-W.; Tarbell, Mark A.; Dohm, James M.


    Autonomous reconnaissance missions are called for in extreme environments, as well as in potentially hazardous (e.g., the theatre, disaster-stricken areas, etc.) or inaccessible operational areas (e.g., planetary surfaces, space). Such future missions will require increasing degrees of operational autonomy, especially when following up on transient events. Operational autonomy encompasses: (1) Automatic characterization of operational areas from different vantages (i.e., spaceborne, airborne, surface, subsurface); (2) automatic sensor deployment and data gathering; (3) automatic feature extraction including anomaly detection and region-of-interest identification; (4) automatic target prediction and prioritization; (5) and subsequent automatic (re-)deployment and navigation of robotic agents. This paper reports on progress towards several aspects of autonomous C4ISR systems, including: Caltech-patented and NASA award-winning multi-tiered mission paradigm, robotic platform development (air, ground, water-based), robotic behavior motifs as the building blocks for autonomous tele-commanding, and autonomous decision making based on a Caltech-patented framework comprising sensor-data-fusion (feature-vectors), anomaly detection (clustering and principal component analysis), and target prioritization (hypothetical probing).

  5. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Stojan


    Full Text Available Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  6. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase. (United States)

    Stojan, Jure


    Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  7. Efficacy of concurrent treatments in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients with a rapid progression of respiratory failure: an analysis of a national administrative database in Japan. (United States)

    Oda, Keishi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Hanaka, Tetsuya; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Kido, Takashi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Mukae, Hiroshi


    Some IPF patients show a rapid progression of respiratory failure. Most patients are treated with high-dose corticosteroids. However, no large clinical studies have investigated the prognosis or efficacy of combined treatments including high-dose corticosteroids in IPF patients with a rapid progression of respiratory failure. We enrolled IPF patients who received mechanical ventilation and high-dose corticosteroids between April 2010 and March 2013. Records were extracted from a Japanese nationwide inpatient database. We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic and prognostic analysis. Two hundred nine patients receiving an average of 12.8 days of ventilatory support were enrolled. There were 138 (66 %) fatal cases; the median survival was 21 days. The short-term (within 30 days) and long-term (within 90 days) survival rates were 44.6 and 24.6 %, respectively. The average monthly admission rate among the IPF patients with the rapid progression of respiratory failure in the winter was significantly higher than that in spring (p = 0.018). Survival did not differ to a statistically significant extent in the different geographic areas of Japan. Survivors were significantly younger (p = 0.002) with higher rates of mild dyspnea on admission (p = 0.012), they more frequently underwent bronchoscopy (p 80 years of age (OR = 2.94, 95 % Cl 1.044-8.303; p = 0.041) and the intravenous administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (OR = 3.17, 95 % Cl 1.101-9.148; p = 0.033). Undergoing bronchoscopy during intubation (OR = 0.25, 95 % Cl 0.079-0.798; p = 0.019) and the administration of co-trimoxazole (OR = 0.28, 95 % Cl 0.132-0.607; p = 0.001) and macrolides (OR = 0.37, 95 % Cl 0.155-0.867; p = 0.033) were significantly associated with a good prognosis. The dosage of co-trimoxazole significantly correlated with survival. Co-trimoxazole and macrolides may be a good addition to high-dose corticosteroids in the

  8. Emergence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants followed by rapid disease progression in hemophiliac slow progressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunefusa Hayashida

    Full Text Available The association between emergence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants (X4 variants and disease progression of HIV-1 infection has been reported. However, it is not known whether the emergence of X4 variants is the cause or result of HIV-1 disease progression. We tried to answer this question.HIV-1 env sequences around the V3 region were analyzed in serially stocked samples in order to determine whether X4 variants emerged before or after the fall in CD4+ T-cell count.The study subjects were five HIV-1-infected hemophiliac slow progressors. Deep sequencing around the HIV-1 env V3 region was conducted in duplicate. Tropism was predicted by geno2pheno [coreceptor] 2.5 with cutoff value of false positive ratio at <5%. When X4 variant was identified in the latest stocked sample before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, we checked viral genotype in previously stocked samples to determine the time of emergence of X4 variants.Emergence of X4 variants was noted in two of the five patients when their CD4+ T-cell counts were still high. The rate of decrease of CD4+ T-cell count or of rise of HIV-1 load accelerated significantly after the emergence of X4 variants in these two cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these X4 variants emerged from CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses with several amino acid changes in the V3 region.The emergence of X4 variants preceded HIV-1 disease progression in two hemophiliac slow progressors.

  9. Case report of a 28-year-old male with the rapid progression of steroid-resistant central nervous system vasculitis diagnosed by a brain biopsy. (United States)

    Takahashi, Keigo; Sato, Hideki; Hattori, Hidenori; Takao, Masaki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Norihiro


    A 28-year-old Japanese male without a significant past medical history presented with new-onset generalized clonic seizure and headache. A brain MRI revealed multiple enhanced lesions on both cerebral hemispheres. Laboratory exams showed no evidence of systemic inflammation or auto-immune antibodies such as ANCAs. Despite four courses of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and five treatments with plasmapheresis, his symptoms worsened and the MRI lesions progressed rapidly. During these treatments, we performed a targeted brain biopsy, that revealed histological findings consistent with a predominant angiitis of parenchymal and subdural small vessels. He was provided with diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV). Subsequent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy enabled a progressive successful improvement of his symptoms. While diagnostic methods for CNSV remain controversial, histological findings are thought to be more useful in obtaining a more definitive diagnosis than findings in image studies, such as MRI and angiography. We suggest that a brain biopsy should be considered during the early period of cases with suspected CNSV and rapid clinical deterioration. We also detected human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) using PCR technology in brain biopsy specimens, however the relationship between CNSV and HHV-7 infection is unknow.

  10. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review. (United States)

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A; Lerner, Shulamit E; Aranoff, Gaya S; Sopher, Aviva B; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J; Oberfield, Sharon E


    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. The charts of 27 boys with BA ≥ 13 and short stature [height ≥ 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ≥ 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14-30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, pheight, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height.

  11. Rapidly progressing subperiosteal orbital abscess: an unexpected complication of a group-A streptococcal pharyngitis in a healthy young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantinides Fulvia


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Complications associated to group-A streptococcal pharyingitis include non-suppurative complications such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis and suppurative complications such as peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess, sinusitis, mastoiditis, otitis media, meningitis, brain abscess, or thrombosis of the intracranial venous sinuses. Case presentation We described a case of a 15-year-old patient with a history of acute pharyngodinia early followed by improvise fever and a progressive formation of a diffuse orbital edema, corneal hyperaemia, diplopia and severe decrease of visual acuity. The patient was surgically treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS after the response of a maxillofacial computed tomography scans that showed a pansinusitis complicated by a left orbital cellulites. Numerous colonies of Streptococcus pyogenes were found in the samples of pus and an antibiotic therapy with meropenem was initiated on the basis of the sensitivity test to antibiotics. The patient was finally discharged with diagnosis of left orbital cellulites with periorbital abscess, endophtalmitis and acute pansinusitis as a consequence of streptococcal pharyngitis. Conclusion The case highlights the possible unusual complication of a group-A streptococcal pharyingitis in a immunocompetent child and the needing of a prompt surgical and medical approach toward the maxillofacial complications associated to the infection.

  12. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye


    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...... the conditions necessary to create and maintain a PRT-like taxi system and to demonstrate the differences between ‘normal’ and PRT-like taxi systems. Finally, the future of personal rapid transit as a functional and physical transportation paradigm is discussed....

  13. Rapid progressive visual decline and visual field defects in two patients with the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. (United States)

    Lenk, Janine; Engellandt, Kay; Terai, Naim; Bottesi, Antonia; Matthé, Egbert


    Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (HvCJD) is a rare disease, patients presenting with loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields. Two patients with rapid loss of visual acuity and declining visual fields presented with homonymic hemianopsia over several weeks. Cranial MRI showed neither stroke nor other morphological changes explaining the severe visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed no pathologies. However, lumbar puncture showed an increase in total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Visual field testing revealed further deterioration during follow-up. Several weeks later, patients' behaviour changed markedly, exhibiting aggression, declining memory function and physical degeneration. The suspected diagnosis was the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (HvCJD). CSF analysis showed evidence of PrP Sc and 14-3-3 protein. Both patients died within 8 weeks of the CJD diagnosis. Loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields without corresponding MRI findings and marked changes in behaviour should lead to a diagnosis of HvCJD. Corresponding diagnostic tests should be performed for confirmation. The prognosis for survival is poor and should be immediately communicated to affected patients and their relatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atypical rapid progression of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip in a patient on hemodialysis using polyacrylonitrile membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth S. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States); Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Wayne State School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Abbud, Alexander [Wayne State School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)


    Amyloidosis related to dialysis is a well-known complication affecting many organ systems, in particular the musculoskeletal system. In 1985 Shirahama et al. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 53:705-709, 1985) identified beta-2 microglobulin (MG) as the offending constituent by using protein purification techniques. Amyloidosis has been increasing in prevalence because of longer life spans and increased chronic medical conditions such as end-stage renal disease. When dialysis-related amyloidosis involves the musculoskeletal system, it affects the shoulder girdle, the so called shoulder pad sign, the wrist, hip, knee, and spine (Resnick, Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, 4th edn., pp. 2054-2058 and 2176-2183, 2002). Other osteoarticular manifestations of amyloidosis include osteoporosis, lytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. It has been well documented that the prevalence of amyloid is dependent on duration of dialysis - over 90% in patients on dialysis for over 7 years (Jadoul, Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:61-64, 1998). However, a recent changeover to high-flux membranes used in hemofiltration has been reported to delay its onset (Campistol et al., Contrib Nephrol 125:76-85, 1999). We report on the radiographic, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT) findings of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip, and sequence its atypical rapid onset. The imaging, histopathological findings, and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Rapid point of care diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections--needs, advances, and future prospects. (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Enne, Virve I; Kidd, Mike; Drosten, Christian; Breuer, Judy; Muller, Marcel A; Hui, David; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Hakeem, Rafaat; Gray, Gregory; Gautret, Philippe; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A; Gant, Vanya


    Respiratory tract infections rank second as causes of adult and paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Respiratory tract infections are caused by many different bacteria (including mycobacteria) and viruses, and rapid detection of pathogens in individual cases is crucial in achieving the best clinical management, public health surveillance, and control outcomes. Further challenges in improving management outcomes for respiratory tract infections exist: rapid identification of drug resistant pathogens; more widespread surveillance of infections, locally and internationally; and global responses to infections with pandemic potential. Developments in genome amplification have led to the discovery of several new respiratory pathogens, and sensitive PCR methods for the diagnostic work-up of these are available. Advances in technology have allowed for development of single and multiplexed PCR techniques that provide rapid detection of respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. Microarray-based multiplexing and nucleic-acid-based deep-sequencing methods allow simultaneous detection of pathogen nucleic acid and multiple antibiotic resistance, providing further hope in revolutionising rapid point of care respiratory tract infection diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.


    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  17. Chronic Subdural Hematoma development in Accelerated phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia presenting with seizure and rapid progression course with fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheja Amol


    Full Text Available Occurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH in leukemia is rare, and most reported cases occurred in relation with acute myeloid leukaemia; however, occurrence is extremely rare in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML. Seizure as presentation of SDH development in CML cases is not reported in literature. Authors report an elderly male, who was diagnosed as CML, accelerated phase of developing SDH. Initially presented to local physician with seizure; urgent CT scan head was advised, but ignored and sensorium rapidly worsened over next day and reported to our emergency department in deeply comatose state, where imaging revealed chronic subdural hematoma with hypoxic brain injury with fatal outcome. Seizure, progressive worsening of headache, vomiting and papilloedema are harbinger of intracranial space occupying lesion and requires CT head in emergency medical department for exclusion, who are receiving treatment of haematological malignancy

  18. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and ... me to imagine a world without the National Library of Medicine." Photo courtesy of NIH NLM Director ...

  19. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind. (United States)

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H


    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  20. Considering Valproate as a Risk Factor for Rapid Exacerbation of Complex Movement Disorder in Progressed Stages of Late-Infantile CLN2 Disease. (United States)

    Johannsen, Jessika; Nickel, Miriam; Schulz, Angela; Denecke, Jonas


    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2 disease, OMIM 204500) is a rare autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in childhood. Symptoms include epilepsy, rapid motor and language regression, dementia, visual loss, and a complex movement disorder in later stages of the disease. We report on two children with genetically confirmed late-infantile CLN2 disease who developed a severe exacerbation of their complex movement disorder leading to hyperthermia, hyper-CK-emia and decreased level of consciousness over several weeks despite different therapeutic approaches. Both patients were on long-term antiepileptic treatment with valproate and only after the withdrawal of valproate, the movement disorder disappeared and level of consciousness improved. These observations emphasize that valproate has to be considered as a possible risk factor in patients in later stages of late-infantile CLN2 disease who develop a rapidly progressive complex movement disorder. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Will the future lie in multitude? A critical appraisal of biomarker panel studies on prediction of diabetic kidney disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Elise; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Benner, Jacqueline; Lutgers, Helen L.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    Diabetic kidney disease is diagnosed and staged by albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Although albuminuria has strong predictive power for renal function decline, there is still variability in the rate of renal disease progression across individuals that are not fully captured by

  2. Using SAR and GPS for Hazard Management and Response: Progress and Examples from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S. H.; Agram, P. S.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Milillo, G.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Polet, J.; Cruz, J.


    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech project to automate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. We have built a prototype SAR and GPS data system that forms the foundation for hazard monitoring and response capability, as well as providing imaging capabilities important for science studies. Together, InSAR and GPS have the ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution. For earthquakes, this deformation provides information that is complementary to seismic data on location, geometry and magnitude of earthquakes. Accurate location information is critical for understanding the regions affected by damaging shaking. Regular surface deformation measurements from SAR and GPS are useful for monitoring changes related to many processes that are important for hazard and resource management such as volcanic deformation, groundwater withdrawal, and landsliding. Observations of SAR coherence change have a demonstrated use for damage assessment for hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. These damage assessment maps can be made from imagery taken day or night and are not affected by clouds, making them valuable complements to optical imagery. The coherence change caused by the damage from hazards (building collapse, flooding, ash fall) is also detectable with intelligent algorithms, allowing for rapid generation of damage assessment maps over large areas at fine resolution, down to the spatial scale of single family homes. We will present the progress and results we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed constellation of X-band SAR satellites. Since the beginning of our project with ASI, our team has imaged deformation and coherence change caused by many natural hazard events around the world. We will present progress on our

  3. Rapid, progressive neuropathic arthropathy of the hip in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and tertiary syphilis: case report (United States)


    Background Syphilis is a chronic infection that is classified into three stages. In its tertiary stage, syphilis spreads to the brain, heart and other organs; the lesions may involve the skin, mucous membranes and bones. Neuropathic arthropathy associated with tertiary syphilis has rarely been described in Europe and its association with HIV-HCV co-infection has not been reported so far. This article reports the case of a man with tertiary syphilis presenting with rapidly evolving neuropathic arthropathy of the hip and extensive bone destruction. Case presentation On initial presentation, the patient complained of progressively worsening left-sided coxalgia without localized or generalized inflammation. The patient reported to have no history of previous infections, trauma or cancer. Plain x-ray films of the left coxofemoral joint showed marked degeneration with necrosis of the proximal epiphysis of femur and morphological alterations of the acetabulum without protrusion. Primary coxarthrosis was diagnosed and hip arthroplasty was offered, but the patient declined treatment. Three months later, the patient presented a marked deterioration of his general condition. He disclosed that he was seropositive for HCV and HIV, as confirmed by serology. Syphilis serology testing was also positive. A Girdlestone's procedure was performed and samples were collected for routine cultures for bacteria and acid fast bacilli, all resulting negative. Although histological findings were inconclusive, confirmed positive serology for syphilis associated with progressive arthropathy was strongly suggestive of tertiary syphilis, probably exacerbated by HIV-HCV co-infection. The patient partially recovered the ability to walk. Conclusions Due to the resurgence of syphilis, this disease should be considered as a possible cause of neuropathic arthropathy when other infectious causes have been ruled out, particularly in patients with HIV and/or HCV co-infection. PMID:21645338

  4. Rapid, progressive neuropathic arthropathy of the hip in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and tertiary syphilis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualini Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis is a chronic infection that is classified into three stages. In its tertiary stage, syphilis spreads to the brain, heart and other organs; the lesions may involve the skin, mucous membranes and bones. Neuropathic arthropathy associated with tertiary syphilis has rarely been described in Europe and its association with HIV-HCV co-infection has not been reported so far. This article reports the case of a man with tertiary syphilis presenting with rapidly evolving neuropathic arthropathy of the hip and extensive bone destruction. Case presentation On initial presentation, the patient complained of progressively worsening left-sided coxalgia without localized or generalized inflammation. The patient reported to have no history of previous infections, trauma or cancer. Plain x-ray films of the left coxofemoral joint showed marked degeneration with necrosis of the proximal epiphysis of femur and morphological alterations of the acetabulum without protrusion. Primary coxarthrosis was diagnosed and hip arthroplasty was offered, but the patient declined treatment. Three months later, the patient presented a marked deterioration of his general condition. He disclosed that he was seropositive for HCV and HIV, as confirmed by serology. Syphilis serology testing was also positive. A Girdlestone's procedure was performed and samples were collected for routine cultures for bacteria and acid fast bacilli, all resulting negative. Although histological findings were inconclusive, confirmed positive serology for syphilis associated with progressive arthropathy was strongly suggestive of tertiary syphilis, probably exacerbated by HIV-HCV co-infection. The patient partially recovered the ability to walk. Conclusions Due to the resurgence of syphilis, this disease should be considered as a possible cause of neuropathic arthropathy when other infectious causes have been ruled out, particularly in patients with HIV and/or HCV co-infection.

  5. Fundus Autofluorescence and SD-OCT Document Rapid Progression in Autosomal Dominant Vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) Associated with a c.256G > A Mutation in BEST1. (United States)

    Kellner, Simone; Stöhr, Heidi; Fiebig, Britta; Weinitz, Silke; Farmand, Ghazaleh; Kellner, Ulrich; Weber, Bernhard H F


    To report the variability of clinical findings, rapid concentric progression, and successful treatment of macular edema in autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) associated with a heterozygous c.256G > A missense mutation in the bestrophin-1 (BEST1) gene. Three affected members of a four-generation ADVIRC family were examined with fundus autofluorescence (FAF), near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Direct sequence analysis of coding and flanking intronic regions of the BEST1 gene was performed. Disease manifestations presented with high variability with visual problems manifesting between 10 and 40 years of age. Two probands showed marked signs of peripheral degeneration, while this retinal area was not noticeably affected in the third. Cystoid macular edema was present in one proband, which responded to long-term treatment with topic dorzolamide with improved visual acuity. FAF and NIA revealed mid-peripheral retinal degeneration in areas that appeared normal on ophthalmoscopy. The full-field ERG was markedly reduced in two probands. Within a 5-year period a marked increase in concentric progression of degeneration including the posterior pole was documented with FAF, NIA and SD-OCT in one proband after the age of 63 years. Direct sequence analysis of the BEST1 gene revealed a heterozygous c.256G > A missense mutation in the three affected probands. The findings in this family emphasize the previously noted variability of clinical manifestations in BEST1-associated ADVIRC and the relevance of FAF and NIA imaging. Cystoid macular edema and vascular leakage can be successfully treated using dorzolamide.

  6. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia; Hirn-SPECT mit Tc-99m-Bicisat (ECD) bei rasch progredientem dementiellen Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Mainkofen (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Zerr, I.; Poser, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie


    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 61jaehrigen Patienten mit progredientem dementiellen Syndrom, der unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) zur Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung mit TC-99m-Bicisat (ECD) vorgestellt wurde. Zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt bestanden neben dem Vollbild einer Demenz eine ausgepraegte Apraxie und Aphasie bei unspezifischen Veraenderungen im EEG sowie der neuroradiologischen Bildgebung. In der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung fanden sich fuer eine DAT untypische ausgedehnte, vorwiegend rechtshemisphaerische Perfusionsstoerungen. Im weiteren Verlauf rasche Progredienz des Krankheitsbildes mit Entwicklung eines akinetischen Mutismus sowie Nachweis erhoehter Werte der neuronspezifischen Enolase und des 14-3-3-Proteins im Liquor. Der Patient verstarb schliesslich unter dem Bild einer Decortication. Aufgrund des klinischen Verlaufs sowie der Liquorbefunde wurde, da eine autoptische Befundsicherung

  7. Big Data, IPRs & Competition Law in the Pharma & Life Sciences- future issues in a rapidly evolving field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    While there are numerous particular IPR and regulatory issues to be resolved across the intersection between Big Data and the life sciences there is a growing awareness of the importance of data and specifically Big Data by market authorities. Antitrust enforcement agencies, those in the United...... the merger on the condition that the merged firm would make copies of its database available for purchase by existing and new potential competitors. The previous decision of the European Court of Justice in the IMS Health case has already set out that there are limitations to the extent IPRs can be used......, regulatory or de facto is not a concern and the technology or data owner is in general obliged to license on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. These are issues that remain unanswered in the antitrust narrative but all indications are that the future holds more application of the antitrust rules...

  8. Frequent overlap of active hepatitis in recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after living-donor liver transplantation relates to its rapidly progressive course. (United States)

    Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Egawa, Hiroto; Yoshizawa, Atsusi; Ueda, Yoshihide; Ichida, Takafumi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni


    Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation is a challenging issue. Liver pathologies of recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after living-donor liver transplantation have not been reported. Here, liver pathologies of explanted grafts and biopsies of 9 patients who underwent retransplantation for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis were compared with those of native livers. Recurrence was diagnosed in 13 of 36 patients for primary sclerosing cholangitis post-living-donor liver transplantation, and 9 of them underwent retransplantation. All explanted grafts revealed biliary cirrhosis with sclerosing cholangitis, and 6 patients had additional features of active hepatitis. Liver biopsies showed that 3 had active hepatitis in addition to fibrous cholangitis at recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Two developed active hepatitis later after the diagnosis of recurrence. In explanted grafts, in addition to extensive hilar lymphoplasmacytic cholangitis, 4 cases showed hilar xanthogranulomatous cholangitis. The latter was not evident in 7 native livers. Ductopenia was extensive in all native livers, although such changes were relatively mild in explanted grafts at retransplantation. Patients with recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis developed progressive graft failure, and the interval between diagnosis of recurrence and retransplantation (mean, 3.2 years) was shorter than that between diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and first transplantation (mean, 7.7 years). The rather rapid deterioration of recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation may be related to the frequent overlap of active hepatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreased phasic EMG activity during rapid eye movement sleep in treatment-naïve Parkinson's disease: effects of treatment with levodopa and progression of illness. (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Caminero, Ana B; De La Llave, Yolanda; Larrosa, Oscar; Barrio, Soledad; Granizo, Juan J; Pareja, Juan A


    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may anticipate its diagnosis by several years. We assessed the presence of motor dyscontrol during REM sleep in treatment-naïve PD patients and investigated the putative effect of levodopa (L-dopa) treatment on motor activity. Overnight sleep studies were performed on 15 previously untreated PD patients and 14 controls at baseline, again after a 3- to 9-month treatment period with a low dose of L-dopa, and 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation (in 8 patients). No differences in sleep parameters were observed across groups or treatment conditions. None of the patients met criteria for RBD at baseline, whereas 5 patients were symptomatic at the time of the second sleep study. A quantitative analysis of electromyographic (EMG) activity during REM sleep showed a lower phasic twitching activity in untreated PD than in controls. However, an increase in both phasic twitching and tonic activity was found after treatment with L-dopa. Discontinuation of treatment resulted in a return to pretreatment values of phasic but not of tonic EMG activity. Thus, the increase in phasic activity seems to depend on the effects of L-dopa, whereas the increase in tonic EMG activity during REM sleep might be caused by other factors such as the progression of disease. Potential implications for the understanding of the relationship between RBD and PD are discussed. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society

  10. Case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by rapidly progressive group A hemolytic streptococcal infection during postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer. (United States)

    Nogami, Yuya; Tsuji, Kousuke; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Katakura, Satomi; Kisu, Iori; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke


    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). This condition is a serious disease that involves rapidly progressive septic shock. We experienced a case of STSS caused by primary peritonitis during treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin (TP therapy) as postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer. STSS mostly develops after extremity pain, but initial influenza-like symptoms of fever, chill, myalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms may also occur. TP therapy is used to treat many cancers, including gynecological cancer, but may cause adverse reactions of neuropathy and nephrotoxicity and sometimes fever, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and general malaise. The case reported here indicates that development of STSS can be delayed after chemotherapy and that primary STSS symptoms may be overlooked because they may be viewed as adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of STSS during chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Integrated Use of Tools and Technologies for Rapidly Prototyping Simulated Data Products of Future NASA Observing Systems For Evaluation in Applications of National Importance (United States)

    O'Hara, C. G.; Moorhead, R.; Shaw, D.; Shrestha, B.; Ross, K.; Prados, D.; Russell, J.; Ryan, R. E.


    NASA sponsored "Rapid Prototyping Capability" (RPC) research activities of the Mississippi Research Consortium are aimed at developing infrastructure and experiments to evaluate data products from future NASA observing systems in applications, models or decision support tools of national importance. The RPC will host a wide variety of experiments, many of which will require the simulation of data streams to approximate products from future NASA observing systems. To simulate data from a future observing system, a variety of tools and technologies must be employed in an integrated computational workflow. Future data product simulations will typically involve using data products from currently operational science data mission observing systems to provide inputs to a process wherein data will be extracted and manipulated to provide products that approximate the spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal characteristics of planned future sensors. The integration of tools and technologies and adapting interfaces for ease of use will enable researchers to test a variety of simulations to efficiently determine an acceptable set of procedures whereby a simulated data product may be derived from existing data sources. Interactive research and testing of data product simulation scenarios will strongly leverage NASA tools and technologies such as the HDF Extraction to GeoTiff tool (HEG2.7) to extract large volumes of data in batch mode, the Time-Series Product Toolkit (TSPT) to evaluate methods for data fusion, de-noising, and creating multi-temporal composites, and the Application Research Toolbox (ART) to manipulate data product characteristics in the simulation process. Given an accepted simulation configuration generated by a set of methods and a documented process workflow, the process will be computationally implemented using Mississippi State University's Temporal Map Algebra (TMA) tools which will enable handling large data sets, computing efficiently the desired

  12. Emergent Life Events During Youth Evidence-Based Treatment: Impact on Future Provider Adherence and Clinical Progress. (United States)

    Guan, Karen; Park, Alayna L; Chorpita, Bruce F


    Emergent life events (ELEs)-unexpected stressors disclosed in psychotherapy that have a significant negative impact on the client-commonly occur in community populations of youth and are associated with decreased provider adherence to evidence-based treatment (EBT) in session. The present study extends previous research by examining longer term associations of ELEs with (a) provider adherence to planned EBT practices in subsequent sessions and (b) clinical progress. Data were drawn from the modular EBT condition (MATCH) of the Child STEPs California trial conducted with primarily Latino youth, ages 5-15, who were 54% male (Chorpita et al., 2017). Study 1 utilized data from 57 MATCH participants who reported at least one ELE during treatment. Provider adherence was measured by identifying whether planned practices were covered in either the session in which the ELE was reported or the following session using the MATCH Consultation Record. In Study 2, clinical progress for 78 MATCH participants was assessed using weekly youth- and caregiver-ratings of symptomatology (Brief Problem Checklist) and functioning (Top Problems Assessment). Study 1 revealed that ELEs were associated with reduced adherence to planned practices for at least two sessions. Study 2 demonstrated that each disruptive ELE (i.e., an ELE for which no EBT content was covered) was associated with a 14%-20% slower rate of clinical improvement, with greater declines for functioning and externalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that ELEs can be a major barrier to the effectiveness of an EBT and require further research in order to be addressed effectively.

  13. Rapid tumor progression in a patient with HPV type 16 associated anal squamous cell carcinoma suffering from long-standing Crohn's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer AK


    Full Text Available Background and aim: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common cancer of the anal region, typically associated with high-risk (hr HPV infection. Furthermore, there is evidence that Crohn's disease predisposes to adenocarcinoma in patients with perianal disease. Materials and methods: A 57-year old patient presenting with long history of Crohn's disease since the age of mid-twenties, went through several surgeries including ileocolectomy and anal fistula resection, combined with immunosuppressive therapy additionally periodically since 2008. One year before death (in 2015 a painful fistula was diagnosed with extensive high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN-HG and evidence of invasive growth as non-keratinizing SCC. Tissue samples from several previous and current resection specimens were re-evaluated and extensively investigated for Crohn´s type inflammation, dysplasia and HPV both by immunohistochemistry (p16/Ki67 and molecular subtyping of HPV. Results: AIN-HG and invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma turned out to be strongly positive for p16/Ki67 staining and molecular analysis disclosed a HPV-16 subtype. In contrast, HPV-analysis was negative in all available previous tissue samples including one anal fistula resected five years before (in 2009 which was lined by non-keratinized squamous epithelium without any evidence of dysplasia. Thus, the patient was diagnosed as Crohn's disease with hr-HPV infection that rapidly (< 5ys progressed to AIN-HG and anal SCC. Finally, osseous metastases occurred and the patient died shortly after. Conclusions: This case of a patient diagnosed with SCC of the anal canal in combination with Crohn's disease as well as HPV Type 16 infection, points to the pathomechanism leading to dysplasia and finally cancer. We assume that immunosuppressive therapy in Crohn's disease may predispose to both persistent HPV infection and HPV related invasive anal carcinoma. The accelerated progression of HPV

  14. Grade 3 ischemia on the admission electrocardiogram predicts rapid progression of necrosis over time and less myocardial salvage by primary angioplasty. (United States)

    Billgren, Therese; Maynard, Charles; Christian, Timothy F; Rahman, Mohmmad A; Saeed, Mahammad; Hammill, Stephen C; Wagner, Galen S; Birnbaum, Yochai


    Among patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction, those with terminal QRS distortion (grade 3 ischemia) have higher mortality and larger infarct size (IS) than patients without QRS distortion (grade 2 ischemia). We assessed the relation of baseline electrocardiographic ischemia grades to area at risk (AR) and myocardial salvage [100 (AR-IS)/AR] in 79 patients who underwent primary angioplasty for first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and had technetium Tc 99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography before angioplasty (AR) and at predischarge (IS). Patients were classified as having grade 2 ischemia (ST elevation without terminal QRS distortion in any of the leads, n = 48), grade 2.5 ischemia (ST elevation with terminal QRS distortion in 1 lead, n = 16), or grade 3 ischemia (ST elevation with terminal QRS distortion in >2 adjacent leads, n = 15). Time to treatment was comparable among groups. AR was comparable among groups (38% +/- 20%, 33% +/- 23%, and 34% +/- 23%, respectively; P = .70). There were no differences among groups in residual myocardial perfusion (severity index 0.28 +/- 0.12, 0.29 +/- 0.16, and 0.30 +/- 0.15 in grades 2, 2.5, and 3 ischemia, respectively; P = .97). In contrast, there was a trend toward lower myocardial salvage (45% +/- 32%) in the grade 3 group than in the grade 2 (65% +/- 33%) and grade 2.5 (65% +/- 40%) groups ( P = .16). Salvage was dependent on time only in the grade 3 group. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between time to treatment and percentage salvage were 0.003 ( P = .99), -0.24 ( P = .38), and -0.63 ( P = .022) for grades 2, 2.5, and 3, respectively. Patients with grade 3 ischemia have rapid progression of necrosis over time and less myocardial salvage. This admission pattern is a predictor of myocardial salvage by primary angioplasty.

  15. Progress in control of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza and the future for eradication. (United States)

    Sims, L D


    Three broad factors, occurring concurrently, prevent elimination of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by viruses of the H5N1 subtype (H5N1 HPAI) in countries and subregions where infection has remained endemic. These factors are the nature of the poultry sector, the quality of veterinary and animal production services (both public and private) serving the poultry industry, and the extent and level of commitment at all levels to virus elimination. Most of these countries have developed and adopted programs for progressive control of H5N1 HPAI, focused on the local factors hindering elimination of the viruses. Based on the rate of implementation of these measures over the last 5 to 7 yr (during which time there has been unprecedented financial and technical support from the international donor community), it is not expected that global eradication of H5N1 HPAI viruses can be achieved within the next 10 yr. If the "classical" approach to control, based around early case detection and culling, were adopted in a zone containing millions of free-running ducks, the work load required to complete even the first round of testing would exceed existing capacity. There would be no guarantees of sustained success locally, especially if the viruses are not eradicated regionally.

  16. Molluscs and echinoderms aquaculture: biological aspects, current status, technical progress and future perspectives for the most promising species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais


    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is a widespread activity in the Italian peninsula. However, only two bivalve species are mainly cultured along the coastline of that country: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (Ruditapes philippinarum. By contrast, just a few other mollusc species of commercial interest are scarcely reared at a small-scale level. After analysing the current status of Italian shellfish production, this paper reports and discusses the potential for culturing several different invertebrate species [i.e., the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, the grooved carpet shell Venerupis decussata (Ruditapes decussatus, the razor clams Ensis minor and Solen marginatus, the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris, and the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus] in this country. In addition, a detailed overview of the progress made in aquacultural techniques for these species in the Mediterranean basin is presented, highlighting the most relevant bottlenecks and the way forward to shift from the experimental to the aquaculture phase. Finally, an outlook of the main economic and environmental benefits arising from these shellfish culture practices is also given.

  17. Brain-machine interface facilitated neurorehabilitation via spinal stimulation after spinal cord injury: Recent progress and future perspectives. (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Rodrigues, Willyam; Pham, Bau Ngoc; Thakor, Nitish V


    Restoration of motor function is one of the highest priorities in individuals afflicted with spinal cord injury (SCI). The application of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to neuroprostheses provides an innovative approach to treat patients with sensorimotor impairments. A BMI decodes motor intent from cortical signals to control external devices such as a computer cursor or a robotic arm. Recent BMI systems can now use these motor intent signals to directly activate paretic muscles or to modulate the spinal cord in a way that reengage dormant neuromuscular systems below the level of injury. In this perspective, we review the progress made in the development of brain-machine-spinal-cord interfaces (BMSCIs) and highlight their potential for neurorehabilitation after SCI. The advancement and application of these neuroprostheses goes beyond improved motor control. The use of BMSCI may combine repetitive physical training along with intent-driven neuromodulation to promote neurorehabilitation by facilitating activity-dependent plasticity. Strong evidence suggests that proper timing of volitional neuromodulation facilitates long-term potentiation in the neuronal circuits that can promote permanent functional recovery in SCI subjects. However, the effectiveness of these implantable neuroprostheses must take into account the fact that there will be continuous changes in the interface between the signals of intent and the actual trigger to initiate the motor action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling global vegetation in the late Quaternary: What progress have we made and what are the priorities for the future? (United States)

    Kaplan, Jed


    simulating changing vegetation cover over time, continuously. Several DGVMs have been directly incorporated into the land surface scheme of modern Earth System Models (ESMs), further allowing the exploration of land-atmosphere feedbacks, e.g., during abrupt climate change events, such as those that occurred during the last deglaciation. Recent increases in computer power have also allowed offline simulations, i.e., not directly coupled to an ESM, with DGVMs to simulate vegetation change over long time periods, e.g., continuously for the entire Holocene. Realizing that climate change alone was not the only driver of land cover change over the late Quaternary, the most recent developments in paleovegetation modeling for this period have incorporated human agency as an influence on vegetation. Incorporation of scenarios of Anthropogenic Land Cover Change into DGVMs has allowed a quantitative contribution to the ongoing, lively debate regarding the role of humans in influencing Holocene atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. With the further advances in ESMs and the availability of very long climate model simulations, e.g., TraCE-21ka, improvements to DGVMs such as the explicit representation of age structure and plant traits, and the increasing awareness of the importance of human-environment interactions, the future of paleovegetation modeling for the late Quaternary presents a variety of opportunities. One important focus for future modeling should be on simulating the dynamics of ecotones, e.g., forest-grassland boundaries, over time, particularly during abrupt transient climate change events. Accurate simulation of ecotone boundaries is traditionally a weakness in DGVMs, yet these environments are highly valued by humans for their ecosystem services both at present and in the past, paleoecological evidence suggests that ecotone boundaries were very sensitive to past climate change, and they are critical locations where land-atmosphere feedbacks could have amplified or

  19. Status of scientific knowledge, recovery progress, and future research directions for the Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Vladykov, 1955 (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Parauka, F; Slack, W. Todd; Ruth, T; Randall, Michael T.; Luke, K; Mette, M. F; Price, M. E


    future due a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. These two populations, and perhaps the Escambia River population, are particularly vulnerable to periodic mass mortality due to major stochastic events including hurricanes, flooding, hypoxia, and toxic spills. The present manuscript provides a comprehensive synthesis of knowledge regarding the Gulf Sturgeon at the organismal and population levels, identifying knowledge gaps as priorities for future research. Topics not treated in the present synthesis include morphology, internal biology, physiology, and endocrinology. Topics only briefly treated include parasites and diseases, contaminants, and sturgeon aquaculture.

  20. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang


    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  1. Delivering Nucleic-Acid Based Nanomedicines on Biomaterial Scaffolds for Orthopedic Tissue Repair: Challenges, Progress and Future Perspectives. (United States)

    Raftery, Rosanne M; Walsh, David P; Castaño, Irene Mencía; Heise, Andreas; Duffy, Garry P; Cryan, Sally-Ann; O'Brien, Fergal J


    As well as acting to fill defects and allow for cell infiltration and proliferation in regenerative medicine, biomaterial scaffolds can also act as carriers for therapeutics, further enhancing their efficacy. Drug and protein delivery on scaffolds have shown potential, however, supraphysiological quantities of therapeutic are often released at the defect site, causing off-target side effects and cytotoxicity. Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genes into a cell in order to exert an effect; either replacing a missing gene or modulating expression of a protein. State of the art gene therapy also encompasses manipulation of the transcriptome by harnessing RNA interference (RNAi) therapy. The delivery of nucleic acid nanomedicines on biomaterial scaffolds - gene-activated scaffolds -has shown potential for use in a variety of tissue engineering applications, but as of yet, have not reached clinical use. The current state of the art in terms of biomaterial scaffolds and delivery vector materials for gene therapy is reviewed, and the limitations of current procedures discussed. Future directions in the clinical translation of gene-activated scaffolds are also considered, with a particular focus on bone and cartilage tissue regeneration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Progress for whose future? The impact of the Flexner Report on medical education for racial and ethnic minority physicians in the United States. (United States)

    Steinecke, Ann; Terrell, Charles


    The publication of the Flexner Report in 1910 had an immediate and enduring impact on the training of African American physicians in the United States. The Flexner Report's thesis, "that the country needs fewer and better doctors," was intended to normalize medical education for the majority of physicians, but its implementation just 48 years after the Emancipation Proclamation obstructed opportunities for African Americans pursuing medical education and restricted the production of physicians capable of addressing the health needs of a nation that would grow increasingly diverse across the century.This article provides a working definition of structural racism within academic medicine, reviews the significant physician workforce diversity initiatives of the past four decades, and suggests the most successful of these possess strategies common to addressing structural racism (community empowerment, collaboration, clear and measurable goals, leadership, and durable resources). Stymied by popular ballot initiatives, relentless legal challenges, and dwindling funds, current and future efforts to increase diversity in medicine must maintain a focus on addressing the active remnants of structural racism while they build on the broad benefits of diversity in education and medicine. Despite creative and tireless efforts, no significant progress in expanding diversity within the U.S. physician workforce can be made absent a national effort to address this enduring barrier in the collective social, economic, and political institutions. The centennial of the Flexner Report is an opportunity for the academic medicine community to renew its commitment to dismantling the barriers to diversity and improving medical education for all future physicians.

  3. Informing future research priorities into the psychological and social problems faced by cancer survivors: a rapid review and synthesis of the literature. (United States)

    Jarrett, N; Scott, I; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Brearley, S; Hodges, L; Richardson, A; Sharpe, M; Stamataki, Z; Stark, D; Siller, C; Ziegler, L; Foster, C


    To establish what is known regarding the psychological and social problems faced by adult cancer survivors (people who are living with and beyond a diagnosis of cancer) and identify areas future research should address. A rapid search of published literature reviews held in electronic data bases was under taken. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, and removal of duplicated papers, reduced the initial number of papers from 4051 to 38. Twenty-two review papers were excluded on grounds of quality and 16 review papers were selected for appraisal. The psychological and social problems for cancer survivors are identified as depression, anxiety, distress, fear of recurrence, social support/function, relationships and impact on family, and quality of life. A substantial minority of people surviving cancer experience depression, anxiety, and distress or fear associated with recurrence or follow up. There is some indication that social support is positively associated with better outcomes. Quality of life for survivors of cancer appears generally good for most people, but an important minority experience a reduction in quality of life, especially those with more advanced disease and reduced social and economic resources. The majority of research knowledge is based on women with breast cancer. The longer term implications of cancer survival have not been adequately explored. Focussing well designed research in the identified areas where less is already known about the psychological and social impact of cancer survival is likely to have the greatest impact on the wellbeing of people surviving cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.


    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  5. A Decade After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Progress in Disaster Preparedness and Future Challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives (United States)

    Suppasri, Anawat; Goto, Kazuhisa; Muhari, Abdul; Ranasinghe, Prasanthi; Riyaz, Mahmood; Affan, Muzailin; Mas, Erick; Yasuda, Mari; Imamura, Fumihiko


    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the most devastating tsunamis in world history. The tsunami caused damage to most of the Asian and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. After a decade, reconstruction has been completed with different levels of tsunami countermeasures in most areas; however, some land use planning using probabilistic tsunami hazard maps and vulnerabilities should be addressed to prepare for future tsunamis. Examples of early-stage reconstruction are herein provided alongside a summary of some of the major tsunamis that have occurred since 2004, revealing the tsunami countermeasures established during the reconstruction period. Our primary objective is to report on and discuss the vulnerabilities found during our field visits to the tsunami-affected countries—namely, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives. For each country, future challenges based on current tsunami countermeasures, such as land use planning, warning systems, evacuation facilities, disaster education and disaster monuments are explained. The problem of traffic jams during tsunami evacuations, especially in well-known tourist areas, was found to be the most common problem faced by all of the countries. The readiness of tsunami warning systems differed across the countries studied. These systems are generally sufficient on a national level, but local hazards require greater study. Disaster reduction education that would help to maintain high tsunami awareness is well established in most countries. Some geological evidence is well preserved even after a decade. Conversely, the maintenance of monuments to the 2004 tsunami appears to be a serious problem. Finally, the reconstruction progress was evaluated based on the experiences of disaster reconstruction in Japan. All vulnerabilities discussed here should be addressed to create long-term, disaster-resilient communities.

  6. Molecular progress on the mapping and cloning of functional genes for blast disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.): current status and future considerations. (United States)

    Ashkani, S; Rafii, M Y; Shabanimofrad, M; Ghasemzadeh, A; Ravanfar, S A; Latif, M A


    Rice blast disease, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is a recurring problem in all rice-growing regions of the world. The use of resistance (R) genes in rice improvement breeding programmes has been considered to be one of the best options for crop protection and blast management. Alternatively, quantitative resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is also a valuable resource for the improvement of rice disease resistance. In the past, intensive efforts have been made to identify major R-genes as well as QTLs for blast disease using molecular techniques. A review of bibliographic references shows over 100 blast resistance genes and a larger number of QTLs (∼500) that were mapped to the rice genome. Of the blast resistance genes, identified in different genotypes of rice, ∼22 have been cloned and characterized at the molecular level. In this review, we have summarized the reported rice blast resistance genes and QTLs for utilization in future molecular breeding programmes to introgress high-degree resistance or to pyramid R-genes in commercial cultivars that are susceptible to M. oryzae. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the significant studies in order to update our understanding of the molecular progress on rice and M. oryzae. This information will assist rice breeders to improve the resistance to rice blast using marker-assisted selection which continues to be a priority for rice-breeding programmes.

  7. American College of Cardiology (ACC)'s PINNACLE India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP)-Inception, progress and future direction: A report from the PIQIP Investigators. (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Glusenkamp, Nathan; Anderson, Karen; Kalra, Ram N; Kerkar, Prafulla G; Kumar, Ganesh; Maddox, Thomas M; Oetgen, William J; Virani, Salim S


    Cardiovascular diseases have surpassed infectious disorders to become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India.(1) A national-level registry comprehensively documenting the current-day prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease burden among patients seeking care in the outpatient setting in India is currently non-existent. With a burgeoning urban population, the cardiovascular disease burden in India is set to skyrocket, with an estimated 18 million productive years of life lost by 2030.(2) While there are limited quality improvement registries in India, for example, the Kerala acute coronary syndrome and Trivandrum heart failure registries, their focus is on in-patient care quality improvement, while the vast majority of patients with cardiovascular diseases worldwide, including India, interact with the health care system in the outpatient setting.(3,4) Recognizing this unmet need, the American College of Cardiology partnered with local stakeholders in India to establish India's first outpatient cardiovascular disease performance measurement initiative in 2011, the PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP).(5) This manuscript discusses the inception of the PIQIP registry, the progress it has made and challenges thus far, and its future direction and the promise it holds for cardiovascular care quality improvement in India. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Motivation and Strategies for Implementing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs at NCAR’s Earth Observing Laboratory – Past Progress and Future Collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Aquino


    Full Text Available In an effort to lead our community in following modern data citation practices by formally citing data used in published research and implementing standards to facilitate reproducible research results and data, while also producing meaningful metrics that help assess the impact of our services, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL has implemented the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs (DataCite 2017 for both physical objects (e.g., research platforms and instruments and datasets. We discuss why this work is important and timely, and review the development of guidelines for the use of DOIs at EOL by focusing on how decisions were made. We discuss progress in assigning DOIs to physical objects and datasets, summarize plans to cite software, describe a current collaboration to develop community tools to display citations on websites, and touch on future plans to cite workflows that document dataset processing and quality control. Finally, we will review the status of efforts to engage our scientific community in the process of using DOIs in their research publications.

  9. The fumarate sensor DcuS: progress in rapid protein fold elucidation by combining protein structure prediction methods with NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Meiler, Jens; Baker, David


    We illustrate how moderate resolution protein structures can be rapidly obtained by interlinking computational prediction methodologies with un- or partially assigned NMR data. To facilitate the application of our recently described method of ranking and subsequent refining alternative structural models using unassigned NMR data [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 15404] for such "structural genomics"-type experiments it is combined with protein models from several prediction techniques, enhanced to utilize partial assignments, and applied on a protein with an unknown structure and fold. From the original NMR spectra obtained for the 140 residue fumarate sensor DcuS, 1100 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift signals, 3000 1H- 1H NOESY cross peak intensities, and 209 backbone residual dipolar couplings were extracted and used to rank models produced by de novo structure prediction and comparative modeling methods. The ranking proceeds in two steps: first, an optimal assignment of the NMR peaks to atoms is found for each model independently, and second, the models are ranked based on the consistency between the NMR data and the model assuming these optimal assignments. The low-resolution model selected using this ranking procedure had the correct overall fold and a global backbone RMSD of 6.0Å, and was subsequently refined to 3.7 Å RMSD. With the incorporation of a small number of NOE and residual dipolar coupling constraints available very early in the traditional spectral assignment process, a model with an RMSD of 2.8 Å could rapidly be built. The ability to generate moderate resolution models within days of NMR data collection should facilitate large scale NMR structure determination efforts.

  10. Preferences for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing among social media-using young black, Hispanic, and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM): implications for future interventions. (United States)

    Merchant, R C; Clark, M A; Liu, T; Rosenberger, J G; Romanoff, J; Bauermeister, J; Mayer, K H


    We assessed preferences of social media-using young black, Hispanic and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing, as compared to other currently available HIV testing options. We also identified aspects of the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test that might influence preferences for using this test instead of other HIV testing options and determined if consideration of HIV testing costs and the potential future availability of fingerstick rapid HIV self-testing change HIV testing preferences. Anonymous online survey. HIV-uninfected YMSM across the United States recruited from multiple social media platforms completed an online survey about willingness to use, opinions about and their preferences for using oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing and five other currently available HIV testing options. In a pre/post questionnaire format design, participants first indicated their preferences for using the six HIV testing options (pre) before answering questions that asked their experience with and opinions about HIV testing. Although not revealed to participants and not apparent in the phrasing of the questions or responses, the opinion questions concerned aspects of oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing (e.g. its possible advantages/disadvantages, merits/demerits, and barriers/facilitators). Afterward, participants were queried again about their HIV testing preferences (post). After completing these questions, participants were asked to re-indicate their HIV testing preferences when considering they had to pay for HIV testing and if fingerstick blood sample rapid HIV self-testing were an additional testing option. Aspects about the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test associated with increased preference for using the test (post-assessment vs pre-assessment of opinion topics) were identified through multivariable regression models that adjusted for participant characteristics. Of the 1975 YMSM participants, the median age was 22 years (IQR 20-23); 19

  11. Future Supply of Pediatric Surgeons: Analytical Study of the Current and Projected Supply of Pediatric Surgeons in the Context of a Rapidly Changing Process for Specialty and Subspecialty Training. (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas C; Adamson, William T; Fraher, Erin P; Knapton, Andy; Geiger, James D; Abdullah, Fizan; Klein, Michael D


    To describe the future supply and demand for pediatric surgeons using a physician supply model to determine what the future supply of pediatric surgeons will be over the next decade and a half and to compare that projected supply with potential indicators of demand and the growth of other subspecialties. Anticipating the supply of physicians and surgeons in the future has met with varying levels of success. However, there remains a need to anticipate supply given the rapid growth of specialty and subspecialty fellowships. This analysis is intended to support decision making on the size of future fellowships in pediatric surgery. The model used in the study is an adaptation of the FutureDocs physician supply and need tool developed to anticipate future supply and need for all physician specialties. Data from national inventories of physicians by specialty, age, sex, activity, and location are combined with data from residency and fellowship programs and accrediting bodies in an agent-based or microsimulation projection model that considers movement into and among specialties. Exits from practice and the geographic distribution of physician and the patient population are also included in the model. Three scenarios for the annual entry into pediatric surgery fellowships (28, 34, and 56) are modeled and their effects on supply through 2030 are presented. The FutureDocs model predicts a very rapid growth of the supply of surgeons who treat pediatric patients-including general pediatric surgeon and focused subspecialties. The supply of all pediatric surgeons will grow relatively rapidly through 2030 under current conditions. That growth is much faster than the rate of growth of the pediatric population. The volume of complex surgical cases will likely match this population growth rate meaning there will be many more surgeons trained for those procedures. The current entry rate into pediatric surgery fellowships (34 per year) will result in a slowing of growth after 2025

  12. Significant progression of load on the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using the Anatoly Gravitational System, in a 10-week training period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT


    Full Text Available David T Burke,1 David Tran,1 Di Cui,1 Daniel P Burke,2 Samir Al-Adawi,3 Atsu SS Dorvlo41Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Georgia College and State University, GA, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, OmanAbstract: In an age of increasing numbers of lifestyle diseases and plasticity of longevity, exercise and weight training have been increasingly recognized as both preventing and mitigating the severity of many illnesses. This study was designed to determine whether significant weight-lifting gains could be realized through the Anatoly Gravitational System. Specifically, this study sought to determine whether this once-weekly weight-training system could result in significant weekly strength gains during a 10-week training period. A total of 50 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 67 years, completed at least 10 weekly 30-minute training sessions. The results suggest participants could, on average, double their weight-lifting capacity within 10 sessions. This preliminary study, which would require further scrutiny, suggests the Anatoly Gravitational System provides a rather unique opportunity to load the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using only short weekly training sessions. More studies are warranted to scrutinize these findings.Keywords: Anatoly Gravitational System, weight training, musculoskeletal system

  13. Recent Progress in Terahertz Metasurfaces (United States)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Withayachumnankul, Withawat


    In the past decade, the concept of metasurfaces has gradually dominated the field of metamaterials owing to their fascinating optical properties and simple planar geometries. At terahertz frequencies, the concept has been driven further by the availability of advanced micro-fabrication technologies that deliver sub-micron accuracy, well below the terahertz wavelengths. Furthermore, terahertz spectrometers with high dynamic range and amplitude and phase sensitivity provide valuable information for the study of metasurfaces in general. In this paper, we review recent progress in terahertz metasurfaces mainly in the last 5 years. The first part covers nonuniform metasurfaces that perform beamforming in reflection and transmission. In addition, we briefly overview four different methodologies that can be utilized in realizing high-quality-factor metasurfaces. We also describe two recent approaches to tuning the frequency response of terahertz metasurfaces using graphene as an active medium. Finally, we provide a brief summary and outlook for future developments in this rapidly progressing field.

  14. A rapid and robust assay for detection of S-phase cell cycle progression in plant cells and tissues by using ethynyl deoxyuridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Gábor V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Results Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. Conclusions In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems.

  15. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology. (United States)

    Bazyka, D


    , the addi tional departments of oncology and chemotherapy were equipped and started activities, databases of cancer cases in exposed population and separate groups of exposed were introduced, as well as an international database of radiation injuries. The Clinical and Epidemiological registry of the NRCRM is in function and developed. An adapta tion of research directions with a respect to the pathomorphosis of radiation induced diseases in the remote period after irradiation will continue.Performed complex studies of the effects of incorporation of 131I on the fetus and the next gen eration of experimental animals became important for understanding the mechanisms of formation of radiation effects. Introduction of new foodstuffs and supplements with radiation protective proper ties was of positive effect for population protection during the first years.In the area of dosimetry a substantial progress has been achieved in reconstruction of thyroid doses in the Ukrainian population, dosimetric passportisation of settlements, radiochemistry, the creation of new methods for reconstructive dosimetry for cleanup workers - SEAD, RADRUE, and ROCKVILLE. All developments are implemented to practice, tens of thousands of doses have been restored. International recognition has received for the method of in utero doses reconstruction. As editor in chief, I regard it successful to incorporate our bilingual edition «Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology» into the NCBI MedLine, SCOPUS and other data bases, that creates an unique opportunity to widely disseminate results of the Center's research.Strategies for the future. Ukraine belongs to countries with a priority development of nuclear energy. Even with the increase in the production of clean energy, there is no other way than the further deployment of a complete nuclear fuel cycle and energy industrial complex, the expansion of the nuclear technologies to all sectors of the economy.The main potential threats to radiation

  16. Renewable energy and environment - a future perspective




    Today’s adolescent students are part of the population heading towards the energy crisis. An awareness about alternate energy resources especially renewable energy resources is required among today’s youngsters. If the younger generation is part of today’s innovation programs in the field of renewable energy, their future advancement in this field will be high and their progress will be in a rapid pace. Thus the inevitable energy crisis awaiting us can be avoided. Along with that, the problem...

  17. "One-stop shop" spectral imaging for rapid on-site diagnosis of lung cancer: a future concept in nano-oncology. (United States)

    Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Krauss, Leslie; Oezkan, Filiz; Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Theegarten, Dirk; Sakkas, Leonidas; Sakkas, Antonios; Hohenforst-Scmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Freitag, Lutz


    There are currently many techniques and devices available for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, rapid on-site diagnosis is essential for early-stage lung cancer, and in the current work we investigated a new diagnostic illumination nanotechnology. Tissue samples were obtained from lymph nodes, cancerous tissue, and abnormal intrapulmonary lesions at our interventional pulmonary suites. The following diagnostic techniques were used to obtain the samples: endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopy; flexible bronchoscopy; and rigid bronchoscopy. Flexible and rigid forceps were used because several of the patients were intubated using a rigid bronchoscope. In total, 30 tissue specimens from 30 patients were prepared. CytoViva® illumination nanotechnology was subsequently applied to each of the biopsy tissue slides. A spectral library was created for adenocarcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, usual interstitial pneumonitis, non-specific interstitial pneumonitis, typical carcinoid tumor, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, thymoma, epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, malt cell lymphoma, and Wegener's granulomatosis. The CytoViva software, once it had created a specific spectral library for each entity, was able to identify the same disease again in subsequent paired sets of slides of the same disease. Further evaluation of this technique could make this illumination nanotechnology an efficient rapid on-site diagnostic tool.

  18. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He presented with ataxia and acute confusion. In the 3 months preceding presentation he had experienced unexplained, asymptomatic weight loss. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Sirolimus had been stopped. 1 month before the onset of symptoms, owing to an apparent functional iron deficiency in the absence of ...

  19. Rapidly Progressive and Almost Lethal Pneumonia. (United States)

    Martínez-González, Juancarlo; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William


    We herein describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with Osler's triad, which is the combination of endocarditis, pneumonia, and meningitis. This report is even more unusual since the pathogen isolated was the invasive and virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. The clinical entity described is also called Austrian syndrome. Even though rare in this antibiotic era, the syndrome remains one of high morbidity and mortality. This particular case is of paramount importance for the clinician reader. First, it documents the clinical features associated with invasive pneumococcal disease and the Austrian syndrome. Second, and equally important, it highlights why following the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines saves lives. For this case, the following steps were taken: 1. As a surrogate for perfusion, early and aggressive fluid resuscitation therapy (guided by lactic acid levels) was instituted; 2. also early in the treatment, broad spectrum antibiotics were administered; 3. to guide antibiotic therapy, microbiological cultures were obtained. The patient subsequently improved and was transferred to the internal medicine ward to complete 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy.

  20. Current therapies and future perspectives in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. (United States)

    Tatli, Burak; Ekici, Bariş; Ozmen, Meral


    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive neurological disorder of children and young adults caused by a measles virus that became defective by persisting in the host. According to the results of clinical trials, antiviral and/or immunomodulatory therapy can slow the progression of the disease and improve life expectancy in patients. However, its long-term effects and eventual outcome remain debatable due to conflicting results and its lack of effect on the rapidly progressive form of the disease. Possible future therapies for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are RNAi and antiapoptotic agents, which are currently in the hypothetical and experimental stages of research.

  1. Development of the fuel of gas fast future reactors. Study of the compatibility between fissile compound and inert matrix; Developpement du combustible des futurs reacteurs rapides a gaz - Etude de la compatibilite entre compose fissile et matrice inerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, C.; Rapaud, O.; Le Guyadec, F.; Deschamps, B. [DEN/DTEC/STCF, CEA VALRHO, BP 111, 26702 Pierrelatte (France); Chatain, S.; Gueneau, C. [DEN/DPC/SCP, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    The gas coolant fast future reactors require to develop new types of fuels. The fissile compounds (U, Pu, AM)C and (U, Pu, AM)N are retained, on account of their high density, their refractory character and their good thermal conductivity. The choice for the inert matrix, which will contain the fissile compound, bears on ceramics: SiC, TiC and ZrC in the case of actinides monocarbide and SiC, TiN and ZrN in the case of actinides mono-nitrides. The chemical compatibility between the main fissile compound (UN or UC) and the inert matrices SiC and TiN has been studied in the range of 1200 C (nominal running conditions) and 2000 C (accidental running conditions). The thermodynamic compatibility calculations allow to determine particularly at which temperature a liquid phase risks to appear by reaction between the fissile compound and the inert matrix and to limit the number of tests to carry out. This approach is completed by specific interaction tests carried out under different atmospheres. (O.M.)

  2. A matrix risk model for the prediction of rapid radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving different dynamic treatment strategies: post hoc analyses from the BeSt study. (United States)

    Visser, K; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Y P M; de Vries-Bouwstra, J K; Ronday, H K; Seys, P E H; Kerstens, P J S M; Huizinga, T W J; Dijkmans, B A C; Allaart, C F


    To develop a matrix model for the prediction of rapid radiographic progression (RRP) in subpopulations of patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving different dynamic treatment strategies. Data from 465 patients with recent-onset RA randomised to receive initial monotherapy or combination therapy were used. Predictors for RRP (increase in Sharp-van der Heijde score > or =5 after 1 year) were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. For subpopulations, the estimated risk of RRP per treatment group and the number needed to treat (NNT) were visualised in a matrix. The presence of autoantibodies, baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erosion score and treatment group were significant independent predictors of RRP in the matrix. Combination therapy was associated with a markedly reduced risk of RRP. The positive and negative predictive values of the matrix were 62% and 91%, respectively. The NNT with initial combination therapy to prevent one patient from RRP with monotherapy was in the range 2-3, 3-7 and 7-25 for patients with a high, intermediate and low predicted risk, respectively. The matrix model visualises the risk of RRP for subpopulations of patients with recent-onset RA if treated dynamically with initial monotherapy or combination therapy. Rheumatologists might use the matrix for weighing their initial treatment choice.

  3. Technological progress in ultrasonography. (United States)

    Chou, Y H


    Technical progress in ultrasonography (US) is especially rapid now, due to continuing advances in transducer design, signal processing techniques, and Doppler technology. A number of important technical breakthroughs have been made in the past decade. Among these, multidimensional array transducers, harmonic imaging, miniaturized transducers, extended field-of-view imaging, hand-carried ultrasound units, three-dimensional (3-D) US, and ultrasound contrast agents are the most remarkable innovations. Improved spatial and contrast resolution allows delineation of anatomic details and increases diagnostic accuracy and confidence. Miniaturized transducers can be used to image tiny or superficial structures in the human body, and can guide the surgeon to the problem site. Extended field-of-view imaging provides a larger field for demonstration of pathology in certain anatomic locations. Hand-carried US units are used widely in a physician's office or in remote areas, and bring high-quality medical imaging to the bedside. 3-D US has already shown significant benefits in perinatology; with further improvements in real-time imaging technology, 3-D US will emerge as an important adjunct to conventional 2-D US. In conjunction with harmonic imaging technology and Doppler technology, US contrast agents allow more powerful anatomic and functional evaluation of human organs. They may also play important therapeutic roles in the near future. Advancing computer technology is expected to lead to more important break-throughs in the next 5 to 10 years.

  4. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  5. Predictive value of autoantibodies from anti-CCP2, anti-MCV and anti-human citrullinated fibrinogen tests, in early rheumatoid arthritis patients with rapid radiographic progression at 1 year: results from the ESPOIR cohort. (United States)

    Degboé, Yannick; Constantin, Arnaud; Nigon, Delphine; Tobon, Gabriel; Cornillet, Martin; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Nogueira, Leonor; Serre, Guy; Cantagrel, Alain; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline


    We compared the ability of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP2), against mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) and against citrullinated fibrinogen (AhFibA) to predict 1 year rapid radiographic progression (RRP; total Sharp score variation ≥5 points), in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We analysed 566 patients from the ESPOIR cohort with early RA fulfilling the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria at year 1. We assayed the 3 anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) tests on baseline sera. We compared the performance of these 3 ACPA tests to predict first-year RRP, by comparing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs). We assessed the 1 year RRP risk by ACPA titres. We used a logistic multivariate regression to analyse RRP risk in terms either of ACPA positivity or titre: high (>3 times the N cut-off) and low (1 to 3N). 145 patients displayed RRP. Areas under the ROCs were similar (0.60) for the 3 tests. High ACPA titres were associated with 1 year RRP, whatever the test was, and with similar ORs. Low+ anti-MCV titres were not associated with 1-year RRP, whereas low+ anti-CCP2 titres (p=0.0226) and low+ AhFibA titres (p=0.0332) were significantly associated. In multivariate analysis, 1 year RRP was associated with anti-CCP2 positivity (p1), AhFibA positivity (p1) and high anti-MCV titres (p1). Anti-CCP2 antibodies and AhFibA were predictive of 1 year RRP in early RA whatever their titre was, whereas only high anti-MCV antibody titres were predictive, potentially making them more discriminant to predict 1 year RRP risk.

  6. Climate-change driven increase in high intensity rainfall events: Analysis of development in the last decades and towards an extrapolation of future progression (United States)

    Müller, Eva; Pfister, Angela; Gerd, Büger; Maik, Heistermann; Bronstert, Axel


    Hydrological extreme events can be triggered by rainfall on different spatiotemporal scales: river floods are typically caused by event durations of between hours and days, while urban flash floods as well as soil erosion or contaminant transport rather result from storms events of very short duration (minutes). Still, the analysis of climate change impacts on rainfall-induced extreme events is usually carried out using daily precipitation data at best. Trend analyses of extreme rainfall at sub-daily or even sub-hourly time scales are rare. In this contribution two lines of research are combined: first, we analyse sub-hourly rainfall data for several decades in three European regions.Second, we investigate the scaling behaviour of heavy short-term precipitation with temperature, i.e. the dependence of high intensity rainfall on the atmospheric temperature at that particular time and location. The trend analysis of high-resolution rainfall data shows for the first time that the frequency of short and intensive storm events in the temperate lowland regions in Germany has increased by up to 0.5 events per year over the last decades. I.e. this trend suggests that the occurrence of these types of storms have multiplied over only a few decades. Parallel to the changes in the rainfall regime, increases in the annual and seasonal average temperature and changes in the occurrence of circulation patterns responsible for the generation of high-intensity storms have been found. The analysis of temporally highly resolved rainfall records from three European regions further indicates that extreme precipitation events are more intense with warmer temperatures during the rainfall event. These observations follow partly the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. Based on this relation one may derive a general rule of maximum rainfall intensity associated to the event temperature, roughly following the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This rule might be used for scenarios of future maximum

  7. The future of rapid bridge deck replacement. (United States)


    Replacing aging, deteriorated infrastructure often requires road closures and traffic detours which impose : inconvenience and delay on commerce and members of the motoring public. Accelerated bridge construction : techniques often use precast member...

  8. PDO Modulation of ENSO Effect on Tropical Cyclone Rapid Intensification in the Western North Pacific: a View from the Perspective of Atmospheric Dynamic Conditions and its Implication in the Future Projection (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, X.


    This study investigates how the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone rapid intensification (RI) in the western North Pacific. The analysis shows that the interannual relationship between ENSO and annual RI number in warm PDO phases is strong and statistically significant. In cold PDO phases, however, there is no significant correlation between ENSO and RI on the interannual timescale. The enhancement of the interannual ENSO-RI relationship in warm PDO phases is mainly attributable to the change of the atmospheric dynamic condition: vertical wind shear. The PDO in warm (cold) phases can strengthen (weaken) an El Nino event to increase (reduce) the effects of the warm pool of water over the equatorial Pacific in typhoon season by local diabatic heating. El Nino events are accompanied by the stronger Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific in the warm PDO phase than in the cold PDO phase. In contrast, the Walker circulation pattern and amplitude associated with La Nina events is less affected by the alternate PDO phase. This tends to make the atmospheric response to ENSO stronger (weaker) in warm (cold) PDO phase, and so is the atmospheric teleconnection of ENSO. The role of atmospheric conditions on tropical cylone intensification in the future projection is further discussed.

  9. RAPID3? Aptly named! (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M


    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  10. Progress in magnetic refrigeration and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Pryds, Nini


    refrigerators have the potential for high efficiency. However, reported device COPs for laboratory devices are still well below commercially available vapor compression systems. In order to significantly improve AMR efficiency, several loss mechanisms must be reduced and other aspects of system design...

  11. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants. (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong


    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Tourism Education Futures Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Schott, Christian; Daniele, Roberto


    In recent years, it has become increasingly obvious that tourism education needs serious rethinking. Surging growth in tourism arrivals and receipts, going strong since the middle of the twentieth century, spurred a proliferation of tourism programs in higher education to meet the demands...... of the burgeoning industry. As more complex understandings about tourism began to emerge, however, it became clear that equating the industrialization and growth of tourism with social and economic progress was far too simplistic – indeed, increases in visitation and receipts do not always reap positive benefits....... Simultaneously, rapid socio-cultural and economic changes are afoot, which are rendering the future increasingly uncertain. The jobs of today are markedly different from those of yesterday, and it seems certain that those of tomorrow will be different still. Students entering the tourism sector, with its high...

  13. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten


    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  14. Maior sobrevida em pacientes com marcadores imunogenéticos de rápida progressão para a AIDS: subsídios para a assistência de enfermagem Mayor supervivencia en pacientes presentando marcadores inmunogenéticos de rápida progresión para el SIDA: apoyo para la atención de enfermería Greater survival among patients with immunogenetic markers of rapid progression to AIDS: subsidies for nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Fernandes


    ón de salud con enfoque en el comportamiento positivo de salud son herramientas que la enfermería debe utilizar con portadores del VIH, buscando la mejor calidad de vida y mayor supervivencia de esos individuos, incluso en aquellos que tienen predisposición genética a la rápida progresión de la enfermedad.This study sought subsidies for improving nursing care programs for AIDS patients and aimed to verify the influence of changes in sexual behavior, including the adoption of safe sex practices, associated with the survival of AIDS patients with immunogenetic markers of rapid disease progression. 27 AIDS patients were interviewed, with genetic predisposition to rapid progression to AIDS. Genes were typified through the polymerase chain reaction. In spite of the presence of immunogenetic factors, associated with individual predisposition to a rapid evolution of the disease, changes in sexual behavior, including safe sex practices and antiretroviral therapy, may be related to greater survival. This suggests that counseling, detection of risk attitudes and health education, focusing on positive health behavior, are tools nursing must use with HIV-positive patients, with a view to better quality of life and greater survival among these individuals, even among those with genetic predisposition to rapid disease progression.

  15. Medical informatics: past, present, future. (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold


    To reflect about medical informatics as a discipline. To suggest significant future research directions with the purpose of stimulating further discussion. Exploring and discussing important developments in medical informatics from the past and in the present by way of examples. Reflecting on the role of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association, in influencing the discipline. Medical informatics as a discipline is still young. Today, as a cross-sectional discipline, it forms one of the bases for medicine and health care. As a consequence considerable responsibility rests on medical informatics for improving the health of people, through its contributions to high-quality, efficient health care and to innovative research in biomedicine and related health and computer sciences. Current major research fields can be grouped according to the organization, application, and evaluation of health information systems, to medical knowledge representation, and to the underlying signal and data analyses and interpretations. Yet, given the fluid nature of many of the driving forces behind progress in information processing methods and their technologies, progress in medicine and health care, and the rapidly changing needs, requirements and expectations of human societies, we can expect many changes in future medical informatics research. Future research fields might range from seamless interactivity with automated data capture and storage, via informatics diagnostics and therapeutics, to living labs with data analysis methodology, involving sensor-enhanced ambient environments. The role of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association, for building a cooperative, strongly connected, and research-driven medical informatics community worldwide can hardly be underestimated. Health care continuously changes as the underlying science and practice of health are in continuous transformation. Medical informatics as a discipline is strongly affected by these

  16. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  17. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.


    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  18. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E


    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  19. Targeting glutamate signalling in depression: progress and prospects. (United States)

    Murrough, James W; Abdallah, Chadi G; Mathew, Sanjay J


    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is severely disabling, and current treatments have limited efficacy. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine was recently repurposed as a rapidly acting antidepressant, catalysing the vigorous investigation of glutamate-signalling modulators as novel therapeutic agents for depressive disorders. In this Review, we discuss the progress made in the development of such modulators for the treatment of depression, and examine recent preclinical and translational studies that have investigated the mechanisms of action of glutamate-targeting antidepressants. Fundamental questions remain regarding the future prospects of this line of drug development, including questions concerning safety and tolerability, efficacy, dose-response relationships and therapeutic mechanisms.

  20. Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update. (United States)

    Brandli, Alice; Luu, Chi D; Guymer, Robyn H; Ayton, Lauren N


    Vision prostheses, or "bionic eyes", are implantable medical bionic devices with the potential to restore rudimentary sight to people with profound vision loss or blindness. In the past two decades, this field has rapidly progressed, and there are now two commercially available retinal prostheses in the US and Europe, and a number of next-generation devices in development. This review provides an update on the development of these devices and a discussion on the future directions for the field.

  1. Women and development: future directions. (United States)


    In 1995 the UN celebrated its 50th anniversary, and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing was held. INSTRAW's acting director, Martha Duenas-Loza, gives her overview of INSTRAW's future role and identifies some major issues regarding the advancement of women. INSTRAW is mandated as a UN group to accomplish research on and training of women. Some initial findings are now becoming available. The delay was due to the attention given to pressing problems of health care, nutrition, and education. In the future the international community will not have the option of neglecting women's status issues, which currently are secondary concerns. Some urgent issues are identified as the impact of rapid population growth on the elderly in the world, particularly the majority of elderly women. Migration will have an increasing impact on economic and social infrastructures of all countries. Problems of the elderly must be addressed as individual components within development plans and programs. Other articles in this issue of "INSTRAW News" discuss the situation of elderly women and women migrants. New efforts focus on a new phase of research on women's access to credit. The research aim is to analyze the experiences of current credit mechanisms, to assess the impact on individuals and families, and to consider gender effects. A progress report is available in this issue on gender statistics and a valuation of unpaid work by women. A new module is available for training women in environmental management; a description of this module is available in this issue. The new model is based on prior modules on energy and water, but includes improvements. The future agenda reflects the complexity of problems and solutions today and in the future.

  2. Open Access Forever -- Or Five Years, Whichever Comes First: Progress on Preserving the Digital Scholarly Record

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    As the migration of scholarly communication from print to digital continues to progress rapidly, and as Open Access to that research literature and related data becomes more common, the challenges of insuring that the scholarly record remain available over time becomes more urgent. There has been good progress on those challenges in recent years, but many problems remain. The current state of the curation and preservation of digital scholarship over its entire lifecycle will be reviewed, and progress on problems of specific interest to scholarly communication will be examined. The difficulty of curating the digital scholarly record and preserving it for future generations has important implications for the movement to make that record more open and accessible to the world, so this a timely topic for those who are interested in the future of scholarly communication. View Mackensie Smith's biography

  3. Open Access Forever - Or Five Years, Whichever Comes First Progress on Preserving the Digital Scholarly Record

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Bjørnshauge, Lars


    As the migration of scholarly communication from print to digital continues to progress rapidly, and as Open Access to that research literature and related data becomes more common, the challenges of insuring that the scholarly record remain available over time becomes more urgent. There has been good progress on those challenges in recent years, but many problems remain. The current state of the curation and preservation of digital scholarship over its entire lifecycle will be reviewed, and progress on problems of specific interest to scholarly communication will be examined. The difficulty of curating the digital scholarly record and preserving it for future generations has important implications for the movement to make that record more open and accessible to the world, so this a timely topic for those who are interested in the future of scholarly communication.

  4. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin


    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  5. Future Directions in Brain/Neuronal Computer Interaction (Future BNCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allison, Brandan; Millán, Jose del R.; Nijholt, Antinus; Dunne, Stephen; Leeb, Robert; Whitmer, Diane; Poel, Mannes; Neuper, Christa


    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research has made great progress recently [1-3]. However, this progress has some negative side effects: growing fragmentation among different researchers, confusion about the best research directions, and ongoing disagreement over terms and definitions. Future BNCI is

  6. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N


    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  7. Future food. (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L


    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy: Progress and challenges. (United States)

    Montes, Fernando


    Chemical imprints left by the first stars in the oldest stars of the Milky Way gives clues of the stellar nucleosynthesis responsible for the creation of elements heavier than iron. Recent progress in astronomical observations and in the modeling of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy have shown that multiple nucleosynthesis processes may operate at those early times. In this talk I will review some of that evidence along with the important role that nuclear reactions play in those processes. I will focus in progress in our understanding of the rapid neutron capture process (r-process) and in new results on nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and neutrino-driven winds that produce elements up to silver. I will show some examples of recent nuclear physics measurements addressing the need for better nuclear data and give an outlook of the remaining challenges and future plans to continue those measurements.

  9. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo


    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  10. Prospective Memory: The Future for Future Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Gonen-Yaacovi


    Full Text Available Prospective memory is the ability to remember to execute future intentions and thoughts. It is probably the newest established field of memory research. We provide a selective review of work conducted in the last two decades with respect to the following issues: (1 the different types and characteristics of prospective tasks, (2 the theoretical models of the cognitive processes supporting prospective memory, (3 prospective memory performance in younger and older adults and (4 the findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. The findings indicate an extraordinarily fast progress in our understanding of the behaviour and the brain regions that are involved in this important ability, and suggest at least two possible emerging areas of enquiry for future research: a link with the closely related field of prospection (i.e., thinking about the future, and “expectation prospective memory” (triggering of behaviour in the absence of awareness depending on contingencies learnt from the environment.

  11. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air. (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon


    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  12. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley


    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  13. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL


    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  14. Quantum Computation: Entangling with the Future (United States)

    Jiang, Zhang


    Commercial applications of quantum computation have become viable due to the rapid progress of the field in the recent years. Efficient quantum algorithms are discovered to cope with the most challenging real-world problems that are too hard for classical computers. Manufactured quantum hardware has reached unprecedented precision and controllability, enabling fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here, I give a brief introduction on what principles in quantum mechanics promise its unparalleled computational power. I will discuss several important quantum algorithms that achieve exponential or polynomial speedup over any classical algorithm. Building a quantum computer is a daunting task, and I will talk about the criteria and various implementations of quantum computers. I conclude the talk with near-future commercial applications of a quantum computer.

  15. Vitrification in human and domestic animal embryology: work in progress. (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor


    According to the analysis of papers published in major international journals, rapidly increasing application of vitrification is one of the greatest achievements in domestic animal and especially human embryology during the first decade of our century. This review highlights factors supporting or hampering this progress, summarises results achieved with vitrification and outlines future tasks to fully exploit the benefits of this amazing approach that has changed or will change many aspects of laboratory (and also clinical) embryology. Supporting factors include the simplicity, cost efficiency and convincing success of vitrification compared with other approaches in all species and developmental stages in mammalian embryology, while causes that slow down the progress are mostly of human origin: inadequate tools and solutions, superficial teaching, improper application and unjustified concerns resulting in legal restrictions. Elimination of these hindrances seems to be a slower process and more demanding task than meeting the biological challenge. A key element of future progress will be to pass the pioneer age, establish a consensus regarding biosafety requirements, outline the indispensable features of a standard approach and design fully-automated vitrification machines executing all phases of the procedure, including equilibration, cooling, warming and dilution steps.

  16. Future of profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar


    Full Text Available Being a doctor in today's time is a tough experience in many parts of the world. Many young people motivated by the traditional image of profession and desire for service opted for this vocation without anticipating today's challenging environment. Bad press, violence against doctors, tough employment conditions, unemployment, and lack of societal respect have become common phenomenon across the world. It is indeed time to introspect. The institution of medical profession is rapidly transforming not necessarily only under the influence of rapidly changing technology. The presented viewpoint is an analysis on impact of changing global political scenario on the future of medical profession.

  17. The Future of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.

  18. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.


    , but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...... contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...

  19. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.


    , but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...... contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...

  20. The future of ancient DNA: Technical advances and conceptual shifts. (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Goodchild, Helen; Speller, Camilla F; Barlow, Axel; Fortes, Gloria G; Thomas, Jessica A; Ludwig, Arne; Collins, Matthew J


    Technological innovations such as next generation sequencing and DNA hybridisation enrichment have resulted in multi-fold increases in both the quantity of ancient DNA sequence data and the time depth for DNA retrieval. To date, over 30 ancient genomes have been sequenced, moving from 0.7× coverage (mammoth) in 2008 to more than 50× coverage (Neanderthal) in 2014. Studies of rapid evolutionary changes, such as the evolution and spread of pathogens and the genetic responses of hosts, or the genetics of domestication and climatic adaptation, are developing swiftly and the importance of palaeogenomics for investigating evolutionary processes during the last million years is likely to increase considerably. However, these new datasets require new methods of data processing and analysis, as well as conceptual changes in interpreting the results. In this review we highlight important areas of future technical and conceptual progress and discuss research topics in the rapidly growing field of palaeogenomics. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin


    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  2. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  3. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future. (United States)

    Repetto, R


    This issue analyzes the economic and environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries (LDC), the population decline in developed countries, the limits that life on a finite planet impose on economic and demographic expansion and progress, and the proper governmental response to promote the welfare of its current and future citizens. The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about direct causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in LDC, thus contributing to degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of land, water, and nonhuman species on which humans depend. Demands of the rich industrial countries have also generated environmental pressures and have been foremost in consumption of the nonrenewable resources of fossil fuels, metals, and nonmetallic minerals. On the other hand, population and economic growth have also stimulated technological and management changes that help supply and use resources more effectively. Wide variations in the possible ultimate size of world population and accelerating technological change make future interrelationships of population, resources, and the environment uncertain as well as complex. Those interrelationships are mediated largely by government policies. Responsible governments can bring about a sustainable balance in the population/resource/environment equation by adopting population and development policies that experience has shown could reduce future population numbers in LDC below the additional 5 billion indicated in current UN medium projections. This coupled with proven management programs in both LDC and developed countries could brake and reverse the depletion and degradation of natural resources.

  4. Rapidly progressive course of primary renal synovial sarcoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Lipkovski Jasmina


    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary kidney sarcoma, especially synovial sarcoma (SS, is a very rare neoplasm. Pre-operative signs and symptoms are very similar to renal cell carcinoma, therefore, the proper diagnosis is very difficult and usually made after nephrectomy. This is a case report of primary renal SS. Case Outline. A 38-year-old man presented with a history of fever and hematuria, and right flank pain 3 weeks ago. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogeneous well-marginated soft tissue mass arising in the lower part of the right kidney. Right nephrectomy was performed. A cystic tumor of 120x85 mm in size with soft solid growth, and with the extensive areas of hemorrhage and necrosis was seen on gross examination. Histopathology revealed a neoplasm composed of solid monomorphic sheets of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells strongly positive for BCL2, CD99, CD56 and vimentin, and focally positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA. The histological diagnosis of primary renal SS was based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. FISH analysis and RT-PCR was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The molecular analysis demonstrated translocation of SYT gene on chromosome 18 and SSX2 gene on chromosome X. The findings were consistent with diagnosis of SS. Conclusion. Our case shows that histopathological diagnosis of primary kidney SS, although difficult, is possible to be made on the basis of morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. However, this diagnosis should be corroborated by molecular techniques confirming SYT-SSX translocation on chromosome 18 and chromosome X. Here we present visceral monophasic SS with aggressive clinical course and poor outcome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175047

  5. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus. (United States)

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Javed, Fawad; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz


    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and interdental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to indentify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction.

  6. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  7. Futures Thinking


    Matvejeff, Pekka


    All organizations are focusing on the unpredictable future. This unpredictability forces us to seek opportunities, interpreting issues not visible to us, yet, or enhancing the abilities to identify things unsaid or written between the lines.

  8. Future Language. (United States)

    Berne, Stanley

    The central thesis of this book is that the laws of traditional "command grammar" are an obstruction to expression and are too difficult for a majority of people to master, as demonstrated by a progressive deterioration in general literacy skills. The book contends that the structure of the sentence is at the source of the present difficulties. It…

  9. Predicting progression of Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Doody, Rachelle S; Pavlik, Valory; Massman, Paul; Rountree, Susan; Darby, Eveleen; Chan, Wenyaw


    Clinicians need to predict prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and researchers need models of progression to develop biomarkers and clinical trials designs. We tested a calculated initial progression rate to see whether it predicted performance on cognition, function and behavior over time, and to see whether it predicted survival. We used standardized approaches to assess baseline characteristics and to estimate disease duration, and calculated the initial (pre-progression) rate in 597 AD patients followed for up to 15 years. We designated slow, intermediate and rapidly progressing groups. Using mixed effects regression analysis, we examined the predictive value of a pre-progression group for longitudinal performance on standardized measures. We used Cox survival analysis to compare survival time by progression group. Patients in the slow and intermediate groups maintained better performance on the cognitive (ADAScog and VSAT), global (CDR-SB) and complex activities of daily living measures (IADL) (P values < 0.001 slow versus fast; P values < 0.003 to 0.03 intermediate versus fast). Interaction terms indicated that slopes of ADAScog and PSMS change for the slow group were smaller than for the fast group, and that rates of change on the ADAScog were also slower for the intermediate group, but that CDR-SB rates increased in this group relative to the fast group. Slow progressors survived longer than fast progressors (P = 0.024). A simple, calculated progression rate at the initial visit gives reliable information regarding performance over time on cognition, global performance and activities of daily living. The slowest progression group also survives longer. This baseline measure should be considered in the design of long duration Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

  10. The Future of Whole Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Gilles


    Full Text Available Whole language is a dynamic and generative philosophy of education that started as a grass roots teacher movement. Throughout its history it has been lauded worldwide as well as being attacked. This article explores whole language through two lenses. First it examines the history of whole language through the eyes of someone who participated in the grass-roots movement. Secondly, the future of whole language is examined through the voices of whole language and literacy leaders. Their answers to questions about whole language’s fit with progressive education, its greatest accomplishment and its future direction offer support and encouragement for progressive, holistic educators around the world.

  11. Four Decades of Progress (United States)

    Alshishtawy, Moeness M


    Since 1970, Oman has witnessed rapid and significant improvements in health made possible largely because of the country’s success in building a state-of-the-art health care infrastructure. This paper presents Oman’s experience in health development, analyses the whole system, highlights its strengths and delineates the factors to which Oman’s success could be attributed. Furthermore, health care financing and expenditures, health care workforce, the delivery system, quality and other issues are discussed in detail. The paper intends also to study thoroughly the organisation of Oman’s health system and discuss health policy, and planning in Oman. This analysis could serve as a source of information for future investigation and development of the health system in Oman. PMID:21509077

  12. Progress in computational toxicology. (United States)

    Ekins, Sean


    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent progress and future directions for reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing: a report from the 2010 NICEATM-ICCVAM International Vaccine Workshop. (United States)

    Stokes, W S; Kulpa-Eddy, J; Brown, K; Srinivas, G; McFarland, R


    Veterinary vaccines contribute to improved animal and human health and welfare by preventing infectious diseases. However, testing necessary to ensure vaccine effectiveness and safety can involve large numbers of animals and significant pain and distress. NICEATM and ICCVAM recently convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing, and to identify priority activities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine and replace animal use. Rabies, Clostridium sp., and Leptospira sp. vaccines were identified as the highest priorities, while tests requiring live viruses and bacteria hazardous to laboratory workers, livestock, pets, and wildlife were also considered high priorities. Priority research, development and validation activities to address critical knowledge and data gaps were identified, including opportunities to apply new science and technology. Enhanced international harmonization and cooperation and closer collaborations between human and veterinary researchers were recommended to expedite progress. Implementation of the workshop recommendations is expected to advance new methods for vaccine testing that will benefit animal welfare and ensure continued and improved protection of human and animal health.

  14. Future Savvy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Adam

    material of all types, including providing a battery of critical tests to apply to any forecast to assess its validity, and judge how to fit it into everyday management thinking. The book synthesizes information assessment skills and future studies tools into a single template that allows managers to apply......There's no shortage of predictions available to organizations looking to anticipate and profit from future events or trends. Apparently helpful forecasts are ubiquitous in everyday communications such as newspapers and business magazines, and in specialized sources such as government and think...

  15. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia


    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  16. Migraine in the triptan era: progresses achieved, lessons learned and future developments Migrânea na era dos triptanos: progressos alcançados, lições aprendidas e desenvolvimentos futuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal


    Full Text Available Triptans, serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists, more than revolutionizing the treatment of migraine, stimulated also ground breaking research that provided insights into the anatomy, physiology, and molecular pharmacology of migraine. This knowledge, in turn, is stimulating research on new mechanisms of action for the treatment of migraine. Accordingly, it is opportune to critically review the main advances in migraine science that happened in the triptan era. Herein we first review and conceptualize some of the progresses achieved in migraine science during the triptan era. We then review the class of the triptans - mechanism of action and clinical evidence. We close by briefly discussing the class of CGRP receptor antagonists, which is currently being developed for the acute treatment of migraine.Os triptanos, agonistas serotoninérgicos 5-HT1B/1D, revolucionaram o tratamento da migrânea promovendo pesquisas que evidenciaram aspectos da anatomia, fisiologia e farmacologia molecular deste tipo prevalente de cefaléia primária. Esse conhecimento, por sua vez vem estimulando ainda mais a descoberta de novos mecanismos de ação para drogas anti-migranosas. Assim, é oportuno rever de forma crítica, os maiores avanços na ciência das cefaléias ocorridos durante a era dos triptanos. Inicialmente reveremos e conceituaremos alguns dos progressos obtidos nesta fase seguido de uma revisão profunda dos mecanismos de ação e evidências clínicas para o uso desta classe de fármacos. Finalmente, discutiremos a nova classe dos antagonistas dos receptores do peptideo geneticamente relacionado à calcitonina (CGRP atualmente em desenvolvimento.

  17. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (United States)

    ... clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life-threatening disability and (frequently) death. A diagnosis of PML can ...

  18. Progress of nanoscience in China (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Liang; Song, Yan-Lin; Song, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Tang, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Hong-Xing; Wei, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Yun-Qi; Liu, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Lei; Bao, Xin-He; Wan, Li-Jun; Bai, Chun-Li


    Fast evolving nanosciences and nanotechnology in China has made it one o f the front countries of nanotechnology development. In this review, we summarize some most recent progresses in nanoscience research and nanotechnology development in China. The topics we selected in this article include nano-fabrication, nanocatalysis, bioinspired nanotechnology, green printing nanotechnology, nanoplasmonics, nanomedicine, nanomaterials and their applications, energy and environmental nanotechnology, nano EHS (nanosafety), etc. Most of them have great potentials in applications or application-related key issues in future.

  19. Schistosomiasis vaccine development: progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NR Bergquist


    Full Text Available The undisputed, worldwide success of chemotherapy notwithstanding, schistosomiasis continues to defy control efforts in as much rapid reinfection demands repeated treatment, sometimes as often as once a year. There is thus a need for a complementary tool with effect for the longer term, notably a vaccine. International efforts in this direction have been ongoing for several decades but, until the recombinant DNA techniques were introduced, antigen production remained an unsurmountable bottleneck. Although animal experiments have been highly productive and are still much needed, they probably do not reflect the human situation adequately and real progress can not be expected until more is known about human immune responses to schistosome infection. It is well-known that irradiated cercariae consistently produce high levels of protection in experimental animals but, for various reasons, this proof of principle cannot be directly exploited. Research has instead been focussed on the identification and testing of specific schistosome antigens. This work has been quite successful and is already at the stage where clinical trials are called for. Preliminary results from coordinated in vitro laboratory and field epidemiological studies regarding the protective potential of several antigens support the initiation of such trials. A series of meetings, organized earlier this year in Cairo, Egypt, reviewed recent progress, selecteded suitable vaccine candidates and made firm recommendations for future action including pledging support for large-scale production according to good manufacturing practice (GMP and Phase I trials. Scientists at the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have drawn up a detailed research plan. The major financial support will come from USAID, Cairo, which has established a scientific advisory group of Egyptian scientists and representatives from current and previous international donors such as WHO, NIAID, the

  20. Bitcoin futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Søren Bundgaard


    Med introduktionen af et futures-marked er Bitcoin-eksponering blevet tilgængelig for en bredere gruppe af investorer, som hidtil ikke har kunnet eller villet tilgå det underliggende marked for Bitcoin. Artiklen finder, at kontrakterne umiddelbart favoriserer spekulanter på bekostning af hedgers og...

  1. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    questions how death and disposal is perceived by a British (urban) public and if death has been liberated from social and individual emotional regulation or is (still) constrained by subjective and/or collective regulation. The design proposals from the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 are used...... mediated society....

  2. Genetics of primary progressive multiple sclerosis


    Cree, BAC


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are classified as either having relapsing onset or progressive onset disease, also known as primary progressive MS (PPMS). Relative to relapsing onset patients, PPMS patients are older at disease onset, are equally likely to be men or women, and have more rapid accumulation of disability that does not respond well to treatments used in relapsing onset MS. Although estimates vary, 5-15% of all MS patients have a PPMS disease course. Genetic variance is a propos...

  3. Progress and biotechnological prospects in fish transgenesis. (United States)

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Tonelli, Flávia C P; Costa, Guilherme M J; de França, Luiz Renato; Resende, Rodrigo R


    The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting. Here, we review the history of animal transgenesis, with an emphasis on fish, in conjunction with major developments in genetic engineering over the past few decades. Importantly, spermatogonial stem cell modification and transplantation are two common techniques capable of revolutionizing the generation of transgenic fish. Furthermore, we discuss recent progress and future biotechnological prospects of fish transgenesis, which has strong applications for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, some transgenic fish are already available in the current market, validating continued efforts to improve economically important species with biotechnological advancements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Recent progress and challenges in graphene nanoribbon synthesis. (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Jinlan; Ding, Feng


    Graphene, the thinnest two-dimensional material in nature, has abundant distinctive properties, such as ultrahigh carrier mobility, superior thermal conductivity, very high surface-to-volume ratio, anomalous quantum Hall effect, and so on. Laterally confined, thin, and long strips of graphene, namely, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), can open the bandgap in the semimetal and give it the potential to replace silicon in future electronics. Great efforts are devoted to achieving high-quality GNRs with narrow widths and smooth edges. This minireview reports the latest progress in experimental and theoretical studies on GNR synthesis. Different methods of GNR synthesis-unzipping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cutting of graphene, and the direct synthesis of GNRs-are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are compared in detail. Current challenges and the prospects in this rapidly developing field are also addressed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. NHS Future Forum (United States)


    Professor Steve Field led the Future Forum listening exercise during the pause in the progress of the Health and Social Care bill earlier this year. The Forum made a number of recommendations which led to significant amendments to the bill. Following this successful method of engagement, the Prime Minister David Cameron asked Professor Field to lead a second phase of the Forum looking at four new workstreams. The conclusions from three of the workstreams will inform the development of specific pieces of government policy, and in the case of the integration workstream consider wider issues about joined up care. PMID:26265942

  6. Future of Electrotechnics: Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayer


    Full Text Available Magnetic liquids enabled development of new devices and technologies that are a useful alternative to theexisting ones. Many of these applications are still in progress and do not represent any break-through discoveries yet.Nevertheless one may expect that owing to their remarkable qualities magnetic fluids will become in the future a part oforiginal projects. The research of magnetic liquids has a strongly multidisciplinary character. It is thus desirable fortechnicians of different specializations or other specialists (such as physicians, biologists, pharmacists etc. to be acquaintedwith the qualities and existing applications of these perspective materials.

  7. Information Loss from Technological Progress (United States)

    Townsend, P. D.


    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  8. Olive Cultivation, its Impact on Soil Erosion and its Progression into Yield Impacts in Southern Spain in the Past as a Key to a Future of Increasing Climate Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Gómez


    Full Text Available This article is intended as a review of the current situation regarding the impact of olive cultivation in Southern Spain (Andalusia on soil degradation processes and its progression into yield impacts, due to diminishing soil profile depth and climate change in the sloping areas where it is usually cultivated. Finally, it explores the possible implications in the regional agricultural policy these results might have. It tries to show how the expansion and intensification of olive cultivation in Andalusia, especially since the late 18th century, had as a consequence an acceleration of erosion processes that can be identified by several indicators and techniques. Experimental and model analysis indicates that the rate of soil erosion accelerated since the expansion of mechanization in the late 1950s. In addition, that unsustainable erosion rates have prevailed in the region since the shift to a more intense olive cultivation systems by the end of the 17th Century. Although agroenvironmental measures implemented since the early 2000s have reduced erosion rates, they are still unsustainably high in a large fraction of the olive area in the region. In the case of olive orchards located in steeper areas with soils of lower water-holding capacity (due to coarse texture and stone content, cumulative erosion has already had a high impact on reducing their potential productivity. This is one of the factors that contributes towards increasing the gap between these less intensified orchards in the mountainous areas and those in the hilly areas with more gentle slopes, such as for instance the lower stretches of the Guadalquivir River Valley. In the case of olive orchards in the hilly areas with better soils, easier access to irrigation and lower production costs per unit, the efforts on soil conservation should be oriented towards limiting off-site damage, since the soil water-storage function of these soils may be preserved in the medium term even at the

  9. [Rapidly developing vertebral eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of a case]. (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Y; Boutillier, J B; Chome, J


    Radiographs taken at an interval of one week showed collapse of the twelfth dorsal vertebra, very suggestive of an eosinophilic granuloma. A biopsy performed during surgery, because of the rapid progression of the lesion, was able to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Future of research libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Naryandas, Narakesari; Kindström, Daniel


    Research libraries have been an integral part of the scholarly communication system since that system emerged in its present form. They now face a period of unprecedentedly drastic and rapid change. This is caused, first and foremost, by the migration of much scholarly material to digital formats, raising the question of the future purpose of the 'library space'. Together with this come transfigurational changes to the communication change of recorded information, with the roles of authors , publishers, database producers and librarians and archivists all in a state of flux. Finally, new forms

  11. Sustaining global agriculture through rapid detection and deployment of genetic resistance to deadly crop diseases. (United States)

    Periyannan, Sambasivam


    Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Genetically encoded resistance is a major component of crop disease management. Historically, gene loci conferring resistance to pathogens have been identified through classical genetic methods. In recent years, accelerated gene cloning strategies have become available through advances in sequencing, gene capture and strategies for reducing genome complexity. Here, I describe these approaches with key emphasis on the isolation of resistance genes to the cereal crop diseases that are an ongoing threat to global food security. Rapid gene isolation enables their efficient deployment through marker-assisted selection and transgenic technology. Together with innovations in genome editing and progress in pathogen virulence studies, this creates further opportunities to engineer long-lasting resistance. These approaches will speed progress towards a future of farming using fewer pesticides. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  13. R& D for Future Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.


    Research and development of detector technology are critical to the future particle physics program. The goals of the International Linear Collider, in particular, require advances that are challenging, despite the progress driven in recent years by the needs of the Large Hadron Collider. The ILC detector goals and challenges are described and the program to address them is summarized.

  14. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  15. Electrochemical biosensors for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin


    Electrochemical biosensors have shown great promise in the development of rapid methods for the detection of foodborne pathogens and have been intensively studied over the past two decades. The scope of this review is to summarize the advancements made in the development of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7. The article is intended to include different configurations of electrochemical biosensors based on the sensing principles and measured electrical parameters, as well as the latest improvements of technology in the progress of electrochemical biosensor development to detect E. coli O157:H7. By discussing the current and future trend based on some of excellent published literatures and reviews, this survey is hoped to illustrate a broad and comprehensive understanding of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Results and performances of X-ray imaging GEM cameras on FTU (1-D), KSTAR (2-D) and progresses of future experimental set up on W7-X and EAST Facilities (United States)

    Cordella, F.; Choe, W.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.; Jang, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, S. H.; Li, E.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Song, I.


    The triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a good candidate for the observation of the plasma volume emitting X-rays photons in the energy band up to 30 keV . The GEM camera system can be simply installed outside the port of a fusion device and it's a micropattern proportional gas detector which consists of an ionization gap, where X-rays photon conversion occurs, three consecutive foils working as amplification stage and finally a dedicated printed circuit board. Its simple experimental setup can be made in different configurations with 1D or 2D imaging possibilities: perpendicular GEM camera allows a 1D emissivity profile reconstruction instead a tangential GEM camera allows a poloidal cross-section image. Moreover, they offer high sensitivity, noise free, optical flexibility (zooming and tilting, magnification 10× up to 30×), high contrast, high dynamic range (6 orders of magnitude) and good time resolution (submillisecond). In this work several experimental results already observed on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) devices will be presented. The perpendicular installation on FTU allows a 1D radial profile with 128 lines of sight, while thanks to the 2D tangential view of the plasma, the reconstruction of the cross section has been done on KSTAR. Between them there are dynamic and precursors of sawtooth, effects of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) in the core and possible interplay between core and edge in ELMs (high m modes), effects of plasma rotation in the core, dynamic of injected impurities in the outer part of the plasma or also impurity accumulation and localized effects of additional heating. Installation of GEM systems is planned on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) also for their robustness and flexibility X-rays detection in presence of high radiative environments (neutrons and gammas). In future applications on the above mentioned

  17. Progress in neuromorphic photonics (United States)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.


    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  18. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. (United States)

    Srivastava, Anshu


    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of rare disorders which are caused by defect in bile secretion and present with intrahepatic cholestasis, usually in infancy and childhood. These are autosomal recessive in inheritance. The estimated incidence is about 1 per 50,000 to 1 per 100,000 births, although exact prevalence is not known. These diseases affect both the genders equally and have been reported from all geographical areas. Based on clinical presentation, laboratory findings, liver histology and genetic defect, these are broadly divided into three types-PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2 and PFIC type 3. The defect is in ATP8B1 gene encoding the FIC1 protein, ABCB 11 gene encoding BSEP protein and ABCB4 gene encoding MDR3 protein in PFIC1, 2 and 3 respectively. The basic defect is impaired bile salt secretion in PFIC1/2 whereas in PFIC3, it is reduced biliary phospholipid secretion. The main clinical presentation is in the form of cholestatic jaundice and pruritus. Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is normal in patients with PFIC1/2 while it is raised in patients with PFIC3. Treatment includes nutritional support (adequate calories, supplementation of fat soluble vitamins and medium chain triglycerides) and use of medications to relieve pruritus as initial therapy followed by biliary diversion procedures in selected patients. Ultimately liver transplantation is needed in most patients as they develop progressive liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. Due to the high risk of developing liver tumors in PFIC2 patients, monitoring is recommended from infancy. Mutation targeted pharmacotherapy, gene therapy and hepatocyte transplantation are being explored as future therapeutic options.

  19. New technologies for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Harris, Mary C


    To present recent literature on novel diagnostic tests in neonatal sepsis. Our review of technologies for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis includes new adaptations of time-honored tests as well as advances on the forefront of medicine. A recent study demonstrates that age-specific likelihood values for the complete blood count may determine risk of infection. Systematic reviews of procalcitonin, mannose-binding lectin and molecular amplification techniques provide summary data from accumulated literature on these tests. Proteomics-based and genomics-based exploratory researches suggest new combinations of markers as important signals of sepsis, whereas damage-associated molecular patterns, a class of inflammatory mediators now viewed as key players in the inflammatory cascade, may be useful predictors of disease progression and severity. Heart rate variability monitoring has also been suggested as a way to reduce mortality in very low birth weight neonates. Finally, molecular techniques are rapidly advancing in sophistication and may soon be useful as adjunctive bacterial identification tests. Several novel tests show promise in the early detection of sepsis. Highlights include new combinations of biomarkers unearthed by proteomics-based research and identification of sepsis based on gene expression profiling. Future research should focus on validation of these findings and further refinement of molecular techniques.

  20. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  1. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation (United States)

    Summers, Ronald M.


    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  2. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt


    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  3. Progression of Liver Disease (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease: Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  4. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura (United States)

    ... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a ... blood "rusts" (turns into hemosiderin) giving the distinct color. A biopsy may be done to confirm the ...

  5. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos


    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  6. Reconstructing Progressive Education (United States)

    Kaplan, Andy


    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  7. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen


    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  8. Human microbiota-associated swine: current progress and future opportunities. (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M


    Gnotobiotic (GN) rodent models have provided insight into the contributions of the gut microbiota to host health and preventing disease. However, rodent models are limited by several important physiological and metabolic differences from humans, and many rodent models do not dependably replicate the clinical manifestations of human diseases. Due to the high degree of similarity in anatomy, physiology, immunology and brain growth, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is considered a clinically relevant model to study factors influencing human gastrointestinal, immune, and brain development. Gnotobiotic piglet models have been developed and shown to recapitulate key aspects of GN rodent models. Human microbiota-associated (HMA) piglets have been established using inocula from infants, children, and adults. The gut microbiota of recipient HMA piglets was more similar to that of the human donor than that of conventionally reared piglets harboring a pig microbiota. Moreover, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides, two predominant bacterial groups of infant gut, were successfully established in the HMA piglets. Thus, the HMA pig model has the potential to be a valuable model for investigating how the gut microbiota composition changes in response to environmental factors, such as age, diet, vaccination, antibiotic use and infection. The HMA also represents a robust model for screening the efficacy of pre- and probiotic interventions. Lastly, HMA piglets can be an ideal model with which to elucidate microbe-host interactions in human health and disease due to the similarities to humans in anatomy, physiology, developmental maturity at birth, and the pathophysiology of many human diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  9. Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.


    Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

  10. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities


    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.


    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  11. Research Progress and Future Plan of the KSTAR (United States)

    Oh, Yeong-Kook; Park, H. K.; Yoon, S. W.; Kwag, J. G.; Chu, Y.; Park, K. R.; Kstar Team Team; Kstar Research Collaborators Collaboration


    Unique capabilities of the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been fully capitalized for steady state operation of high beta plasmas and fundamental physics research. The KSTAR is ideal for study of the tokamak plasma symmetry on stability and confinement study owing to the lowest error field and magnetic ripple. Versatile magnetic perturbation tool with n=1,2 in-vessel control coils has been extensively used in control of the harmful MHD such as the ELMs and toroidal rotation through NTV. Advanced 2D/3D microwave imaging diagnostics for undisputed measurements for theory and modeling. In 2016 and 2017 campaigns, KSTAR has achieved a record long operation (34s) of a ELM-crash free as well as long ELMy (70s) H-mode operation. A predictive capability as well as the underlying physics of the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) have been demonstrated. This talk will address the advances in research and vision toward the high beta long pulse operation in KSTAR together with the upgrade plan. This work is supported by MSIP of Korea under KSTAR project and NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865.

  12. Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications (United States)

    Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.


    Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

  13. Palliative Care in India: Current Progress and Future Needs (United States)

    Khosla, Divya; Patel, Firuza D; Sharma, Suresh C


    Despite its limited coverage, palliative care has been present in India for about 20 years. Obstacles in the growth of palliative care in India are too many and not only include factors like population density, poverty, geographical diversity, restrictive policies regarding opioid prescription, workforce development at base level, but also limited national palliative care policy and lack of institutional interest in palliative care. Nonetheless we have reasons to be proud in that we have overcome several hurdles and last two decades have seen palpable changes in the mindset of health care providers and policy makers with respect to need of palliative care in India. Systematic and continuous education for medical staff is mandatory, and a major break-through for achieving this purpose would be to increase the number of courses and faculties in palliative medicine at most universities. PMID:23439559

  14. Erlotinib resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy eTang


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherapeutic agents may initially effectively treat lung cancer patients, there is a high probability that there will be a reoccurrence of the cancer after the patient develops resistance to the drug. Erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved for localized as well as metastatic non-small cell lung cancer where it seems to be more effective in patients with EGFR mutations. Resistance to erlotinib is a common observation in clinics and this review details our current knowledge on the subject. We discuss the causes of such resistance as well as innovative research to overcome it. Evidently, new chemotherapy strategies are desperately needed in order to better treat lung cancer patients. Current research is investigating alternative treatment plans to enhance the chemotherapy that is already offered. Better insight into the molecular mechanisms behind combination therapy pathways and even single molecular pathways may help improve the efficacy of the current treatment options.

  15. Exploring the KT source crater: Progress and future prospects (United States)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.

    It has been 15 years since an iridium-enriched clay layer at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary was discovered, providing the first hard evidence linking the most recent mass extinction event to a comet or asteroid strike [Alvarez et al., 1980]. Now it is widely accepted that the site of this collision is on the Yucatan platform, centered near Progreso, Mexico. The 200-300-km-wide crater lies buried beneath 300-1000 m of limestone laid down in the intervening 65 million years, and few clues of its presence remain at the surface, save an arcuate arrangement of water-filled sinkholes centered approximately on the structure (Figure 1). Yet prominent circular anomalies in gravity and magnetic anomaly maps gained the interest of Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), and in the early 1950s they began an exploration campaign that included deep drilling to recover samples of the subsurface rocks. The buried feature became known as the Chicxulub structure. Pemex drilling continued throughout the early 1970s and by that time, three wells near the center had recovered silicate rocks with igneous textures, initially mistaken for volcanic rocks. Other wells, located between 130 km and 210 km from ground zero recovered breccia deposits hundreds of meters thick that showed evidence of catastropic or explosive conditions. By 1980, Antonio Camargo, a geophysicist at Pemex, felt the evidence pointed to impact, although a volcanic origin for the Chicxulub structure could not be ruled out.

  16. Palliative care in India: current progress and future needs. (United States)

    Khosla, Divya; Patel, Firuza D; Sharma, Suresh C


    Despite its limited coverage, palliative care has been present in India for about 20 years. Obstacles in the growth of palliative care in India are too many and not only include factors like population density, poverty, geographical diversity, restrictive policies regarding opioid prescription, workforce development at base level, but also limited national palliative care policy and lack of institutional interest in palliative care. Nonetheless we have reasons to be proud in that we have overcome several hurdles and last two decades have seen palpable changes in the mindset of health care providers and policy makers with respect to need of palliative care in India. Systematic and continuous education for medical staff is mandatory, and a major break-through for achieving this purpose would be to increase the number of courses and faculties in palliative medicine at most universities.

  17. Uterine sarcomas-Recent progress and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, Beatrice M., E-mail: [London Sarcoma Service, Department of Oncology, University College Hospital, 1st Floor Central, 250 Euston Road, London, NW1 2PG (United Kingdom); Davda, Reena [London Sarcoma Service, Department of Oncology, University College Hospital, 1st Floor Central, 250 Euston Road, London, NW1 2PG (United Kingdom)


    Uterine sarcomas are a group of rare tumours that provide considerable challenges in their treatment. Radiological diagnosis prior to hysterectomy is difficult, with the diagnosis frequently made post-operatively. Current staging systems have been unsatisfactory, although a new FIGO staging system specifically for uterine sarcomas has now been introduced, and may allow better grouping of patients according to expected prognosis. While the mainstay of treatment of early disease is a total abdominal hysterectomy, it is less clear whether routine oophorectomy or lymphadenectomy is necessary. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy may improve local tumour control in high risk patients, but is not associated with an overall survival benefit. Similarly there is no good evidence for the routine use of adjuvant chemotherapy. For advanced leiomyosarcoma, newer chemotherapy agents including gemcitabine and docetaxel, and trabectedin, offer some promise, while hormonal therapies appear to be more useful in endometrial stromal sarcoma. Novel targeted agents are now being introduced for sarcomas, and uterine sarcomas, and show some indications of activity. Non-pharmacological treatments, including surgical metastatectomy, radiofrequency ablation, and CyberKnife radiotherapy, are important additions to systemic therapy for advanced metastatic disease.

  18. Intermediate band solar cells: Recent progress and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y., E-mail:; Tamaki, R.; Farrell, D. J.; Yoshida, K.; Ahsan, N.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Ekins-Daukes, N. J., E-mail:; Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C. C. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Guillemoles, J.-F. [Institute of Research and Development of Energy from Photovoltaics (IRDEP-CNRS), Chatou 78401 (France); NextPV, Joint RCAST-CNRS Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)


    Extensive literature and publications on intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are reviewed. A detailed discussion is given on the thermodynamics of solar energy conversion in IBSCs, the device physics, and the carrier dynamics processes with a particular emphasis on the two-step inter-subband absorption/recombination processes that are of paramount importance in a successful implementation high-efficiency IBSC. The experimental solar cell performance is further discussed, which has been recently demonstrated by using highly mismatched alloys and high-density quantum dot arrays and superlattice. IBSCs having widely different structures, materials, and spectral responses are also covered, as is the optimization of device parameters to achieve maximum performance.

  19. Osteosarcoma: Accelerating Progress Makes for a Hopeful Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Saraf


    Full Text Available Patients who develop osteosarcoma in 2017 receive treatment that remains essentially unchanged since the 1970s. Outcomes likewise remain largely unimproved. Large, collaborative, multinational efforts to improve therapy have evaluated strategies leveraging both cytotoxic intensification and immunomodulatory agents. While these have confirmed our capacity to conduct such trials, results have proved largely disappointing. This has motivated efforts to focus on the basic biology of osteosarcoma, where understanding remains poor but has improved significantly. Recent advances have identified characteristic genetic features of osteosarcoma, including profound chromosomal disruption, marked patient-patient heterogeneity, and a paucity of recurrent mutations. Analyses suggest genesis in early catastrophic genetic events, although the nature of the inciting events remains unclear. While p53 and Rb inactivation occurs in most osteosarcomas, the landscape of associated driver mutations has proved extensive. Few mutations recur with high frequency, though patterns continue to emerge that suggest recurrent alterations within specific pathways. Biological pathways implicated in osteosarcoma biology through genetic and other preclinical studies include PI3K/mTOR, WNT/βcatenin, TGFβ, RANKL/NF-κB, and IGF. Unfortunately, clinical studies evaluating targeted agents have to date yielded disappointing results, as have studies examining modern immunotherapeutics. It remains unclear whether this pattern of clinical failures exposes inadequacies of our preclinical models, unrealistic expectations for single-agent responses in heavily pretreated patients, or biology less relevant than suggested. Nearly all patients who succumb to osteosarcoma develop lung metastases, which exhibit marked chemoresistance. Much scientific effort has recently sought to enhance our mechanistic understanding of metastasis biology. This research has potential to reveal novel targets for preventing and treating metastasis and for uncovering key vulnerabilities of osteosarcoma cells. Efforts to implement drug development strategies that leverage clinical studies in veterinary patients have potential to accelerate the translation of novel experimental regimens toward human studies. These could reduce costs and development timelines, prioritize agents, and refine regimens prior to human clinical trials. The rise of philanthropic groups focused on osteosarcoma has enhanced cross-disciplinary and cross-institutional focus and provided much needed resources. Transformative new therapies will likely arise from collaborative, interdisciplinary efforts that extend our understanding of osteosarcoma’s most basic inner workings.




  1. R&D progress toward future linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Voss, G A


    During the last 20 years there has been a worldwide effort to develop the physics and technology of linear colliders. Present goals at SLAC, KEK and DESY are to bring the R&D efforts to the point where proposals for 500/1000 GeV cms electron-positron colliders can be officially submitted in the years 2002/2003. The CLIC study at CERN aims at a second generation very high energy electron-positron collider, to be considered after completion of the LHC. The main areas of hardware R&D include efficient accelerating waveguides without harmful higher order mode (h.o.m) effects, high peak power klystrons, klystron modulators and RF-power compression. Test facilities have been put in place for the testing of h.o.m behavior of new waveguide designs (ASSET), focusing on low emittance beams to spot sizes in the nanometer range (FFTB) and damping particle oscillations in a special damping ring (ATF) to prepare low emittance bunch trains of electrons for injection into linear colliders. (0 refs).

  2. Palliative care in India: Current progress and future needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Khosla


    Full Text Available Despite its limited coverage, palliative care has been present in India for about 20 years. Obstacles in the growth of palliative care in India are too many and not only include factors like population density, poverty, geographical diversity, restrictive policies regarding opioid prescription, workforce development at base level, but also limited national palliative care policy and lack of institutional interest in palliative care. Nonetheless we have reasons to be proud in that we have overcome several hurdles and last two decades have seen palpable changes in the mindset of health care providers and policy makers with respect to need of palliative care in India. Systematic and continuous education for medical staff is mandatory, and a major break-through for achieving this purpose would be to increase the number of courses and faculties in palliative medicine at most universities.

  3. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  4. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  5. Future-Adapted Urban Structures Utopia, Vision, or Necessity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze


    Full Text Available Behavioural preferences of people are changing rapidly andmaking use of all sons of technical opponunities or progress.These changes mark a general and global process usually summarizedby the term "urbanization" - rightly referring to urbansettlements. Towns and cities are parlicularly prominent manifestationsof cultural achievements of mankind. They are, atthe same time, the most imporlant means of housing, and aretools to create the values for the material base of life. Most citiesand towns do, however, cope no more with the speed of development,they lag behind and end up in structural chaos, theyfail to adapt to the future requirements. As analysis reveals, theforemost reason is inadequate location of functions resulting inunnecessary traffic. Urban settlements are inefficient, indeed,strangling themselves.To help solve this problem a model is presented here of afull-fledged city of average size. Implementation may be accomplishedpiecemeal. It is a realistic target, it is not utopia butnecessity.

  6. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism]. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin


    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  7. Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress. (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J


    In this review we celebrate a century of progress since the initial description of the physiologic and pathologic roles of histamine and 70 years of progress since the introduction of H(1)-antihistamines for clinical use. We discuss histamine and clinically relevant information about the molecular mechanisms of action of H(1)-antihistamines as inverse agonists (not antagonists or blockers) with immunoregulatory effects. Unlike first (old)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced from 1942 to the mid-1980s, most of the second (new)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced subsequently have been investigated extensively with regard to clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety; moreover, they are relatively free from adverse effects and not causally linked with fatalities after overdose. Important advances include improved nasal and ophthalmic H(1)-antihistamines with rapid onset of action (in minutes) for allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis treatment, respectively, and effective and safe use of high (up to 4-fold) doses of oral second-generation H(1)-antihistamines for chronic urticaria treatment. New H(1)-antihistamines introduced for clinical use include oral formulations (bilastine and rupatadine), and ophthalmic formulations (alcaftadine and bepotastine). Clinical studies of H(3)-antihistamines with enhanced decongestant effects have been conducted in patients with allergic rhinitis. Additional novel compounds being studied include H(4)-antihistamines with anti-inflammatory effects in allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and other diseases. Antihistamines have a storied past and a promising future. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Mekong’s future flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Long Phi


    This multidisciplinary study focuses on projecting and adapting to future hydrological changes in the Mekong – an international river of global significance in terms of rapidly increasing human pressures and climate-change vulnerability. A modelling framework was developed to project future

  9. A Case of Adrenoleukodystrophy Presenting as Progressive Cerebellar Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunguk Jung


    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a hereditary neurological disorder affecting the nervous system and adrenal cortex. The phenotype of X-ALD ranges from the rapidly progressive cerebral form to milder adrenomyeloneuropathy. However, cerebellar manifestations are rare. We report a case of adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as progressive cerebellar dysfunction resembling olivopontocerebellar degeneration, with a review of the literature

  10. Progressive Multifocal Leuoencephalopathy(PML) in HIV Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parasitic, and neoplastic causes. Human immunodeficiency virus leucoencephalopathy (HIVL) is an uncommon and rapidly progressive form of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) that has remained poorly understood. Here we report a rare case of Progressive Multifocal Leuoencephalopathy (PML) in a case of HIV/AIDS who ...

  11. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  12. Rapid Strep Test (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  13. Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa. (United States)

    Saba, Hanan F; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications.

  14. 1997 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L.; Ghezzi, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Nuclear fusion division


    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  15. The future is 'ambient' (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur


    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  16. Our future in the hands of Millennials. (United States)

    Maiers, Michele


    The future of any profession is in the hands of its students and early career practitioners. The Millennial generation of chiropractors embody attributes that are uniquely suited to the evolving landscape of 21 st century healthcare. Globalization and rapid advancements in technology demand different styles of communication, attitudes toward diversity, styles of professional engagement, and perhaps most importantly, idealism about the future. Millennial chiropractors have a clear vision for this future of the profession, and are equipped to actualize that ideal.

  17. Dryland climate change: Recent progress and challenges (United States)

    Huang, J.; Li, Y.; Fu, C.; Chen, F.; Fu, Q.; Dai, A.; Shinoda, M.; Ma, Z.; Guo, W.; Li, Z.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.; Yu, H.; He, Y.; Xie, Y.; Guan, X.; Ji, M.; Lin, L.; Wang, S.; Yan, H.; Wang, G.


    Drylands are home to more than 38% of the world's population and are one of the most sensitive areas to climate change and human activities. This review describes recent progress in dryland climate change research. Recent findings indicate that the long-term trend of the aridity index (AI) is mainly attributable to increased greenhouse gas emissions, while anthropogenic aerosols exert small effects but alter its attributions. Atmosphere-land interactions determine the intensity of regional response. The largest warming during the last 100 years was observed over drylands and accounted for more than half of the continental warming. The global pattern and interdecadal variability of aridity changes are modulated by oceanic oscillations. The different phases of those oceanic oscillations induce significant changes in land-sea and north-south thermal contrasts, which affect the intensity of the westerlies and planetary waves and the blocking frequency, thereby altering global changes in temperature and precipitation. During 1948-2008, the drylands in the Americas became wetter due to enhanced westerlies, whereas the drylands in the Eastern Hemisphere became drier because of the weakened East Asian summer monsoon. Drylands as defined by the AI have expanded over the last 60 years and are projected to expand in the 21st century. The largest expansion of drylands has occurred in semiarid regions since the early 1960s. Dryland expansion will lead to reduced carbon sequestration and enhanced regional warming. The increasing aridity, enhanced warming, and rapidly growing population will exacerbate the risk of land degradation and desertification in the near future in developing countries.

  18. Progress Report for 1947

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various


    The year 1947 has witnessed the dawn of a new era of atomic science, a flowering of fundamental knowledge of the nature of matter which appears to be unsurpassed even by that period of the 1930's which led to the age of plutonium. A great new cyclotron, an atom-smasher ten times more powerful than the one which brought plutonium into the world, has carried mankind over a new horizon of sub-atomic space. It has brought scientists at last to grips with the infinitely small and rapid forces, until now beyond reach, which operate within the incredibly tiny distances of nuclear space. On the new energy frontier created by the giant machine, now laws govern nuclear reactions. methods are at hand, heretofore unavailable, which permit the measurement and determination of the nature of sub-atomic forces. Under ultra-high energy bombardment, the nucleus presents a different appearance from the nucleus of Bohr and Rutherford, the nucleus of atomic energy fission. The new exploration of the atom has been sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission with the giant, new 4000-ton cyclotron in the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California. This is the thirdmajor machine built by the Director of the Laboratory and inventor of the cyclotron, Professor Ernest O. Lawrence. Whether the new knowledge will be of immediate practical consequence cannot now be predicted. Nor could Professor Lawrence predict, when in 1934 he established a new atomic energy range for that day with his first cyclotron, that the fundamental knowledge he pursued would be climaxed with the discovery of plutonium. What can be predicted is this: without the new basic knowledge, practical atomic developments of the future would be limited to the applicability of the fundamental information which made possible the initial release of atomic energy. In short, the nation's atomic potential has been greatly expanded.

  19. Relapsing and Progressive Tumefactive Demyelinating Form of Central Nervous System Involvement in a Patient with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    White matter hyper intensities (WMHI) on MRI are not rare in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). In this presentation, WMHI were developed in both middle cerebellar peduncles and temporal white matter in a patient with PSS, and regressed after medication of high dose steroid. However, new lesions were developed in the subcortices of both precentral gyri, and progressed rapidly to tumefactive hyperintensity on MRI. We report an unusual relapsing and progressive tumefactive demyelinating form of central nervous system involvement in PSS.

  20. Progress in tourism planning and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Jamal, Tazim


    This paper examines progress in tourism planning and policy knowledge and identifies gaps and future directions for research. The study employs a post-structuralist perspective presented in two analytical movements: a bibliographic study of tourism policy and planning publications in Scopus...

  1. DELUSIONS OF PROGRESS: A Case For Reconceptualising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the idea of a mind/body split, one that promotes and supports compartmentalisation. Professors who embrace the challenge of self- actualisation will be better able to ...... Norgaard, R.B. 1994. Development Betrayed: The. End of Progress and a Coevolutionan; Revisioning of the Future. Routledge, London. Orr, D.W. 1994.

  2. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.


    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  3. Fear of progression. (United States)

    Herschbach, Peter; Dinkel, Andreas


    Fear of progression (or fear of recurrence) is an appropriate, rational response to the real threat of cancer and cancer treatments. However, elevated levels of fear of progression can become dysfunctional, affecting well-being, quality of life, and social functioning. Research has shown that fear of progression is one of the most frequent distress symptoms of patients with cancer and with other chronic diseases. As a clear consensus concerning clinically relevant states of fear of progression is currently lacking, it is difficult to provide a valid estimate of the rate of cancer patients who clearly suffer from fear of progression. However, recent systematic reviews suggest that probably 50 % of cancer patients experience moderate to severe fear of progression. Furthermore, many patients express unmet needs in dealing with the fear of cancer spreading. These results underline the necessity to provide effective psychological treatments for clinical levels of fear of progression. A few psychosocial interventions for treating fear of progression have been developed so far. Our own, targeted intervention study showed that dysfunctional fear of progression can be effectively treated with a brief group therapy.

  4. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  5. Solidification microstructures and solid-state parallels: Recent developments, future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Beckermann, C. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kurz, W. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Napolitano, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Plapp, M. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Purdy, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4L7 (Canada); Rappaz, M. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Trivedi, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)


    Rapid advances in atomistic and phase-field modeling techniques as well as new experiments have led to major progress in solidification science during the first years of this century. Here we review the most important findings in this technologically important area that impact our quantitative understanding of: (i) key anisotropic properties of the solid-liquid interface that govern solidification pattern evolution, including the solid-liquid interface free energy and the kinetic coefficient; (ii) dendritic solidification at small and large growth rates, with particular emphasis on orientation selection; (iii) regular and irregular eutectic and peritectic microstructures; (iv) effects of convection on microstructure formation; (v) solidification at a high volume fraction of solid and the related formation of pores and hot cracks; and (vi) solid-state transformations as far as they relate to solidification models and techniques. In light of this progress, critical issues that point to directions for future research in both solidification and solid-state transformations are identified.

  6. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD


    Full Text Available I.\tThe Changing Health Care Enviroment: Issues for the Future, March 7, 1997, Nashville, Tennessee. For further information: American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 765 Commonwealth Avenue, 16th Floor, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 USA. Tel: 617 262 4990, Fax: 617 437 7596, Email: II.\tII. Adli Bilimler Sempozyumu,Balistik, 4-5 Nisan 1997, İzmir. İletişim: Doç.Dr.İ.Hamit Hancı, Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı, 35100 Bornova İZMİR. Tel: 0232 388 2157, 0232 388 1920/3256 III.\tGender Studies, Date commencement: 5 March 1997-24 April 1997, Days and times: Wednesdays 18.00-20.00. 1. Women's rights, 2. Serhia & Women, 3. Women & Law, 4. Refuge Women, 5. Domestic violence & Women, 6. Working life & Women, 7. Women & Union, 8. Politics & Women. For further information: Aysel İşçi & Dr.Laurence Raw, The British Council, Kırlangıç sok. No: 9, 06700 GOP ANKARA. Tel: 0312 468 6192 Fax: 0312 427 6182. IV.\tForensic Science Society Spring Meeting, Suspicious Death?, 11-13 April 1997, Leeds, United Kingdom. Details from Anne Holds- worth, 18A Mount Parade, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, UNITEN KINGDOM HGI IBX. An- V.\tForensic Medicine and Drugs: Clinical and Scientific Aspects, 24-25 April 1997, Stakis Hydro, Dunblane, Scotland. Contact Dr DG Williams, Dept of Biochemistry, District General Hospital, Sunderland, UNITED KINGDOM. Tel: 0191 565 6256 ext 42800. VI.\tIV. Sosyal Psikiyatri Sempozyumu, 7-9 Mayıs 1997, Adana. Yazışma adresi: Prof.Dr.Yunus Emre Evlice, Çukurova Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Psikiyatri Anabilim Dalı, Balcalı 01330 ADANA. Tel: 0322 338 6857. VII.\tIII. Kadın Çalışmaları Toplantısı, 17-19 Mayıs 1997, Adana. İletişim: Çukurova Üniversitesi Kadın Sorunları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi, Bakalı ADANA. VIII.\tThe 5th International Family Violence Research Conference, Family Research Laboratory, 29 June-2 July 1997, Durham United Kingdom

  7. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.


    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  8. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  9. Progressive osseous heteroplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cu- taneous ossification during infancy and progressive ossification of subcutane- ous and deep connective tissue including muscle and fascia during childhood. It is at the severe end of a spectrum of Guanine Nucleotide-binding protein,.

  10. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  11. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K


    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  12. Rapid Prototyping in PVS (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)


    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered (United States)

    Desrosier, James


    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  14. Polygenic risk and the developmental progression to heavy, persistent smoking and nicotine dependence: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study. (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Baker, Timothy B; Biddle, Andrea K; Evans, James P; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Meier, Madeline; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom


    Genome-wide hypothesis-free discovery methods have identified loci that are associated with heavy smoking in adulthood. Research is needed to understand developmental processes that link newly discovered genetic risks with adult heavy smoking. To test how genetic risks discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult smoking influence the developmental progression of smoking behavior from initiation through conversion to daily smoking, progression to heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, and struggles with cessation. A 38-year, prospective, longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study of New Zealand. The study included 1037 male and female participants. We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in 3 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of smoking quantity phenotypes. Smoking initiation, conversion to daily smoking, progression to heavy smoking, nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence), and cessation difficulties were evaluated at 8 assessments spanning the ages of 11 to 38 years. Genetic risk score was unrelated to smoking initiation. However, individuals at higher genetic risk were more likely to convert to daily smoking as teenagers, progressed more rapidly from smoking initiation to heavy smoking, persisted longer in smoking heavily, developed nicotine dependence more frequently, were more reliant on smoking to cope with stress, and were more likely to fail in their cessation attempts. Further analysis revealed that 2 adolescent developmental phenotypes-early conversion to daily smoking and rapid progression to heavy smoking-mediated associations between the genetic risk score and mature phenotypes of persistent heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation failure. The genetic risk score predicted smoking risk over and above family history. Initiatives

  15. Progress in research on Tourette syndrome (United States)

    Black, Kevin J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Hershey, Tamara; McNaught, Kevin St. P.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Walkup, John


    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder commonly complicated by obsessions and compulsions, but defined by frequent unwanted movements (motor tics) and vocalizations (phonic tics) that develop in childhood or adolescence. In recent years, research on TS has progressed rapidly on several fronts. Inspired by the Fifth International Scientific Symposium on Tourette Syndrome, the articles in this special issue review advances in the phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of TS. PMID:25436182

  16. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong


    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  17. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive." (United States)

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a…

  18. Physicians’ progress notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels


    care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  19. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne


    education followed by two years of specialization within the same discipline. This idea is now being challenged on several fronts. For instance, it is becoming more common for Danish universities to offer interdisciplinary master programs. Also, the trend for greater internationalization in higher education...... sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet. University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic...... universities reflect on progression in education. The article distinguishes between different forms of progression....

  20. Acute Kidney Injury Risk Assessment and the Nephrology Rapid Response Team. (United States)

    Rizo-Topete, Lilia Maria; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio


    Acute kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious medical condition affecting more than 10 million people around the world annually and resulting in poor outcomes. It has been suggested that late recognition of the syndrome may lead to delayed interventions with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and timely therapeutic strategies may be the cornerstone of future improvement in outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical model to identify patients at high risk for AKI in different environments, with the goal to prevent AKI. We describe the AKI Risk Assessment (ARA) as a proposed algorithm that systematically evaluates the patient in high-risk situations of AKI in a simple way no matter where the patient is located, and allows different medical specialists to approach patients as a team with a nephrologist to improve outcomes. The goal of the nephrology rapid response team (NRRT) is to prevent AKI or start treatment if AKI is already diagnosed as a consequence of progressive events that can lead to progressive deterioration of kidney tissues and eventual decline in renal function and to ensure appropriate follow-up of patients at risk for progressive chronic kidney disease after the episode of AKI. Prevention is the key to avoid mortality and morbidity associated with AKI. Integration of these assessment tools in a global methodology that includes a multi-disciplinary team (NRRT) is critical to success. Video Journal Club 'Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco' at © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation


    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell


    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  2. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin


    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  3. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino


    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  4. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)


    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  5. Mitochondria as a Target for Future Diabetes Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Thimm


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is rapidly becoming the world’s most dangerous serial killer. Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a currently incurable autoimmune disease marked by progressive, and eventually exhaustive, destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Type 2 diabetes (T2D describes the combination of insulin resistance in peripheral tissue, insufficient insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells, and excessive glucagon secretion from the pancreatic alpha cells. T1D as well as severe cases of T2D are treated with insulin replacement, which can merely be considered as life support for the acute phases of the disease. Islet replacement of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells represents a potential treatment method for both insulin-depleted diabetes (T1D and insulin-resistant diabetes (T2D and may shift diabetes management from life saving measures to a cure. One of the key challenges in islet transplants is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the associated oxidative stress, which restricts graft longevity. A major leak of ROS takes place during oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Additionally, hyperglycemia-induced superoxide (O2•- production has been linked to the development and progression of diabetic complications, both macrovascular and microvascular. Decreasing ROS in diabetic patients may prevent the incidence of long term diabetes complications. This review provides an overview of the role of mito­chondria in diabetes, introducing them as a possible target for future treatment of diabetes.

  6. Primary Progressive Aphasia (United States)

    ... include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing in speech while searching for words Having difficulty repeating phrases or sentences Nonfluent-agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty forming words Being hesitant ...

  7. Advance care planning in progressive neurological conditions. (United States)

    Kent, Anna


    Advance care planning in progressive neurological conditions is an essential part of care, allowing individuals to make decisions and record their wishes regarding the care they receive in the future. Nurses are ideally placed to become involved in this process and should understand how they can assist patients, carers and families through a dynamic process of consultation and discussion. This article considers the process of advance care planning in relation to progressive neurological conditions and discusses how the Mental Capacity Act 2005 provides the legislation within which professionals must work.

  8. Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting. (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Hospodiuk, Monika


    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues, tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and pharmaceutics to clinics. Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids, tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels, the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory concerns to transform the technology into a product. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid antidepressant effects of Yueju: A new look at the function and mechanism of an old herbal medicine. (United States)

    Ren, Li; Chen, Gang


    Yueju is a traditional herbal medicine which consists of five herbs and formulated to treat depression-related syndromes 800 years ago. Yueju is still widely prescribed to treat conditions which include digestive dysfunction and depression. Recently, Yueju has been shown to promote a fast-onset antidepressant effect clinically and in preclinical studies. Because conventional antidepressants have a delayed onset in treating depression, the novelty of Yueju's rapid antidepressant effect and its underlying mechanism are of great significance both clinically and scientifically. To review the use of Yueju for treatment of mood-related syndromes, and particularly its use in depression. To evaluate recent evidence of Yueju rapid antidepressant actions, based on new findings at behavioral and molecular levels. To suggest direction for future studies to address further scientific issues. Reports regarding to the history and current use of Yueju are summarized. Recent progress on rapid antidepressant effects of Yueju, the crucial constituent, Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis (GJ) and other herbs, are reviewed. The medical need for rapid antidepressant actions, as well as breakthrough findings using ketamine and its limitations are introduced. Studies with Yueju using a number of acute, subacute and chronic behavioral paradigms are compared with ketamine. Findings from clinical reports also support the rapid action of Yueju. Studies examine the contribution of the constituent herb GJ, in rapid antidepressant effects. Importantly, research into the mechanism of Yueju or GJ's antidepressant response indicate the importance of up-regulation in the neural circuit responsible for antidepressant activity, and highlight common and specific molecular signaling by Yueju that may explain why this herb formula has unique antidepressant activity. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that Yueju confers rapid antidepressant effects. The common mechanisms shared both for ketamine and

  10. [Progressive visual agnosia]. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru


    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  11. Recent progress in boron nanomaterials. (United States)

    Kondo, Takahiro


    Various types of zero, one, and two-dimensional boron nanomaterials such as nanoclusters, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanosheets, and monolayer crystalline sheets named borophene have been experimentally synthesized and identified in the last 20 years. Owing to their low dimensionality, boron nanomaterials have different bonding configurations from those of three-dimensional bulk boron crystals composed of icosahedra or icosahedral fragments. The resulting intriguing physical and chemical properties of boron nanomaterials are fascinating from the viewpoint of material science. Moreover, the wide variety of boron nanomaterials themselves could be the building blocks for combining with other existing nanomaterials, molecules, atoms, and/or ions to design and create materials with new functionalities and properties. Here, the progress of the boron nanomaterials is reviewed and perspectives and future directions are described.

  12. Recent progress in prominence seismology. (United States)

    Ballester, José Luis


    Prominence seismology is a rapidly developing topic which seeks to infer the internal structure and properties of solar prominences from the study of their oscillations. An extense observational background about oscillations in quiescent solar prominences has been gathered during the last 70 years. These observations point out the existence of two different types of oscillations: flare-induced oscillations (winking filaments) which affect the whole prominence and are of large amplitude and small amplitude oscillations which seem to be of local nature. From the theoretical point of view, few models have been set up to explain the phenomenon of winking filaments while, on the contrary, for small amplitude oscillations a large number of models trying to explain the observed features have been proposed. Here, recent theoretical and observational developments on both types of oscillations are reviewed, and suggestions about future research topics which should provide us with a more in-depth knowledge of solar prominences are made.

  13. Primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Miller, David H; Leary, Siobhan M


    About 10-15% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with gradually increasing neurological disability, a disorder known as primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Compared with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis, people with PPMS are older at onset and a higher proportion are men. Inflammatory white-matter lesions are less evident but diffuse axonal loss and microglial activation are seen in healthy-looking white matter, in addition to cortical demyelination, and quantitative MRI shows atrophy and intrinsic abnormalities in the grey matter and the white matter. Spinal cord atrophy corresponds to the usual clinical presentation of progressive spastic paraplegia. Although neuroaxonal degeneration seems to underlie PPMS, the pathogenesis and the extent to which immune-mediated mechanisms operate is unclear. MRI of the brain and spinal cord, and examination of the CSF, are important investigations for diagnosis; conventional immunomodulatory therapies, such as interferon beta and glatiramer acetate, are ineffective. Future research should focus on the clarification of the mechanisms of axonal loss, improvements to the design of clinical trials, and the development of effective neuroprotective treatments.

  14. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)


    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  15. Site Characterization Progress Report No.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the 20th progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. Readers may request specific U.S. Department of Energy-approved program documents that are listed in Section 7, References, and Appendix A by contacting the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Line at 1-800-225-6972. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from October 1, 1998, through March 31, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  16. The future of memory (United States)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed ( 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  17. Comparison of spectacle classical progressive and office progressive lenses. (United States)

    Kozlík, Marek; Knollová, Libuse Nováková


    This paper elaborates on analysis of progressive spectacle lenses, to correct presbyopia, which are nowadays offered at the market. The paper describes different types of progressive lenses, their parameters, length and width of their progressive segments. It also describes degressive spectacles lenses--progressive lenses on middle and near distance. The main part of the paper is a comparison of functional differences among different types of progressive spectacles lenses. The paper also addresses correctness of choice of progressive lenses for different works and professions. Lastly, it elaborates on differences of centration of different types of progressive lenses and parameters for correct choice of glasses frame for progressive spectacles lenses.

  18. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.


    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  19. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.


    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  20. Right-Rapid-Rough (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig


    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  1. Physician Assistant Education Association: Past, Present, and Future. (United States)

    Asprey, David P; Agar Barwick, Timi


    The Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA), known as the Association of Physician Assistant Programs (APAP) until 2006, is the professional organization that represents physician assistant (PA) programs in the United States. Its mission is to "pursue excellence, foster faculty development, advance the body of knowledge that defines quality education and patient-centered care, and promote diversity in all aspects of PA education." PAEA has played an important role in promoting and shaping the educational mission of the PA profession. PAEA experienced a modest beginning, but it has evolved quickly as it increased its governance structure, staff, budget, and member services to support a rapidly growing profession over the last couple of decades. PAEA's current progress has positioned the profession well to increase our national visibility and our ability to affect the future of health care delivery. The future of PA education and PAEA will certainly be impacted by our continuing ability to adapt to change and to be visionary in our approach to the significant challenges we will face. Collectively, the Association staff, volunteers, and members will strive to fulfill its mission.

  2. CBM progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, N.; Rami, F.; Roehrich, D.; Stroth, J.; Wessels, J.; Zaitsev, Yu


    This report documents the activities within the CBM project in 2007. Significant progress has been made in the optimization of the simulation software, the layout and development of detectors, the design of front-end electronics, and the concepts for data acquisition. The simulation and analysis routines have been completely integrated into the software framework (FAIRoot and CBMroot), and can be used now easily by users outside GSI. A breakthrough has been achieved in the development of fast algorithms for track and vertex reconstruction which have been improved in speed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. These fast routines permit to perform high-statistics simulations for detailed detector layout optimization. Full event reconstruction based on realistic detector properties and particle multiplicities as given by microscopic transport models are routinely used in the feasibility studies. A version of the Silicon Tracking System is now implemented in the simulation software comprising 8 detector layers based on microstrip technology only, including the readout cables, and the mechanical detector structure. The studies of open charm detection have been extended to D{sub s}{sup +} and {lambda}{sub c}, taking into account a realistic layout of the Silicon Pixel Microvertex detector. The identification of electrons has been optimized by improved ring recognition algorithms and transition radiation simulations. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been redesigned, resulting in a reduction by a factor of two in mirror size and number of readout channels without reducing the pion rejection capability. The muon detection system has been optimized with respect to the number of detector layers. The muon simulations take into account detector inefficiencies and a segmentation of the muon chambers into pads according to a nominal occupancy of 5% for central Au+Au collisions. Studies for a dimuon trigger show promising results. Radiation dose simulations using the FLUKA

  3. Progression in sensing cardiac troponin biomarker charge transductions on semiconducting nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathil, M.F.M., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Md Arshad, M.K., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A.R., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Nuzaihan, M.N.M., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Gopinath, Subash C.B., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Adzhri, R., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U., E-mail: [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)


    A real-time ability to interpret the interaction between targeted biomolecules and the surface of semiconductors (metal transducers) into readable electrical signals, without biomolecular modification involving fluorescence dyes, redox enzymes, and radioactive labels, created by label-free biosensors has been extensively researched. Field-effect transistor (FET)- and capacitor-based biosensors are among the diverse electrical charge biosensing architectures that have drawn much attention for having charge transduction; thus, enabling the early and rapid diagnosis of the appropriate cardiac biomarkers at lower concentrations. These semiconducting material-based transducers are very suitable to be integrated with portable electronic devices for future online collection, transmission, reception, analysis, and reporting. This overview elucidates and clarifies two major electrical label-free systems (FET- and capacitor-based biosensors) with cardiac troponin (cTn) biomarker-mediated charge transduction for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis. Advances in these systems are highlighted by their progression in bridging the laboratory and industry; the foremost technologies have made the transition from benchtop to bedside and beyond. - Highlights: • The progression of cardiac troponin detection from past to future are presented. • Electrical label-free biosensors for cardiac troponin are discussed. • The discussion focused on field-effect transistor-and capacitor-based devices. • Surface functionalization, sensitivity, and innovation of devices are highlighted. • They presented high sensitivity and specificity of real-time AMI determination.

  4. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking. (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  6. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals (United States)

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R


    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  7. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.


    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  8. Polygenic risk accelerates the developmental progression to heavy, persistent smoking and nicotine dependence: Evidence from a 4-Decade Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Baker, Timothy B; Biddle, Andrea K; Evans, James P; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Meier, Madeline; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom


    OBJECTIVE To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) influence the developmental progression of smoking behavior. DESIGN A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth-cohort. SETTING The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS N=1037 male and female study members. MAIN EXPOSURES We assessed genetic risk with a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS). The GRS was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in three meta-analyses of GWAS of smoking quantity phenotypes. OUTCOME MEASURES Smoking initiation, conversion to daily smoking, progression to heavy smoking, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and cessation difficulties were evaluated at eight assessments spanning ages 11-38 years. RESULTS Genetic risk score was unrelated to smoking initiation. However, individuals at higher genetic risk were more likely to convert to daily smoking as teenagers, progressed more rapidly from smoking initiation to heavy smoking, persisted longer in smoking heavily, developed nicotine dependence more frequently, were more reliant on smoking to cope with stress, and were more likely to fail in their cessation attempts. Further analysis revealed that two adolescent developmental phenotypes—early conversion to daily smoking and rapid progression to heavy smoking--mediated associations between the genetic risk score and mature phenotypes of persistent heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation failure. The genetic risk score predicted smoking risk over and above family history. CONCLUSIONS Initiatives that disrupt the developmental progression of smoking behavior among adolescents may mitigate genetic risks for developing adult smoking problems. Future genetic research may maximize discovery potential by focusing on smoking behavior soon after smoking initiation and by studying young smokers. PMID:23536134

  9. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures" (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.


    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  10. [Imaging in smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma. Past, present and future]. (United States)

    Bhutani, M; Landgren, O


    Emerging clinical trial data support treatment of high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) upon diagnosis, and not only at the time of progression to symptomatic complications (multiple myeloma). Early detection of bone and/or bone marrow involvement by sensitive imaging modalities may help define SMM patients at a high risk of progression. Current (2011) consensus guidelines recognize skeletal survey as a cornerstone modality for assessment of bone involvement at initial diagnosis and during follow-up of SMM. Skeletal survey has severe limitations related to underdetection of bone lesions and also provides no information on bone marrow abnormalities. Modern imaging strategies such as fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/CT (FDG PET/CT) and MRI, in conjunction with functional innovations, provide improved estimates of global abnormalities in the bone marrow and bone compartments. These methods have the potential to objectively quantify early transformation from SMM to multiple myeloma. Although frequently used for staging and risk prognostication in multiple myeloma, modern imaging techniques have only been evaluated to a limited extent in SMM. Scant data in SMM indicate the prognostic value of two or more MRI-detected focal bone marrow abnormalities, which, if present, predict rapid progression to multiple myeloma. Data evaluating the role of FDG PET/CT in detecting early bone marrow abnormalities as an aid to predicting risk or directing treatment in SMM is currently lacking. The superior specificity and sensitivity of modern imaging techniques compared to skeletal survey suggest that these should have a place in standard practice management of patients at a high risk of SMM progression. The model imaging of the future should be an all-in-one strategy offering high diagnostic performance for bone marrow abnormalities and low-volume bone lesions, as well as allowing monitoring by minimizing radiation exposure and the need for contrast agents. Newer

  11. Arachnoiditis ossificans with progressive syringomyelia and spinal arachnoid cyst. (United States)

    Papavlasopoulos, F; Stranjalis, G; Kouyialis, A T; Korfias, S; Sakas, D


    We present a 30-year-old man with progressive spastic paraparesis. Spinal imaging revealed extensive calcification of the thoracic cord and cauda equina arachnoid, an intradural extramedullary cyst and evidence of rapidly progressing syringomyelia. Radiological diagnosis was arachnoiditis ossificans and an attempt at surgical decompression was made because of progressive neurologic deterioration. Due to tenacious adhesion of the calcified plaques to the cord and roots, only cyst drainage was achieved; the patient had no clinical improvement. A literature review revealed only two other cases reported in the literature with co-existence of arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia. In none of the previous cases was there an intradural extramedullary arachnoid cyst, nor did the syrinx progress in such a rapid fashion. An attempt is made to explain possible pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this unusual pathology.

  12. Overcoming the Educational Time Warp: Anticipating a Different Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available Education abridges the time required for individual and social progress by preserving and propagating the essence of human experience. It delivers to youth the accumulated knowledge of countless past generations in an organized and abridged form, so that future generations can start off with all the capacities acquired by their predecessors. However, today education confronts a serious dilemma. We are living in an educational time warp. There is a growing gap between contemporary human experience and what is taught in our educational system and that gap is widening rapidly with each passing year. Today humanity confronts challenges of unprecedented scope, magnitude and intensity. The incremental development of educational content and pedagogy in recent decades has not kept with the ever-accelerating pace of technological and social evolution. Education is also subject to a generational time warp resulting from the fact that many of today’s teachers were educated decades ago during very different times and based on different values and perspectives. The challenge of preparing youth for the future is exasperated by the fact that the future for which we are educating youth does not yet exist and to a large extent is unknown or unknowable. The resulting gap between the content of education and societal needs inhibits our capacity to anticipate and effectively respond to social problems. All these factors argue for a major reorientation of educational content and pedagogy from transmission of acquired knowledge based on past experience to development of the knowledge, skills and capacities of personality needed in a future we cannot clearly envision. We may not be able to anticipate the precise nature of the future, but we can provide an education based on the understanding that it will be very different from the present. In terms of content, the emphasis needs to shift from facts regarding the actual state of affairs in the past, present and

  13. Past, Present and Future Trends for NASA's EEE Parts Program (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.


    The foundation of NASA's Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts program is standardization. Standardization helps to reduce the number of unknown variables present as a project or program progresses; unknown variables equate to unknown risk. NASA spacecraft are usually 'one-offs' or at least part of a very short run, and every new part that is used represents a risk that has to be understood and mitigated as necessary. This equates directly to time and cost. Standardization of component parts is used to provide a foundation of known, dependable, qualified parts upon which a safe, reliable system can be built. In addition, the evaluation and selection of parts for the standard parts list unifies the activity under one group of experts rather than having engineers on each project overlapping and duplicating efforts. Thus, the project support engineers are able to concentrate on understanding and mitigating the risks for the non standard parts required to meet specific requirements of their project. Rapid technology change is producing conditions that make any form of parts-based standardization increasingly difficult, particularly the use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) parts and assemblies. There are many complications to COTS-based standardization. COTS parts change rapidly and unpredictably, often have different characteristics fiom manufacturer to manufacturer, frequently are only available through distribution, have no universal specification and have variable and unpredictable radiation characteristics. This presentation will discuss some potential approaches to COTS parts standardization. Further into the future, in three to five years perhaps, the use of COTS boards and boxes will be extensive and standardization at these levels of assembly will be necessary. In five to ten years, most major spacecraft functions will probably be performed by COTS boards. How will this be achieved? What role will the parts engineer play, if any? This

  14. Snowboarding injuries : current trends and future directions. (United States)

    Bladin, Christopher; McCrory, Paul; Pogorzelski, Anita


    Snowboarding has become one of the premier alpine sports. The past decade has seen the popularity of snowboarding increase dramatically and the recent Winter Olympic Games at Salt Lake City, USA, showcased the strong visual appeal of the sport and the youth-oriented lifestyle and culture that accompanies it. The injury profile of the sport has also undergone change along with technological advances in boot and binding systems and the changing demographics of the sports participants. Central to the development of injury-prevention strategies is knowledge of the profile of injuries that occur, understanding those who are at particular risk and, if possible, the biomechanical factors involved in each injury type. Snowboarding was initially considered a dangerous, uncontrolled, alpine sport - an opinion based on little or no scientific evidence. That evidence has rapidly grown over the past decade and we now know that snowboard injury rates are no different to those in skiing; however, the injury profile is different. The purpose of this review is to give some perspective to the current snowboard injury literature. It discusses not only the demographic profile of those injured and the type of injuries that occur, but also gives some insight into the progress that has occurred in determining the impact of specific prevention strategies, such as splints to prevent injuries to the wrist/forearm. The next decade will also see a greater understanding of the biomechanical forces involved in snowboard injuries, which may well impact on future technological advances. As the literature indicates, however, some things will not change, e.g. injuries are more likely to occur in beginners and lessons need to be reinforced as a fundamental aspect of any injury-prevention strategy.

  15. Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA (United States)

    James J. Worrall; Leanne Egeland; Thomas Eager; Roy A. Mask; Erik W. Johnson; Philip A. Kemp; Wayne D. Shepperd


    Concentrated patches of recent trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality covered 56,091 ha of Colorado forests in 2006. Mortality has progressed rapidly. Area affected increased 58% between 2005 and 2006 on the Mancos-Dolores Ranger District, San Juan National Forest, where it equaled nearly 10% of the aspen cover type. In four stands that were...

  16. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Brazis, Paul W


    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a descriptive term for a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis. Significant pain, proptosis, or pupil involvement are not features of CPEO and should prompt evaluation for alternative etiologies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations are increasingly being recognized as the etiology for CPEO syndromes. Clinicians should recognize the specific syndromes associated with CPEO, characterized by variable systemic, neurologic, or other findings. Treatment is limited, but newer therapies are being investigated.

  17. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf


    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  18. Object Detection: Current and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eVerschae


    Full Text Available Object detection is a key ability required by most computer and robot vision systems. The latest research on this area has been making great progress in many directions. In the current manuscript we give an overview of past research on object detection, outline the current main research directions, and discuss open problems and possible future directions.

  19. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Progress in long non-coding RNAs in animals. (United States)

    Lu, Chang; Huang, Yin-Hua


    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important transcripts that are more than 200 nucleotides in length, and distribute extensively in animal and plant genomes. Accumulated studies demonstrate that lncRNAs play critical roles in biological processes related to embryogenesis, muscle development, lipid deposition and immune responses. They assist protein complexes in translocating to appropriate locations and participate in regulating gene activation and inactivation. Recently, rapid progress of lncRNA research is emerging, largely due to molecular biological technologies and information developed in the human genome project and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project. For example, a dwarf open reading frame (DWORF) encoded by an annotated lncRNA was reported to activate the SERCA pump. Moreover, small regulatory polypeptide of amino acid response (SPAR) encoded by lncRNA LINC00961 was found to regulate muscle regeneration. These new results have revealed a novel model that lncRNA regulates biological processes using its small peptide product. In this review, we summarize the characteristics, databases, biological functions and molecular regulatory models, as well as research interests of lncRNAs in the future.

  2. [Progress on whole genome sequencing in woody plants]. (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Sen; Wang, Zhan-Jun; Chen, Jin-Hui


    In recent years, the number of sequencing data of plant whole genome have been increasing rapidly and the whole genome sequencing has been also performed widely in woody plants. However, there are a set of obstacles in investigating the whole genome sequencing in woody plants, which include larger genome, complex genome structure, limitations of assembly, annotation, functional analysis, and restriction of the funds for scientific research. Therefore, to promote the efficiency of the whole genome sequencing in woody plants, the development and defect of this field should be analyzed. The three-generation sequencing technologies (i.e., Sanger sequencing, synthesis sequencing, and single molecule sequencing) were compared in our studies. The progress mainly focused on the whole genome sequencing in four woody plants (Populus, Grapevine, Papaya, and Apple), and the application of sequencing results also was analyzed. The future of whole genome sequencing research in woody plants, consisting of material selection, establishment of genetic map and physical map, selection of sequencing technology, bioinformatic analysis, and application of sequencing results, was discussed.

  3. Current progress on augmented reality visualization in endoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Nakamoto, Masahiko; Ukimura, Osamu; Faber, Kenneth; Gill, Inderbir S


    Advancements in surgery are progressing at a rapid rate; however, there are still limitations, including the ability to accurately visualize the target organ, in particular during laparoscopic surgery. Augmented reality visualization is a novel technique that has been developed to allow the fusion of three-dimensional medical images, such as those from transrectal ultrasound or computed tomography/MRI, with live camera images in real-time. In this review, we describe the current advancements and future directions of augmented reality and its application to laparoscopic surgery. Geometrically-correct superimposed images can be generated by tracking of the laparoscope and registration of the target organ. The fused image between the live laparoscopic images and the reconstructed three-dimensional organ model aides the surgeon in his or her understanding of anatomical structures. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgeries in both general surgery and urology have been performed with technical success to date. The primary limitation of the current augmented reality systems is its infancy in dynamic tracking of organ motion or deformation. Recently, augmented reality systems with organ tracking based on real-time image analysis were developed. Further improvement and/or development of such new technologies would resolve these issues. Augmented reality visualization is a significant advancement, improving the precision of laparoscopic/endoscopic surgery. New technologies to improve the dynamic tracking of organ motion or deformation are currently under investigation.

  4. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise]. (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao


    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review.

  5. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow]. (United States)

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu


    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow.

  6. Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandli A


    Full Text Available Alice Brandli, Chi D Luu, Robyn H Guymer, Lauren N Ayton Centre for Eye Research Australia, Department of Surgery (Ophthalmology, The University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Vision prostheses, or “bionic eyes”, are implantable medical bionic devices with the potential to restore rudimentary sight to people with profound vision loss or blindness. In the past two decades, this field has rapidly progressed, and there are now two commercially available retinal prostheses in the US and Europe, and a number of next-generation devices in development. This review provides an update on the development of these devices and a discussion on the future directions for the field. Keywords: vision prostheses, bionic eye, vision restoration, blindness, medical bionics, retinitis pigmentosa

  7. Research Progress on Pesticide Residue Analysis Techniques in Agro-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Ze-ying


    Full Text Available There are constant occurrences of acute pesticide poisoning among consumers and pesticide residue violations in agro-products import/export trading. Pesticide residue analysis is the important way to protect the food safety and the interest of import/export enterprises. There has been a rapid development in pesticide residue analysis techniques in recent years. In this review, the research progress in the past five years were discussed in the respects of samples preparation and instrument determination. The application, modification and development of the QuEChERS method in samples preparation and the application of tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry were reviewed. And the implications for the future of the field were discussed.

  8. Progress in Research on Lightweight Graphene-based EMI Shielding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chan-yuan


    Full Text Available With rapid progresses on the advanced electronic science and technology, electromagnetic irradiations have led to considerable issues, including electromagnetic pollutions, electromagnetic interference and security concerns, in electronics, aeronautics, astronautics, information technology, communication systems and etc. Based on the fundamentals of the electromagnetic interference shielding and general methods for preparing graphene nanosheets, this review involves the recent advances in the electromagnetic interference shielding materials of various applications in four morphologies, which include bulk, lightweight foams, flexible films and those for operation at high temperature. Meanwhile, the major strategical methods and general concept for designing and fabricating graphene-based electromagnetic interference shielding materials have been overviewed, and fundamental issues of electromagnetic interference technology have been further discussed. The perspectives for fabricating novel electromagnetic interference shielding materials, including ultrathin and transparent configuration, and future development have been proposed based on the practical applications, which suggest significant conception for designing next generation lightweight EMI shielding materials.

  9. Focusing on glaucoma progression and the clinical importance of progression rate measurement: a review. (United States)

    Rossetti, L; Goni, F; Denis, P; Bengtsson, B; Martinez, A; Heijl, A


    This review aims to provide guidance in managing glaucoma patients more effectively. It focuses on the importance of detecting progression and measuring its rate within the management of primary open-angle glaucoma today. Recent findings strongly indicate that continued monitoring of visual fields (VFs) and reassessment of target intraocular pressures (IOPs) depending on VF progression rates are mandatory in the management of glaucoma. Data on glaucoma progression from older as well as most recent literature findings are summarized in this article. In addition, the article elaborates on the scientific content from a series of lectures given by experts in the field during several international symposia on 'rate of progression' in 2008. This review summarizes key findings on the natural history of glaucoma and known factors for disease progression. It highlights the visual function changes observed as glaucoma progresses and discusses disease impact on patients' quality of life. Findings support the need to obtain information on rate of progression and its importance for clinical management. Practical ways to measure rate of progression are given by new software options to help measure major parameters. Finally, on the basis of a patient's individual rate of progression therapeutic options are assessed, such as maximum medical therapy with fixed combinations. Estimating a patient's individual rate of VF progression by using newly developed analyses will be helpful to forecast the potential future development of the glaucoma. An individualized treatment approach then requires that in patients in whom the risk of becoming visually impaired or blind during their lifetime is higher, a more intensive medical IOP-lowering therapy such as fixed combinations can be considered as treatment option.

  10. Dynamics of rapid innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, T M A; Palma, R; Farr, R S


    We introduce a model of innovation in which products are composed of components and new components are adopted one at a time. We show that the number of products we can make now gives a distorted view of the number we can make in the future: the more complex a product is, the more it gets under-represented. From this complexity discount we derive a strategy for increasing the rate of innovation by choosing components on the basis of long-term growth rather than just short-term gain. We test our model on data from language, gastronomy and technology and predict the best strategy for innovating in each.

  11. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide


    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  12. Energy structures and environmental futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T.; Bergesen, H.O.; Roland, K.


    Energy is not only a basis for modern society, but also a product of it. This book is a study of the close and ever-changing relationship between the energy sector and the society that surrounds it. At the end of the twentieth century this relationship faces two fundamental challenges: First, the national confinement of modern energy systems is undermined by technological progress, making long-distance trade increasingly attractive, and by the broad trend towards economic internationalization in general and political integration in Europe in particular. Second, the risk of climate change may lead governments and publics to demand a profound restructuring of the entire energy sector. The purpose is to analyze how these two fundamental challenges, and the connection between them, can affect future energy developments in Europe. The analysis must be rooted in a firm understanding of the past. The first part of the book is therefore devoted to a systematic description and analysis of the energy sector in Europe as it has developed over the past twenty-five years, by major subsectors and with examples from the most important countries. Part 1 discusses trends and policies related to energy demand, energy sector developments in oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity, achievements and challenges in the environment, and the role of international policy bodies. Part 2 forecasts future developments in 1995--2020, by discussing the following: Paths for future developments; National rebound scenario; Liberalization and trade; Liberalization versus national rebound; and Environmental futures.

  13. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 30 January 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2007 until 31 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/74128

  14. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  15. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractMany macroeconomic forecasts and forecast updates like those from IMF and OECD typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive,

  16. The storm of progress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The famous Eiffel tower was erected for the 1889 World Fair in Paris. The theme was Manufacturing and. Transformation. This construction still symbolises the romance of tech- nology and progress. I do not intend to recall the chain of ..... Surely we cannot simply ignore the pathology. The interventional radiologist has an.

  17. Progressive dysarthria and ataxia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support from the Community Stroke Team. Over the following eight days there was a progressive deterioration in his clinical condition. Community stroke nurses raised concerns over his marked dysarthria and severely unsteady gait; they found that he was unable to walk independently and was having recurrent falls. They.

  18. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  19. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  20. Learning Progressions & Climate Change (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.


    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  1. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager


    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.     Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  2. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager


    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.  Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  3. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future (United States)

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica


    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  4. Future Leaders' Views on Organizational Culture (United States)

    Maloney, Krisellen; Antelman, Kristin; Arlitsch, Kenning; Butler, John


    Research libraries will continue to be affected by rapid and transformative changes in information technology and the networked environment for the foreseeable future. The pace and direction of these changes will profoundly challenge libraries and their staffs to respond effectively. This paper presents the results of a survey that was designed to…

  5. Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics (United States)

    Gregor, Robert J.


    The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

  6. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research (United States)

    Johnson, Charles W.


    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  7. Progressive osseous heteroplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ous and deep connective tissue including muscle and fascia during childhood. It is at the severe end of a spectrum of Guanine ... and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. Dermal lesions co- alesce rapidly to form ... web-like calcification surrounding all the upper and lower limbs and sparing only the soft ...

  8. The Future Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James


    ). Multiplicity, as a post-ANT sensibility, helps one make sense of the empirical materials. This paper examines the possibility that rather than being alternatives to one another, plural futures and the singular future might co-exist in practice, and, thus, constitute a multiplicity. Design...... number of futures seems to be a core function of planning for the future. The implication is that neither plural futures nor the singular future is – individually – satisfactory to capture what is found in practice. It is both plural and singular; ontologically, it is the future multiple. Originality......, if “the future” were so preposterous an idea, then “futures” would cease to be a critical alternative to it. Futures needs the future; they are relationally bound together in a multiplicity. This paper considers what such a logical reality implies for a field that distances itself from the future and self...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available "Work is determining the scope, structure and quality of material and spiritual services ordering society" (Mărginean 2002. The indicators in this domain are tied to employment and dependency on the availability of jobs, occupational structure, proportion and average duration of unemployment (Măginean, op. Cit.. In parallel there are studies on quality of life and working as indicators include: conditions, nature and content ounces, working time, labor relations, organization, management, material rewards and other benefits, work results and satisfaction. Preparation of this work is due to the acute need and the enormous pressure they felt at regional Euro-southwest Oltenia region, to remain competitive economically, while maintaining its long-term viability. The main objective of this paper is the first contribution and involvement in current scientific approach by offering solutions, analyzes the possibilities for and applicability of research developed by developing a tool for effective process improvement and sustainable development of the euro -regiunea southwest Oltenia to facilitate decision-making and not least sustainable economic growth. Secondary endpoints are represented by analyzing the current situation and developments, identifying needs and developing solutions and their correlation with national policy and territorial cohesion, economic and social development of the European Commission. Issues such as the triad growth-resource-environment, sustainability, impact of extractive industries are treated in this paper, which aims to identify some aspects of the relationship between sustainable development and economic progress in the context of Euro-South-West Oltenia, identification strategies and visions for the future that can boost this mining area par excellence for sustainable rural odezvoltare, focused on adequate training of human resources.

  10. Building a rapid response team. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard


    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  11. Stillbirths: progress and unfinished business. (United States)

    Frøen, J Frederik; Friberg, Ingrid K; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Pattinson, Robert C; Allanson, Emma R; Flenady, Vicki; McClure, Elizabeth M; Franco, Lynne; Goldenberg, Robert L; Kinney, Mary V; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Pitt, Catherine; Islam, Monir; Khera, Ajay; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Aggarwal, Neelam; Raina, Neena; Temmerman, Marleen


    This first paper of the Lancet Series on ending preventable stillbirths reviews progress in essential areas, identified in the 2011 call to action for stillbirth prevention, to inform the integrated post-2015 agenda for maternal and newborn health. Worldwide attention to babies who die in stillbirth is rapidly increasing, from integration within the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health, to country policies inspired by the Every Newborn Action Plan. Supportive new guidance and metrics including stillbirth as a core health indicator and measure of quality of care are emerging. Prenatal health is a crucial biological foundation to life-long health. A key priority is to integrate action for prenatal health within the continuum of care for maternal and newborn health. Still, specific actions for stillbirths are needed for advocacy, policy formulation, monitoring, and research, including improvement in the dearth of data for effective coverage of proven interventions for prenatal survival. Strong leadership is needed worldwide and in countries. Institutions with a mandate to lead global efforts for mothers and their babies must assert their leadership to reduce stillbirths by promoting healthy and safe pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory markers associated with progression of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V


    Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.

  13. Internationalisering og progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Wilken


    Full Text Available I Danmark har vi traditionelt tænkt universiteternes femårige kandidatuddannelser som sammenhængende forløb, hvor den studerende gradvist opbygger en stadig mere specialiseret viden inden for et givet fagområde. Denne idé om progression er i de senere år blevet udfordret fra flere sider. Især er progressionsidéen blevet diskuteret i forhold til tværfaglige uddannelsesforløb, men også de mange internationale uddannelser, der etableres, udfordrer den måde, hvorpå vi traditionelt har forstået progression i det danske uddannelsessystem. På internationale kandidatuddannelser finder vi nemlig typisk både studerende, for hvem kandidatuddannelsen er en forlængelse af en grunduddannelse, og studerende, der har taget deres grunduddannelse et andet sted og muligvis endda i et andet fag. I denne artikel undersøger vi, hvordan undervisere på kandidatuddannelser som både er tværfaglige og internationale forholder sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet. University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic education followed by two years of specialization within the same discipline. This idea is now being challenged on several fronts. For instance, it is becoming more common for Danish universities to offer interdisciplinary master programs. Also, the trend for greater internationalization in higher education means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi-structured interviews with teachers on international programs at Aarhus University, the second largest university in Denmark. The

  14. Spatial Patterns and Design Policies for Future American Cities (United States)

    Dutt, Ashok K.; Costa, Frank J.


    Describes plans for future urban development which take into account energy needs, mass transportation, technological innovations, high density settlement along the rapid transit spine, and rational decision making. (Author/DB)

  15. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.


    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  16. Problems of rapid growth. (United States)

    Kim, T D


    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  17. Rapid Polymer Sequencer (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)


    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  18. Rapidly rotating red giants (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  19. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhro, W.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)


    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  20. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva


    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  1. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  2. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N


    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  3. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  4. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  5. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A


    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  6. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  7. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi


    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with

  8. Fatal Metformin Overdose Presenting with Progressive Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchard, Jeffrey R


    Full Text Available A 29-year-old man with no history of diabetes ingested over 60 grams of metformin in a suicide attempt. He presented to the emergency department with acute renal insufficiency, severe lactic acidosis, and rapidly-progressive hyperglycemia. The patient’s peak serum glucose level of 707 mg/dL is the highest yet reported in a case of metformin toxicity. Treatment included sodium bicarbonate infusion and hemodialysis, but the patient suffered several cardiac arrests with pulseless electrical activity and ultimately expired 25 hours after the ingestion.

  9. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  10. [Progress in digital PCR technology and application]. (United States)

    Lin, Jiaqi; Su, Guocheng; Su, Wenjin; Zhou, Changyi


    Digital PCR is an emerging analysis technology for absolute quantification after realtime-PCR. Through digital PCR, single DNA molecules are distributed into isolated reactions, and the product with fluorescence signal can be detected and analyzed after amplification. With the advantages of higher sensitivity and accuracy, digital PCR, independent of a standard curve, is developing rapidly and applied widely to the next generation sequencing and detection fields, such as gene mutation, copy number variation, microorganism, and genetically modified food. In this article, we reviewed the quantitative method and research progress of digital PCR technology in the main application fields.

  11. Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mampaey, S.; De Schepper, A. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium); Dept. of Radiology, St. Maarten Hospital, Duffel (Belgium); Boven, K. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium); Hul, W. van [Dept. of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp (Belgium)


    A rare case of progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) in a 9-year-old girl is presented. Clinically, chronic painless swollen joints, accompanied by progressive motion restriction and progressive walking difficulties, were found. Radiologically, there was enlargement of the epimetaphyseal portions of the large joints, metacarpal heads, and phalanges, and generalized platyspondyly with irregular delineation of the endplates of the vertebral bodies. The radioclinical features at the peripheral joints were originally misdiagnosed as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and the structural spinal abnormalities were neglected and interpreted as Scheuermann's disease. However, the absence of active inflammatory parameters argues against JRA, whereas the low age of onset of the irregularities at the vertebral endplates is an argument against the diagnosis of Scheuermann's disease. The combination of the dysplastic abnormalities of the spine, with platyspondyly and Scheuermann-like lesions at an unusually low age of onset, and radiological features mimicking JRA of the peripheral joints, is the clue to the diagnosis of this rare autosomal-recessive disease. This case is the first to document the MRI features of PPD of the spine. (orig.)

  12. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques. (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J


    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  13. French future: exploring the future ratification hypothesis


    Mari, Alda


    International audience; The paper proposes a unified account of the systematic polysemy of French future (FUT) that does not uniquely rely on Aktionsart. It explains the predominant preference for the temporal interpretation of FUT, appealing to the ‘future ratification hypothesis’. This is a felicity condition that can be satisfied to different degrees and among competing interpretations the one that satisfies it to the highest degree is preferred. The paper also shows that FUT does not conv...

  14. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson


    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  15. Denmark`s energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The stated aim of the document published by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Danish Energy Agency is that it should form the basis for a broad public debate on the country`s future energy policy. The report has four main objectives: 1. To describe, with emphasis on the environment and the market, challenges that the energy sector will have to face in the future. 2. To illustrate the potentials for saving energy and for utilising energy sources and supply systems. 3. To present two scenarios of extreme developmental positions; the first where maximum effort is expended on increasing energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energy and the second where no new initiative is taken and change occurs only when progress in available technology is exploited and 4. To raise a number of questions about our future way of living. Following the extensive summary, detailed information is given under the headings of: Challenges of the energy sector, Energy consumption and conservation, Energy consumption in the transport sector, Energy resources, Energy supply and production, Development scenario, and Elements of Strategy. The text is illustrated with maps, graphs and coloured photographs etc. (AB)

  16. Rapid Active Sampling Package (United States)

    Peters, Gregory


    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.


    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.


    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.


    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.


    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.