WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid force projection

  1. Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Hiroki; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Shingo; Sekiya, Takashi; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback of net shortwave radiation at the surface in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project by analysing outputs from six participating models. G4 involves injection of 5 Tg yr-1 of SO2, a sulfate aerosol precursor, into the lower stratosphere from year 2020 to 2069 against a background scenario of RCP4.5. A single-layer atmospheric model for shortwave radiative transfer is used to estimate the direct forcing of solar radiation management (SRM), and rapid adjustment and feedbacks from changes in the water vapour amount, cloud amount, and surface albedo (compared with RCP4.5). The analysis shows that the globally and temporally averaged SRM forcing ranges from -3.6 to -1.6 W m-2, depending on the model. The sum of the rapid adjustments and feedback effects due to changes in the water vapour and cloud amounts increase the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by approximately 0.4 to 1.5 W m-2 and hence weaken the effect of SRM by around 50 %. The surface albedo changes decrease the net shortwave radiation at the surface; it is locally strong (˜ -4 W m-2) in snow and sea ice melting regions, but minor for the global average. The analyses show that the results of the G4 experiment, which simulates sulfate geoengineering, include large inter-model variability both in the direct SRM forcing and the shortwave rapid adjustment from change in the cloud amount, and imply a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols and clouds.

  2. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    22  Figure 12. Average kWh savings per gross square footage ( GSF ). ....................................... 22  iii LIST OF TABLES...Certification Program FTP File Transfer Protocol GIS Geographical Information Systems GSF gross square footage JCI Johnson Controls Energy...Average kWh savings per gross square footage ( GSF ). 23 6.0 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FirstFuel chose each Performance Objective with the major project

  3. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  4. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  5. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  6. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  7. Annual Report 2009 (Project Air Force)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Through 60 years of collaboration, RAND Project AIR FORCE (PAF) has acquired unparalleled insight into Air Force strategy, forces, policy, resources, and manpower. We have developed a body of expertise and intellectual capital and are uniquely poised to provide policy recommendations on critical national security challenges. Working with the Air Force to translate these recommendations into decisions that have

  8. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  9. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  10. Force Projection, Strategic Agility and the Big Meltdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    .... force projection and strategic agility. Inter-theater movement of forces over the top of the world would provide a supported combatant commander both flexibility in operational design and advantages in operational functions...

  11. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and

  12. Computer-Controlled Force Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc proposes to develop a compact, low power, high life-cycle computer controlled Programmable Force Generator (PFG) that can generate any force...

  13. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Sogaard, Karen; Sjogaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    ... ; accepted in final form 10 September 2009 Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings...

  14. Computer-Controlled Force Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  15. Effects of oncoming target velocities on rapid force production and accuracy of force production intensity and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of oncoming target velocities on the ability of rapid force production and accuracy and variability of simultaneous control of both force production intensity and timing. Twenty male participants (age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rapid gripping with a handgrip dynamometer to coincide with the arrival of an oncoming target by using a horizontal electronic trackway. The oncoming target velocities were 4, 8, and 12 m · s -1 , which were randomly produced. The grip force required was 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Although the peak force (Pf) and rate of force development (RFD) increased with increasing target velocity, the value of the RFD to Pf ratio was constant across the 3 target velocities. The accuracy of both force production intensity and timing decreased at higher target velocities. Moreover, the intrapersonal variability in temporal parameters was lower in the fast target velocity condition, but constant variability in 3 target velocities was observed in force intensity parameters. These results suggest that oncoming target velocity does not intrinsically affect the ability for rapid force production. However, the oncoming target velocity affects accuracy and variability of force production intensity and timing during rapid force production.

  16. RAND Project Air Force Annual Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Fitzmartin, Jean R. Gebman, Elham Ghashghai, Jeff Hagen, Thomas Hamilton, Gregory G. Hildebrandt, Yool Kim, Robert S. Leonard, Rosalind Lewis, Elvira...ARMY.MIL, photo by: Carleton Bailie, pages 18–19 AIR FORCE LINK, photos by: Sue Sapp (cover); Airman 1st Class Franklin J. Perkins (pages 12–13

  17. Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada Photovoltaic Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henley, Curtis D; Hunt, Shaun C; Phillips, Darius A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Applied Project was to analyze the feasibility for production of renewable energy on DoD installations and focus on renewable energy initiatives undertaken at Nellis AFB, NV...

  18. A Power Projection Force: Some Concrete Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    responsibility, to lift a phrase fro m Stan Lee’s reluctant superhero , Spiderman. America, equally uncertain in its own great strength, has discovered...off the politically popular but militarily suspect roundout and roundup combat brigades and battalions. Power projection must be a way of life for...shining reputation as America’s premier ready-reaction unit is well established, even in the more unusual niches of the popular culture. For example

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIEST RAPIDS TURBINE UPGRADE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBolt, Donald; Richmond, Marshall C.; Donelson, Richard K.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly

    2015-07-14

    The Priest Rapids Dam is located on the Columbia River and is operated by Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, WA (GCPUD). In operation since 1959, GCPUD decided that a major upgrade was necessary. As with other hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River, improving fish passage at Priest Rapids Dam is of great importance for salmon and steelhead populations in the Pacific Northwest. Consequently, GCPUD established the Priest Rapids Turbine Upgrade Project to extend the life of the units, increase efficiency and power production, and improve fish-passage. The Priest Rapids powerhouse is equipped with 10 vertical Kaplan turbines with runner diameters of 7.21 m operating under net heads varying from 18 m to 27 m. The scope of the project included a design competition involving three turbine manufacturers providing up to two designs for evaluation. Selection of the replacement design was determined by the lowest evaluated price based on model test results conducted at an independent laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Lausanne Switzerland) and a biological performance score determined by a newly developed Biological Performance Assessment (BioPA) performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA. In the paper, the hydraulic design challenges are reviewed, in addition to comparisons of designs evaluated during the competitive model test program and biological assessment. The paper also provides a description of the process followed by GCPUD, and how the evaluation criteria influenced the development and the finally selected solution.

  20. Control of force during rapid visuomotor force-matching tasks can be described by discrete time PID control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob Lund; Feeney, Daniel F; Almuklass, Awad M; Enoka, Roger M

    2017-08-01

    Force trajectories during isometric force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions vary substantially across individuals. In this study, we investigated if this variability can be explained by discrete time proportional, integral, derivative (PID) control algorithms with varying model parameters. To this end, we analyzed the pinch force trajectories of 24 subjects performing two rapid force-matching tasks with visual feedback. Both tasks involved isometric contractions to a target force of 10% maximal voluntary contraction. One task involved a single action (pinch) and the other required a double action (concurrent pinch and wrist extension). 50,000 force trajectories were simulated with a computational neuromuscular model whose input was determined by a PID controller with different PID gains and frequencies at which the controller adjusted muscle commands. The goal was to find the best match between each experimental force trajectory and all simulated trajectories. It was possible to identify one realization of the PID controller that matched the experimental force produced during each task for most subjects (average index of similarity: 0.87 ± 0.12; 1 = perfect similarity). The similarities for both tasks were significantly greater than that would be expected by chance (single action: p = 0.01; double action: p = 0.04). Furthermore, the identified control frequencies in the simulated PID controller with the greatest similarities decreased as task difficulty increased (single action: 4.0 ± 1.8 Hz; double action: 3.1 ± 1.3 Hz). Overall, the results indicate that discrete time PID controllers are realistic models for the neural control of force in rapid force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions.

  1. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  2. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P muscles is highly responsive......Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well...... as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg...

  3. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  4. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: Leadership and Management Strategies for a Rapid Prototyping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toup, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott; Smitherman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies being used by the NASA HDU team for a rapid prototyping project. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project

  5. Rapid and serial quantification of adhesion forces of yeast and Mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Potthoff

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion to surfaces represents the basis for niche colonization and survival. Here we establish serial quantification of adhesion forces of different cell types using a single probe. The pace of single-cell force-spectroscopy was accelerated to up to 200 yeast and 20 mammalian cells per probe when replacing the conventional cell trapping cantilever chemistry of atomic force microscopy by underpressure immobilization with fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM. In consequence, statistically relevant data could be recorded in a rapid manner, the spectrum of examinable cells was enlarged, and the cell physiology preserved until approached for force spectroscopy. Adhesion forces of Candida albicans increased from below 4 up to 16 nN at 37°C on hydrophobic surfaces, whereas a Δhgc1-mutant showed forces consistently below 4 nN. Monitoring adhesion of mammalian cells revealed mean adhesion forces of 600 nN of HeLa cells on fibronectin and were one order of magnitude higher than those observed for HEK cells.

  6. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-11-01

    Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling; or a reference intervention without physical activity. Maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed at static angles of 35 degrees and 115 degrees with simultaneous recording of electromyography (EMG) in the trapezius and deltoid. Maximal muscle strength and activation (peak torque and peak EMG) as well as rapid muscle strength and activation [rate of torque development (RTD) and rate of EMG rise] were subsequently determined. Trapezius muscle fiber characteristics were determined with ATPase histochemistry. Significant changes were observed only in the specific strength training group. Whereas peak torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P force capacity of chronically painful muscles is highly responsive to rehabilitation with specific strength training. The underlying mechanisms were related to both pain reduction and general neuromuscular adaptations to strength training. Potentially, the present method can be a useful clinical screening tool of muscle function in rehabilitation settings.

  7. Determination of forces on a split palatal screw after rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Valentin Javier; López-Cancelos, Rubén; Riveiro, Antonio; Comesaña, Rafael; Ustrell I Torrent, Josep Maria; Kasem, Khaled; Badaoui, Aida; Manzanares-Céspedes, Mª Cristina; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Aim of this study was to develop a finite element model of the forces that patients with rapid maxillary expansion bear and to validate it by a mechanical test. Computer-aided design models of the metallic screw and polymeric splint were modelled and discretized. Two forces were generated and considered independently: F1 at the temporary molar (2.5 N) and F2 at the permanent molar (2.5 N). The results of the finite element analysis were used to define the strain values which the anterior and posterior arms of the rapid maxillary expansion appliance bore as a linear function of F1-F2 by calculating the strain-force coefficient δ ij . Two strain gauge rosettes were attached to an appliance which was placed in an XY motorized stage to reproduce the same forces used in the finite element analysis. Once the system was validated, the matrix was inverted to determine forces F1 and F2 that a group of 40 patients underwent (median age 8.33 years, standard deviation 1.86 years) for 75 days, using their strain values. The parents of the patients activated a quarter turn (0.20 mm) twice a day until 50% transversal overcorrection was achieved. Finite element analysis showed that the effects of the forces on stress at the location of the arms were notably different. There was a satisfactory correlation between finite element analysis predictions and in vitro values. Dissipation of F1 and F2 in patients was predicted to be 62.5 and 80%, respectively, after 75 days of retention. These results back the finite element analysis model for force prediction.

  8. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...

  9. Rapid muscle activation and force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2008-01-01

    muscle activation and force capacity of chronically painful muscles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 42 women with chronic trapezius myalgia, and 20 healthy matched controls. Maximal capacity was determined as peak torque and peak EMG amplitude of the painful trapezius and painfree deltoid muscles......-analogue-scale. FINDINGS: Peak torque was 18% lower at 115 degrees shoulder joint angle in women with myalgia compared with healthy controls (Pmuscle (Ptorque development was 33-54% lower (P...BACKGROUND: The association between musculoskeletal pain and decreased maximal muscle strength capacity has been extensively studied, but knowledge about functional rapid force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate rapid...

  10. Delayed Effect of Blood-Flow-Restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets...... and rapid force capacity (e.g. RTD) as well as evoked twitch contractile parameters was assessed before (Pre) and 5 and 12 days after training (Post5, Post12). Muscle biopsies were obtained Pre, after 8 days (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days post training (Post3, Post10) to examine changes in myofiber area...... to baseline levels at Post12. All contractile parameters essentially remained unchanged in CON. Elevated CaMKII was observed with BFR training at Post3 (57%) and Post10 (71%) (Presistance...

  11. Three-Dimensional Force Measurements During Rapid Palatal Expansion in Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Goeckner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment approach because the forces applied in the three dimensions are indeterminate. To enable optimal and individualized treatment, it is essential to measure the three-dimensional (3D forces and displacements created by the expander. This paper proposes a method for performing these 3D measurements using a single embedded strain sensor, combining experimental measurements of strain in the palatal expander with 3D finite element analysis (FEA. The method is demonstrated using the maxillary jaw from a freshly euthanized pig (Sus scrofa and a hyrax-design rapid palatal expander (RPE appliance with integrated strain gage. The strain gage measurements are recorded using a computer interface, following which the expansion forces and extent of expansion are estimated by FEA. A total activation of 2.0 mm results in peak total force of about 100 N—almost entirely along the direction of expansion. The results also indicate that more than 85% of the input activation is immediately transferred to the palate and/or teeth. These studies demonstrate a method for assessing and individualizing expansion magnitudes and forces during orthopedic expansion of the maxilla. This provides the basis for further development of smart orthodontic appliances that provide real-time readouts of forces and movements, which will allow personalized, optimal treatment.

  12. Rapid Carbon Assessment Project: Data Summary and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Skye; Loecke, Terry; Roecker, Stephen; Beaudette, Dylan; Libohova, Zamir; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    The Rapid Carbon Assessment (RaCA) project was undertaken to estimate regional soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the conterminous United States (CONUS) as a one-time event. Sample locations were selected randomly using the NRI (National Resource Inventory) sampling framework covering all areas in CONUS with SSURGO certified maps as of Dec 2012. Within each of 17 regions, sites were selected by a combination of soil and land use/cover groups (LUGR). At each of more than 6,000 sites five pedons were described and sampled to a depth of 100cm (one central and 4 satellites 30m in each cardinal direction). There were 144,833 samples described from 32,084 pedons at 6, 017 sites. A combination of measurement and modeled bulk density was used for all samples. A visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrophotometer was used to scan each sample for prediction of soil carbon contents. The samples of each central pedon were analyzed by the Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory for combustion carbon and calcimeter inorganic carbon. SOC stocks were calculated for each pedon using a standard fixed depth technique to depths of 5, 30 and 100cm. Pedon SOC stocks were transformed to better approach normality before LUGR, regional and land use/cover summaries were calculated. The values reported are geometric means. A detailed spatial map can be produced using LUGR mean assignment to correlated pixels. LUGR values range from 1 to 3,000 Mg ha-1. While some artifacts are visible due to the stratified nature of sampling and extrapolation, the predictions are generally smooth and highlight some distinct geomorphic features including the sandhills in the Great Plains in the central US, mountainous regions in the West and coastal wetlands in the East. Regional averages range from 46 Mg ha-1 in the desert Southwest to 182 Mg ha-1 in the Northeast. Regional trends correlate to climate variables such as precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. While land use/cover classes vary in mean values

  13. 75 FR 56051 - Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line... Rapids, Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project (``Project'') in Minnesota. The Final EIS was prepared...) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji, Minnesota and the Boswell Substation near Grand...

  14. Agile Science Planning: Rapid Response Re-planning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop autonomous rapid response to science observations in missions targeting small bodies in fly-by mode where observing and reaction time is precious.

  15. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  16. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project Mr. Eric J. Paulson-Vehicle Analyst Rocket Propulsion Division Combustion devices Branch Systems...to build axisymmetric cold flow nozzle test articles using plastic-based inexpensive rapid additive manufacturing – Feasible to rapid prototype lobed...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2015-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test

  17. A novel electromagnetic apparatus for rapid multiplex single molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Hu, Jun; Shao, Zhifeng

    2013-02-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has revolutionized our ability to probe the details of molecular structures and interactions, but the numbers of individual measurements required for achieving a statistically reliable result can sometimes prove daunting. To overcome this problem, a number of instruments have recently been developed that are capable of monitoring the behavior of tens of individual biomolecules simultaneously. In this work, we have constructed a novel electromagnetic apparatus for multiplex single molecule force measurements utilizing magnetic microspheres. In this system, the magnetic field is generated with an electron-lens of an electron microscope mated with a high voltage flash light circuit to rapidly attain a stable magnetic field. We show that this instrument can generate a uniform magnetic force of up to -20 pN within 5 ms, over a region spanning 1 mm. The successful application of this apparatus to the force-dependent extension of dsDNA fully validates this approach. Furthermore, the lens-like design of the pole piece is fully compatible with optical imaging, thus allowing for the integration of single molecule fluorescence capabilities that should make this system a particularly powerful apparatus for multi-dimensional characterization of fast processes within interacting single molecules.

  18. Mechanosensitivity of a Rapid Bioluminescence Reporter System Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Benoit; Latz, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Cells are sophisticated integrators of mechanical stimuli that lead to physiological, biochemical, and genetic responses. The bioluminescence of dinoflagellates, alveolate protists that use light emission for predator defense, serves as a rapid noninvasive whole-cell reporter of mechanosensitivity. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the relationship between cell mechanical properties and mechanosensitivity in live cells of the dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Cell stiffness was 0.56 MPa, consistent with cells possessing a cell wall. Cell response depended on both the magnitude and velocity of the applied force. At the maximum stimulation velocity of 390 μm s−1, the threshold response occurred at a force of 7.2 μN, resulting in a contact time of 6.1 ms and indentation of 2.1 μm. Cells did not respond to a low stimulation velocity of 20 μm s−1, indicating a velocity dependent response that, based on stress relaxation experiments, was explained by the cell viscoelastic properties. This study demonstrates the use of AFM to study mechanosensitivity in a cell system that responds at fast timescales, and provides insights into how viscoelastic properties affect mechanosensitivity. It also provides a comparison with previous studies using hydrodynamic stimulation, showing the discrepancy in cell response between direct compressive forces using AFM and those within flow fields based on average flow properties. PMID:25809248

  19. Light weakly coupled axial forces: models, constraints, and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in π0 and 8Be∗ decay.

  20. Application of atomic force microscopy on rapid determination of microorganisms for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Wang, Y

    2008-10-01

    Rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms is important for food quality, safety, and security. In this field, nanotechnology appears to be promising in its ability to characterize an individual microorganism and detect heterogeneous distribution of microbes in food samples. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM), a nanotechnology tool, was used to investigate Escherichia coli (E. coli) qualitatively and quantitatively. E. coli strains B and K12 were used as surrogates to represent pathogenic strains, such as E. coli O157: H7. The results from AFM were compared with those from scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). The qualitative determination was obtained using morphology and characteristic parameters from AFM images, and the quantitative determination was obtained by calculating the microorganisms in AFM images. The results show that AFM provides a new approach for rapid determination of microorganisms for food safety.

  1. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Aagaard, Per

    2011-07-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC) has often been used to evaluate the H/Q ratio, the ability to rapidly develop force (rate of force development [RFD]) is more relevant in relation to fast dynamic movements. The aim of this study was to introduce and investigate a rapid RFD H/Q strength ratio compared with the traditional MVC H/Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability for the RFD H/Q ratio was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.664-0.933). The initial contraction phase up to 50 milliseconds from the onset of contraction showed a low RFD H/Q ratio compared to the MVC H/Q ratio (p MVC H/Q ratio, compared with the group mean-sustained ACL rupture at a later occasion. The high reliability of the new RFD H/Q strength ratio indicates that the method is a relevant tool in standardized clinical evaluation of the knee joint agonist-antagonist relationship.

  2. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  3. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  4. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in rapidly...

  5. Linearized FUN3D for Rapid Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Design and Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop a hybrid approach in FUN3D, referred herein to as the Linearized FUN3D, for rapid aeroelastic and...

  6. Plasmonic Force Propulsion Revolutionizes Nano/PicoSatellite Capability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The full potential of small spacecraft remains untapped because they lack maneuverability. Plasmonic force propulsion provides attitude control capability for small...

  7. Analysis of Air Force Wartime Contracted Construction Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    ranged from locals and the Afghan National Army interfering with the project, to a swine flu 22 outbreak halting progress on several projects for... 1918 ). Furthermore, the contractor’s risk is based on its ability to provide an accurate estimate that will adequately cover its costs, yield a small...locals and the Afghan National Army interfering with the project, to a swine flu outbreak halting progress on several projects for multiple days. Most

  8. Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2017 to 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    CBO FEBRUARY 2017 Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2017 to 2026 Nuclear weapons have been a cornerstone of U.S. national security since they...were developed during World War II. In the Cold War, nuclear forces were central to U.S. defense policy, resulting in the buildup of a large...arsenal. Since that time, nuclear forces have figured less prominently than conventional forces, and the United States has not built any new nuclear

  9. Rapid activation of Rac GTPase in living cells by force is independent of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Chuin Poh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mechanical forces are crucial in regulating functions of every tissue and organ in a human body. However, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical activities and biological responses at the cellular and molecular level. Using the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, we applied local mechanical stresses to living human airway smooth muscle cells with a magnetic bead bound to the cell surface via transmembrane adhesion molecule integrins. The temporal and spatial activation of Rac, a small guanosine triphosphatase, was quantified using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET method that measures changes in Rac activity in response to mechanical stresses by quantifying intensity ratios of ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein as a donor and YPet (a variant yellow fluorescent protein as an acceptor of the Rac biosensor. The applied stress induced rapid activation (less than 300 ms of Rac at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF induced Rac activation at a much later time (>30 sec. There was no stress-induced Rac activation when a mutant form of the Rac biosensor (RacN17 was transfected or when the magnetic bead was coated with transferrin or with poly-L-lysine. It is known that PDGF-induced Rac activation depends on Src activity. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of the cells with specific Src inhibitor PP1 or knocking-out Src gene had no effects on stress-induced Rac activation. In addition, eliminating lipid rafts through extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane did not prevent stress-induced Rac activation, suggesting a raft-independent mechanism in governing the Rac activation upon mechanical stimulation. Further evidence indicates that Rac activation by stress depends on the magnitudes of the applied stress and cytoskeletal integrity. Our results suggest that Rac activation by mechanical forces is rapid, direct and does not depend on Src

  10. Rapid recognition and functional analysis of membrane proteins on human cancer cells using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Xiao, Xiubin; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the physicochemical properties of cell surface signalling molecules is important for us to uncover the underlying mechanisms that guide the cellular behaviors. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a powerful tool for detecting the molecular interactions on individual cells with nanometer resolution. In this paper, AFM peak force tapping (PFT) imaging mode was applied to rapidly locate and visually map the CD20 molecules on human lymphoma cells using biochemically sensitive tips. First, avidin-biotin system was used to test the effectiveness of using PFT imaging mode to probe the specific molecular interactions. The adhesion images obtained on avidin-coated mica using biotin-tethered tips obviously showed the recognition spots which corresponded to the avidins in the simultaneously obtained topography images. The experiments confirmed the specificity and reproducibility of the recognition results. Then, the established procedure was applied to visualize the nanoscale organization of CD20s on the surface of human lymphoma Raji cells using rituximab (a monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody)-tethered tips. The experiments showed that the recognition spots in the adhesion images corresponded to the specific CD20-rituximab interactions. The cluster sizes of CD20s on lymphoma Raji cells were quantitatively analyzed from the recognition images. Finally, under the guidance of fluorescence recognition, the established procedure was applied to cancer cells from a clinical lymphoma patient. The results showed that there were significant differences between the adhesion images obtained on cancer cells and on normal cells (red blood cell). The CD20 distributions on ten cancer cells from the patient were quantified according to the adhesion images. The experimental results demonstrate the capability of applying PFT imaging to rapidly investigate the nanoscale biophysical properties of native membrane proteins on the cell surface, which is of potential significance in

  11. Large urban projects and social actors : Forces supporting and opposing the production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenya, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    This research studies, by means of the analysis of a paradigmatic large urban project in Buenos Aires, the production process of a large urban project furthered by the State and directed to create a new centrality. The analysis is focused on the forces supporting and opposition the project that were

  12. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Lee, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) is a Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) facility that provides rapid development, integration, and testing capabilities for small projects (CubeSats, payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles). This facility environment focuses on efficient processes and modular design to support rapid prototyping, integration, testing and verification of small projects at an affordable cost, especially compared to larger type HWIL facilities. SPRITE (Figure 1) consists of a "core" capability or "plant" simulation platform utilizing a graphical programming environment capable of being rapidly re-configured for any potential test article's space environments, as well as a standard set of interfaces (i.e. Mil-Std 1553, Serial, Analog, Digital, etc.). SPRITE also allows this level of interface testing of components and subsystems very early in a program, thereby reducing program risk.

  13. Rapid release of growth factors regenerates force output in volumetric muscle loss injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasman, Jonathan M.; Do, Duc M.; Page, Raymond L.; Pins, George D.

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in the design and development of biomaterial scaffolds is to incorporate mechanical and biochemical cues to direct organized tissue growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) loaded, crosslinked fibrin (EDCn-HGF) microthread scaffolds on skeletal muscle regeneration in a mouse model of volumetric muscle loss (VML). The rapid, sustained release of HGF significantly enhanced the force production of muscle tissue 60 days after injury, recovering more than 200% of the force output relative to measurements recorded immediately after injury. HGF delivery increased the number of differentiating myoblasts 14 days after injury, and supported an enhanced angiogenic response. The architectural morphology of microthread scaffolds supported the ingrowth of nascent myofibers into the wound site, in contrast to fibrin gel implants which did not support functional regeneration. Together, these data suggest that EDCn-HGF microthreads recapitulate several of the regenerative cues lost in VML injuries, promote remodeling of functional muscle tissue, and enhance the functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. Further, by strategically incorporating specific biochemical factors and precisely tuning the structural and mechanical properties of fibrin microthreads, we have developed a powerful platform technology that may enhance regeneration in other axially aligned tissues. PMID:26344363

  14. Experimental Ejection Forces of Thermoplastic Parts From Rapid Tooled Injection Mold Inserts (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinsella, Mary E; Lilly, Blaine

    2007-01-01

    .... Ejection forces for cylindrical parts molded with high density polyethylene and high impact polystyrene were measured directly and compared with values calculated from an ejection force differently...

  15. Late Quaternary Climate Forcing of Rapid Sedimentation and Erosion Processes in the NW Himalaya (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The intensity of the Asian summer-monsoon circulation varies over decadal to millennial time scales and is reflected in changes in surface processes, terrestrial environments, and marine sediment records. The impact of climatic forcing on the landscape’s response and associated erosion processes varies, depending on magnitude and size of the climatic events, as well as on the tectonic and geomorphologic preconditioning of the landscape. Here, we present new surface-exposure ages combined with previously published data to quantify erosion and process rates and their changes through the time. The NW Himalaya is located at the end of the monsoonal conveyer belt that transports moisture from the Bay of Bengal to the Sutlej Valley and farther west. Along the Himalaya, orographic barriers force out rainfall with peak amounts located consistently at a 3-km-radius relief of ~1 km. The tail and northward end of the rainfall distribution decays rapidly with only little or no moisture reaching the southern Tibetan Plateau. However, during a generally stronger monsoon circulation in the early Holocene called the Intensified Monsoon Phase rainfall reached the today arid regions of the northern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau as documented in numerous terrestrial sediment archives. During this time period in the NW Himalaya, the presently arid, high-elevation areas have been impacted by flooding and heavy landsliding ultimately leading to a significant increase in sediment-flux rates. Some of the sediment material has been derived from glaciers. We show that the transiently-stored sediments in these valleys have been rapidly removed during the early Holocene at the onset of the Intensified Monsoon Phase. The limiting factor for sediment removal and transport on millennial timescales are large bedrock landslides that impounded the river network and formed intramontane basins lasting for several thousands of years. We suggest a feedback process between sediment removal and

  16. Effect of calf-raise training on rapid force production and balance ability in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Ryoichi; Ohki, Shunsuke; Takayama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuji; Akagi, Ryota

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether home-based, high-speed calf-raise training changes the rate of torque development (RTD) during plantar flexion contractions and balance performance in elderly men. Thirty-four healthy elderly men (73 ± 5 yr) were randomly assigned to a training or control group (n = 17 in each group). The subjects in the training group completed 8 wk (3 times/wk) of home-based bilateral calf-raise training using body mass. Before and after the intervention, RTD during plantar flexion contractions and center-of-pressure (COP) displacement during single-leg standing were measured. Surface electromyographic amplitude of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during the strength and single-leg standing was measured. Clinical magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the training effect, with the smallest worthwhile effect assumed to be 0.2 of the baseline SD. The peak RTD increased 21% (90% confidence limits, ±19%) relative to the control group, which was accompanied by corresponding changes of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) activations. The effect on COP displacement was possibly trivial (0%, ±13%), whereas substantial reduction in the MG (-19%, ±15%) and SOL (-25%, ±13%) activations during standing was observed. Our findings indicate that calf-raise training at home, performed without special equipment or venue, induces a substantial increase in the plantar flexors' rapid force-generating capability and triceps surae activations. Although the training effect on standing balance performance was not substantial, observed changes in the triceps surae activations during standing are expected to contribute to future balance performance improvement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Calf-raise training with the intent to move rapidly, without special equipment or venue, induces an improvement of explosive plantar flexion force, which is attributable to neuromuscular rather than musculotendinous adaptations. Although the training effect on balance

  17. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Faruk Sözcü; İsmail İpek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training and developing e-learning projects as well as multimedia design tools. For this reason, this paper will clarify the basic e-learning development tech...

  18. Safety equipment list for the 241-SY-101 RAPID mitigation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORRIS, K.L.

    1999-06-29

    This document provides the safety classification for the safety (safety class and safety RAPID Mitigation Project. This document is being issued as the project SEL until the supporting authorization basis documentation, this document will be superseded by the TWRS SEL (LMHC 1999), documentation istlralized. Upon implementation of the authorization basis significant) structures, systems, and components (SSCS) associated with the 241-SY-1O1 which will be updated to include the information contained herein.

  19. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  20. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H; Ebbesen, Frederik S; Christiansen, David H; Skotte, Jørgen; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm s(-1) [95% confidence interval: (1.33-11.80)] in the 2-min group and 33.2 Nm s(-1) (1.66-12.33) in the 12-min group from baseline to 10-week follow-up, corresponding to an increase of 16.0% and 18.2% for the two groups, respectively. The increase was significantly different compared to controls (Pmuscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Pmuscle strength and pain. Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  1. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We...... measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...

  2. The Influence of Military Identity on Work Engagement and Burnout in the Norwegian Army Rapid Reaction Force

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Rino Bandlitz; Martinussen, Monica; Kvilvang, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of military identity on work engagement and burnout among members in the Norwegian Army Rapid Reaction Forces (RRF). Hierarchical regression analyses found work engagement to be predicted by military identity (positively so by professionalism, and negatively by individualism), with individualism also predicting burnout. This is the first study to examine the unique influence of military identity on burnout and engagement among operational army personne...

  3. A Force-Activated Trip Switch Triggers Rapid Dissociation of a Colicin from Its Immunity Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Oliver E.; Hann, Eleanore; Kaminska, Renata; Housden, Nicholas G.; Derrington, Sasha R.; Kleanthous, Colin; Radford, Sheena E.; Brockwell, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (Kd≈fM, lifetime ≈4 days), immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9) and immunity protein 9 (Im9) complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21–30) whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods. PMID:23431269

  4. A force-activated trip switch triggers rapid dissociation of a colicin from its immunity protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E Farrance

    Full Text Available Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (K(d ≈ fM, lifetime ≈ 4 days, immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9 and immunity protein 9 (Im9 complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (<20 pN increases the rate of complex dissociation 10(6-fold, to a timescale (lifetime ≈ 10 ms compatible with intoxication. We term this catastrophic force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21-30 whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods.

  5. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  6. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  7. 75 FR 75170 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project (Project) in Beltrami, Hubbard, Itasca, and Cass... construct the 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji, Minnesota and... . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Minnkota's proposed Project is to construct a 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line...

  8. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in muscle strength and neural function, but the effect of long-term disuse in the elderly is largely unexplored. The present study examined the effect of unilateral long-term limb disuse on maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction (MVC), lean......%), contractile RFD (W: 17-26%; M: 15-24%), impulse (W: 10-19%, M: 19-20%), maximal EMG amplitude (W: 22-25%, M: 22-28%), and an increased muscle activation deficit (-18%) compared with UN. Furthermore, women were less strong (AF: 40%; UN: 39%), had less muscle mass (AF: 33%; UN: 34%), and had a lower RFD (AF: 38...... quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men...

  9. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  10. An ultra-fast EOD-based force-clamp detects rapid biomechanical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Michael S.; Capitanio, Marco; Ostap, E. Michael; Goldman, Yale E.

    2017-08-01

    We assembled an ultra-fast infrared optical trapping system to detect mechanical events that occur less than a millisecond after a ligand binds to its filamentous substrate, such as myosin undergoing its 5 - 10 nm working stroke after actin binding. The instrument is based on the concept of Capitanio et al.1, in which a polymer bead-actin-bead dumbbell is held in two force-clamped optical traps. A force applied by the traps causes the filament to move at a constant velocity as hydrodynamic drag balances the applied load. When the ligand binds, the filament motion stops within 100 μs as the total force from the optical traps is transferred to the attachment. Subsequent translations signal active motions, such as the magnitude and timing of the motor's working stroke. In our instrument, the beads defining the dumbbell are held in independent force clamps utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to update the trap beam positions at 250 kHz. We found that in our setup, acousto-optical deflectors (AODs) steering the beams were unsuitable for this purpose due to a slightly non-linear response in the beam intensity and deflection angle vs. the AOD ultra-sound wavelength, likely caused by low-amplitude standing acoustic waves in the deflectors. These aberrations caused instability in the force feedback loops leading to artefactual 20 nm jumps in position. This type of AOD non-linearity has been reported to be absent in electro-optical deflectors (EODs)2. We demonstrate that replacement of the AODs with EODs improves the performance of our instrument. Combining the superior beam-steering capability of the EODs, force acquisition via back-plane interferometry, and the dual high-speed FPGA-based feedback loops, we smoothly and precisely apply constant loads to study the dynamics of interactions between biological molecules such as actin and myosin.

  11. Double-sided electromagnetic pump with controllable normal force for rapid solidification of liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for casting liquid metals is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks each having a polyphase winding and being positioned to form a gap through which a movable conductive heat sink passes. A solidifying liquid metal sheet is deposited on the heat sink and the heat sink and sheet are held in compression by forces produced as a result of current flow through the polyphase windings. Shaded-pole interaction between the primary windings, heat sink and solidifying strip produce transverse forces which act to center the strip on the heat sink.

  12. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  13. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (∼29% and ∼25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ∼13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These

  14. Negative g-Force Ocular Trauma Caused by a Rapidly Spinning Carousel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Moisseiev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages after spinning rapidly on a carousel attached to an electrical scooter. We present his clinical course and discuss the physics and pathophysiology of this unique mechanism of ocular trauma.

  15. Implementation of a variational approach to approximate particle number projection with effective forces

    CERN Document Server

    Valor, A; Robledo, L M

    2000-01-01

    Kamlah's second-order method for approximate particle number projection is applied for the first time to variational calculations with effective forces. High spin states of normal and superdeformed nuclei have been calculated with the finite range density dependent Gogny force for several nuclei. Advantages and drawbacks of the Kamlah second-order method as compared to the Lipkin-Nogami recipe are thoroughly discussed. We find that the Lipkin-Nogami prescription occasionally may fail to find the right energy minimum in the strong pairing regime and that Kamlah's second-order approach though providing better results than the LN one may break down in some limiting situations.

  16. SY-101 Rapid Transfer Project Low Temperature Operations Review and Recommendations to Support Lower Temperature Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    2000-01-10

    The lower temperature limit for the 241 SY-101 RAPID transfer project is currently set at 20 F Based on the analysis and recommendations in this document this limit can be lowered to 0 F. Analysis of all structures systems and components (SSCs) indicate that a reduction in operating temperature may be achieved with minor modifications to field-installed equipment. Following implementation of these changes it is recommended that the system requirements be amended to specify a temperature range for transfer or back dilute evolutions of 0 F to 100 F.

  17. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  18. Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-23

    The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

  19. Modeling the Creation of Actionable Knowledge within a Joint Task Force Command System (Project GNOSIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    SYSTEM SJ SYSTEM INTERACTIONS AND INFLUENCES SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM SYSTEM I Multiple actors egaglng In comunities of Commrunitles of Interest...STINFO COPY AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2006-0156 Modeling the Creation of Actionable Knowledge within a Joint Task Force Command System (Project GNOSIS) Dennis K...Cognitive Systems Branch WPAFB OH 45433-7604 Best Available Copy 20070129146 NOTICE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in

  20. Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Francois; Adegoke, Jimmy; Bopape, Mary-Jane; Naidoo, Mogesh; Garland, Rebecca; Thatcher, Marcus; McGregor, John; Katzfey, Jack; Werner, Micha; Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of observed trends in African annual-average near-surface temperatures over the last five decades reveals drastic increases, particularly over parts of the subtropics and central tropical Africa. Over these regions, temperatures have been rising at more than twice the global rate of temperature increase. An ensemble of high-resolution downscalings, obtained using a single regional climate model forced with the sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice fields of an ensemble of global circulation model (GCM) simulations, is shown to realistically represent the relatively strong temperature increases observed in subtropical southern and northern Africa. The amplitudes of warming are generally underestimated, however. Further warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with plausible increases of 4-6 °C over the subtropics and 3-5 °C over the tropics by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (a low mitigation) scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. High impact climate events such as heat-wave days and high fire-danger days are consistently projected to increase drastically in their frequency of occurrence. General decreases in soil-moisture availability are projected, even for regions where increases in rainfall are plausible, due to enhanced levels of evaporation. The regional dowscalings presented here, and recent GCM projections obtained for Africa, indicate that African annual-averaged temperatures may plausibly rise at about 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the subtropics, and at a somewhat lower rate in the tropics. These projected increases although drastic, may be conservative given the model underestimations of observed temperature trends. The relatively strong rate of warming over Africa, in combination with the associated increases in extreme temperature events, may be key factors to consider when interpreting the suitability of global mitigation targets in terms of African

  1. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi, E-mail: xuzhe6249@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  2. Forced Spreading of Aqueous Solutions on Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Surfaces for Rapid Evaporation and Solute Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Singh, Vickramjeet; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    Solute separation of aqueous mixtures is mainly dominated by water vaporization. The evaporation rate of an aqueous drop grows with increasing the liquid-gas interfacial area. The spontaneous spreading behavior of a water droplet on a total wetting surface provides huge liquid-gas interfacial area per unit volume; however, it is halted by the self-pinning phenomenon upon addition of nonvolatile solutes. In this work, it is shown that the solute-induced self-pinning can be overcome by gravity, leading to anisotropic spreading much faster than isotropic spreading. The evaporation rate of anisotropic spreading on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine surface is 25 times larger as that on a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface. Dramatic enhancement of evaporation is demonstrated by simultaneous formation of fog atop liquid film. During anisotropic spreading, the solutes are quickly precipitated out within 30 s, showing the rapid solute-water separation. After repeated spreading process for the dye-containing solution, the mean concentration of the collection is doubled, revealing the concentration efficiency as high as 100%. Gravity-enhanced spreading on total wetting surfaces at room temperature is easy to scale-up with less energy consumption, and thus it has great potentials for the applications of solute separation and concentration.

  3. Shifting patterns of mild weather in response to projected radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wiel, Karin; Kapnick, Sarah; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, climate change research has focused on changes in mean climate (e.g. global mean temperature, sea level rise, glacier melt) or change in extreme events (e.g. hurricanes, extreme precipitation, droughts, heat waves, wild fires). Though extreme events have the potential to disrupt society, extreme conditions are rare by definition. In contrast, mild weather occurs frequently and many human activities are built around it. Examples of such activities include football games, dog walks, bike rides, and outdoor weddings, but also activities of direct economic impact, e.g. construction work, infrastructure projects, road or rail transportation, air travel, and landscaping projects. Absence of mild weather impacts society in various way, understanding current and future mild weather is therefore of high scientific interest. We present a global analysis of mild weather based on simple and relatable criteria and we explore changes in mild weather occurrence in response to radiative forcing. A high-resolution global climate model, GFDL HiFLOR, is used to allow for investigation of local features and changes. In response to RCP4.5, we find a slight global mean decrease in the annual number of mild days projected both in the near future (-4 d/yr, 2016-2035) and at the end of this century (-10 d/yr, 2081-2100). Projected regional and seasonal redistributions of mild days are substantially greater. Tropical regions are projected to see large decreases, in the mid-latitudes small increases in the number of mild days are projected. Mediterranean climates are projected to see a shift of mild weather away from the local summer to the shoulder seasons. These changes are larger than the interannual variability of mild weather caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Finally, we use reanalysis data to show an observed global decrease in the recent past, and we verify that these observed regional changes in mild weather resemble the projections.

  4. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  5. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  6. Easy Come, Easy Go: Capillary Forces Enable Rapid Refilling of Embolized Primary Xylem Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Vivien; Bergstrom, Dana M; Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Chen, Hua; Wolfe, Joe; Holbrook, N Michele; Stanton, Daniel E; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-08-01

    Protoxylem plays an important role in the hydraulic function of vascular systems of both herbaceous and woody plants, but relatively little is known about the processes underlying the maintenance of protoxylem function in long-lived tissues. In this study, embolism repair was investigated in relation to xylem structure in two cushion plant species, Azorella macquariensis and Colobanthus muscoides, in which vascular water transport depends on protoxylem. Their protoxylem vessels consisted of a primary wall with helical thickenings that effectively formed a pit channel, with the primary wall being the pit channel membrane. Stem protoxylem was organized such that the pit channel membranes connected vessels with paratracheal parenchyma or other protoxylem vessels and were not exposed directly to air spaces. Embolism was experimentally induced in excised vascular tissue and detached shoots by exposing them briefly to air. When water was resupplied, embolized vessels refilled within tens of seconds (excised tissue) to a few minutes (detached shoots) with water sourced from either adjacent parenchyma or water-filled vessels. Refilling occurred in two phases: (1) water refilled xylem pit channels, simplifying bubble shape to a rod with two menisci; and (2) the bubble contracted as the resorption front advanced, dissolving air along the way. Physical properties of the protoxylem vessels (namely pit channel membrane porosity, hydrophilic walls, vessel dimensions, and helical thickenings) promoted rapid refilling of embolized conduits independent of root pressure. These results have implications for the maintenance of vascular function in both herbaceous and woody species, because protoxylem plays a major role in the hydraulic systems of leaves, elongating stems, and roots. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The GRENE-TEA model intercomparison project (GTMIP) Stage 1 forcing data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, T.; Saito, K.; Miyazaki, S.; Mori, J.; Ise, T.; Arakida, H.; Suzuki, R.; Sato, A.; Iijima, Y.; Yabuki, H.; Ikawa, H.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Hajima, T.; Sato, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugimoto, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the authors describe the construction of a forcing data set for land surface models (including both physical and biogeochemical models; LSMs) with eight meteorological variables for the 35-year period from 1979 to 2013. The data set is intended for use in a model intercomparison study, called GTMIP, which is a part of the Japanese-funded Arctic Climate Change Research Project. In order to prepare a set of site-fitted forcing data for LSMs with realistic yet continuous entries (i.e. without missing data), four observational sites across the pan-Arctic region (Fairbanks, Tiksi, Yakutsk, and Kevo) were selected to construct a blended data set using both global reanalysis and observational data. Marked improvements were found in the diurnal cycles of surface air temperature and humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. The data sets and participation in GTMIP are open to the scientific community (doi:10.17592/001.2015093001).

  8. Fall Chinook Aclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, and will ultimately work towards achieving

  9. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  10. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  11. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  12. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  13. Contributions of projected land use to global radiative forcing ascribed to local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2013-12-01

    With global demand for food expected to dramatically increase and put additional pressures on natural lands, there is a need to understand the environmental impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Previous studies have shown that the magnitude and even the sign of the radiative forcing (RF) of biogeophysical effects from LULCC depends on the latitude and forest ecology of the disturbed region. Here we ascribe the contributions to the global RF by land-use related anthropogenic activities to their local sources, organized on a grid of 1.9 degrees latitude by 2.5 degrees longitude. We use RF estimates for the year 2100, using five future LULCC projections, computed from simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. Our definition of the LULCC RF includes changes to terrestrial carbon storage, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol emissions, and surface albedo. We ascribe the RF to gridded locations based on LULCC-related emissions of relevant trace gases and aerosols, including emissions from fires. We find that the largest contributions to the global RF in year 2100 from LULCC originate in the tropics for all future scenarios. In fact, LULCC is the largest tropical source of anthropogenic RF. The LULCC RF in the tropics is dominated by emissions of CO2 from deforestation and methane emissions from livestock and soils. Land surface albedo change is rarely the dominant forcing agent in any of the future LULCC projections, at any location. By combining the five future scenarios we find that deforested area at a specific tropical location can be used to predict the contribution to global RF from LULCC at that location (the relationship does not hold as well in the extratropics). This information could support global efforts like REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), that aim to reduce greenhouse gas

  14. Rapid calibration of a projection-type holographic light-field display using hierarchically upconverted binary sinusoidal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    A projection-type holographic light-field (LF) display is a full-parallax, full-color, and glass-free three-dimensional (3D) display with a holographic optical element and a projector. The display has unique characteristics, including transparency; however, a rapid calibration method has not yet been established. In this paper, we propose a rapid calibration method for a holographic LF display without sacrificing its accuracy. The proposed method performs calibration via the projection of binary sinusoidal patterns whose frequencies are iteratively and hierarchically upconverted. Compared to the conventional method, in the proposed method, the required number of projections is reduced from linear to logarithmic with the projector's resolution. We confirm the successful reconstruction of the 3D image using the proposed method.

  15. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  16. Automatic and rapid whole-body 3D shape measurement based on multinode 3D sensing and speckle projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiping; Peng, Xiang; Li, Ameng; Liu, Xiaoli; Yu, Jiping

    2017-11-01

    Automatic and rapid whole-body 3D shape measurement has attracted extensive attention in recent years and been widely used in many fields. Rapid 3D reconstruction, automatic 3D registration, and dedicated system layout are critical factors to enable an excellent 3D measurement system. In this paper, we present an automatic and rapid whole- body 3D measurement system that is based on multinode 3D sensors using speckle projection. A rapid algorithm for searching homologous point pairs is suggested, which takes advantage of the optimized projective rectification and simplified subpixel matching techniques, leading to an improved time efficiency of 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile, a low-cost automatic system with a flexible setup and an improved calibration strategy are proposed, where system parameters of each node sensor can be simultaneously estimated with the assistance of a cubic and a planar target. Furthermore, an automatic range data registration strategy by employing two aided cameras is investigated. Experiment results show that the presented approach can realize automatic whole-body 3D shape measurement with high efficiency and accuracy.

  17. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A great deal of effort has gone into the development of point-of-use methods to meet the challenge of rapid bacterial identification for both environmental...

  18. Rapid Optical Characterization Suite for in situ Target Analysis of Rock Surfaces Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROCSTAR is an in situ instrument suite that can accomplish rapid mineral and molecular identification without sample preparation for in situ planetary exploration;...

  19. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  20. A Rapid Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic Modeling, Analysis and Optimization System for Advanced Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stirling Dynamics Inc and the University of Washington propose to develop a MATLAB toolbox for rapid aeroelastic (AE) and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling, analysis...

  1. Rapid and variable-volume sample loading in sieving electrophoresis microchips using negative pressure combined with electrokinetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li-Ya; Yin, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Min

    2008-07-01

    A rapid and variable-volume sample loading scheme for chip-based sieving electrophoresis was developed by negative pressure combined with electrokinetic force. This was achieved by using a low-cost microvacuum pump and a single potential supply at a constant voltage. Both 12% linear polyacrylamide (LPA) with a high viscosity of 15000 cP and 2% hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) with a low viscosity of 102 cP were chosen as the sieving materials to study the behavior and the versatility of the proposed method. To reduce the hydrodynamic resistance in the sampling channel, sieving material was only filled in the separation channel between the buffer waste reservoir (BW) to the edge of the crossed intersection. By applying a subambient pressure to the headspace of sample waste reservoir (SW), sample and buffer solution were drawn immediately from sample reservoir (S) and buffer reservoir (B) across the intersection to SW. At the same time, the charged sample in the sample flow was driven across the interface between the sample flow and the sieving matrix into the sieving material filled separation channel by the applied electric field. The injected sample plug length is in proportion with the loading time. Once the vacuum in SW reservoir was released to activate electrophoretic separation, flows from S and B to SW were immediately terminated by the back flow induced by the difference of the liquid levels in the reservoirs to prevent sample leakage during the separation stage. The sample consumption was about 1.7 x 10(2) nL at a loading time of 1 s for each cycle. Only 0.024 s was required to transport bias-free analyte to the injection point. It is easy to freely choose the sample plug volume in this method by simply changing the loading time and to inject high quality sample plug with non-distorted shape into the separation channel. The system has been proved to possess an exciting potential for improving throughput, repeatability, sensitivity and separation performance of

  2. Gender Differences among Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematic and Ground Reaction Force Characteristics during a Rapid Sprint and Cut Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James

    2004-01-01

    Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…

  3. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR project Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) and Brigham Young University (BYU) propose to design, implement, and test an Autonomous Coordinated...

  4. Rapid Development of Hybrid Courses for Distance Education: A Midwestern University's Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive case study was used to explore how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality distance education courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member…

  5. Performance Contracts -- Success or Failure. Contract Learning Projects, Grand Rapids Public Schools, 1970-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan M.

    This report evaluates the Grand Rapids Public School (GRPS) experience with performance contracting. The report describes the first two years of the GRPS performance contracting experience, assesses the accomplishments of those two years, and describes the third year (1972-73) program. The author concludes that the contracts were successful and…

  6. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-01-15

    Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation-deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these data provide

  7. Will Precision Airdrop Capability Provide the Joint Force Commander with the Rapid Response Required for Tomorrow's Humanitarian Relief Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witham, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    .... Precision direct delivery promises to slash in-transit time, minimize hub and spoke shuttle operations, reduce handling costs and save lives early in a relief operation before larger forces can arrive on scene...

  8. The U.S. Airborne Forcible Entry Capability Is Rapidly Becoming Obsolete (We Must Modernize Our Airborne Forces)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazmierski, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... must commit to a modernization effort that will give it a worldwide deployable airborne force that can deal with these future threats and is not dependent on seizing and securing operational airfields...

  9. Israeli Air Force Projects Management: Acquiring Weapon System from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    type of organization of the project management office can differ from service to ser- vice and/or from project to project. Appendix C contains 19 a...candidate approaches is done by the service through the project management office . Each approach Is analyzed, evaluated and optimized in order to present...performed during this phase are as follows: a. The service through the project management office must re-evaluate and update the threat and need

  10. Express Payload Project - A new method for rapid access to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, Mark L.; Timm, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    The deployment and permanent operation of Space Station Freedom will enable researchers to enter a new era in the 21st century, in which continuous on-orbit experimentation and observation become routine. In support of this objective, the Space Station Freedom Program Office has initiated the Express Payload Project. The fundamental project goal is to reduce the marginal cost associated with small payload development, integration, and operation. This is to be accomplished by developing small payload accommodations hardware and a new streamlined small payload integration process. Standardization of small payload interfaces, certification of small payload containers, and increased payload developer responsibility for mission success are key aspects of the Express Payload Project. As the project progresses, the principles will be applied to both pressurized payloads flown inside the station laboratories and unpressurized payloads attached to the station external structures. The increased access to space afforded by Space Station Freedom and the Express Payload Project has the potential to significantly expand the scope, magnitude, and success of future research in the microgravity environment.

  11. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  12. Internal combustion engine for producing a direct driving force by generating centrifugal force pulse in rapid succession. Verbrennungsmotor zur Erzeugung einer direkten Antriebskraft durch Erzeugung von schnell aufeinanderfolgenden Zentrifugalkraftimpulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.

    1991-04-25

    This is an internal combustion engine to produce a direct driving force by generating centrifugal force pulses in rapid succession with short centrifugal force pulse drive. Conventional vehicles require an internal combustion engine as the drive with subsequent transmission elements such as gearboxes, drive shafts, ships' screws, propellers etc. The effectiveness of these drive mechanisms is reduced by the liability of failure of the expensive technology, dependency on the weather and frictional and flow losses. These disadvantages are avoided by this invention by a driving force generated directly in the engine housing (1). In this, a piston (2) is caused to oscillate by combustion pressure in the housing with a semi-circular guide duct, where centrifugal force pulses (Fz) occur in the direction of the central axis. The fresh or exhaust gases are controlled via slots (3) in the guide duct, where the exhaust gas turbo-supercharger (6) produces a permament air flow. The fresh gases are formed by injecting fuel into the compression duct (4) of the turbo-ignition. The engine is started by a starting compressor with a starting carburettor and starting valves (8) controlled by a linkage (9). The engine can be used in land-, water- and air-vehicles and out in space.

  13. The Effects of Meteorological Forcings on Hydrologic Model Calibration and Implications for Statistical Downscaling of Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire Elsner, M.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.; Brekke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Spatially distributed historical meteorological forcings (temperature and precipitation) are commonly used as the basis for statistical downscaling (in time and space) of general circulation model (GCM) projections. A number of such forcing datasets, gridded from station observations, have been developed over the Western U.S. and they all use different methodologies with respect to filtering stations and accounting for temporal inhomogeneities. We compare four historical meteorological datasets at 1/8th degree spatial resolution over a common historical time period (1980-1999) using basic statistical comparisons to better understand their spatial differences. We then employ the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model (VIC), which has been implemented in numerous studies to evaluate the impacts of climate variability and change on water resources, to explore the sensitivity of hydrologic model response to these forcing datasets. Specifically, we calibrate the VIC model, by means of the automated multiple objective complex evolution method, to reconstructed natural streamflows using each of the four different datasets and compare calibration parameters and water balance variables (eg. streamflow, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent). We test the sensitivities of the calibrated models by forcing each one with the remaining three datasets. Because multiple sources of downscaled climate change scenarios are currently available for various parts of the Western US from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) Phase 3 (and many of them use different historical meteorological forcing datasets as their basis) and scenarios from the next CMIP phase (Phase 5) are becoming available, we explore the implications of our findings for statistical downscaling of GCM projections.

  14. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  15. Effects of dopamine replacement therapy on lower extremity kinetics and kinematics during a rapid force production task in persons with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K Bo; Singer, Madeline L; Addison, Odessa; Marcus, Robin L; LaStayo, Paul C; Dibble, Leland E

    2014-01-01

    Postural instability appears to be a dopamine resistance motor deficit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD); however, little is known about the effects of dopamine replacement on the relative biomechanical contributions of individual lower extremity joints during postural control tasks. To gain insight, we examined persons with PD using both clinical and laboratory measures. For a clinical measure of motor severity we utilized the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection during both OFF and ON medication conditions. For the laboratory measure we utilized data gathered during a rapid lower extremity force production task. Kinematic and kinetic variables at the hip, knee, and ankle were gathered during a counter movement jump during both OFF and ON medication conditions. Sixteen persons with PD with a median Hoehn and Yahr severity of 2.5 completed the study. Medication resulted in significant improvements of angular displacement for the hip, knee, and ankle. Furthermore, significant improvements were revealed only at the hip for peak net moments and average angular velocity compared to the OFF medication condition. These results suggest that dopamine replacement medication result in decreased clinical motor disease severity and have a greater influence on kinetics and kinematics proximally. This proximally focused improvement may be due to active recruitment of muscle force and reductions in passive restraint during lower extremity rapid force production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Projects : Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Project (EDRR) "Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District"...

  17. Six-Axis Force-Torque Transducer for Mars 2018 Mission Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A transducer element that is hearty enough for a Mars lander mission needs to be developed so that a six-axis force and torque transducer is possible. The technical...

  18. The California Hotspots Project: identifying regions of rapid diversification of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward Byrd; Koo, Michelle S; Conroy, Chris; Patton, James L; Moritz, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of anthropogenic impact on natural systems mandates protection of the evolutionary processes that generate and sustain biological diversity. Environmental drivers of diversification include spatial heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic agents of divergent selection, features that suppress gene flow, and climatic or geological processes that open new niche space. To explore how well such proxies perform as surrogates for conservation planning, we need first to map areas with rapid diversification -'evolutionary hotspots'. Here we combine estimates of range size and divergence time to map spatial patterns of neo-endemism for mammals of California, a global biodiversity hotspot. Neo-endemism is explored at two scales: (i) endemic species, weighted by the inverse of range size and mtDNA sequence divergence from sisters; and (ii) as a surrogate for spatial patterns of phenotypic divergence, endemic subspecies, again using inverse-weighting of range size. The species-level analysis revealed foci of narrowly endemic, young taxa in the central Sierra Nevada, northern and central coast, and Tehachapi and Peninsular Ranges. The subspecies endemism-richness analysis supported the last four areas as hotspots for diversification, but also highlighted additional coastal areas (Monterey to north of San Francisco Bay) and the Inyo Valley to the east. We suggest these hotspots reflect the major processes shaping mammal neo-endemism: steep environmental gradients, biotic admixture areas, and areas with recent geological/climate change. Anthropogenic changes to both environment and land use will have direct impacts on regions of rapid divergence. However, despite widespread changes to land cover in California, the majority of the hotspots identified here occur in areas with relatively intact ecological landscapes. The geographical scope of conserving evolutionary process is beyond the scale of any single agency or nongovernmental organization. Choosing which land to

  19. Rapid Adiabatic Preparation of Injective Projected Entangled Pair States and Gibbs States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yimin; Molnár, András; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for many-body state preparation. It is especially suited for injective projected entangled pair states and thermal states of local commuting Hamiltonians on a lattice. We show that for a uniform gap and sufficiently smooth paths, an adiabatic runtime and circuit depth of O (polylog N ) can be achieved for O (N ) spins. This is an almost exponential improvement over previous bounds. The total number of elementary gates scales as O (N p o l y l o g N ) . This is also faster than the best known upper bound of O (N2) on the mixing times of Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms for sampling classical systems in thermal equilibrium.

  20. Rapid Fabrication of Hydrogel Microstructures Using UV-Induced Projection Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of hydrogel microstructures has attracted considerable attention. A large number of applications, such as fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds, delivering drugs to diseased tissue, and constructing extracellular matrix for studying cell behaviors, have been introduced. In this article, an ultraviolet (UV-curing method based on a digital micromirror device (DMD for fabricating poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA hydrogel microstructures was presented. By controlling UV projection in real-time using a DMD as digital dynamic mask instead of a physical mask, polymerization of the pre-polymer solution could be controlled to create custom-designed hydrogel microstructures. Arbitrary microstructures could also be fabricated within several seconds (<5 s using a single-exposure, providing a much higher efficiency than existing methods, while also offering a high degree of flexibility and repeatability. Moreover, different cell chains, which can be used for straightforwardly and effectively studying the cell interaction, were formed by fabricated PEGDA microstructures.

  1. Rapid diversification of sexual signals in Hawaiian Nesosydne planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): The relative role of neutral and selective forces

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, KR; Kelley, JP; Welter, SC; Roderick, GK; Elias, DO

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Changes in sexual signals have the potential to promote rapid divergence and reproductive isolation among populations of animals. Thus, identifying processes contributing to variation in signals is key to understanding the drivers of speciation. However, it is difficult to identify the processes initiating changes in signals in empirical systems because (1) the demographic history of populations under study is usually unclear, and (2) there is...

  2. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  3. Study of Cholesterol Repletion Effect on Nanomechanical Properties of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Via Rapid Broadband Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Ren, Juan; Liu, Yue; Huang, Huarong; Zheng, Xi; Zou, Qingze

    2017-03-01

    Abnormalities of blood cholesterol concentration are associated with increased risks for vascular disease, especially heart attacks and strokes. As one of the main lipid components of plasma membrane in all mammalian cells, cholesterol has a major impact on the mechanical properties of the membrane of endothelial cells. Although the effect of cholesterol depletion on cell mechanical properties has been studied, no results yet have been reported on quantitative investigation of cholesterol repletion effect. In this study, the cholesterol repletion effect on the nanomechanical properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EA.hy926) was studied using a control-based atomic force microscope (AFM) nanomechanical measurement protocol. The viscoelasticity of EA.hy926 cells were measured over a large frequency range (0.1-100 Hz) using both constant-rate excitation force with different loading rates and a broadband excitation force. The viscoelasticity oscillation of the cell membranes under the cholesterol effect was also monitored in real-time. The experiment results showed that under the effect of cholesterol repletion, both the Young's modulus and the complex modulus of EA.hy926 cell were increased over 30%, respectively, and moreover, the amplitudes of both the elasticity oscillation and the viscosity oscillation at a period of around 200 s were increased over 70%, respectively. Therefore, this work is among the first to investigate the mechanical properties, particularly, the broadband viscoelasticity variations of EA.hy926 cells under cholesterol repletion treatment. The results revealed that cholesterol repletion may reinforce the coupling of F-actin to plasma membrane by increasing actin stability, and the cholesterol might have modified the submembrane cytoskeletal organization of EA.hy926 cell by causing the involvement of the motor protein nonmuscle myosin II.

  4. Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup; Jacobsen, Jacob Ole; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of 8 days of immobilization during a Special Support and Reconnaissance mission (SSR) on muscle mass, contraction dynamics, maximum jump height/power, and body composition. METHODS: Unilateral maximal voluntary contraction, rate...... of force development, and maximal jump height were tested to assess muscle strength/power along with whole-body impedance analysis before and after SSR. RESULTS: Body weight, fat-free mass, and total body water decreased (4-5%) after SSR, along with impairments in maximal jump height (-8%) and knee...

  5. Impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy is associated with reduced rapid force generation and increased passive stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Kirk, Henrik; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    (mean age 34.3, range 18-57years) and fifteen healthy age-matched controls were biomechanically measured for passive and reflex-mediated stiffness of the ankle plantarflexors at rest, maximal voluntary plantarflexion and dorsiflexion effort (MVCpf,df) and rate of force development (RFDpf,df). Kinematic......, range of movement in the ankle joint and gait speed. Reflex-mediated stiffness was not correlated to any parameters of impaired gait. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired gait function in adults with CP is associated with reduced RFD and increased passive stiffness of ankle muscles. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings...

  6. Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, Ethan D.; Horton, Radley M.; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2018-01-01

    As a result of global increases in both temperature and specific humidity, heat stress is projected to intensify throughout the 21st century. Some of the regions most susceptible to dangerous heat and humidity combinations are also among the most densely populated. Consequently, there is the potential for widespread exposure to wet bulb temperatures that approach and in some cases exceed postulated theoretical limits of human tolerance by mid- to late-century. We project that by 2080 the relative frequency of present-day extreme wet bulb temperature events could rise by a factor of 100–250 (approximately double the frequency change projected for temperature alone) in the tropics and parts of the mid-latitudes, areas which are projected to contain approximately half the world’s population. In addition, population exposure to wet bulb temperatures that exceed recent deadly heat waves may increase by a factor of five to ten, with 150–750 million person-days of exposure to wet bulb temperatures above those seen in today’s most severe heat waves by 2070–2080. Under RCP 8.5, exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 °C—the theoretical limit for human tolerance—could exceed a million person-days per year by 2080. Limiting emissions to follow RCP 4.5 entirely eliminates exposure to that extreme threshold. Some of the most affected regions, especially Northeast India and coastal West Africa, currently have scarce cooling infrastructure, relatively low adaptive capacity, and rapidly growing populations. In the coming decades heat stress may prove to be one of the most widely experienced and directly dangerous aspects of climate change, posing a severe threat to human health, energy infrastructure, and outdoor activities ranging from agricultural production to military training.

  7. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  8. MODIA: Vol. 4. The Resource Utilization Model. A Project AIR FORCE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Margaret

    MODIA (Method of Designing Instructional Alternatives) was developed to help the Air Force manage resources for formal training by systematically and explicitly relating quantitative requirements for training resources to the details of course design and course operation during the planning stage. This report describes the Resource Utilization…

  9. Project SAFE: an Armed Forces cooperative initiative for the prevention and treatment of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, P J; Awalt, S J

    1986-01-01

    About one out of every eight persons residing in the State of Hawaii is either active duty military or a military family member. In the late 1970s, it became apparent that neither the military nor the state could meet a growing obligation to provide responsive protective services to abused and neglected children of military families. Inspired by a first-ever congressional appropriation for the development of military child abuse and neglect and spouse abuse programs, the Department of Defense funded a 3-year joint-Service family violence project. Operational since 1982, Project SAFE (Services Assisting Family Environments) consists of a family violence shelter, clinical outreach teams, and a prenatal prevention project. This paper chronicles the history of Project SAFE, provides retrospective commentary on planning and implementation, and identifies key evaluation questions yet to be answered.

  10. Lightweight Low Force Rotary Percussive Coring Tool for Planetary Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Alliance Spacesystems, LLC produced a rotary percussive drill designed for space use under a NASA-funded Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP) project ? the...

  11. Projection of the point of force application onto a palmar plane of the hand during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R A; Robertson, R N; VanSickle, D P; Boninger, M L; Shimada, S D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a method for projecting the pushrim point of force application (PFA) onto a palmar plane model of the hand. Repetitive wheelchair use often leads to hand and wrist pain or injury. The manner by which the hands grasp the pushrim and how the forces and moments applied to the pushrim are directed may contribute to the high incidence of pain and injury. The projections of the PFA onto the palmar surface model of the hand reside primarily within zone II. These results are in agreement with previous studies which have assumed the PFA to be coincident with one of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints. However, the results from three subjects show different PFA patterns within the palmar surface of the hand which can be related to each subject's propulsion pattern, and the PFA is not focused at a single MP joint. Projection of the world coordinates of the four hand marker system onto the palmar plane show the resolution to be within 3 mm, or one half the diameter of the passive reflective markers. The errors in the planar model assumption were greatest for the second and fifth MP markers. This was expected because as the hand grasp changes these markers do not remain coplanar. The results of this study indicate that new knowledge about how forces are applied by the hand onto the pushrim can be obtained using this method. This technical note provides insight into understanding the details within the kinetics of wheelchair propulsion and describes a technique for estimation of the PFA on the palmar surface of the hand. This technical note provides initial results from three different wheelchair users.

  12. A Special Force: Origin and Development of the Jedburgh Project in Support of Operation Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    Series. London: HMSO, 1957. Calmette, A. "Les equipes Jedburgh dans la bataille de France." Revue d’histoire de la deuxieme guerre mondiale , 61, January...Special Forces mission of unconventional, or partisan, warfare. Other special operations units in the Second World War, such as Merrill’s Marauders...8217irregular warfare.’ Second was the occu- pation of Western Europe by the Germans and the creation of an organized resistance within those countries

  13. Project AIR FORCE Modeling Capabilities for Support of Combat Operations in Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Brauner, Jim Chow, Paul Davis, John Drew, Sarah Evans, Michael Kennedy, Sherrill Lingel, Ron McGarvey, Pat Mills, and Chris Mouton for their support...Demands were calculated using START. For illustration purposes, we assume there are five potential land FSLs to choose from: Andersen Air Force Base (Guam...remember that TAB-VAM is not a game ; the analyst may not inspect the damage after each timestep and react to it. Rather the time-phasing of assets must

  14. Environmental Assessment for East Housing Area Solar Energy Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    for classrooms as indicated in the Air Force adopted technical manual on noise and vibration control (AFJMAN 1995). Construction activities at the...erection of the solar panels, installation of inverters and other equipment on small concrete pads, construction of the perimeter and interior access...corresponding interior noise level (e.g., within an occupied classroom ) would be 45 dBA (which can be considered comparable to NC-35, per Engineering Noise

  15. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean

    2001-04-01

    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  16. European MEDEA+ CRYSTAL project: DFM photomasks inputs for EDA workflow task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, Eric; Tissier, Michel; Au, David; Bonniol, Stéphane; Garcia, Patrick; Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Sadran, Dominique; Servin, Isabelle; Tabusse, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The cost of production of a photomask set has been soaring over the last few years, and now reaches 1 million to 2 million, almost 10% of the overall cost of a new project development. And new projects have seen their profitability lifetime reduced over time to 3 to 6 months. Any uncontrolled increase in cost or delay can make the difference between a profitable or non profitable project, and can even lead to the cancellation of the entire project. For the last few years, silicon manufacturability issues have been taken into account in the design process through a widespread use of Design For Manufacturing tools, but so far the impact of design on mask manufacturability has not been thoroughly studied. This article presents a novel Design For Mask Manufacturing approach, which defines a robust process encompassing design rules and constraints, validation procedures, exchange mechanisms between all actors in the flow (designers, mask shops, and foundry) in order to minimize the number and impact of mask design issues, to trace their root causes and severity, and automation of the handoff of design and administrative data to the mask shop. A demonstrator for the DFMM flow is being shown.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvement Projects, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado. Volume 2 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Buckley Chief Engineer thomas.slattery@bu ckley.af.mil 303.677.9902 Charles Nicely 460 CE Charles.nicely@bu ckley.af.mil 677.6819 303.677.6819 N/A...buc kley.af.mil 303.677.5917 303.677.6809 Charles Nicely 460 CE Charles.nicely@buck ley.af.mil 677.6819 303.677.6819 N/A Skip Oliver 460 CEC...Security Forces Kennel /Other Structure 300 (5AH2285) ADP 5 FY09 Petroleum Operations Building/Potential Hazardous Materials 302 (5AH2286) ADP 5 FY09

  18. The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane G.; Blobaum, Paul M.; Shipman, Jean P.; Markwell, Linda Garr; Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents. Methods: Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education. Results: Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created. Conclusion: An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates. PMID:19851492

  19. The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane G; Blobaum, Paul M; Shipman, Jean P; Markwell, Linda Garr; Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2009-10-01

    The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents. Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education. Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created. An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates.

  20. The U. S. Air Force Academy Solar Energy Research Project Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Director, Colonel Wallac L. lutir, also deserves special praise for his support and leadership throughout the project. The author is also very grateful...subsu lrfalce piping primari ly for aesthetic reasons. ( I re <t Id be( p i Ven t o f rost I m e pe~net rat i on depthI and so i I mo i -;t ur cond i- t

  1. Environmental Assessment, Geiger Spur Track Removal Spokane County Road Project #3091, Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    in an unimproved area well away from the proposed project area and within a designated conservation area. The community type, pinus ponderosa...conventions between the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico , and the former Soviet Union for the protection of migratory birds. Unless otherwise... Mexico , Russia, and Japan. EO 13186 provides broad guidelines on conservation responsibilities and requires the development of more detailed guidance in

  2. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    data gathering. The second driver to be considered is data security & privacy . Should the DoD require the hosting of FirstFuel’s servers behind a DoD...201262 Building Energy Asset Management (BEAM) 159 April, 2014 Limitation Three: Beam Executable, which using Matlab compiler runtime and BCVTB... differentiated by the connection types between BAS and BEAM Runtime software. For operation in the “Stand Alone” mode, the software doesn’t need to be

  3. Rapid, Sensitive, Enzyme-Immunodotting Assay for Detecting Cow Milk Adulteration in Sheep Milk: A Modern Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A.; Razquín, Pedro; Lampreave, Fermín; Alava, María A.; Calvo, Miguel

    1998-12-01

    Specificity, sensitivity, and experimental simplicity make the immunoenzymatic assay suitable for a variety of laboratories dedicated to diverse activities such as research, quality control in food analysis, or clinical biochemistry. In these assays, the antibody that specifically recognizes the antigen is covalently attached to an enzyme. Once the antigen-antibody immunocomplex is formed, the enzymatic reaction gives a colored product that allows the detection of the initial antigen. The aim of this work was the design of a new laboratory project appropriate for use in courses of biochemistry, immunochemistry, or analytical chemistry. The assay described here detects the presence of cow milk in milk of other species. The main application is the detection of cow milk in sheep milk and cheese. Specific proteins, immunoglobulins (IgG) of the fraudulent bovine milk, are specifically recognized and retained by antibodies immobilized on a membrane. The binding of a second antibody covalently attached to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) allows the development of a visible signal. Thus, students can rapidly detect milk adulterations using a specific, sensitive, and safe experimental approach. The experiment allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, resulting in a stimulating experience of solving a real problem during a 4-hour laboratory period.

  4. Contributions of different bias-correction methods and reference meteorological forcing data sets to uncertainty in projected temperature and precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Takikawa, Hiroki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Hanasaki, Naota; Nishimori, Motoki

    2017-08-01

    The use of different bias-correction methods and global retrospective meteorological forcing data sets as the reference climatology in the bias correction of general circulation model (GCM) daily data is a known source of uncertainty in projected climate extremes and their impacts. Despite their importance, limited attention has been given to these uncertainty sources. We compare 27 projected temperature and precipitation indices over 22 regions of the world (including the global land area) in the near (2021-2060) and distant future (2061-2100), calculated using four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), five GCMs, two bias-correction methods, and three reference forcing data sets. To widen the variety of forcing data sets, we developed a new forcing data set, S14FD, and incorporated it into this study. The results show that S14FD is more accurate than other forcing data sets in representing the observed temperature and precipitation extremes in recent decades (1961-2000 and 1979-2008). The use of different bias-correction methods and forcing data sets contributes more to the total uncertainty in the projected precipitation index values in both the near and distant future than the use of different GCMs and RCPs. However, GCM appears to be the most dominant uncertainty source for projected temperature index values in the near future, and RCP is the most dominant source in the distant future. Our findings encourage climate risk assessments, especially those related to precipitation extremes, to employ multiple bias-correction methods and forcing data sets in addition to using different GCMs and RCPs.

  5. No Sense in Dwelling on the Past?: The Fate of the US Air Force’s German Air Force Monograph Project, 1952-69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    and possi- bly the Iberian , Italian, and Jutland peninsulas. Following a strategic nuclear air campaign against the Soviet Union, Allied forces...closure of the Air Force Historical Division’s Karlsruhe office. 70. Wolfe , Captured Germans and Related Records, 86. 71. For a detailed treatment...Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on Captured German and Re- lated Records, November 12–13, 1968, edited by Robert Wolfe , 73–91. Athens, OH

  6. Development of an EMF Measurements Database, EMF Rapid Program, Project #5, Interim Report: April 1995-December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-04-01

    The EMF measurement data sets in existence today were compiled with varying goals and techniques. Consequently, they have different information content as well as varying logical and physical structure. Future studies will continue to pursue varying goals and utilize techniques that cannot be known in advance. Primary goals for the EMF Measurements Database developed under the Department of Energy EMF RAPID Program are to develop a database structure that can accommodate the diversity of EMF data sets, provide guidance for production of future EMF data sets, and serve as an accessible repository of EMF measurement data. Specific objectives of the EMF Measurements Database are: o to preserve study descriptions, results and data; o to provide readily accessible, well-documented data; and o to facilitate communication among researchers. In addition, the EMF Measurements Database will encourage additional analysis of existing data sets, facilitate analysis of data from multiple projects, support design of new studies, and permit future issues in EMF exposure assessment to be addressed with existing data. Preservation of study descriptions and data is accomplished with a formal, but open, structure. Specifications have been developed for the various elements of the database. Each data set in the database is formally described by a metadata file. The structured metadata file describes the origin, development, logical and physical structure and distribution mechanism for each data set. The metadata for each data set is generated according to a specification developed for the EMF Measurements Database. The actual measurement data is contained in data Products for each data set. The number and type of data product will vary by data set. Most of the data products in the possession of the EMF Measurements Database are available for download from an Internet site. For some data sets, the data products will be maintained by other parties who may have their own access procedures

  7. Acceptability and feasibility of universal offer of rapid point of care testing for HIV in an acute admissions unit: results of the RAPID project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UK guidance recommend all acute medical admissions be offered an HIV test. Our aim was to determine whether a dedicated staff member using a multimedia tool, a model found to be effective in the USA, is an acceptable, feasible, and cost-effective model when translated to a UK setting. DESIGN: Between 14(th Jan to 12(th May 2010, a Health advisor (HA approached 19-65 year olds at a central London acute medical admissions unit (AAU and offered a rapid HIV point of care test (POCT with the aid of an educational video. Patients with negative results had the option to watch a post-test video providing risk-reduction information. For reactive results the HA arranged a confirmatory test, and ensured linkage into HIV specialist care. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through surveys and uptake rates. Costs per case of HIV identified were established. RESULTS: Of the 606 eligible people admitted during the pilot period, 324 (53.5% could not be approached or testing was deemed inappropriate. In total 23.0% of eligible admissions had an HIV POCT. Of the patients who watched the video and had not recently tested for HIV, 93.6% (131/140 agreed to an HIV test; four further patients had an HIV test but did not watch the video. Three tests (2.2%, 3/135 were reactive and all were confirmed HIV positive on laboratory testing. 97.5% felt HIV testing in this setting was appropriate, and 90.1% liked receiving the information via video. The cost per patient of the intervention was £21. DISCUSSION: Universal POCT HIV testing in an acute medical setting, facilitated by an educational video and dedicated staff appears to be acceptable, feasible, effective, and low cost. These findings support the recommendation of HIV testing all admissions to AAU in high prevalence settings, although with the model used a significant proportion remained untested.

  8. Projected surface radiative forcing due to 2000--2050 land-cover land-use albedo change over the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher A.; Roy, David P.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-derived contemporary land-cover land-use (LCLU) and albedo data and modeled future LCLU are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 2000 to 2050 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 19 ecoregions in the eastern United States. The modeled 2000–2050 LCLU changes indicate a future decrease in both agriculture and forested land and an increase in developed land that induces ecoregion radiative forcings ranging from −0.175 to 0.432 W m−2 driven predominately by differences in the area and type of LCLU change. At the regional scale, these projected LCLU changes induce a net negative albedo decrease (−0.001) and a regional positive radiative forcing of 0.112 W m−2. This overall positive forcing (i.e., warming) is almost 4 times greater than that estimated for documented 1973–2000 LCLU albedo change published in a previous study using the same methods.

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Changes, Radiative Forcing and Attribution to Emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Young, P.J.; Naik, V.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Skeie, R. B.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Myhre, G.; Berntsen, T. K.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs). All models applied a common set of anthropogenic emissions, which are better constrained for the present-day than the past. Future anthropogenic emissions follow the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, which define a relatively narrow range of possible air pollution emissions. We calculate a value for the pre-industrial (1750) to present-day (2010) tropospheric ozone RF of 410 mW m-2. The model range of pre-industrial to present-day changes in O3 produces a spread (+/-1 standard deviation) in RFs of +/-17%. Three different radiation schemes were used - we find differences in RFs between schemes (for the same ozone fields) of +/-10 percent. Applying two different tropopause definitions gives differences in RFs of +/-3 percent. Given additional (unquantified) uncertainties associated with emissions, climate-chemistry interactions and land-use change, we estimate an overall uncertainty of +/-30 percent for the tropospheric ozone RF. Experiments carried out by a subset of six models attribute tropospheric ozone RF to increased emissions of methane (44+/-12 percent), nitrogen oxides (31 +/- 9 percent), carbon monoxide (15 +/- 3 percent) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (9 +/- 2 percent); earlier studies attributed more of the tropospheric ozone RF to methane and less to nitrogen oxides. Normalising RFs to changes in tropospheric column ozone, we find a global mean normalised RF of 42 mW m(-2) DU(-1), a value similar to previous work. Using normalised RFs and future tropospheric column ozone projections we calculate future tropospheric ozone RFs (mW m(-2); relative to 1750) for the four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) of 350, 420, 370 and 460 (in 2030), and 200, 300, 280 and 600 (in 2100). Models show some

  10. Tropospheric ozone changes, radiative forcing and attribution to emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Stevenson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs. All models applied a common set of anthropogenic emissions, which are better constrained for the present-day than the past. Future anthropogenic emissions follow the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios, which define a relatively narrow range of possible air pollution emissions. We calculate a value for the pre-industrial (1750 to present-day (2010 tropospheric ozone RF of 410 mW m−2. The model range of pre-industrial to present-day changes in O3 produces a spread (±1 standard deviation in RFs of ±17%. Three different radiation schemes were used – we find differences in RFs between schemes (for the same ozone fields of ±10%. Applying two different tropopause definitions gives differences in RFs of ±3%. Given additional (unquantified uncertainties associated with emissions, climate-chemistry interactions and land-use change, we estimate an overall uncertainty of ±30% for the tropospheric ozone RF. Experiments carried out by a subset of six models attribute tropospheric ozone RF to increased emissions of methane (44±12%, nitrogen oxides (31 ± 9%, carbon monoxide (15 ± 3% and non-methane volatile organic compounds (9 ± 2%; earlier studies attributed more of the tropospheric ozone RF to methane and less to nitrogen oxides. Normalising RFs to changes in tropospheric column ozone, we find a global mean normalised RF of 42 mW m−2 DU−1, a value similar to previous work. Using normalised RFs and future tropospheric column ozone projections we calculate future tropospheric ozone RFs (mW m−2; relative to 1750 for the four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 of 350, 420, 370 and 460 (in 2030, and 200, 300, 280 and 600 (in 2100. Models show some coherent responses of ozone to climate change

  11. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-08-24

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the GEWEX LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman-Monteith based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from forty-five globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overally statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM (0.68; 64 W m

  12. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-26

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman–Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed

  13. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  14. HIV rapid testing in the framework of an STI prevention project on a cohort of vulnerable Italians and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Ilaria; Petrelli, Alessio; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; De Carolis, Silvia; Fazioli, Cecilia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Rezza, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HIV rapid testing was provided for free and patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating KAP about HIV/STIs. All patients with risky sexual behaviours or with a recent diagnosis of STIs were invited to come back after 3-6 months and a post-counselling questionnaire was offered. Out of the total sample, 99.2% (n = 825) accepted the "rapid test" and 10 new HIV diagnoses were found (1.22%; 95% CI 0.58%-2.22%). Three hundred and eighty-five participants (47%) answered the entry questionnaire and 58 (15%) completed the follow-up. Overall, we found high knowledge about HIV/AIDS; however, lower educational level and immigrant status were associated with poor knowledge about HIV, other STIs and prevention methods. Immigrants have lower perception of sexual risk and higher prejudice than Italians. Our study showed high acceptance of rapid test in this specific vulnerable population and this allowed to identify new HIV diagnoses in unaware people. Socioeconomic inequalities observed in the KAP questionnaire suggest the need for actions to support the reduction of cultural differences in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and for policies aimed at improving access to health services and preventions programmes of marginalized populations.

  15. A symmetry-conserving description of odd nuclei with the Gogny force. Particle number and angular-momentum projection with self-consistent blocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrajo, M.; Egido, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    We present an approach for the calculation of odd nuclei with exact self-consistent blocking and particle number and angular-momentum projection with the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force. As an application we calculate the nucleus {sup 31}Mg at the border of the N = 20 inversion island. We evaluate the ground-state properties, the excited states and the transition probabilities. In general we obtain a good description of the measured observables. (orig.)

  16. High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps - results from the PROSA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ludwig; Dusik, Jana-Marie; Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Näher, Martin; Philipp, Rumohr; Philipp, Glira; Lucas, Vehling; Michael, Becht

    2016-04-01

    In June 2012, the PROSA-project was initiated with the goal to construct a sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal Valley, Ötztal Alps, Austria. A unique feature of the project being the dedicated usage of study-area wide multi-volume LiDAR survey data of relatively high density on a meso-scale catchment resulting in a data base of over 4 billion LiDAR measurement points. A high effort was undertaken to produce classified point data as a methodological backbone of the project. Both ALS and georeferenced TLS data as well as other remote sensing and mapping products were used in addition to extensive fieldwork as basis for a regionalization of monitoring-site based measurements to arrive at basin-wide sediment production rates and identification of sediment pathways. Results can now be presented for: Rock fall (plot-based measurement and subsequent model-based regionalization), debris flows (study area-wide direct measurement from LiDAR and analysis of historical orthophotos), rock glaciers (feature-tracking and direct differencing), hillslope channels (plot-based measurements and model-based regionalization) and avalanches (sample site measurement, mapping and extrapolation). Sediment budgets were subsequently constructed for different representative subsystems within the 62.5 km2 catchment. Although also glacier and main channel transport was looked into by the PROSA-project, the presentation will focus on the processes mentioned above.

  17. RUMBLE-2 Project : Rapid Environment Assessment of Sea Bottom Parameters Using an Operational Active Low-Frequency Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhel, B.; Cristol, X.; Chalindar, B.; Dybedal, J.; Eidem, E.J.; Ivansson, S.; Vossen,R. van; Ainslie, M.A.; Andersson, B.L.; Benders,F.P.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Olsen, G.K.; Pihl, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the European Defence Agency project called “RUMBLE 2” carried out with contribution of several European organizations: TUS in France, TNO in the Netherlands, KDS and FFI in Norway, FOI in Sweden. The objective was to assess the capability of an operational Low Frequency Active

  18. FloodAlp! Frequency and climatic forcing of Holocene floods in the Central Alps - a project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Glur, Lukas; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2014-05-01

    For a better assessment of the future Alpine flood hazard in the face of climate warming, an improvement of our understanding of the occurrence of floods in the past is important. The goal of the FloodAlp! project is thus to reconstruct the Holocene flood history of the Central Alps and to investigate the controlling climatic forcing, in particular regarding the flood occurrence during warmer and cooler climatic periods. 15 lake-sediment records served as flood archives, providing an Alpine transect from northeastern Switzerland to northern Italy covering a wide range in altitude (197 to 2065 m asl). The established flood catalog comprises over 4500 flood deposits, which are composed of terrestrial material mobilized by high fluvial runoff in the catchment areas. As the most important result, we found that during the past 10 kyrs the occurrence of Alpine floods was enhanced during cool climatic periods. Evidence is given by comparing our paleoflood record to independent reconstructions of air temperature and solar activity. This relation is explained by the latitudinal position of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks, which generally shift southward during periods of low temperature/solar activity. In addition, we observe periods of enhanced flood occurrence in the Southern compared to the Northern Alps (most distinct from 4.2 to 2.4 kyr BP and during the Little Ice Age), suggesting a pronounced southward position of the storm tracks and/or blocking over the northern North Atlantic. Since such a setting resembles a negative NAO state, we interpret the South-Alpine flood frequency as a qualitative record of variations in a paleo-NAO pattern during the Holocene. This paleoclimatic evidence of a decreased Alpine flood frequency during warmer periods is most likely also applicable to warmer climatic conditions in the future. However, this result does not consider the intensity of the catalogued events. Studies addressing this issue are currently undertaken. Our

  19. Neuromuscular Control of Rapid Linear Accelerations in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    fish : Final Report Eric D. Tytell Department of Biology , Tufts University, eric.tytell@tufts.edu Abstract In this project, we measured muscle... important aspects of how rapid movements are controlled, but will have to be done using a negative stimulus such as a object accelerating toward the fish ...sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Animals with flexible bodies, like fishes , face a tradeoff for rapid movements. To produce high forces, they must

  20. Robust Load Cell Cell for Discrete Contact Force Measurements of Sampling Systems and/or Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop a simple, robust, extreme environment compatible, mechanical load cell to enable the control of contact forces for placement of...

  1. Mid-Twenty-First-Century Changes in Global Wave Energy Flux: Single-Model, Single-Forcing and Single-Scenario Ensemble Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Lemos, Gil; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna; Miranda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of ocean surface wave energy fluxes (or wave power) is of outmost relevance since wave power has a direct impact in coastal erosion, but also in sediment transport and beach nourishment, and ship, as well as in coastal and offshore infrastructures design. Changes in the global wave energy flux pattern can alter significantly the impact of waves in continental shelf and coastal areas. Up until recently the impact of climate change in future global wave climate had received very little attention. Some single model single scenario global wave climate projections, based on CMIP3 scenarios, were pursuit under the auspices of the COWCLIP (coordinated ocean wave climate projections) project, and received some attention in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) AR5 (fifth assessment report). In the present study the impact of a warmer climate in the near future global wave energy flux climate is investigated through a 4-member "coherent" ensemble of wave climate projections: single-model, single-forcing, and single-scenario. In this methodology model variability is reduced, leaving only room for the climate change signal. The four ensemble members were produced with the wave model WAM, forced with wind speed and ice coverage from EC-Earth projections, following the representative concentration pathway with a high emissions scenario 8.5 (RCP8.5). The ensemble present climate reference period (the control run) has been set for 1976 to 2005. The projected changes in the global wave energy flux climate are analyzed for the 2031-2060 period.

  2. [Management of violent behaviour and rapid tranquillisation during acute psychotic episode: discrepancy between routine practice and evidence. The SIEP-DIRECT'S Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Antonio; Morganti, Carla; Erlicher, Arcadio; Burti, Lorenzo; Buscaglia, Giacinto; Pegoraro, Marco; Davide, Jacchetti; Cristofalo, Doriana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Domenico, Semisa

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of acute psychiatric care concerning the management of violent behaviour and rapid tranquilization. Data concerning 13 indicators, drawn from NICE recommendations, were collected in 19 Departments of Mental Health, in the frame of the SIEP-DIRECT'S Project, to evaluate the implementation of NICE recommendations in Italian Mental Health Services. In about two thirds of Departments of Mental Health (DMHs) professionals were trained in the management of violent behaviour, while written procedures existed only in one fourth of DMHs. About a half of the professionals working in Psychiatric Wards in General Hospital were trained in rapid tranquilization, while procedures on this topic are practically absent and specific care for monitoring intensively the heavily sedated patient was not frequent. Management of violent behaviour and rapid tranquilization are two critical areas in the care performed by Psychiatric Wards in General Hospital. Training on these topics is more frequent than implementation of procedures. NICE recommendations and SIEP indicators are useful tools for improving the quality of acute psychiatric care.

  3. Projected changes in tropical cyclone climatology and landfall in the Southwest Indian Ocean region under enhanced anthropogenic forcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available of these systems over the southern African subcontinent. A concurrent increase in January to March rainfall is projected for northern Mozambique and southern Tanzania, with decreases projected further south over semi-arid areas such as the Limpopo River Basin where...

  4. The MODIS Land Rapid Response Project: A Comprehensive Suite of Products to Support U.S.D.A. Forest Service Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloitres, J.; Giglio, L.; Sohlberg, R.; Owens, J.; Justice, C.; Townshend, J.; Seaton, J.; Crisologo, M.; Carroll, M.; Finco, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra satellite offers exceptional capabilities of observation for terrestrial surfaces. MODIS is viewing almost the entire Earth's surface every day, with a spatial resolution ranging from 1km to 250m, and covering a wide spectral range of observation, from visible to thermal infrared. The unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, 250m spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics makes MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, volcanic eruptions. A new processing system has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and quasi-true-color 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data of most of the Earth's land surface is processed within a few hours of data acquisition. A basic atmospheric correction is performed operationally to provide true-color imagery. An operational detection process retrieves the location of active fires. The perimeter of the fires are overlaid on true-color imagery and posted on a web site. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the USDA Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to the fire managers. Active fire locations detected by MODIS in the conterminous United States are communicated to the USDA Forest Service within a few minutes of production. These active fire locations are used to generate cumulative fire maps, updated daily and made available to the fire managers. Active fire locations are also distributed through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets using GIS technology, as a contribution to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) project. Burn severity maps derived from MODIS data are also being developed and will be made available within a

  5. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  6. Rapid annotation of anonymous sequences from genome projects using semantic similarities and a weighting scheme in gene ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fontana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale sequencing projects have now become routine lab practice and this has led to the development of a new generation of tools involving function prediction methods, bringing the latter back to the fore. The advent of Gene Ontology, with its structured vocabulary and paradigm, has provided computational biologists with an appropriate means for this task. METHODOLOGY: We present here a novel method called ARGOT (Annotation Retrieval of Gene Ontology Terms that is able to process quickly thousands of sequences for functional inference. The tool exploits for the first time an integrated approach which combines clustering of GO terms, based on their semantic similarities, with a weighting scheme which assesses retrieved hits sharing a certain number of biological features with the sequence to be annotated. These hits may be obtained by different methods and in this work we have based ARGOT processing on BLAST results. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive benchmark involved 10,000 protein sequences, the complete S. cerevisiae genome and a small subset of proteins for purposes of comparison with other available tools. The algorithm was proven to outperform existing methods and to be suitable for function prediction of single proteins due to its high degree of sensitivity, specificity and coverage.

  7. Mechanotransduction: use the force(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paluch, Ewa K; Nelson, Celeste M; Biais, Nicolas; Fabry, Ben; Moeller, Jens; Pruitt, Beth L; Wollnik, Carina; Kudryasheva, Galina; Rehfeldt, Florian; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena...

  8. Snpdat: Easy and rapid annotation of results from de novo snp discovery projects for model and non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Anthony G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant genetic variant found in vertebrates and invertebrates. SNP discovery has become a highly automated, robust and relatively inexpensive process allowing the identification of many thousands of mutations for model and non-model organisms. Annotating large numbers of SNPs can be a difficult and complex process. Many tools available are optimised for use with organisms densely sampled for SNPs, such as humans. There are currently few tools available that are species non-specific or support non-model organism data. Results Here we present SNPdat, a high throughput analysis tool that can provide a comprehensive annotation of both novel and known SNPs for any organism with a draft sequence and annotation. Using a dataset of 4,566 SNPs identified in cattle using high-throughput DNA sequencing we demonstrate the annotations performed and the statistics that can be generated by SNPdat. Conclusions SNPdat provides users with a simple tool for annotation of genomes that are either not supported by other tools or have a small number of annotated SNPs available. SNPdat can also be used to analyse datasets from organisms which are densely sampled for SNPs. As a command line tool it can easily be incorporated into existing SNP discovery pipelines and fills a niche for analyses involving non-model organisms that are not supported by many available SNP annotation tools. SNPdat will be of great interest to scientists involved in SNP discovery and analysis projects, particularly those with limited bioinformatics experience.

  9. Application of Rapid Prototyping to the Investment Casting of Test Hardware (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 98-08)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. G.; Wells, D.

    2000-01-01

    Investment casting masters of a selected propulsion hardware component, a fuel pump housing, were rapid prototyped on the several processes in-house, along with the new Z-Corp process acquired through this project. Also, tensile samples were prototyped and cast using the same significant parameters. The models were then shelled in-house using a commercial grade zircon-based slurry and stucco technique. Next, the shelled models were fired and cast by our in-house foundry contractor (IITRI), with NASA-23, a commonly used test hardware metal. The cast models are compared by their surface finish and overall appearance (i.e., the occurrence of pitting, warping, etc.), as well as dimensional accuracy.

  10. Shaping an Air Force: A Chief’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    integration where the cursor is over the target, and we are indifferent to how we got there.”12 Indeed, General Jumper‟s Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ...concept highlights his ideas on future air operations. GSTF is “a rapid-reaction, leading-edge, power-projection concept that will deliver massive

  11. Spline-based modelling of trends in the force of HIV infection, with application to the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Objective We previously developed a flexible specification of the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) that relied on splines to generate time-varying values for the force of infection parameter. Here, we test the feasibility of this approach for concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics with very sparse data and compare two methods for making short-term future projections with the spline-based model. Methods Penalised B-splines are used to model the average infection risk over time within the EPP 2011 modelling framework, which includes antiretroviral treatment effects and CD4 cell count progression, and is fit to sentinel surveillance prevalence data with a Bayesian algorithm. We compare two approaches for future projections: (1) an informative prior related to equilibrium prevalence and (2) a random walk formulation. Results The spline-based model produced plausible fits across a range of epidemics, which included 87 subpopulations from 14 countries with concentrated epidemics and 75 subpopulations from 33 countries with generalised epidemics. The equilibrium prior and random walk approaches to future projections yielded similar prevalence estimates, and both performed well in tests of out-of-sample predictive validity for prevalence. In contrast, in some cases the two approaches varied substantially in estimates of incidence, with the random walk formulation avoiding extreme changes in incidence. Conclusions A spline-based approach to allowing the force of infection parameter to vary over time within EPP 2011 is robust across a diverse array of epidemics, including concentrated ones with limited surveillance data. Future work on the EPP model should consider the impact that different modelling approaches have on estimates of HIV incidence. PMID:23172346

  12. The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects: Power Projection through Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    in the field. This article explains how the JFACC can best understand, integrate, and command and control (C2) offensive cyber operations into a war...article further explains the importance of forces, guidance, and liaisons to show how offensive cyberspace operations can be integrated into the rest...this problem, but the director is possibly only a small part of the solution. The true problem is larger than missing a “single face” for all things

  13. West African Monsoon Decadal Variability and Surface-Related Forcings: Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William K-M; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wang, Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedbacks of sea surface temperature (SST), land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The WAMME II strategy is to apply prescribed observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., idealized but realistic forcing, in simulations by climate models to test the relative impacts of such forcings in producingamplifying the Sahelian seasonal and decadal climate variability, including the great 20th century drought. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate relative contributions of multiple external forcings to the Sahel decadal precipitation anomalies between the 1980s and the 1950s that is used to characterize the Sahel 1980s drought in this study. The WAMME II models have consistently demonstrated that SST is the major contributor to the 20th century Sahel drought. Under the influence of the maximum possible SST forcing, WAMME II model ensemble mean can produce up to 60 of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. The present paper also delineated the role of SSTs in triggering and maintaining the Sahel drought. The impact of SSTs in individual oceans is also examined and consensus and discrepancies are reported. Among the different ocean basins, the WAMME II models show the consensus that the Indian Ocean SST has the largest impact on the precipitation temporal evolution associated with the ITCZ movement before the WAM onset while the Pacific Ocean SST greatly contributes to the summer WAM drought. This paper also compares the SST effect with the LULCC effect. Results show that with prescribed land forcing the WAMME II model ensemble mean produces about 40 of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s, which is less than the SST contribution but still of first order

  14. Methods of a multi-faceted rapid knowledge synthesis project to inform the implementation of a new health service model: Collaborative Emergency Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jill A; Killian, Lara; Zygmunt, Austin; Babineau, Jessica; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Jensen, Jan L; Carter, Alix J

    2015-01-14

    The aim of this rapid knowledge synthesis was to provide relevant research evidence to inform the implementation of a new health service in Nova Scotia, Canada: Collaborative Emergency Centres (CECs). CECs propose to deliver both primary and urgent care to rural populations where traditional delivery is a challenge. This paper reports on the methods used in a rapid knowledge synthesis project to provide timely evidence to policy makers about this novel healthcare delivery model. We used a variety of methods, including a jurisdictional/scoping review, modified systematic review methodologies, and integrated knowledge translation. We scanned publicly available information about similar centres across our country to identify important components of CECs and CEC-type models to operationalize the definition of a CEC. We conducted literature searches in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE, and in the grey literature, to identify evidence on the key structures and processes and effectiveness of CEC-type models of care delivery. Our searches were limited to published systematic reviews. The research team facilitated two integrated knowledge translation workshops during the project to engage stakeholders, to refine the research goals and objectives, and to share interim and final results. Citations and included articles were categorized by whether they addressed the CEC model or component structures and processes. Data and key messages were extracted from these reviews to inform implementation. CEC-type models have limited peer-reviewed evidence available; no peer-reviewed studies on CECs as a standalone healthcare model were found. As a result, our evidence search and synthesis was revised to focus on core CEC-type structures and processes, prioritized through consensus methods with the stakeholder group, and resulted in provision of a meaningful evidence synthesis to help inform the development and implementation of CECs in Nova Scotia. A variety of methods and partnership with

  15. US Highway 395 Widen Median and Shoulder and Install Rumble Strips Project Environmental Assessment, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    recovery is that desert tortoises are long-lived, require up to 20 years to reach sexual maturity, and have low reproductive rates during a long period...approximately 6.9 miles. The total construction and right of way cost of Build Alternative (Alternative 1) is estimated at approximately $40,657,000...Existing Edge of Pavement Existing Right of Way Proposed EAFB Easement Proposed Right of Way Cut or Fill Pavement Striping Based On Project New

  16. West African monsoon decadal variability and surface-related forcings: second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongkang; de Sales, Fernando; Lau, Willliam; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, C. R.; Wang , Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; Li, Suosuo; Druyan, Leonard M.; Sanda, Ibrah S.; Thiaw, Wassila; Zeng, Ning; Comer, Ruth E.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Mahanama, Sarith; Song, Guoqiong; Gu, Yu; Hagos, Samson M.; Chin, Mian; Schubert, Siefried; Dirmeyer, Paul; Leung, Lai-Yung; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kitoh, Akio; Lu, Cheng-Hsuan; Mahowald, N. M.; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.

    2016-06-13

    The Sahel climate system had experienced one of the strongest interdecadal climate variabilities and the longest drought on the planet in the twentieth century. Most modeling studies on the decadal variability of the Sahel climate so far have focused on the role of anomalies in either sea surface temperature (SST), land surface processes, or aerosols concentration. The Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedback of SST, land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The WAMME II strategy is to apply observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., “idealized but realistic” forcing, in simulations by general circulation models’ (GCMs) and regional climate models’ (RCMs) to test the relative impacts of such forcings in producing/amplifying the Sahelian seasonal and decadal climate variability, including the 20th century drought. To test individual ocean’s SST effect, a special approach in the experimental design is taken to avoid undermine its effect. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate relative contributions of multiple-external forcings to the Sahel drought. This paper presents the major results and preliminary findings of the WAMME II SST experiment, including each ocean’s contribution to the global SST effect, as well as comparison of the SST effect with the LULCC effect. The common empirical orthogonal functions and other analyses are applied to assess and comprehend the discrepancies among the models. In general, the WAMME II models have reached a consensus on SST’s major contribution to the great Sahel drought and show that with the maximum possible SST forcing, it can produce up to 60% of the absolute amount of precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. This paper has 3 also delineated the role of SSTs in

  17. Effects of physical forcing on COastal ZOoplankton community structure: study of the unusual case of a MEDiterranean ecosystem under strong tidal influence (Project COZOMED-MERMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Groupe COZOMED: R. Arfi (1), A. Atoui (2), H. Ayadi (6), B. Bejaoui (1), N. Bhairy (1), N. Barraj (2), M. Belhassen (2), S. Benismail (2), M.Y Benkacem (2), J. Blanchot (1), M. Cankovic(5), F. Carlotti (1), C. Chevalier (1), I Ciglenecki-Jusic (5), D. Couet (1), N. Daly Yahia (3), L. Dammak (2), J.-L. Devenon (1), Z. Drira (6), A. Hamza (2), S. Kmia (6), N. Makhlouf (3), M. Mahfoudi (2), M. Moncef (4), M. Pagano (1), C. Sammari (2), H. Smeti (2), A. Zouari (2) The COZOMED-MERMEX project aims at understanding how hydrodynamic forcing (currents, tides, winds) combine with anthropogenic forcing and climate to affect the variability of coastal Mediterranean zooplankton communities under contrasting tidal influence. This study includes (i) a zero state of knowledge via a literature review of existing data and (ii) a case study on the system Boughrara lagoon - Gulf of Gabes. This ecosystem gives major services for Tunisia (about 65% of national fish production) but is weakened by its situation in a heavily anthropized area and under influence of urban, industrial and agricultural inputs. Besides this region is subject to specific climate forcing (Sahelian winds, scorching heat, intense evaporation, flooding) which possible changes will be considered. The expected issues are (i) to improve our knowledge of hydrodynamic forcing on zooplankton and ultimately on the functioning of coastal Mediterranean ecosystems impacted by anthropogenic and climatic effects and (ii) to elaborate management tools to help preserving good ecological status of these ecosystems: hydrodynamic circulation model, mapping of isochrones of residence times, mapping of the areas of highest zooplankton abundances (swarms), and sensitive areas, etc. This project strengthens existing scientific collaborations within the MERMEX program (The MerMex Group, 2011) and in the frame of an international joint laboratory (COSYS-Med) created in 2014. A first field mulidisciplinary campaign was performed in October

  18. Using SAR and GPS for Hazard Management and Response: Progress and Examples from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S. H.; Agram, P. S.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Milillo, G.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Polet, J.; Cruz, J.

    2014-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech project to automate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. We have built a prototype SAR and GPS data system that forms the foundation for hazard monitoring and response capability, as well as providing imaging capabilities important for science studies. Together, InSAR and GPS have the ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution. For earthquakes, this deformation provides information that is complementary to seismic data on location, geometry and magnitude of earthquakes. Accurate location information is critical for understanding the regions affected by damaging shaking. Regular surface deformation measurements from SAR and GPS are useful for monitoring changes related to many processes that are important for hazard and resource management such as volcanic deformation, groundwater withdrawal, and landsliding. Observations of SAR coherence change have a demonstrated use for damage assessment for hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. These damage assessment maps can be made from imagery taken day or night and are not affected by clouds, making them valuable complements to optical imagery. The coherence change caused by the damage from hazards (building collapse, flooding, ash fall) is also detectable with intelligent algorithms, allowing for rapid generation of damage assessment maps over large areas at fine resolution, down to the spatial scale of single family homes. We will present the progress and results we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed constellation of X-band SAR satellites. Since the beginning of our project with ASI, our team has imaged deformation and coherence change caused by many natural hazard events around the world. We will present progress on our

  19. Quality issues with malaria rapid diagnostic test accessories and buffer packaging: findings from a 5-country private sector project in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steven A; Incardona, Sandra; Martin, Nina; Lussiana, Cristina; Streat, Elizabeth; Dolan, Stephanie; Champouillon, Nora; Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Mugerwa, Robert; Nakanwagi, Grace; Njoki, Nancy; Rova, Ratsimandisa; Cunningham, Jane

    2017-04-20

    Use of antigen-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has increased exponentially over the last decade. WHO's Global Malaria Programme, FIND, and other collaborators have established a quality assurance scheme to guide product selection, lot verification, transport, storage, and training procedures. Recent concerns over the quality of buffer packaging and test accessories suggest a need to include these items in product assessments. This paper describes quality problems with buffer and accessories encountered in a project promoting private sector RDT use in five African countries and suggests steps to avoid or more rapidly identify and resolve such problems. Private provider complaints about RDT buffer vials and kit accessories were collected during supervisory visits, and a standard assessment process was developed. Using 100 tests drawn from six different lots produced by two manufacturers, lab technicians visually assessed alcohol swab packaging, blood transfer device (BTD) usability, and buffer appearance, then calculated mean blood volume from 10 BTD transfers and mean buffer volume from 10 individual buffer vials. WHO guided complaint reporting and follow-up with manufacturers. Supervisory visits confirmed user reports of dry alcohol swabs, poorly functioning BTDs, and non-uniform volumes of buffer. Lot testing revealed further evidence of quality problems, leading one manufacturer to replace buffer vials and accessories for 40,000 RDTs. In December 2014, WHO issued an Information Notice for Users regarding variable buffer volumes in single-use vials and recommended against procurement of these products until defects were addressed. Though not necessarily comprehensive or generalizable, the findings presented here highlight the need for extending quality assessment to all malaria RDT test kit contents. Defects such as those described in this paper could reduce test accuracy and increase probability of invalid, false positive, or false negative

  20. Micro-Rapid Prototyping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this task is to create a maskless process for sample 500 µm 3-D objects. Specific objectives are to(1) Develop 3-D CAD computer models and...

  1. Guidelines for the selection of appropriate remote sensing technologies for landslide detection, monitoring and rapid mapping: the experience of the SafeLand European Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.; Malet, J.-P.; Kerle, N.; Tofani, V.; Segoni, S.; Casagli, N.; Michoud, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Fornaro, G.; Peduto, D.; Cascini, L.; Baron, I.; Supper, R.; Oppikofer, T.; L'Heureux, J.-S.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Hervás, J.; Moya, J.; Raucoules, D.; Carman, M.

    2012-04-01

    New earth observation satellites, innovative airborne platforms and sensors, high precision laser scanners, and enhanced ground-based geophysical investigation tools are a few examples of the increasing diversity of remote sensing technologies used in landslide analysis. The use of advanced sensors and analysis methods can help to significantly increase our understanding of potentially hazardous areas and helps to reduce associated risk. However, the choice of the optimal technology, analysis method and observation strategy requires careful considerations of the landslide process in the local and regional context, and the advantages and limitations of each technique. Guidelines for the selection of the most suitable remote sensing technologies according to different landslide types, displacement velocities, observational scales and risk management strategies have been proposed. The guidelines are meant to aid operational decision making, and include information such as spatial resolution and coverage, data and processing costs, and maturity of the method. The guidelines target scientists and end-users in charge of risk management, from the detection to the monitoring and the rapid mapping of landslides. They are illustrated by recent innovative methodologies developed for the creation and updating of landslide inventory maps, for the construction of landslide deformation maps and for the quantification of hazard. The guidelines were compiled with contributions from experts on landslide remote sensing from 13 European institutions coming from 8 different countries. This work is presented within the framework of the SafeLand project funded by the European Commission's FP7 Programme.

  2. Daylighting as the Driving Force of the Design Process: from the Results of a Survey to the Implementation into an Advanced Daylighting Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio R.M. Lo Verso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study for the transformation of an industrial area in Turin, Italy. The area hosts two buildings (one of which appointed as listed to be transformed into dwellings. A synergic approach was adopted which combined expertise from architecture, social-economics, psychology and building physics sciences. Building physics sciences lead the research team. A user-centered design was pursued, using a bottom-up approach. A specifically developed questionnaire was submitted on-line to potential users. The survey showed that ‘amount of daylight’, ‘size of rooms’, ‘tranquility of the area’ and ‘presence of a private garden’ were perceived by users to be the most positive aspects of both their present and future, ideal home. These results were then implemented into the project. The exploitation of daylight became the driving force of the transformation project. Especially for the listed building, skylights and light wells were designed to bring daylight into the cores of the buildings, which host common spaces such as libraries or study rooms. The amount of daylight was assessed through the legislative index of the average daylight factor and through a climate-based modeling approach, calculating dynamic metrics such as the spatial daylight autonomy and the Useful Daylight Illuminance. The paper critically compares and discusses these two approaches. Finally, the energy demand for lighting was also calculated to analyze how the increased exploitation of daylight may imply a reduced need for electricity for lighting.

  3. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996–2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5–3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2–3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan

  4. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D. T.; Bernsten, T.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5-3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period.We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan Plateau ice cores

  5. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  6. Deployment Threats to Rapid Deployment Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    sleep. However, don’t push milk and make sure that alternatives are available. A signifi- cant proportion of the troops are likely to be intolerant of...the lactose that milk contains and therefore be subject to G.I. distress if milk is consumed. Self-selection should be provided for and respected...their names, addresses, and phone numbers? b. Who has children ? What ages? Where do they go to school? c. Who works? d. What are the unit affiliations

  7. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project ... takes a look at the faces behind the disease - and the forces leading us to find a ...

  8. Wave Forces on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report on the wave forces is the first report on the Borkum Riff project. A testprogramme has been performed to dertermine the wave forces on windturbine foundations.......The present report on the wave forces is the first report on the Borkum Riff project. A testprogramme has been performed to dertermine the wave forces on windturbine foundations....

  9. Merging single-well and inter-well tracer tests into one forced-gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANG project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Horst; Ghergut, Julia; Bensabat, Jac; Niemi, Auli; Licha, Tobias; Ptak, Thomas; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Heletz site[1] in Israel was chosen for conducting a CO2 transport experiment within the MUSTANG project[2], whose aim is to demonstrate and validate leading-edge techniques for CCS site characterization, process monitoring and risk assessment. The major CO2 injection experiment at Heletz was supposed to be preceded and accompanied by a sequence of single-well 'push-then-pull' (SW) and inter-well (IW) tracer tests, aimed at characterizing transport properties of the storage formation, in accordance to a number of general and specific principles[3],[4]. - Instead of the rather luxurious {SW1, IW1, SW2, IW2} test sequence described in our previous work[5], we now propose a drastically economized tracer test concept, which lets the sampling stages of SW and IW tests merge into a single fluid production stage, and relies on a forced-gradient dipole flow field at any time of the overall test. Besides cost reduction, this economized design also improves on operational aspects, as well as on issues of parameter ambiguity and of scale disparity between SW and IW flow fields: (i) the new design renders SW test results more representative for the aquifer sector ('angle') actually interrogated by the IW dipole test; (ii) the new design saves time and costs on the SW test (fluid sampling for SW 'pull' now being conducted simultaneously with IW-related sampling and monitoring), while allowing for a considerably longer duration of SW 'pull' signals than had originally been intended, whose late-time tailings help improve the quantification of non-advective processes and parameters, which are of great relevance to mid- and long-term trapping mechanisms ('residual trapping', 'mineral trapping'); (iii) the quasi-simultaneous execution of fluid injection/production for the IW and SW tests considerably reduces the overall hydraulic imbalance that was originally associated with the SW test, thus preventing formation damage and supporting hydrogeomechanical stability; (iv) the new

  10. Title II Task Force Issues Reading and Media Selection Aid; ESEA Title II and the Right to Read Notable Reading Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The 21 reading projects described in this report range from a bilingual reading project for second-grade students to a secondary school reading project in career education. Objectives of some of the other projects described include: to motivate pupils to read for pleasure, to develop skill in reading and learn the use of reference materials in the…

  11. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing: Projections de population et de population active pour 27 pays européens 2002-052: impact de la migration internationale sur le vieillissement de la population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators are analysed. The results indicate that plausible immigration cannot offset the negative effects of population and labour force ageing.

  12. High Linkage to Care in a Community-Based Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling Project Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Cowan, Susan Alice; Graugaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of the Copenhagen MSM community provided sexually transmitted infection counseling and rapid HIV testing. In addition, syphilis testing and hepatitis B vaccination were offered. The clinic was staffed with specially trained, predominantly non-health care personnel, and services were anonymous and free of charge...... syphilis positive in rapid testing and referred for confirmatory testing. Furthermore, 264 MSM completed a 3-shot hepatitis B vaccination program. CONCLUSIONS: Easily accessible, community walk-in clinics and targeted testing in high-risk settings are convenient for populations of MSM less likely to seek...

  13. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    ), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  14. A Qualitative Force Structure Analysis of the Global Mobility Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Force GSTF Global Strike Task Force HLSTF Homeland Response Task Force HUMRO Humanitarian Relief Operation ISR Intelligence...Task Force (S&C4ISRTF) 3. Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ) 4. Global Response Task Force (GRTF) 5. Homeland Security Task Force (HLSTF) 6. Global...enable the “ GSTF and GRTF to deploy and employ rapidly anywhere in the world at any time” (DAF, 2002:16). Therefore, the GMTF has three key

  15. A streamlined collecting and preparation protocol for DNA barcoding of Lepidoptera as part of large-scale rapid biodiversity assessment projects, exemplified by the Indonesian Biodiversity Discovery and Information System (IndoBioSys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olga; Hausmann, Axel; Cancian de Araujo, Bruno; Sutrisno, Hari; Peggie, Djunijanti; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a general collecting and preparation protocol for DNA barcoding of Lepidoptera as part of large-scale rapid biodiversity assessment projects, and a comparison with alternative preserving and vouchering methods. About 98% of the sequenced specimens processed using the present collecting and preparation protocol yielded sequences with more than 500 base pairs. The study is based on the first outcomes of the Indonesian Biodiversity Discovery and Information System (IndoBioSys). IndoBioSys is a German-Indonesian research project that is conducted by the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and the Zoologische Staatssammlung München, in close cooperation with the Research Center for Biology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (RCB-LIPI, Bogor).

  16. ByOPHTEL: a Bavarian project for rapid telemedical exchange of knowledge, files and skills between practitioners and hospitals in eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, M

    1999-01-01

    ByOPHTEL, part of the Bavarian initiative Bayern Online, derived its name from the European project OPHTEL, to which it is closely linked and which, in Bavaria, is more or less worked out and performed by identical persons and institutions. It provides a group of 7 practitioners in and around the city of Munich with the possibility of exchanging general ophthalmologic knowledge as well as patient-related information with anyone in the group, or with the related ophthalmologic, internal, resp. scientific centers at the TU Munich and the GSF Neuherberg. Connections are routinely performed in the asynchronous or in the synchronous mode, and all partners participate in the scientific projects Knowledge Based Information System, Glaucoma Monitor, and Diabetic Retinopathy Monitor--as well as in the enhancement of a trustful patient-physician relationship ("second opinion") and a closer cooperation in out-patient and in-patient ophthalmical surgery and medical treatment.

  17. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  18. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men. The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  19. Community Development and Divergent Forces in Philippine State Universities and Colleges: Developing a Protocol in Evaluating Extension Projects Towards Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter S. Ontoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Divergent paradigms operate in State Universities and Colleges SUCs, which influence the performance of extension projects towards attainment of full empowerment as the ultimate goal implied by the universally-accepted definition of community development. In particular, a livelihood and environment project of Cebu Normal University (CNU implemented in Caputatan Norte, Medillin, Cebu, Philippines was assessed based on five (5 primary parameters and two (2 secondary parameters. A novel protocol using Delphi Method shows was developed and used for this particular study, which could be adapted in evaluating the performance of community extension projects. In this particular case, the performance of CNU livelihood and environment project falls between ―demonstration‖ and ―community organizing‖. The evaluation shows that there is still a need to reinforce activities to the ultimate goal. However, it is also implied that the secondary parameters are more robust indicators in assessing the outcomes of the project implementation towards full community empowerment.

  20. A population-based cross-sectional study of barriers to uptake of eye care services in South India: the Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Shekhar, Konegari; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2014-06-12

    To assess the barriers to uptake of eye care services among those with avoidable impairment in the population aged ≥40 years in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Cross-sectional study. Community setting. Of 7800 participants recruited from one urban and two rural locations using a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology, 7378 (95%) were examined. Eye examinations were conducted using a rapid assessment protocol. Visual impairment (VI) was defined as presenting visual acuity attitude and 'felt need' to improve vision, newer and much intensive awareness campaigns are needed to bring about an attitudinal/behavioural change among individuals to improve the uptake of services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...... for performing these projects. This paper compares best practices with practiced practices for virtual projects and discusses ways to bridge the gap between them. We have studied eleven virtual projects in five Danish organizations and compared them with a predefined list of best practices compiled from...... that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects...

  2. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  3. A USCLIVAR Project to Assess and Compare the Responses of Global Climate Models to Drought-Related SST Forcing Patterns: Overview and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Weaver, Scott; Gutzler, David; Dai, Aiguo; Delworth, Tom; Deser, Clara; Findell, Kristen; Fu, Rong; hide

    2009-01-01

    The USCLI VAR working group on drought recently initiated a series of global climate model simulations forced with idealized SST anomaly patterns, designed to address a number of uncertainties regarding the impact of SST forcing and the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks on regional drought. Specific questions that the runs are designed to address include: What are the mechanisms that maintain drought across the seasonal cycle and from one year to the next? What is the role of the leading patterns of SST variability, and what are the physical mechanisms linking the remote SST forcing to regional drought, including the role of land-atmosphere coupling? The runs were carried out with five different atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM5), and one coupled atmosphere-ocean model in which the model was continuously nudged to the imposed SST forcing. This paper provides an overview of the experiments and some initial results focusing on the responses to the leading patterns of annual mean SST variability consisting of a Pacific El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like pattern, a pattern that resembles the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), and a global trend pattern. One of the key findings is that all the AGCMs produce broadly similar (though different in detail) precipitation responses to the Pacific forcing pattern, with a cold Pacific leading to reduced precipitation and a warm Pacific leading to enhanced precipitation over most of the United States. While the response to the Atlantic pattern is less robust, there is general agreement among the models that the largest precipitation response over the U.S. tends to occur when the two oceans have anomalies of opposite sign. That is, a cold Pacific and warm Atlantic tend to produce the largest precipitation reductions, whereas a warm Pacific and cold Atlantic tend to produce the greatest precipitation enhancements. Further analysis of the response over the U.S. to the Pacific forcing highlights a number of

  4. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  5. Promoting innovation and excellence to face the rapid diffusion of novel psychoactive substances in the EU: the outcomes of the ReDNet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Assi, Sulaf; Simonato, Pierluigi; Corkery, John; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Stair, Jacqueline; Fergus, Suzanne; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Pasinetti, Manuela; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Davey, Zoe; Blaszko, Ursula; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Mervo, Barbara; Furia, Lucia Di; Farre, Maggi; Flesland, Liv; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Shapiro, Harry; Siemann, Holger; Skutle, Arvid; Sferrazza, Elias; Torrens, Marta; Sambola, F; van der Kreeft, Peer; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    The recent emergence of new psychoactive compounds (novel psychoactive substances (NPS)) has raised prominent challenges in the fields of drug policy, substance use research, public health and service provision. The Recreational Drugs European Network project, funded by the European Commission, was implemented to improve the information stream to young people and professionals about effects/risks of NPS by identifying online products and disseminating relevant information through technological tools. Regular multilingual qualitative assessments of websites, drugs fora and other online resources were carried out using the Google search engine in eight languages from collaborating countries. These included the following: the UK, Norway, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Italy and Spain. Products were tested and prevention messages were developed and disseminated via technological tools such as interactive websites, SMS alert, social networking (Facebook, Twitter), Multimedia (You Tube), Smartphone applications (iPhone) and virtual learning environments (Second Life). The Recreational Drugs European Network project established itself as the first Europe-wide prevention programme designed for NPS based on the efficacy of novel information and communication technology-based forms of intervention. More than 650 NPS products and combinations were identified; relevant information was disseminated to target population and advice was given to both European Union/international agencies and national policy makers. Web-monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPS and the use of technological tools can be successfully incorporated in specific prevention programmes. Furthermore, the involvement of multi-disciplinary international partnerships was and continues to be fundamental for responding to such a prominent challenge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  7. Future Supply of Pediatric Surgeons: Analytical Study of the Current and Projected Supply of Pediatric Surgeons in the Context of a Rapidly Changing Process for Specialty and Subspecialty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas C; Adamson, William T; Fraher, Erin P; Knapton, Andy; Geiger, James D; Abdullah, Fizan; Klein, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    To describe the future supply and demand for pediatric surgeons using a physician supply model to determine what the future supply of pediatric surgeons will be over the next decade and a half and to compare that projected supply with potential indicators of demand and the growth of other subspecialties. Anticipating the supply of physicians and surgeons in the future has met with varying levels of success. However, there remains a need to anticipate supply given the rapid growth of specialty and subspecialty fellowships. This analysis is intended to support decision making on the size of future fellowships in pediatric surgery. The model used in the study is an adaptation of the FutureDocs physician supply and need tool developed to anticipate future supply and need for all physician specialties. Data from national inventories of physicians by specialty, age, sex, activity, and location are combined with data from residency and fellowship programs and accrediting bodies in an agent-based or microsimulation projection model that considers movement into and among specialties. Exits from practice and the geographic distribution of physician and the patient population are also included in the model. Three scenarios for the annual entry into pediatric surgery fellowships (28, 34, and 56) are modeled and their effects on supply through 2030 are presented. The FutureDocs model predicts a very rapid growth of the supply of surgeons who treat pediatric patients-including general pediatric surgeon and focused subspecialties. The supply of all pediatric surgeons will grow relatively rapidly through 2030 under current conditions. That growth is much faster than the rate of growth of the pediatric population. The volume of complex surgical cases will likely match this population growth rate meaning there will be many more surgeons trained for those procedures. The current entry rate into pediatric surgery fellowships (34 per year) will result in a slowing of growth after 2025

  8. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in marine fishing communities in South India: Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Madala, Sreenivas R; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in subjects aged 40 years or more using a novel Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) methodology. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling to enumerate 1700 subjects from 34 clusters predominantly inhabited by marine fishing communities in the Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 m. Near vision was assessed using an N notation chart. Uncorrected refractive error was defined as presenting VA presbyopia was defined as binocular near vision worse than N8 in subjects with binocular distance VA ≥ 6/18. 1560 subjects (response rate - 92%) were available for examination. Of these, 54.6% were female and 10.1% were ≥70 years of age. Refractive error was present in 250 individuals. It was uncorrected in 179 (unmet need) and corrected in 71 (met need) individuals. Among 1094 individuals with no distance visual impairment, presbyopia was present in 494 individuals. It was uncorrected in 439 (unmet need) and corrected in 55 individuals (met need). Spectacle coverage was 28.4% for refractive errors and 11.1% for presbyopia. There is a high unmet need for uncorrected refractive errors and presbyopia among marine fishing communities in the Prakasam district of South India. The data from this study can now be used as a baseline prior to the commencement of eye care services in this region. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  10. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    FORCE as part of a fiscal year 2014 study “Rated Requirements Assessment.” RAND Project AIR FORCE RAND Project AIR FORCE ( PAF ), a division of the...RAND Corporation, is the U.S. Air Force’s federally funded research and development center for studies and analyses. PAF provides the Air Force with...and Strategy and Doctrine. Additional information about PAF is available on our website: http://www.rand.org/ paf This report documents work

  11. Rapid assessment of disability in the Philippines: understanding prevalence, well-being, and access to the community for people with disabilities to inform the W-DARE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Manjula; Devine, Alexandra; Armecin, Graeme Ferdinand; Zayas, Jerome; Marco, Ma Jesusa; Vaughan, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities. A population-based survey was undertaken in District 2 of Quezon City and in Ligao City. 60 clusters of 50 people aged 18 years and older were selected with probability proportion to size sampling from both locations. The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) survey was used to identify people with disabilities based on their responses to activity limitations. The levels of well-being and access to the community for people with disabilities were compared with controls matched by age, gender, and cluster. Information on barriers to accessing the community was also collected. The prevalence of disability was 6.8 (95 % CI: 5.9, 7.9) and 13.6 % (95 % CI: 11.4, 16.2) in Quezon City and Ligao City respectively. Psychological distress was the most commonly reported condition in both locations, although it was often reported with a co-morbid condition related to sensory, physical, cognitive, and communication difficulties. The prevalence of disability was associated with age and no schooling, but not associated with poverty. People with disabilities had significantly lower well-being scores and reduced access to health services, work, rehabilitation, education, government social welfare, and disaster management than people without disability. Having a disability and negative family attitudes were reported as barriers for people with disabilities participating in work, community meetings, religious

  12. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  13. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  14. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  15. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  16. Small-scale hydro power in the Anniviers Valley. Project Chippis-Ricard. Variants and preliminary project; Forces Motrices de la Gougra SA. Mini-hydraulique en Anniviers. Projet Chippis-Ricard. Etude de variantes et avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the preliminary project for a small hydropower plant in Chippis, Switzerland. The project takes advantage of an existing irrigation scheme that deviates water from the Navisence River into two successive tunnels (total 1.8 km) and a following channel built on steep mountain sides. The basic idea of the project is to increase the flow rate entering the tunnels from 265 l/s to 1265 l/s and to lead the additional 1000 l/s to a new penstock connected to the second tunnel's outlet. In this way, a hydraulic head of 130 m could be used for power generation for over 600 households (mechanical power: 0.8 to 1.1 MW, annual electrical energy production: 2.5 to 3.6 GWh, depending on the variant considered). The report reviews the history of water use at this location and its present use as well as a feasibility study previously made. The project is described, including water collection points, conduits, the power station and the particular aspects of the joint use of water for power generation and irrigation from mid April to mid September. Technical details on water quantities and energy production are presented. Financial aspects including construction and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the project is discussed. Environmental aspects are reviewed. Further steps to be taken in the realisation of this hydropower installation are listed.

  17. Supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Vernal Pool Restoration Project in Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Implementation Plan EA, Volume 2 Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    jamaicensis coturniculus)  Greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)  Bank swallow ( Riparia riparia ) The Swainson’s hawk prefers to nest in...found in riparian forest vegetation . The project does not involve any work near riparian areas; this species would not be impacted by the Proposed...woodlands or in trees along marsh edges, it forages in grassland or other open vegetative communities. Peak nesting season for this species occurs

  18. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  19. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  20. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  1. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of national defence and army, about the 2005 finances law project (no. 1800). Tome 2, defense, nuclear deterrence; Avis presente au nom de la commission de la defense nationale et de forces armees, sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2005 (no. 1800). Tome 2, defense, dissuasion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    Nuclear deterrence still represents an important part of French military budgets. However, its relative share is progressively reducing with the progress of the big programs implemented for its modernization. The 2005 finances law project rules out any risk of threat on these programs. This report presents, first, the schedule of the renewal of the strategic oceanic fleet (the M51 missile and the new generation of submarines) and the strategic air forces. Then, it comments the programs in progress at the direction of military applications of the atomic energy commission (CEA): a significant part of funds devoted to nuclear deterrence, the evolution of the simulation program, the delicate question of the financing of the dismantling of fissile material production facilities. Finally, it stresses of the research effort to sustain in order to stand the evolution of threats and to warrant the perenniality of deterrence: nuclear proliferation remains worrying and technologies linked with deterrence are changing rapidly, the need of a constant research effort in order to keep the competences up. (J.S.)

  2. [TANDEM (TAsk force oN long Duration unemployment of Elderly People and Mental health) implementation of a cross-institutional pilot project for elderly long-term unemployed persons - presentation of the project procedure and the utilisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, C; Meiler, B; Wiesten, I; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to implement and examine the feasibility of a cross-institutional mental health intervention to comprehend and advance mental health of elderly long-term unemployed persons. Report on the procedure and on the observational study utilisation in a 14-month period. The structure and processes chosen could be implemented into practice successfully. Utilisation was high but 30% dropped out during the procedure. Of the unemployed persons surveyed, 96% received a psychiatric diagnosis. 85% were not having psychiatric treatment. The method chosen is feasible and was accepted by the target group. Project structure and processes proved to be applicable for the implementation of the project aims. The method chosen reaches an up to now "psychiatry-inexperienced" target group characterised by frequent incidence of mental disorders and low utilisation of psychiatric care. Thus, vocational reintegration programmes should be supported by psychiatric services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Small-scale hydro power in the Anniviers Valley. Project Ayer-Nava. Variants and preliminary project; Forces Motrices de la Gougra SA. Mini-hydraulique en Anniviers. Projet Ayer-Nava. Etude de variantes et avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the preliminary project for a small hydropower plant near Ayer, a village in the Anniviers Valley (Swiss Alps). Water from the Nava, a steep mountain river, should be lead into a hydraulic scheme for power generation. A hydraulic head of 400 to 550 m is available, depending on the variant considered. The corresponding expected mechanical power is 0.9 to 1.1 MW. For the most promising variant a preliminary project is described (peak electric power: 0.91 MW, annual electrical energy production: 3.1 GWh). The local geology and hydrogeology are presented. The water collection points, conduits and the power station are described. Technical details on water quantities and energy production are presented. Financial aspects including construction and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the project is discussed. Environmental aspects are reviewed. Further steps to be taken in the realisation of this hydropower installation are listed.

  4. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The motivation for this technology comes from the Heliophysics Decadal Survey. The Heliophysics Decadal Survey, Section 10.5.2.7 states in part; “…...

  5. A Rapid Model Fitting Tool Suite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integral component of many NASA missions involves remote sensing of the environment, both terrestrial and celestial. This is a challenging problem, since...

  6. A Rapid Model Fitting Tool Suite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instruments flown on board NASA missions often do not measure quantities of interest to scientists directly, but rather observable quantities. In addition,...

  7. The vertical projection of the sum of the ground reactive forces of a standing patient is not the same as the C7 plumb line: a radiographic study of the sagittal alignment of 153 asymptomatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussouly, Pierre; Gollogly, Sohrab; Noseda, Olivier; Berthonnaud, Eric; Dimnet, Johanes

    2006-05-15

    A radiographic study of 153 normal volunteers. 1) To test the hypothesis that the vertical projection of the sum of the ground reactive forces of a standing patient is located in the same place in the sagittal plane as the C7 plumb line; 2) to determine if there are consistent geometric relationships between the location of the top of the spine and the pelvis in the sagittal plane that occur in individuals without symptoms of back pain or radiographic evidence of deformity. Defining the optimal state of spinal balance is difficult. A full understanding of the compensatory relationships between the spine, pelvis, and lower limbs remains elusive. A total of 153 normal volunteers were subjected to radiographic examination using a digital force plate, a stabilized standing position, a standardized radiographic technique, and the computerized measurement of sagittal alignment. 1) The C7 plumb line and the gravity line in a stabilized standing position are not located in the same place; 2) the association between the center of T1 and the sacral endplate may be an anatomic constant and a marker of spinal balance in individuals without symptoms of back pain or radiographic evidence of deformity, and is determined by the formula 99 degrees - 0.1 degrees (sacral slope). We speculate that this information will be very helpful in evaluating symptomatic spinal disease in the context of the overall alignment of the spine and pelvis.

  8. PDO Modulation of ENSO Effect on Tropical Cyclone Rapid Intensification in the Western North Pacific: a View from the Perspective of Atmospheric Dynamic Conditions and its Implication in the Future Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, X.

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates how the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone rapid intensification (RI) in the western North Pacific. The analysis shows that the interannual relationship between ENSO and annual RI number in warm PDO phases is strong and statistically significant. In cold PDO phases, however, there is no significant correlation between ENSO and RI on the interannual timescale. The enhancement of the interannual ENSO-RI relationship in warm PDO phases is mainly attributable to the change of the atmospheric dynamic condition: vertical wind shear. The PDO in warm (cold) phases can strengthen (weaken) an El Nino event to increase (reduce) the effects of the warm pool of water over the equatorial Pacific in typhoon season by local diabatic heating. El Nino events are accompanied by the stronger Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific in the warm PDO phase than in the cold PDO phase. In contrast, the Walker circulation pattern and amplitude associated with La Nina events is less affected by the alternate PDO phase. This tends to make the atmospheric response to ENSO stronger (weaker) in warm (cold) PDO phase, and so is the atmospheric teleconnection of ENSO. The role of atmospheric conditions on tropical cylone intensification in the future projection is further discussed.

  9. Improvements to Air Force Strategic Basing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    iv RAND Project AIR FORCE RAND Project AIR FORCE ( PAF ), a division of the RAND Corporation, is the U.S. Air Force’s federally funded research and...development center for studies and analyses. PAF provides the Air Force with independent analyses of policy alternatives affecting the development...contract FA7014-06-C-0001. Additional Information about PAF is available on our website: http://www.rand.org/ paf / This report documents work

  10. Fuel Reduction for the Mobility Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    with energy use within DoD. RAND Project AIR FORCE RAND Project AIR FORCE ( PAF ), a division of the RAND Corporation, is the U.S. Air Force’s federally...funded research and development center for studies and analyses. PAF provides the Air Force with independent analyses of policy alternatives...reported here was prepared under contract FA7014-06-C-0001. Additional information about PAF is available on our website: http://www.rand.org/ paf / v

  11. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  12. Force protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is concerned with rapid, continuous inspection of vehicles entering military facilities or compounds, searching for high explosives, or the rapid survey of facilities if it is found that security has been breached. The author reviews methods which are in use now, including: x-rays; x-ray tomography; thermal or fast neutrons; quadrupole resonance; trace detection; electron capture; chemiluminesence; ion mobility spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; antibodies; and layered, synergistic approaches. He then discusses the limitations of these methods and proposes new approaches which are a combination of old techniques such as weighing vehicles with technological advances in some present methods.

  13. Force generation by titin folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Bianco, Pasquale; Naftz, Katalin; Ferenczy, György G; Kellermayer, Miklós

    2017-07-01

    Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (force trace contained rapid fluctuations and a gradual increase of average force, indicating that titin can develop force via dynamic transitions between its structural states en route to the native conformation. In 4 M urea, which destabilizes H-bonds hence the consolidated native domain structure, the net force increase disappeared but the fluctuations persisted. Thus, whereas net force generation is caused by the ensemble folding of the elastically-coupled domains, force fluctuations arise due to a dynamic equilibrium between unfolded and molten-globule states. Monte-Carlo simulations incorporating a compact molten-globule intermediate in the folding landscape recovered all features of our nanomechanics results. The ensemble molten-globule dynamics delivers significant added contractility that may assist sarcomere mechanics, and it may reduce the dissipative energy loss associated with titin unfolding/refolding during muscle contraction/relaxation cycles. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  14. PDRMIP: A Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Gunnar

    2017-04-01

    As the global temperature increases with changing climate, precipitation rates and patterns are affected through a wide range of physical mechanisms. The globally averaged intensity of extreme precipitation also changes more rapidly than the globally averaged precipitation rate. While some aspects of the regional variation in precipitation predicted by climate models appear robust, there is still a large degree of inter-model differences unaccounted for. Individual drivers of climate change initially alter the energy budget of the atmosphere leading to distinct rapid adjustments involving changes in precipitation. Differences in how these rapid adjustment processes manifest themselves within models are likely to explain a large fraction of the present model spread and needs better quantifications to improve precipitation predictions. Here, we introduce the Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP), where a set of idealized experiments designed to understand the role of different climate forcing mechanisms were performed by a large set of climate models. PDRMIP focuses on understanding how precipitation changes relating to rapid adjustments and slower responses to climate forcings are represented across models. Initial results show that rapid adjustments account for large regional differences in hydrological sensitivity across multiple drivers. The PDRMIP results are expected to dramatically improve our understanding of the causes of the present diversity in future climate projections.

  15. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...

  16. Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially as the co......The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article...

  17. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  18. Riparian Woodland Restoration Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delwiche, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to plant native woody species on a 15.6-acre parcel of land in the Lower Dry Creek area of Beale Air Force Base in Northern California, while simultaneously investigating some factors...

  19. Importance of vegetation processes for model spread in the fast precipitation response to CO2 forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Anthony M.; Qu, Xin; Hall, Alex

    2016-12-01

    In the current generation of climate models, the projected increase in global precipitation over the 21st century ranges from 2% to 10% under a high-emission scenario. Some of this uncertainty can be traced to the rapid response to carbon dioxide (CO2) forcing. We analyze an ensemble of simulations to better understand model spread in this rapid response. A substantial amount is linked to how the land surface partitions a change in latent versus sensible heat flux in response to the CO2-induced radiative perturbation; a larger increase in sensible heat results in a larger decrease in global precipitation. Model differences in the land surface response appear to be strongly related to the vegetation response to increased CO2, specifically, the closure of leaf stomata. Future research should thus focus on evaluation of the vegetation physiological response, including stomatal conductance parameterizations, for the purpose of constraining the fast response of Earth's hydrologic cycle to CO2 forcing.

  20. Rand Project AIR FORCE Annual Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    engen - dering an increasingly raucous debate. Pointing to modern- day reliance on computers and the Internet—communications, financial networks, power...Airman Albert is an electrical power produc- tion journeyman with the 10th Intelligence Squadron. Annual Report 2010 43 will possess...RAND Corporation Robert C. Wright, Former Vice Chairman, General Electric ; Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, NBC Universal; Chairman and

  1. Compact, Controlled Force Crew Exercise System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceflight adaptations include muscle atrophy, decreased bone mineral density and reduced aerobic capacity making effective resistance exercise countermeasure...

  2. Rand Project Air Force Annual Report 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    research began on his family’s farm near Chippewa Lake in Ohio . “As a kid, I was fascinated by the wargames in Strategy and Tactics maga- zine, which I...skills. Key new hires were John C. Graser, The Lockheed Martin facility in Marietta , Georgia, is home to the final assembly line for the F-22

  3. Force Project Technology Presentation to the NRCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Functional Bridge components Smart Odometer Adv Pretreatment Smart Bridge Multi-functional Gap Crossing Fuel Automated Tracking System Adv...comprehensive matrix of candidate composite material systems and textile reinforcement architectures via modeling/analyses and testing. Product(s...Validated Dynamic Modeling tool based on parametric study using material models to reliably predict the textile mechanics of the hose

  4. Distributed Force and Moment Measurement System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The structural design of aircraft and their propulsion systems is a challenging task that requires accurate, flexible ground facilities capable of operating over the...

  5. 50th project Air Force, 1946 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Contents: a partnership of trust 47 analytic methods, 11 out of the box, 53 systems training program, 17 space, 57 defense economics, 23 strategy for the nuclear era, 61 manpower, 29 theater air operation, 61 logistics, 33 computing, 71 acquisition policy, 39 international studies, 75 the post-cold war world, 43 arms control, 79 the new challenge.

  6. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  7. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  8. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  9. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  10. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  11. 2012 ENFORCE. Project Manager Force Projection Briefing to ENFORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    BAE HAGA •BAE RG-33L •FPI Cougar ( Cat I & II) •FPI Buffalo Armored Security Vehicles •Armored Security Vehicle Light Tactical Vehicles •HMMWV...Boat Cradle (IBC) • Improved Ribbon Bridge (IRB) • Joint Assault Bridge (JAB) • Line of Communication Bridging (LOCB) • Medium Girder Bridge (MGB...Palletized Load System Trailer (PLST) with Draw bar extension, Bridge Adapter Pallet (BAP), Improved Boat Cradle (IBC) and the M3 Container Roll-in

  12. Traction force microscopy in physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; German, Guy K; Hyland, Callen; MacMinn, Christopher W; Mertz, Aaron F; Wilen, Larry A; Xu, Ye; Dufresne, Eric R

    2014-06-21

    Adherent cells, crawling slugs, peeling paint, sessile liquid drops, bearings and many other living and non-living systems apply forces to solid substrates. Traction force microscopy (TFM) provides spatially-resolved measurements of interfacial forces through the quantification and analysis of the deformation of an elastic substrate. Although originally developed for adherent cells, TFM has no inherent size or force scale, and can be applied to a much broader range of mechanical systems across physics and biology. In this paper, we showcase the wide range of applicability of TFM, describe the theory, and provide experimental details and code so that experimentalists can rapidly adopt this powerful technique.

  13. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  14. Managing projects using a project management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern management theory treats all complex tasks and duties like projects and make these projects possible to be managed by a particular organizational-management concept in order to achieve a goal effectively. A large number of jobs and tasks performed in the system of defense or for defense purposes have the characteristics of projects. Project management is both a skill and a science of monitoring human, material, financial, energy and other resources to achieve required objectives within the given limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization and the satisfaction of the interests of all project participants. Project management is a traditional area of applied (or functional management focused on managing complex and uncertain situations with defined goals. Introduction In conditions of rapid change and high uncertainty, only adaptive organizations survive, i. e. those that are able not only to react quickly to changes but also to proactively take advantage of changes. Development of project management The biggest influence on the development of the area had complex jobs within the engineering profession. In parallel with the traditional approach new approaches began to develop, while the traditional one still remained in use. Contrary to the traditional engineering approach, a dynamic model first developed in order to respond to demands for greater control of costs. Project management Project management is a skill and knowledge of human and material resources to achieve set objectives within prescribed limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization, and the satisfaction of all participants in the project. In order to realize a project effectively, it is necessary to manage it rationally. Planning and project management A project plan is a document that allows all team members insight on where to go, when to start and when to arrive, what is necessary to be done in order to achieve the project objectives and what

  15. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  16. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UAVs , the DOD defines UAVs as “powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator; use aerodynamic forces to provide lift; can be autonomously...25 B. UAV ...25 1. UAV Background ...............................................................................25 2. Rapid Acquisition in UAV

  17. [Galileo and centrifugal force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century.

  18. Keeping Special Forces Special: Regional Proficiency in Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Poole for their support in this project. I would also like to thank the many people (too many to list) who took precious time out of their day to...Soldier may be required to translate documents or listen to intercepted conversations. This education is merely a stepping stone as Special Forces...North Africa (MENA) Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Oman Qatar

  19. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  20. Air Force Pilot Retention-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Politica l Science from Texas A&M University in 1973. He earned his commission S’- ,t the same time. This project will fulfill partial r(,quir(,m,nts...12 years of Air Force pilot retention rates , (2:12: 5:2). 0>. _ , FISCAL YEAR PILOT RETENTION RATES 1976 50.6% 1977 47.9% 1978 39.6% 1979 26.0% 1980

  1. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  2. Forced Migration of Colombians : Fear, Historical Memory and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project follows two years of successful research under project 102661 on forced migration of Colombians within Colombia and to Ecuador and Canada. Researchers in Colombia and Canada investigated the ways in which fear, historical memory and social representation by and about forced migrants influence their ...

  3. The swim force as a body force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  4. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  5. Challenging Forced Marriage: Building the Defence and Support ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Forced marriage violates the principles of personal freedom and individual autonomy. It is viewed as a human rights violation under international human rights law. This project will generate evidence that will help combat forced marriage in India on two key issues: shelters for women resisting forced marriage and a law to ...

  6. Agile Project Management For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Layton, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Be flexible and faster with Agile project management As mobile and web technologies continue to evolve rapidly, there is added pressure to develop and implement software projects in weeks instead of months. Agile Project Management For Dummies can make that happen. This is the first book to provide a simple, step-by-step guide to Agile Project Management approaches, tools, and techniques. With the fast pace of mobile and web technology development, software project development must keep pace; Agile Project Management enables developers to complete and implement projects more quickly and this b

  7. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  8. That's a Drag: The Effects of Drag Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Maxemow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag is a force that opposes motion due to an object's shape, material, and speed. This project defined what drag force is, derived the governing equation for drag and listed some applications of drag forces. Derivation of the drag equation was achieved using the Buckingham π theorem, a dimensional analysis tool. Lastly, this project explored the problem of how long and how far a dragster takes to stop once its parachute is deployed.

  9. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, A. J.; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, R.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, X.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, J. -H.; Lo, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models’ all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) -0.26Wm-2-2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of -0.42Wm-2-2-2-2forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global

  10. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5. The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980–2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects. The models' all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range −0.26 W m−2; −0.06 to −0.49 W m−2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of −0.42 W m−2; −0.33 to −0.50 W m−2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to −58% to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is −1.17 W m−2; −0.71 to −1.44 W m−2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF

  11. Organizational Design for USSOCOM Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    2 Ibid., 249. 25 of the programs.3 In rapid innovation , it is important for Program Executive Officers to ensure that technical...organizational learning is what the company does in order to create innovative products and survive. They note that, “interviewees emphasized the importance ...14. ABSTRACT USSOCOM Special Operations Forces (SOF) Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) struggles to keep pace with technology innovation

  12. Constant force extensional rheometry of polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.; Clasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the rapid stretching of a liquid filament under the action of a constant imposed tensile force, a problem which was first considered by Matta and Tytus [J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 35 (1990) 215–229]. A liquid bridge formed from a viscous Newtonian fluid or from a dilute polymer solution...

  13. Evaluation and monitoring of Research and Development projects and programmes: Experience of the task force on the evaluation of TAFTIE; La valutazione e il monitoraggio dei progetti e dei programmi di R&S: esperienza della Task Force sulla valutazione di TAFTIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpitti, L. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1996-08-01

    This paper allows to compare the experiences in the evaluation and monitoring fields among 8 different European agencies (ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, included) directly involved in technology transfer projects and programmes. In order to compare the different experiences three levels of analysis are used: evaluation methodologies, performance indicators, project characterisation and databases.

  14. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  15. Rapid prediction of electric fields associated with geomagnetically induced currents in the presence of three-dimensional ground structure: Projection of remote magnetic observatory data through magnetotelluric impedance tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, L. R.; Schultz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Ground level electric fields arising from geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) are used by the electric power industry to calculate geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in the power grid. Current industry practice is limited to electric fields associated with 1-D ground electrical conductivity structure, yet at any given depth in the crust and mantle lateral (3-D) variations in conductivity can span at least 3 orders of magnitude, resulting in large deviations in electric fields relative to 1-D models. Solving Maxwell's equations for electric fields associated with GMDs above a 3-D Earth is computationally burdensome and currently impractical for industrial applications. A computationally light algorithm is proposed as an alternative. Real-time data from magnetic observatories are projected through multivariate transfer functions to locations of previously occupied magnetotelluric (MT) stations. MT time series and impedance tensors, such as those publically available from the NSF EarthScope Program, are used to scale the projected magnetic observatory data into local electric field predictions that can then be interpolated onto points along power grid transmission lines to actively improve resilience through GIC modeling. Preliminary electric field predictions are tested against previously recorded time series, idealized transfer function cases, and existing industry methods to assess the validity of the algorithm for potential adoption by the power industry. Some limitations such as long-period diurnal drift are addressed, and solutions are suggested to further improve the method before direct comparisons with actual GIC measurements are made.

  16. Multispectral Particle Absorption Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project concerns the development of a multi-wavelength monitor that will provide rapid, real-time measurement of the...

  17. Multispectral Particle Absorption Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the development of a multi-wavelength monitor that will provide rapid, real-time measurement of the...

  18. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  20. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  1. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  2. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project will be purchased and applied and a Washington Service Corps AmeriCorps member...

  3. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide funds to...

  4. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide match for...

  5. Forces in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-07-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  6. Rapid orthophoto development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The DMC system procured in the project represented state-of-the-art, large-format digital aerial camera systems at the start of : project. DMC is based on the frame camera model, and to achieve large ground coverage with high spatial resolution, the ...

  7. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  8. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  9. Effective force control by muscle synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J Berger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies have been proposed as a way for the central nervous system (CNS to simplify the generation of motor commands and they have been shown to explain a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns across a variety of conditions. However, whether human subjects are able to control forces and movements effectively with a small set of synergies has not been tested directly. Here we show that muscle synergies can be used to generate target forces in multiple directions with the same accuracy achieved using individual muscles. We recorded electromyographic (EMG activity from 13 arm muscles and isometric hand forces during a force reaching task in a virtual environment. From these data we estimated the force associated to each muscle by linear regression and we identified muscle synergies by non-negative matrix factorization. We compared trajectories of a virtual mass displaced by the force estimated using the entire set of recorded EMGs to trajectories obtained using 4 to 5 muscle synergies. While trajectories were similar, when feedback was provided according to force estimated from recorded EMGs (EMG-control on average trajectories generated with the synergies were less accurate. However, when feedback was provided according to recorded force (force-control we did not find significant differences in initial angle error and endpoint error. We then tested whether synergies could be used as effectively as individual muscles to control cursor movement in the force reaching task by providing feedback according to force estimated from the projection of the recorded EMGs into synergy space (synergy-control. Human subjects were able to perform the task immediately after switching from force-control to EMG-control and synergy-control and we found no differences between initial movement direction errors and endpoint errors in all control modes. These results indicate that muscle synergies provide an effective strategy for motor

  10. Trois familles, quatre forces

    CERN Multimedia

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le monde des particules tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui est constitue de trois familles de quatre membres. Ces particules sont collees les unes aux autres par des forces. Celles-ci, au nombre de quatre - gravitation, force forte, force electromagnetique et force faible -, sont " portees " par d'autres particules dont certaines sont a decouvrir (graviton) et d'autres deja identifiees (gluons, photons, bosons W et Z) (1/2 page).

  11. French Nuclear Forces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-05

    International Defense Review, and Foreign Affairs have published articles treating various as- .1 pects of France’s Forces Nucleaires Strategiques(FNS...forces(La Force Nucleaire Strategique or FNS) consist of three systems similar to the American triad. France’s tactical nuclear forces(L’Arme... Nucleaire Tactique or ANT) include a variety of land- and carrier-based aircraft and a tactical missile--Pluton--deployed by the French Army. Thirty-four M

  12. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  13. Bioenergy/Biotechnology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napper, Stan [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Palmer, James [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Wilson, Chester [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Guilbeau, Eric [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Allouche, Erez [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report describes the progress of five different projects. The first is an enzyme immobilization study of cellulase to reduce costs of the cellulosic ethanol process. High reusability and use of substrates applicable to large scale production were focus areas for this study. The second project was the development of nanostructured catalysts for conversion of syngas to diesel. Cobalt nanowire catalyst was used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The third project describes work on developing a microfluidic calorimeter to measure reaction rates of enzymes. The fourth project uses inorganic polymer binders that have the advantage of a lower carbon footprint than Portland cement while also providing excellent performance in elevated temperature, high corrosion resistance, high compressive and tensile strengths, and rapid strength gains. The fifth project investigates the potential of turbines in drop structures (such as sewer lines in tall buildings) to recover energy.

  14. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  15. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  16. Communicating Why: Aligning the Air Force Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    49 Ibid. 50 Ibid. 51 Alan Vick , American Public is Less Inclined to Distinguish Among Service Branches, RAND Project Air Force Report PAF-1P-239...States Air Force—It’s What We Do.” 29 August 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hPMA5QHynw8 (accessed 28 November 2014). Vick , Alan. American

  17. Reduction in Force: Is Your Board Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Francis R.

    To help ameliorate the adverse effects of reduction in force (RIF), school districts facing declining enrollments should develop and adopt RIF policies before they are needed. School district officials should compile up-to-date enrollment projections and anticipated staff needs. The board of education should take care to inform the public and to…

  18. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  19. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  20. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  1. Projects Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  2. Report of the joint review panel : EnCana shallow gas infill development project : Canadian Forces Base Suffield National Wildlife area[Report of the Joint Review Panel established by the Federal Minister of the Environment and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board : Decision 2009-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-27

    EnCana Corporation has proposed to drill up to 1275 shallow gas wells in the Canadian Forces Base Suffield National Wildlife Area (NWA), approximately 50 kilometres northwest of Medicine Hat, Alberta over a three year period. The project would also include pipelines, access trails and other associated infrastructure. Approval to proceed requires a permit under the authority of the Canada Wildlife Act. Before such a permit may be issued, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act requires an environmental assessment to be completed. EnCana also filed Application No. 1435831 with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board pursuant to the Oil and Gas Conservation Act for licences to drill three wells in the NWA. A joint review panel was established to undertake an environmental assessment review of EnCana's proposal and to reach a decision on the application to drill three wells. This report presented the panel's findings, conclusions and recommendations on the overall project and its decision with respect to the application to drill three wells. Specifically, the report described the project setting including components and phases, and regulatory framework. It outlined the involvement of interested parties, creation of the Suffield NWA as well as the need for the project and alternatives considered. Last, the report identified environmental effects on wildlife; vegetation, soils, and reclamation; wetlands; water resources; historical and paleontological resources; effects of potential accidents and malfunctions; cumulative environmental effects; biodiversity; and sustainability of renewable resources. The discussion regarding environmental effects included the views of EnCana, views and concerns of interveners, and panel conclusions and recommendations. The panel's overall conclusion was that EnCana should not proceed with the proposed project at this time. 4 tabs., 6 figs., 6 appendices.

  3. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  4. All projects related to | Page 587 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-12-22

    Forced Migration of Colombians : Fear, Historical Memory and Public Representation - Phase II. Project. This project follows two years of successful research under project 102661 on forced migration of Colombians within Colombia and to Ecuador and Canada. Start Date: December 22, 2006. End Date: October 31, 2008.

  5. Directional Coordination of Thumb and Finger Forces during Precision Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Nataraj, Raviraj; Marquardt, Tamara L.; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The human opposable thumb enables the hand to perform dexterous manipulation of objects, which requires well-coordinated digit force vectors. This study investigated the directional coordination of force vectors generated by the thumb and index finger during precision pinch. Fourteen right-handed, healthy subjects were instructed to exert pinch force on an externally stabilized apparatus with the pulps of the thumb and index finger. Subjects applied forces to follow a force-ramp profile that linearly increased from 0 to 12 N and then decreased to 0 N, at a rate of ±3 N/s. Directional relationships between the thumb and index finger force vectors were quantified using the coordination angle (CA) between the force vectors. Individual force vectors were further analyzed according to their projection angles (PAs) with respect to the pinch surface planes and the shear angles (SAs) within those planes. Results demonstrated that fingertip force directions were dependent on pinch force magnitude, especially at forces below 2 N. Hysteresis was observed in the force-CA relationship for increasing and decreasing forces and fitted with exponential models. The fitted asymptotic values were 156.0±6.6° and 150.8±9.3° for increasing and decreasing force ramps, respectively. The PA of the thumb force vector deviated further from the direction perpendicular to the pinching surface planes than that of the index finger. The SA showed that the index finger force vector deviated in the ulnar-proximal direction, whereas the thumb switched its force between the ulnar-proximal and radial-proximal directions. The findings shed light on the effects of anatomical composition, biomechanical function, and neuromuscular control in coordinating digit forces during precision pinch, and provided insight into the magnitude-dependent force directional control which potentially affects a range of dexterous manipulations. PMID:24236128

  6. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  7. Advice presented on behalf of the national defense and forces commission, about the project of financial law for 2003 (no 230). Tome 2. Defense, nuclear dissuasion; Avis presente au nom de la commission de la defense nationale et des forces armees, sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2003 (no 230). Tome 2. Defense, disssuasion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, A

    2002-10-01

    The first part of this document analyzes, first, the increased flexibility of the US nuclear dissuasion, then it makes a status of the ballistic and nuclear proliferation in Asia and in the Middle-East and shows the organization of the French nuclear dissuasion with respect to the evolution of the threat. The second part concerns the budget for 2003 devoted to the modernization of the dissuasion tool with the continuation of the main programs: modernization of the oceanic and air forces, front-end studies on nuclear safety and propulsion reactors, simulation program, and dismantling of the fissile materials production sites (Pierrelatte and Marcoule centers). (J.S.)

  8. Risk management in information technology projects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. Information Technology (IT) projects are typically accompanied by a wide variety of complex risks. The rapid rate at which technology is currently changing requires the use of updated processes for project risk management in the IT industry. This paper investigates the active management of risk by focusing on the causes of such risk and developing indicators to track project risk throughout all project phases. The current research focuses on Project Risk Management as described in t...

  9. Measurement of Surface Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-16

    structural force is often observed on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. These forces are referred to in the literature as hydration and...47,481. One parameter, the effective molecular diffusivity in a pore (e.g., zeolite or polymer), has been indirectly related to transport limited rates...adhesion force (2 g.N) and a marked increase in rate of Fe(CN)6 -3 reduction. Both effects were ascribed to the more hydrophilic nature of the activated

  10. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  11. The 5/95 Gap on the dissemination of mental health research: The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) task force report on project with editors of low and middle income (LAMI) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Mari, J; Patel, V; Kieling, C; Anders, M; Jakovljevi, M; Lam, L C; Lotaief, F; Mendlowicz, M V; Okulat, G; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Tamam, L; Tyrer, P; Herrman, H

    2009-02-01

    The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Task Force and a small group previously convened by the WPA publications committee initiated three activities between 2006-2008 that aimed to respond to the need for greater support for psychiatry journals in LAMI countries. In a joint venture with participants from the Global Mental Health Movement the Task Force editors from LAMI countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America were contacted to identify potential journals to target for indexation (Medline and ISI). The committee analyzed the editors' applications on the following criteria: a) geographical representativeness; b) affiliation to a professional mental health society; c) regular publication of at least 4 issues per year over the past few years; d) comprehensive national and international editorial boards; e) publication of original articles, or at least abstracts, in English; f) some level of current indexation; g) evidence of a good balance between original and review articles in publications; and h) a friendly access website. The committee received 26 applications (11 from Latin America, 7 from Central Europe, 4 from Asia and 4 from Africa), and selected 8 journals, 2 from each geographical area, on the basis of the overall scores obtained for the items mentioned, to participate in an editors meeting held in Prague in September 2008. The aims of the committee are twofold: a) to concentrate support for those selected journals; and b) to assist all LAMI mental health editors in improving the quality of their journals and fulfilling the requirements for full indexation. This report summarizes the procedures conducted by the committee, the assessment of the current non-indexed journals, and offers suggestions for further action.

  12. Air Force Commander’s Guide to Diversity and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The author of this publication, Nelson Lim, is an senior sociologist at the RAND Corporation. RAND Project AIR FORCE RAND Project AIR FORCE ( PAF ), a...division of the RAND Corporation, is the U.S. Air Force’s federally funded research and development center for studies and analyses. PAF provides...Resource Management; and Strategy and Doctrine. Additional information about PAF is available on our website: http://www.rand.org/ paf / A B O U T T

  13. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  14. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-06-17

    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  15. RELATIONAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE RECEPTION, STAGING, ONWARD MOVEMENT & INTEGRATION PROCESS WITHIN THE FORCE PROTECTION MECHANISMS IN THEATRES OF JOINT OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the strategic security environment is characterized by uncertainty, complexity, rapid changes and persistent conflict. This environment is fluid, with continually changing alliances and partnerships, new national and transnational threats constantly appearing and disappearing. The global process of crisis and conflict management became more difficult to be handled because of the existing economic and military instability, the persistence of the economic crisis, and the development of extremism, revisionist, secessionist or separatist manifestations. The current article approaches the problem of Reception, Staging, Onward Movement & Integration Process as part of the complex force protection mechanism which takes place in theatres of joint operations. In this respect, we will briefly present the international security environment which influences the projection of NATO, United States and European Union’s military forces, in accordance with strategic and operational requirements.

  16. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  17. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  18. Characterization of a Lorentz Force Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John F.; Kral, Linda D.; Cary, Andrew W.

    1996-11-01

    To develop a detailed understanding of the effect of a Lorentz force actuator in seawater, both experiments and numerical simulations are conducted in an environment with no mean flow. The Lorentz force actuator is comprised of a pair of magnets and a pair of electrodes and produces a volumetric body force. A pressurized water vessel contains a uniform water/electrolyte solution. Particle image velocimetry and laser sheet flow visualization are used to obtain snapshots of the induced flow for different orientations of the laser sheet. Simulations are also performed in a static water/electrolyte solution with the same current levels as in the experiments. Flow is induced upward at the center of the actuator, even though a downward Lorentz force is applied there. Both the simulations and the experiments show that the Lorentz force actuator creates a complex three-dimensional interaction resulting in a upward flow over the actuator. Two wall jets directed toward one another are created by the forces over the electrodes that impinge in the center of the actuator and fluid is pushed up and away from the wall. In terms of vorticity production, the actuator exhibits local maxima in the curl of the Lorentz force away from the wall in a region above the magnets. Comparison between simulation and experiment is remarkably good. This work is supported by Mr. Gary Jones at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  19. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-14 Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of...

  20. Charge-state dynamics in electrostatic force spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Martin; Hapala, Prokop; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 27 (2016), 1-13, č. článku 274005. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02079S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * electron tunneling * redox nanoswitches * electrostatic force spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016

  1. Nanomechanical characterization by double-pass force-distance mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagdas, Yavuz S; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O; Dana, Aykutlu [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Necip Aslan, M, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-07-22

    We demonstrate high speed force-distance mapping using a double-pass scheme. The topography is measured in tapping mode in the first pass and this information is used in the second pass to move the tip over the sample. In the second pass, the cantilever dither signal is turned off and the sample is vibrated. Rapid (few kHz frequency) force-distance curves can be recorded with small peak interaction force, and can be processed into an image. Such a double-pass measurement eliminates the need for feedback during force-distance measurements. The method is demonstrated on self-assembled peptidic nanofibers.

  2. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Szabo, James; Byrne, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of small satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy. These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U (cubesat units) configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The mission is a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is working towards the critical design review in the final design and fabrication phase of the project. The current design shows positive technical performance margins in all areas. The iSat project is planned for launch readiness in the spring of 2017.

  3. Special Operations Forces Reference Manual. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    military operations. Logistics and maintenance emphasize the launch, recovery, ser- vice, rapid repair, and relaunch cycle . The turn-around cycle may be...Multi-Purpose Canine (IOweeks) SARC/IDC Corpsman (13 months) 6-3 Special Operations Forces Reference Manual a. Intelligence operations (to include...fire support, explosive ordnance disposal, and multipur- pose canine teams. They frequently deploy alongside Marine special operations teams and

  4. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  5. ``Force-free'' electrophoresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Ehud

    2006-03-01

    When a colloidal particle is exposed to an externally applied electric field, it acquires an electrophoretic velocity, resulting from fluid slip occurring across the Debye screening layer. When the field is uniformly applied, it is usually assumed that the net neutrality of the combined particle-layer system implies that the net electric force acting on it must vanish. This assumption of "force-free" phoretic motion has been employed extensively to describe electrophoresis in both unbounded and bounded fluid domains [J. L. Anderson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 21, 61 (1989)]. A careful inspection reveals here that this intuitive premise may fail when the fluid domain is bounded, in which case a nonzero electric force (resembling dielectrophoretic forces in nonuniformly applied fields) may actually exist. Such forces (represented via surface integrals of Maxwell stresses) result in particle motion above and beyond the one driven by the phoretic slip mechanism. A positive demonstration for the existence of a such a force is provided for a standard sphere-wall configuration, where the applied field acts parallel to the wall. In that scenario, particle motion consists of a (familiar) slip-driven contribution parallel to the wall, together with a superimposed force-driven drift away from the wall. An analogy with pressure forces occurring at incompressible and inviscid potential flows is presented.

  6. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) ...

  7. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  8. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  9. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  10. The PANDA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Bouarar, Idir; Wang, Xuemei

    2014-05-01

    The PANDA project Even though air quality in many urbanized and industrialized areas of the world has improved as a result of mitigation actions, it has declined in other regions. This is specifically the case in many emerging countries where emissions have been increasing as a result of rapidly expanding motor vehicle fleets, growing industrial and power generation activities, and domestic and biomass burning. The situation is particularly acute in China and the Western Pacific Region with rapid industrialization and urbanization, where, in spite of efforts to reduce surface emissions of reactive gases, 360,000 people die prematurely from air pollution each year, according to the World Health Organization. The EU-funded PANDA project will offer scientific knowledge that will help China and other nations to use space and in-situ observations together with a modelling system to address improve air quality and human heath at the regional and global scales. Through the proposed cooperation between Europe and China, the following objectives will be reached before the completion of the Project: 1. Improvement of methods for monitoring air quality from combined space and in-situ observations 2. Elaboration of indicators for air quality, in support of European and Chinese policies 3. Development of toolboxes for air quality and emissions monitoring 4. Dissemination of information and educational activities, specifically in China. We would like to introduce the EU-funded project PANDA, and present the first results obtained through the project.

  11. Agile Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Rank; Riis, Jens Ove; Mikkelsen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    in the managerial hierarchy. They compete for resources and managerial attention, and they often take too long time - and some do not survive in the rapid changing context. Top man¬agers ask for speed, flexibility and effectiveness in the portfolio of development activities (projects). But which competencies......This paper will provide a preliminary introduction to the application of Agile Thinking in management of project portfolio and company development. At any point in time, companies have a crowd of development initiatives spread around the organisation and managed at different levels...

  12. Deep Uncertainty Surrounding Coastal Flood Risk Projections: A Case Study for New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Future sea-level rise drives severe risks for many coastal communities. Strategies to manage these risks hinge on a sound characterization of the uncertainties. For example, recent studies suggest that large fractions of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) may rapidly disintegrate in response to rising global temperatures, leading to potentially several meters of sea-level rise during the next few centuries. It is deeply uncertain, for example, whether such an AIS disintegration will be triggered, how much this would increase sea-level rise, whether extreme storm surges intensify in a warming climate, or which emissions pathway future societies will choose. Here, we assess the impacts of these deep uncertainties on projected flooding probabilities for a levee ring in New Orleans, LA. We use 18 scenarios, presenting probabilistic projections within each one, to sample key deeply uncertain future projections of sea-level rise, radiative forcing pathways, storm surge characterization, and contributions from rapid AIS mass loss. The implications of these deep uncertainties for projected flood risk are thus characterized by a set of 18 probability distribution functions. We use a global sensitivity analysis to assess which mechanisms contribute to uncertainty in projected flood risk over the course of a 50-year design life. In line with previous work, we find that the uncertain storm surge drives the most substantial risk, followed by general AIS dynamics, in our simple model for future flood risk for New Orleans.

  13. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  14. Rapid Sediment Characterization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Method Applicability DQO Data Quality Objective ELISA Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay EIA Enzyme Immunoassay ERA Ecological Risk Assessment...planning has considered the pros and cons of each option in the context of project deci- sion goals (Data Quality Objective [ DQO ] process...that blend with one another in transition zones: open-water aquatic, intertidal wetland , and bay mudflats. Many species of mobile marine animals

  15. Quantum mechanics of rapidly and periodically driven systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid forcing; Kapitza pendulum; effective Hamiltonian; quadrupole and. Paul traps; strong-field excitations. PACS Nos 42.50.Hz; 42.50.Ct; 32.80.Lg. 1. Introduction .... (10) in mind, eq. (13) provides a surprisingly simple derivation of the form of the effective potential, as given in eq. (8). Although the treatment here is.

  16. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multidomain proteins under force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-28

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91-two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins-ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  18. Multidomain proteins under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Andrés Rivas-Pardo, Jaime; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-01

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91—two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins—ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  19. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  20. Analytical model for force prediction when machining metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Snahungshu

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) offer several thermo-mechanical advantages over standard materials and alloys which make them better candidates in different applications. Their light weight, high stiffness, and strength have attracted several industries such as automotive, aerospace, and defence for their wide range of products. However, the wide spread application of Meal Matrix Composites is still a challenge for industry. The hard and abrasive nature of the reinforcement particles is responsible for rapid tool wear and high machining costs. Fracture and debonding of the abrasive reinforcement particles are the considerable damage modes that directly influence the tool performance. It is very important to find highly effective way to machine MMCs. So, it is important to predict forces when machining Metal Matrix Composites because this will help to choose perfect tools for machining and ultimately save both money and time. This research presents an analytical force model for predicting the forces generated during machining of Metal Matrix Composites. In estimating the generated forces, several aspects of cutting mechanics were considered including: shearing force, ploughing force, and particle fracture force. Chip formation force was obtained by classical orthogonal metal cutting mechanics and the Johnson-Cook Equation. The ploughing force was formulated while the fracture force was calculated from the slip line field theory and the Griffith theory of failure. The predicted results were compared with previously measured data. The results showed very good agreement between the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured cutting forces.

  1. Towards Rapid Application Provisioning in the Cloud Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud computing holds promise to deliver computing as a utility to scientists and large user communities. While vast computational resources could be made available...

  2. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this STTR is to determine the capability of Net Shape LENS processing with Nano-coated powders. The unique composites produced using regualr...

  3. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program is developing NET Shape components from Encapsulated Powders. Significant advances in Phase I for various materials and in net shape processing...

  4. Computational Appliance for Rapid Prediction of Aircraft Trajectories Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation air traffic management systems will be based to a greater degree on predicted trajectories of aircraft. Due to the iterative nature of future air...

  5. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  6. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  7. Building Blocks for the Rapid Development of Parallel Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scientists need to be able to quickly develop and run parallel simulations without paying the high price of writing low-level message passing codes using compiled...

  8. Rapid Hydrogen and Methane Sensors for Wireless Leak Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA STTR NNK07EA39C, ASR&D developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors that utilize Pd nanocluster films on self-assembled...

  9. Data Reduction and Rapid Analysis of Hyperspectral Data Sets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hyperspectral sensors offer great opportunities for increasingly sensitive automated target recognition (ATR) systems though a common problem is the lack of...

  10. New Combustion CFD Algorithms Designed for Rapid GPU Computations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose development of new algorithms specifically designed to exploit the highly parallel structure of graphics processing units (GPUs) for performing the...

  11. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekstein, G.

    2017-10-01

    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  12. The FORCE: A portable parallel programming language supporting computational structural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Brehm, Juergen; Ramanan, Aruna

    1989-01-01

    This project supports the conversion of codes in Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) to a parallel form which will efficiently exploit the computational power available from multiprocessors. The work is a part of a comprehensive, FORTRAN-based system to form a basis for a parallel version of the NICE/SPAR combination which will form the CSM Testbed. The software is macro-based and rests on the force methodology developed by the principal investigator in connection with an early scientific multiprocessor. Machine independence is an important characteristic of the system so that retargeting it to the Flex/32, or any other multiprocessor on which NICE/SPAR might be imnplemented, is well supported. The principal investigator has experience in producing parallel software for both full and sparse systems of linear equations using the force macros. Other researchers have used the Force in finite element programs. It has been possible to rapidly develop software which performs at maximum efficiency on a multiprocessor. The inherent machine independence of the system also means that the parallelization will not be limited to a specific multiprocessor.

  13. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T. [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.

  14. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Rapid prototyping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Birkeland, Petter I

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the description of the method and result of the master project of Petter Ildgruben at the Department of Engineering Design and Materials (IPM) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in the spring of 2016. The goal of this master s thesis has been to explore the barriers that novel users face in makerspaces, specifically when interacting with the 3D printer, the laser cutter and the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) mill and how to overcome them. The first...

  17. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  18. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  19. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  20. 3-D Docking Sensor Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Michigan Aerospace Corporation has been funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) over the past several years...

  1. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  2. The amazing normal forces

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is written for students in introductory physics classes to address some of the common difficulties and misconceptions of the normal force, especially the relationship between normal and friction forces. Accordingly, it is intentionally informal and conversational in tone to teach students how to build an intuition to complement mathematical formalism. This is accomplished by beginning with common and everyday experience and then guiding students toward two realizations: (i) Th...

  3. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    general officer statistics bear out that the group is 94% white and only 7% female as opposed to the overall Air Force population that is 72% white and 20...programmed, over time, to think about skin color and gender. The Air Force is trying to change this programming by adding other words to describe...Officer Corps, those officers in the ranks of O-7 through O-10 indicates that cohort of officers is 94% white and only 7% female. Since officer

  4. Rapid Development: A Content Analysis Comparison of Literature and Purposive Sampling of AFRL Rapid Reaction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    warning for incoming German bombers (Brown, 1999). The Culin Hedgerow Cutter was adapted from steel obstacles (originally emplaced by the German army...and attached to the front of Sherman tanks allowing the breaching of hedgerows to counter German emplacements in confined fields in the taking of the...Government Accounting Office. DoD Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapons Programs. Washington: GPO, 30 March 2010 Guttman, Jon, “French Hedgerows

  5. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National ...

  6. A simple force platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde-Petersen, F

    1975-01-01

    The force platform consists of a sandwhich of steel, Rockwool and concrete plates about 900 X 700 mm in surface. Four steel rings were bolted to the under side of the steel plate in each corner. Each steel ring was furnished with only one strain gauge, two of which were placed on the outer- respectively on the inner side of each ring. The four strain gauges were connected to a measuring bridge. Before mounting the rings on the steel plate, the sensitivity to pressure of each ring was adjusted in such a way that they were all similar. Because of this the platform responded with a signal which was independent of where a pressure was applied within the surface of the platform. The platform showed a rectilinear response for static forces up to 500 kp with a stable zero value. In response to dynamic forces the platform showed a resononance frequency of about 50 Hz, with a damping factor of 0.15. Calibration of dynamic forces was carried out by calculation of the forces during a vertical jump compared with what would be expected from the time of flight also registered by the platform-measuring-bridge-ink-writer-set-up. The time of flight was significantly higher (11%) than exected from the time-force relations beforetake-off. This was esplained partly by the relatively low damping factor in the system, partly by the subjects not extending their knees at landing on the platform.

  7. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  8. Forced marriage, forced sex: the perils of childhood for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, M; Sen, P; Thomson, M

    1998-11-01

    A recently formed interagency Forum on the Rights of Girls and Women in Marriage is investigating the widespread problem of nonconsensual marriage and forced sex and advocating for legislative and policy initiatives. This article reviews three research projects in this area: research by Anti-Slavery International on child marriage in parts of West Africa, an investigation by Save the Children of children's views of early marriage, and research conducted by CHANGE on women's resistance to domestic violence in Calcutta, India. Girls who marry before 15 years of age are more likely to be illiterate than their older counterparts, more likely to be dowry payment brides, less likely to come into contact with development projects, have higher rates of infant mortality, and are most vulnerable to sexual violence. In many cases, intercourse is initiated before the girl begins to menstruate. Although adult women also face sexual violence within marriage, this problem is all the more traumatic for girls who lack any information about sexuality. Sex with girls below a certain age is usually covered by rape legislation, but, in countries such as India, this is mitigated by the religiously defined personal laws. The absence of adequate legal and policy action frameworks to deal with the rights of girls, coupled with the lack of sanctions against these abuses, comprise state complicity and neglect of duty under international law to this vulnerable group.

  9. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  10. Radiology Architecture Project Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Raymond W; Hogan, Laurie; Teshima, Satoshi; Davidson, Scott

    2017-12-19

    The rapid pace of technologic advancement and increasing expectations for patient- and family-friendly environments make it common for radiology leaders to be involved in imaging remodel and construction projects. Most radiologists and business directors lack formal training in architectural and construction processes but are expected to play significant and often leading roles in all phases of an imaging construction project. Avoidable mistakes can result in significant increased costs and scheduling delays; knowledgeable participation and communication can result in a final product that enhances staff workflow and morale and improves patient care and experience. This article presents practical guidelines for preparing for and leading a new imaging architectural and construction project. We share principles derived from the radiology and nonradiology literature and our own experience over the past decade completely remodeling a large pediatric radiology department and building a full-service outpatient imaging center. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces A Monograph by MAJ Grant A. Brown British Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Grant A. Brown 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Grant A. Brown a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area

  12. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Takuya; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not needed. Nevertheless, it is often asserted that the tidal force can be explained by the centrifugal force. If we literally take into account the centrifugal force, it would mislead us. We therefore also discuss the proper treatment of the centrifugal force.

  13. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  14. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  15. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  16. XY Systems' project management office

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley, David

    2005-01-01

    XY Systems' (XY) competitive advantage stems from reputation and an ability to build long-term relationships. Both XY and its clients benefit from their long-standing relationships. The technology industry is highly competitive and competitors will use every opportunity to tarnish XY's reputation. Recently, XY's clients expressed dissatisfaction at XY's lack of Project Management (PM) skills. In addition, XY's management cannot understand the status of all XY's projects because of XY's rapid ...

  17. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  18. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  19. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  20. 13 CFR 305.7 - Services performed by the Recipient's own forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Recipient's own forces. 305.7 Section 305.7 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... Approved Projects § 305.7 Services performed by the Recipient's own forces. In certain circumstances, the... employed by the Recipient either full-time or part-time. EDA may approve the use of such “in-house forces...

  1. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  2. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  3. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerkoetter, R.; Schumann, U. [DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Phys. der Atmosphaere; Doelling, D.R.; Minnis, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Nakajima, T.; Tsushima, Y. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Center for Climate System Research

    1999-08-01

    A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, midlatitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm{sup -2} daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover. (orig.) 78 refs.

  4. Project management skills prove invaluable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Louise

    2008-09-01

    IHEEM business development manager Louise Corfield examines the role of project management in the skill set of today's healthcare estates and facilities manager, and explains how the Institute has joined forces with a number of organisations to offer members access to training in this increasingly vital area.

  5. Gates Precast Concrete User Project Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective of the project was to demonstrate the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced ABS plastic and the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology to rapidly manufacture molds for the precast concrete industry.

  6. Electro-Optic Tunable Laser Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a compact, rugged, rapidly and widely tunable laser based on a quantum cascade diode laser at...

  7. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Boucher, Olivier; Haigh, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Haywood, J.; Myhre, G.; Nakajima, Takahito; Shi, Guangyu; Solomon, S.; Betts, Robert E.; Charlson, R.; Chuang, C. C.; Daniel, J. S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Feichter, J.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Forster, P. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Jones, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lean, J.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Minschwaner, K.; Penner, Joyce E.; Roberts, D. L.; Rodhe, H.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Schneider, T. L.; Schumann, U.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Schwartzkopf, M. D.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, Steven J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Stordal, F.; Tegen, I.; van Dorland, R.; Zhang, Y.; Srinivasan, J.; Joos, Fortunat

    2001-10-01

    Chapter 6 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 6.1 Radiative Forcing 6.2 Forcing-Response Relationship 6.3 Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases 6.4 Stratospheric Ozone 6.5 Radiative Forcing By Tropospheric Ozone 6.6 Indirect Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.8 The Indirect Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.9 Stratospheric Aerosols 6.10 Land-use Change (Surface Albedo Effect) 6.11 Solar Forcing of Climate 6.12 Global Warming Potentials hydrocarbons 6.13 Global Mean Radiative Forcings 6.14 The Geographical Distribution of the Radiative Forcings 6.15 Time Evolution of Radiative Forcings Appendix 6.1 Elements of Radiative Forcing Concept References.

  8. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...... and engineering. In the latest version of ForcePAD an optimization module was added to enable to take advantage of topology optimization in the design process....

  9. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social......This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  10. Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

  11. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  12. Forced Detachment of the CD2-CD58 Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bayas, M.V.; Schulten, K; Leckband, D.

    2003-01-01

    The force-induced detachment of the adhesion protein complex CD2-CD58 was studied by steered molecular dynamics simulations. The forced detachment of CD2 and CD58 shows that the system can respond to an external force by two mechanisms, which depend on the loading rate. At the rapid loading rates of 70 and 35 pN/ps (pulling speeds of 1 and 0.5 Å/ps) the two proteins unfold before they separate, whereas at slower loading rates of 7 and 3.5 pN/ps (pulling speeds of 0.1 and 0.05 Å/ps), the prote...

  13. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  14. Air Force Security Forces Professionalism: Useful Insights for Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Air Force Security Forces Professionalism· tns19hts for Leaders Secrest Justin D .. Major, USAF USMC Command and Staff...corporateness characteristics as theorized by Samuel P. Huntingon, yields helpful insights for current and future-generation leaders . Huntington theorizes...theory, this analysis examines professoonalism in Air Force Security Forces. Security Forces expertise developed as career field leaders constantly

  15. Brown algal morphogenesis: Atomic Force Microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eTesson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves and tide, in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization, deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  16. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro......- as well as macro-level concerns around projects; and (2) there has been a greater interest in different kinds of scholarly inquiry. Taken together, these two developments call for closer scrutiny of how the levels of analysis and the types of inquiry are related and benefit each other...... project research: (1) levels of analysis; and (2) type of research. Analysing recent developments within project studies, we observe the emergence of what we refer to as type 3 research, which reconciles the need for theoretical development and engagement with practice. Type 3 research suggests pragmatic...

  17. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  18. The Cytoskeleton and Force Response Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip Goodwin

    2003-01-01

    The long term aim of this project was to define the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the physical forces experienced at 1g and missing in microgravity. Identification and characterization of the elements of the cells force response mechanism could provide pathways and molecules to serve as targets for pharmacological intervention to mitigate the pathologic effects of microgravity. Mechanical forces experienced by the organism can be transmitted to cells through molecules that allow cells to bind to the extracellular matrix and through other types of molecules which bind cells to each other. These molecules are coupled in large complexes of proteins to structural elements such as the actin cytoskeleton that give the cell the ability to sense, resist and respond to force. Application of small forces to tissue culture cells causes local elevation of intracellular calcium through stretch activated ion channels, increased tyrosine phosphorylation and a restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton. Using collagen coated iron oxide beads and strong magnets, we can apply different levels of force to cells in culture. We have found that force application causes the cells to polymerize actin at the site of mechanical deformation and unexpectedly, to depolymerize actin across the rest of the cell. Observations of GFP- actin expressing cells demonstrate that actin accumulates at the site of deformation within the first five minutes of force application and is maintained for many tens of minutes after force is removed. Consistent with the reinforcement of the cytoskeletal structures underlying the integrin-bead interaction, force also alters the motion of bound magnetic beads. This effect is seen following the removal of the magnetic field, and is only partially ablated by actin disruption with cytochalsin B. While actin is polymerizing locally at the site of force application, force also stimulates a global reduction in actin filament content within the cells. We have

  19. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams.

  20. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," ... (48 minutes) "Momentum ...

  1. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  2. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  3. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms of nu...... contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue....

  4. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  5. The Dynamic Force Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…

  6. Wearing Forces Spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Graham

    2012-01-01

    When providing training to teachers struggling with the concept of forces, the author encourages them to start with something within the experience of the children they are teaching. For example, show them photographs taken on windy days, such as that of a tree, and ask them to explain what is happening. This encourages the children to focus on…

  7. Perpendicular-Force Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, John P.; Buck, Peter A.; Williams, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Latching mechanism simultaneously applies force in two perpendicular directions to install or remove electronic-equipment modules. Used to simplify installation and removal of modular equipment where movement restricted by protective clothing as in hazardous environments or where installation and removal to be performed by robots or remote manipulators. Concept adaptable to hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical systems.

  8. Atomic Force Microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological Systems ... Transcription and Disease Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 ...

  9. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  10. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    and their relationships to organizational success. Based on these results, the authors discovered that organizational enablers (including key factors such as leadership, governance, and influence of project managers) have a critical impact on how organizations operate, adapt to market fluctuations and forces, and make...... essential changes over time. This must-read book is a practical guide for executives and project managers alike. The insights and industry examples provided can be applied to any project-based organization......., Organizational Enablers for Project Governance, Ralf Müller, Jingting Shao, and Sofia Pemsel examine the interaction of governance and governmentality in various types of companies and demonstrate how these factors drive business success and influence project work, efficiency, and profitability. The data...

  11. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  12. Cadherin interaction probed by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, W.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Ness, W.; Raab, A.; Vestweber, D.; Schindler, H.; Drenckhahn, D.

    2000-04-01

    Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. In physiological buffer, the external domain of VE-cadherin dimers is a 20-nm-long rod-shaped molecule that collapses and dissociates into monomers (V-shaped structures) in the absence of Ca2+. Trans-interaction of dimers is a low-affinity reaction (KD = 10-3-10-5 M, koff = 1.8 s-1, kon = 103-105 M-1·s-1) with relatively low unbinding force (35-55 pN at retrace velocities of 200-4,000 nm·s-1). Higher order unbinding forces, that increase with interaction time, indicate association of cadherins into complexes with cumulative binding strength. These observations favor a model by which the inherently weak unit binding strength and affinity of cadherin trans-interaction requires clustering and cytoskeletal immobilization for amplification. Binding is regulated by low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites (KD = 1.15 mM) with high cooperativity (Hill coefficient of 5.04). Local changes of free extracellular Ca2+ in the narrow intercellular space may be of physiological importance to facilitate rapid remodeling of intercellular adhesion and communication.

  13. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects:the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder...

  14. Rapid Tools Compensation in Sheet Metal Stamping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorio Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden growth of additive manufacturing is generating a renovated interest towards the field of rapid tooling. We propose a geometrical compensation method for rapid tools made by thermoset polyurethane. The method is based on the explicit FEM simulation coupled to a geometrical optimization algorithm for designing the stamping tools. The compensation algorithm is enhanced by considering the deviations between the stamped and designed components. The FEM model validation has been performed by comparing the results of a DOE done at different values of press force.

  15. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric

    2011-12-01

    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  16. Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit presentation from the WPTO FY14-FY16 Peer Review. The toolkit is aimed at regulatory agencies, consultants, project developers, the public, and any other party interested in learning more about the hydropower regulatory process.

  17. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  18. Biocytin: a neuronal tracer compatible with rapid decalcification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    1994-03-01

    The compatibility of neuronal tract-tracing and decalcification procedures was examined in salamander nasal chemosensory systems. Biocytin, but not horseradish peroxidase, retained its labeling capacity following rapid decalcification of the cranial bone. The combination of biocytin tract-tracing and decalcification procedures allows the visualization of labeled neurons and/or their projections within bony regions of intact specimens.

  19. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medakubu

    We here present a very preliminary report on a field project entitled 'Vanishing. Voices from Ghana's Middle Belt', an Endangered Languages Documentation Project funded by the Endangered Languages Documentation Program based at the School of. Oriental and African Studies, University of London. It is being carried ...

  20. Project Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies situations in which a project consisting of several activities is not executed as planned.It is divided into three parts.The first part analyzes the case where the activities may be delayed; this possibly induces a delay on the project as a whole with additional costs.Associated

  1. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming ... Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE A DONATION Your gift will help us ...

  2. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  3. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  4. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  5. Mass Balance Evolution of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, 1980–2100, and Its Implications for Surge Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kienholz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surge-type Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, has undergone strong retreat since it last surged in 1936–1937. To assess its evolution during the late Twentieth and Twenty-first centuries and determine potential implications for surge likelihood, we run a simplified glacier model over the periods 1980–2015 (hindcasting and 2015–2100 (forecasting. The model is forced by daily temperature and precipitation fields, with downscaled reanalysis data used for the hindcasting. A constant climate scenario and an RCP 8.5 scenario based on the GFDL-CM3 climate model are employed for the forecasting. Debris evolution is accounted for by a debris layer time series derived from satellite imagery (hindcasting and a parametrized debris evolution model (forecasting. A retreat model accounts for the evolution of the glacier geometry. Model calibration, validation and parametrization rely on an extensive set of in situ and remotely sensed observations. To explore uncertainties in our projections, we run the glacier model in a Monte Carlo fashion, varying key model parameters and input data within plausible ranges. Our results for the hindcasting period indicate a negative mass balance trend, caused by atmospheric warming in the summer, precipitation decrease in the winter and surface elevation lowering (climate-elevation feedback, which exceed the moderating effects from increasing debris cover and glacier retreat. Without the 2002 rockslide deposits on Black Rapids' lower reaches, the mass balances would be more negative, by ~20% between the 2003 and 2015 mass-balance years. Despite its retreat, Black Rapids Glacier is substantially out of balance with the current climate. By 2100, ~8% of Black Rapids' 1980 area are projected to vanish under the constant climate scenario and ~73% under the RCP 8.5 scenario. For both scenarios, the remaining glacier portions are out of balance, suggesting continued retreat after 2100. Due to mass starvation, a surge in the Twenty

  6. Mass balance evolution of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, 1980-2100, and its implications for surge recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienholz, Christian; Hock, Regine; Truffer, Martin; Bieniek, Peter; Lader, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Surge-type Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, has undergone strong retreat since it last surged in 1936-37. To assess its evolution during the late 20th and 21st centuries and determine potential implications for surge likelihood, we run a simplified glacier model over the periods 1980-2015 (hindcasting) and 2015-2100 (forecasting). The model is forced by daily temperature and precipitation fields, with downscaled reanalysis data used for the hindcasting. A constant climate scenario and an RCP 8.5 scenario based on the GFDL-CM3 climate model are employed for the forecasting. Debris evolution is accounted for by a debris layer time series derived from satellite imagery (hindcasting) and a parametrized debris evolution model (forecasting). A retreat model accounts for the evolution of the glacier geometry. Model calibration, validation and parametrization rely on an extensive set of in situ and remotely sensed observations. To explore uncertainties in our projections, we run the glacier model in a Monte Carlo fashion, varying key model parameters and input data within plausible ranges. Our results for the hindcasting period indicate a negative mass balance trend, caused by atmospheric warming in the summer, precipitation decrease in the winter and surface elevation lowering (climate-elevation feedback), which exceed the moderating effects from increasing debris cover and glacier retreat. Without the 2002 rockslide deposits on Black Rapids' lower reaches, the mass balances would be more negative, by 20% between the 2003 and 2015 mass-balance years. Despite its retreat, Black Rapids Glacier is substantially out of balance with the current climate. By 2100, 8% of Black Rapids' 1980 area are projected to vanish under the constant climate scenario and 73% under the RCP 8.5 scenario. For both scenarios, the remaining glacier portions are out of balance, suggesting continued retreat after 2100. Due to mass starvation, a surge in the 21st century is unlikely. The projected

  7. Slow and fast responses of mean and extreme precipitation to different forcing in CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillmann, Jana; Stjern, Camilla Weum; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.

    2017-06-01

    We are investigating the fast and slow responses of changes in mean and extreme precipitation to different climate forcing mechanisms, such as greenhouse gas and solar forcing, to understand whether rapid adjustments are important for extreme precipitation. To disentangle the effect of rapid adjustment to a given forcing on the overall change in extreme precipitation, we use a linear regression method that has been previously applied to mean precipitation. Equilibrium experiments with preindustrial CO2 concentrations and reduced solar constant were compared with a four times CO2 concentration experiment for 10 state-of-the-art climate models. We find that the two forcing mechanisms, greenhouse gases and solar, impose clearly different rapid adjustment signals in the mean precipitation, while such difference is difficult to discern for extreme precipitation due to large internal variability. In contrast to mean precipitation, changes in extreme precipitation scale with surface temperature trends and do not seem to depend on the forcing mechanism.

  8. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  9. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    constructed in the 1940s and is currently operated by a contractor. Five lift stations move the wastewater from the main cantonment and housing...is present southeast of the scarp. The two aquifers are not hydraulically connected due to the presence of the fine-grained Sawdust Landing...trucks, heavy trucks, buses, engines, and motorcycles . Nonroad sources are aircraft, Affected Environment EA for Infrastructure at Shaw AFB 3-27

  10. Diverse Communications Project at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    pressure, slow-down in the volume of returned drilling muds, or visual observation of drilling material extruding to the surface. In the event of a...variable. Tadpoles probably eat algae (Jennings et al. 1992). Hayes and Tennant (1985) found invertebrates to be the most common food item of...during construction may cover algae and suffocate bottom-dwelling organisms, which could lead to a reduction in prey species and increase competition

  11. Environmental Assessment, Project MOUNTAINVIEW Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), and prairie vole (Microtus ochragaster). Common...communications ranges, interference with predator/prey detection, or habitat avoidance. More intense effects would include behavioral change, disorientation, or

  12. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-17

    Esc"tadr6n para Ja Es<uadr6n 96 de Reserva p:,ra Entl’(!n.arniento dr Vuclo c. Constru.ir un Centro Ed.ucati\\’O ConsoUdado para Actividades ...Estudjantiles d . Construir una lnstalaci6n par• el Mantenimiento del Campo de Golf e. Con.(l.truir un Tllnel dP Lava do Aut6matil pa.ro Carros f

  13. An Assessment of Modeling and Simulation Tools for Force Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummer, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Lessons learned from Operation Desert Storm and subsequent small scale contingencies resulted in the development and refinement of joint doctrine for mobilization, deployment/redeployment, airlift...

  14. Robust Six-axis Force and Torque Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of automated robotic tooling is required in a number of space missions. It is possible to have better tool control if the robotic arm could report loads...

  15. Steering of Solar Sails Using Optical Lift Force Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study seeks to look beyond the use of radiation pressure for thrust, and to explore a means of solar navigation whereby a solar craft would be steered by use...

  16. Versatile Fiber Optic 6-Component Force Measurement System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission of NASA's ATP is to maintain and advance the testing capabilities of the United States' extensive infrastructure of aerospace research facilities. One...

  17. Air Force Project Risk Management - The Impact of Inconsistent Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    decision for a qualitative research approach ( Creswell , 2007). Even though the assumptions thus far are logically grounded in the literature and the...validated through a qualitative grounded theory research study. The study was designed to interview a pool of twenty subjects who represented a wide... qualitative grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze interview data from a number of research subjects. The initial information found in the

  18. Force Projection in the Punic Wars: Contrasting Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    established a loose conglomeration of cities along the banks of the Mediterranean basin in order to allow for mercantile ships to travel relatively safely......that those goals are deemed sufficiently important. Thus, with Carthage’s government organized predominantly to further its constituents’ mercantile

  19. Sustainability in Project Management: Reality Bites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert Gilbert Silvius; Ron Schipper; Snezana Nedeski

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between project management and sustainable development is rapidly gaining interest from both practitioners and academics. Studies on the integration of the concepts of sustainability into project management, approach this topic mostly from a conceptual, logical or moral point of

  20. Force Feedback Joystick

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    I-FORCE, a computer peripheral from Immersion Corporation, was derived from virtual environment and human factors research at the Advanced Displays and Spatial Perception Laboratory at Ames Research Center in collaboration with Stanford University Center for Design Research. Entrepreneur Louis Rosenberg, a former Stanford researcher, now president of Immersion, collaborated with Dr. Bernard Adelstein at Ames on studies of perception in virtual reality. The result was an inexpensive way to incorporate motors and a sophisticated microprocessor into joysticks and other game controllers. These devices can emulate the feel of a car on the skid, a crashing plane, the bounce of a ball, compressed springs, or other physical phenomenon. The first products incorporating I-FORCE technology include CH- Products' line of FlightStick and CombatStick controllers.

  1. Suicide and forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2013-03-01

    The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.

  2. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  3. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    bases and missions toward an enterprise solution for incorporating smart technologies in the future (defined in the Information Environment Mission... technology might enrich and protect our nation, businesses, and lives. As a human-centric design center, we seek out unique ways to connect Air Force...warfighters with current and future technology in meaningful ways. We look to transfer, license, and share promising prototypes, solutions, and knowledge

  4. Is Gravity Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.

  5. Health of the Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    for disease preven- tion which can also reduce the transmission of other sexually transmitted infec- tions (STIs). However, rates are considered con...65 HEALTH OF THE FORCE Chlamydia Sexually transmitted infections such as chla- mydia can impact medical readiness and Soldier well-being. Most...particularly among women , who may experience pelvic inflammatory disease , ec- topic pregnancy, and infertility. Therefore, it is rec- ommended that

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Upgrade and Construction of the Eielson Air Force Base Rail Line, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Eielson AFB. Common species include moose (A/ces a/ces), black bear (Ursus americanus), grizzly bear (U. arctos), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus...and Revisions Keith Guyer, P.G, Project Manager B.S. Geology Years of Experience: 30 EA: Draft EA Review 28 5.0 LIST OF AGENCIES AND PERSONS...Force Subcontractor amber@tutkallc.com Mr .. Keith Guyer, Tutka, 907-272-8010 Draft EA Review LLCIAir Force Subcontractor keith @tutkallc.com Judith E

  7. SAMURAI Project at RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Chiga, N.; Isobe, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kusaka, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Motobayashi, T.; Murakami, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Ohnishi, T.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Sato, H.; Satou, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Togano, Y.; Yoneda, K.

    2011-09-01

    SAMURAI project aims to open a new research field in nuclear physics by the use of a large acceptance spectrometer for kinematically complete measurements of multiple particles emitted in RI-beam induced reactions. The SAMURAI spectrometer consists of a large gap superconducting dipole magnet, heavy ion detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. What is special about the SAMURAI system is that projectile-rapidity protons or neutrons are detected with large angular and momentum acceptance in coincidence with heavy projectile fragments. With an effective combination of these equipments, the SAMURAI system allows us to perform various experiments: electromagnetic dissociation, various direct reactions, polarized deuteron induced reactions, and EOS studies. SAMURAI project is currently underway at RIBF. The construction of the superconducting dipole magnet will start in autumn 2010 and finish in spring 2011. The detectors are also being constructed in parallel. The first commissioning run will be performed in early 2012.

  8. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  9. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  10. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  12. Projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, T Ewan

    2006-01-01

    This text explores the methods of the projective geometry of the plane. Some knowledge of the elements of metrical and analytical geometry is assumed; a rigorous first chapter serves to prepare readers. Following an introduction to the methods of the symbolic notation, the text advances to a consideration of the theory of one-to-one correspondence. It derives the projective properties of the conic and discusses the representation of these properties by the general equation of the second degree. A study of the relationship between Euclidean and projective geometry concludes the presentation. Nu

  13. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  14. Spin transverse force on spin current in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-10-28

    As a relativistic quantum mechanical effect, it is shown that the electron field exerts a transverse force on an electron spin 1/2 only if the electron is moving. The spin force, analogue to the Lorentz for an electron charge in a magnetic field, is perpendicular to the electric field and the spin current whose spin polarization is projected along the electric field. This spin-dependent force can be used to understand the Zitterbewegung of the electron wave packet with spin-orbit coupling and is relevant to the generation of the charge Hall effect driven by the spin current in semiconductors.

  15. Optimizing Global Force Management for Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    FORCE MANAGEMENT FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES by Emily A. LaCaille December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Paul L. Ewing Second Reader: Jeffrey...Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZING GLOBAL FORCE MANAGEMENT FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  16. Physics investigate the forces of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that the physical world works in certain ways? Skateboarders use force and motion to perform tricks. If you jump up as high as you can, you'll quickly fall back to the ground. Baseball players use gravity to bring the ball back down when they throw it. When you flip a switch, electricity powers your toaster. Rock bands use electricity to put on a show. The fascinating science of physics helps you understand why forces, motion, gravity, electricity, light, and sound work in predictable ways. Combining inquiry-based activities with physics topics, Physics: Investigate the Forces of Nature features graphic novel illustrations, fascinating sidebars, youtube links, and a glossary of important vocabulary to illuminate the complex world of physics and bring it to life. Projects include designing a skateboard park that maps the forces at work on the skateboarder and the skateboard, and creating a stage design for a rock band that places electric current where it is needed. Additional materials i...

  17. Computing Method of Forces on Rivet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology of forces calculation on rivet in single shear using the finite element method (FEM – NASTRAN/PATRAN. These forces can be used for the calculus of bearing, inter rivet buckling and riveting check. For this method to be efficient and fast, a macro has been developed based on this methodology described in the article. The macro was wrote in Visual Basic with Excel interface. In the beginning phase of any aircraft project, when the rivets type and position are not yet precisely known, the modelling of rivets, as attachment elements between items, is made node on node in the finite element model, without taking account of the rivets position. Although the rivets are not modelled in the finite element model, this method together with the macro enable a quick extraction and calculation of the forces on the rivet. This calculation of forces on rivet is intended to critical case, selected from the stress plots of NASTRAN for max. /min. principal stress and shear.

  18. Special Operations Forces and Conventional Forces: Integration, Interoperability, and Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    in enemy territory, working with indige - nous forces, and performing deep reconnais- sance, strikes, and raids. The 1993 version of the manual still...designated combat zones, like training and advising indig - enous security forces, and operating differently SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES AND CONVENTIONAL

  19. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  20. Force tracing: a method to sculpt the optical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Caloz, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    A brief description of the long-standing problem of the optical momentum in media and its resolution is given. The method of force tracing to trace optical force fields along the trajectories of light rays is reviewed and a few illustrative examples are shown. Then, based on the method of force tracing, several graded-index devices performing interesting optical manipulations are reviewed.

  1. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leading community engagement. Talk about the films on our message board . Watch films free online now "The ... ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" will expose the Alzheimer's crisis facing our nation and drive concerned citizens to take action. ...

  2. Project LEAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  3. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease has on those with Alzheimer's and their families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two ... way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . ...

  4. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available | News | Events | Press | Contact 24/7 Helpline: 1.800.272.3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End ...

  5. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... 800-272-3900 Find Your Local Chapter Get the facts 10 warning signs What is dementia What ...

  6. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . Become an Alzheimer's champion. Help support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO ...

  7. Alzheimer's Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming Events AAIC Advocacy Forum Rita Hayworth Gala - New York Rita Hayworth Gala - Chicago National Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness ...

  8. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," providing expert insight and leading community engagement. Talk about the films on our message ...

  9. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO ... from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The Memory Loss Tapes" was honored ...

  10. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's Project," produced with help from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The ... in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S ...

  11. Project Reptile!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  12. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO documentary "The Alzheimer's Project," produced with help from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The Memory Loss Tapes" was honored ...

  13. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  14. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  15. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  16. Grasping 2010 with Naval Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Roger

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on how naval combat forces should be employed in 2010. Narrowing that focus presumes the Nation will want to maintain capable forces to underwrite its security and that of its allies and friends around the globe...

  17. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  18. Evolution of Nuclear Many-Body Forces with the Similarity Renormalization Group

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgenson, E. D.; Navratil, P.; Furnstahl, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The first practical method to evolve many-body nuclear forces to softened form using the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) in a harmonic oscillator basis is demonstrated. When applied to He4 calculations, the two- and three-body oscillator matrix elements yield rapid convergence of the ground-state energy with a small net contribution of the induced four-body force.

  19. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment, Steam Decentralization Project, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    antillarum Least Tern E E Tyto alba Barn Owl SS2 Vireo atricapillus Black-Capped Vireo E Mammals Marmota monax Woodchuck SS2 Reptiles Phrynosoma...Occurring on Tinker AFB 1 Common Name Scientific Name State Rank American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos S3N Barn Owl Tyto alba SS2...pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), barn owl (Tyto alba), burrowing owl (Athene 14 cunicularia), migrant loggerhead shrike (Lanis ludovicianus

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Air Force Research Laboratory Security Fence Project, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    lizards, small rodents, large insects, amphibians , road-killed animals and carrion. Six sensitive bat species have been recorded during surveys at Edwards...cultural resources staff; and  The archaeological monitor shall record and be authorized to collect soil samples and artifactual/ecofactual material as...solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal); and wood and wood products. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are two GHGs released in the

  1. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  2. Why is the magnetic force similar to a Coriolis force?

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    It is pointed out that the underlying reason why the magnetic force is similar to a Coriolis force is that it is caused by Thomas rotations, induced by successions of non-collinear Lorentz boosts. The magnetic force may even be viewed as a kind of Coriolis force (making perhaps more acceptable the apparent non-existence of magnetic monopoles). We also show that under a change of inertial frames, Faraday lines of force Lorentz contract as if 'etched' in space, while 'Coriolis' terms get added on.

  3. Chemical Probes of Rapid Estrogen Signaling in Breast Cancer Treatment and Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherman, Rose V

    2007-01-01

    .... Over the course of the project, we synthesized and tested approximately 15 new estrogen receptor modulators, some with novel activity in terms of both classic transcriptional and rapid response modulation...

  4. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

    1996-05-02

    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  5. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  6. Causal Entropic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  7. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  8. Report on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs, Defense and Armed Forces Commission on the bill project, adopted by the National Assembly, related to the struggle against the proliferation of arms of massive destruction and their vectors; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees (1) sur le projet de loi, ADOPTE PAR L'ASSEMBLEE NATIONALE, relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report recalls the origins of the bill project which is the implementation of the UN Security Council resolution 1540, the aim of which was to promote the setting up of efficient tools to struggle against proliferation. The bill project aims at updating and reinforcing the existing law arsenal. The report also contains remarks made by the Commission. The bill project addresses several issues: the struggle against proliferation of arms of massive destruction (nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, biological weapons, and chemical weapons), the struggle against proliferation of vectors of arms of massive destruction, double-use goods, the use of these weapons and vectors in acts of terrorism

  9. A Management and Selection System for R&D Projects, Volume II - Project Management System and Project Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Harpal S.; Entingh, Daniel J.

    1978-05-01

    This report in three volumes describes an R&D project management and selection system developed for the Utilization Technology Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy, Department of Energy. The proposed project management system (PMS) consists of a project data system (PDS) and a project selection procedure (PSP). The project data system consists of a series of project data forms and project status logs, and descriptions of information pathways. The PDS emphasizes timely monitoring of the technical and financial progress of projects, maintenance of the history of the project and rapid access to project information to facilitate responsive reporting to DGE and DOE upper management. The project selection procedure emphasizes an R&D product-oriented approach to benefit/cost analysis of individual projects. The report includes: (a) a description of the system, and recommendations for its implementation, (b) the PDS forms and an explanation of their use, (c) a glossary of terms for use on the forms, (d) a description of the benefit/cost approach, (e) a data base for estimating R&D benefits, and (f) examples of test applications of the system to nine current DGE projects. This volume discusses the proposed Project Data System in detail. It describes information needs and flow paths, and an information collection and storage system. Appendices contain the data forms for the system, and a glossary of terms and standard phrases for use on the forms.

  10. Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C; Wang, James S; Koch, Dorothy M; Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T; Bauer, Susanne

    2010-02-23

    A much-cited bar chart provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change displays the climate impact, as expressed by radiative forcing in watts per meter squared, of individual chemical species. The organization of the chart reflects the history of atmospheric chemistry, in which investigators typically focused on a single species of interest. However, changes in pollutant emissions and concentrations are a symptom, not a cause, of the primary driver of anthropogenic climate change: human activity. In this paper, we suggest organizing the bar chart according to drivers of change-that is, by economic sector. Climate impacts of tropospheric ozone, fine aerosols, aerosol-cloud interactions, methane, and long-lived greenhouse gases are considered. We quantify the future evolution of the total radiative forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions by sector, most relevant for the development of climate policy now, and focus on two specific time points, near-term at 2020 and long-term at 2100. Because sector profiles differ greatly, this approach fosters the development of smart climate policy and is useful to identify effective opportunities for rapid mitigation of anthropogenic radiative forcing.

  11. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  12. Magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Daniele; Dong, Chunhua; Reggente, Melania; Angeloni, Livia; Barteri, Mario; Scaramuzzo, Francesca A; De Angelis, Francesca; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Antonelli, Flavia; Rinaldi, Federica; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Sorbo, Angela; Sordi, Daniela; Arends, Isabel WCE; Rossi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based technique in which an AFM tip with a magnetic coating is used to probe local magnetic fields with the typical AFM spatial resolution, thus allowing one to acquire images reflecting the local magnetic properties of the samples at the nanoscale. Being a well established tool for the characterization of magnetic recording media, superconductors and magnetic nanomaterials, MFM is finding constantly increasing application in the study of magnetic properties of materials and systems of biological and biomedical interest. After reviewing these latter applications, three case studies are presented in which MFM is used to characterize: (i) magnetoferritin synthesized using apoferritin as molecular reactor; (ii) magnetic nanoparticles loaded niosomes to be used as nanocarriers for drug delivery; (iii) leukemic cells labeled using folic acid-coated core-shell superparamagnetic nanoparticles in order to exploit the presence of folate receptors on the cell membrane surface. In these examples, MFM data are quantitatively analyzed evidencing the limits of the simple analytical models currently used. Provided that suitable models are used to simulate the MFM response, MFM can be used to evaluate the magnetic momentum of the core of magnetoferritin, the iron entrapment efficiency in single vesicles, or the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into cells. PMID:25050758

  13. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  14. Force-gradient sensitive Kelvin probe force microscopy by dissipative electrostatic force modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) implementation using the dissipation signal of a frequency modulation atomic force microscopy that is capable of detecting the gradient of electrostatic force rather than electrostatic force. It features a simple implementation and faster scanning as it requires no low frequency modulation. We show that applying a coherent ac voltage with two times the cantilever oscillation frequency induces the dissipation signal proportional to the electrost...

  15. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  16. Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing

    1987-07-01

    A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.

  17. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  18. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  19. Force oscillations simulating breathing maneuvers do not prevent force adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Chris; Jiao, Yuekan; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D; Bossé, Ynuk

    2012-07-01

    Airway inflammation in patients with asthma exposes the airway smooth muscle (ASM) to a variety of spasmogens. These spasmogens increase ASM tone, which can lead to force adaptation. Length oscillations of ASM, which occur in vivo due to breathing maneuvers, can attenuate force adaptation. However, in the presence of tone, the force oscillations required to achieve these length oscillations may be unphysiologic (i.e., magnitude greater than the ones achieved due to the swings in transpulmonary pressure required for breathing). In the present study, we applied force oscillations simulating the tension oscillations experienced by the wall of a fourth-generation airway during tidal breathing with or without deep inspirations (DI) to ASM. The goal was to investigate whether force adaptation occurs in conditions mimicking breathing maneuvers. Tone was induced by carbachol (average, 20 nM), and the force-generating capacity of the ASM was assessed at 5-minute intervals before and after carbachol administration using electrical field stimulations (EFS). The results show that force oscillations applied before the introduction of tone had a small effect on the force produced by EFS (declined to 96.8% [P > 0.05] and 92.3% [P breathing oscillations (25%). These force oscillations did not prevent force adaptation (gain of force of 11.2 ± 2.2 versus 13.5 ± 2.7 and 11.2 ± 3.0% in static versus dynamic conditions with or without DI, respectively). The lack of effect of simulated breathing maneuvers on force adaptation suggests that this gain in ASM force may occur in vivo and could contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.

  20. A Feasibility Study of Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines Using a Generic Air Force Model (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Eric A. Jordan Mr. Richard Millar Controls & EHM Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH... EHM ). He is involved with JSF related projects, VAATE and SBIR funded projects and others in Controls and EHM underway in industry. He has a BSEE