WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid force exercises

  1. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P muscles is highly responsive......Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well...... as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg...

  2. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  3. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  4. Compact, Controlled Force Crew Exercise System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceflight adaptations include muscle atrophy, decreased bone mineral density and reduced aerobic capacity making effective resistance exercise countermeasure...

  5. Revisiting the Force-Joint Angle Relationship After Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Molly C; Allen, David L; Batliner, Matthew E; Byrnes, William C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate force-angle curve fitting techniques pre-eccentric exercise, quantify changes in curve characteristics postexercise, and examine the relationship between curve changes and markers of muscle damage. Fourteen males unaccustomed to eccentric exercise performed 60 eccentric muscle actions of the elbow flexors. Maximal voluntary isometric force was measured throughout a range of angles pre- (Pre1 and Pre2), immediately post (IP), and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days postexercise. Force-angle curves for each visit were constructed using second-order polynomials. Changes in curve characteristics (optimal angle, peak force, curve height), range of motion, soreness, and creatine kinase activity were quantified. Optimal joint angle and force at optimal angle were significantly correlated from Pre1 to Pre2 (ICC = 0.821 and 0.979, respectively). Optimal angle was significantly right shifted (p = 0.035) by 10.4 ± 12.9° from Pre2 to IP and was restored by 1 day post exercise. Interestingly, the r value for curve fit was significantly decreased (p exercise (r = 0.750). Curve height was significantly decreased (39%) IP and restored to pre-exercise height by 4 days postexercise. There was no correlation between optimal angle or curve height and other damage markers. In conclusion, force-angle relationships can be accurately described using second-order polynomials. After eccentric exercise, the force-angle curve is flattened and shifted (downward and rightward), but these changes are not correlated to other markers of muscle damage. Changes in the force-angle relationship are multifaceted, but determining the physiological significance of these changes requires further investigation.

  6. Achilles tendinopathy modulates force frequency characteristics of eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Nicole L; Wearing, Scott C; O'Toole, John M; Smeathers, James E

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that ground reaction force (GRF) recorded during eccentric ankle exercise is characterized by greater power in the 8- to 12-Hz bandwidth when compared with that recorded during concentric ankle exercise. Subsequently, it was suggested that vibrations in this bandwidth may underpin the beneficial effect of eccentric loading in tendon repair. However, this observation has been made only in individuals without Achilles tendinopathy. This research compared the force frequency characteristics of eccentric and concentric exercises in individuals with and without Achilles tendinopathy. Eleven male adults with unilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy and nine control male adults without tendinopathy participated in the research. Kinematics and GRF were recorded while the participants performed a common eccentric rehabilitation exercise protocol and a concentric equivalent. Ankle joint kinematics and the frequency power spectrum of the resultant GRF were calculated. Eccentric exercise was characterized by a significantly greater proportion of spectral power between 4.5 and 11.5 Hz when compared with concentric exercise. There were no significant differences between limbs in the force frequency characteristics of concentric exercise. Eccentric exercise, in contrast, was defined by a shift in the power spectrum of the symptomatic limb, resulting in a second spectral peak at 9 Hz, rather than 10 Hz in the control limb. Compared with healthy tendon, Achilles tendinopathy was characterized by lower frequency vibrations during eccentric rehabilitation exercises. This finding may be associated with changes in neuromuscular activation and tendon stiffness that have been shown to occur with tendinopathy and provides a possible rationale for the previous observation of a different biochemical response to eccentric exercise in healthy and injured Achilles tendons.

  7. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  8. Transmission of muscle force to fascia during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Thomas; Chaudhry, Hans; Dhar, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    As the muscle contracts, fibers get thicker, forcing the fascial tubular layers surrounding the muscle (endomysium, perimysium and epimysium) to expand in diameter and hence to shorten in length. We develop a mathematical model to determine the fraction of force generated by extremity muscles during contraction that is transmitted to the surrounding tubes of fascia. Theory of elasticity is used to determine the modulus of elasticity, radial strain and the radial stress transmitted to the fascia. Starting with published data on dimensions of muscle and muscle force, we find radial stress is 50% of longitudinal stress in the soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and elbow flexor and extensor muscles. Substantial stress is transmitted to fascia during muscular exercise, which has implications for exercise therapies if they are designed for fascial as well as muscular stress. This adds additional perspective to myofascial force transmission research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority, as...

  10. Delayed Effect of Blood-Flow-Restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets...... and rapid force capacity (e.g. RTD) as well as evoked twitch contractile parameters was assessed before (Pre) and 5 and 12 days after training (Post5, Post12). Muscle biopsies were obtained Pre, after 8 days (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days post training (Post3, Post10) to examine changes in myofiber area...... exercise performed with blood-flow restriction leads to marked increases in rapid force capacity (RTD). However, a general delayed adaptive response was observed for voluntary contractile parameters (including RTD) in parallel with a decline and subsequent recovery in evoked contractile properties...

  11. Exercise Design for the Joint Force 2020 Brigade Combat Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    actual combat. EXERCISE DESIGN FOR THE JOINT FORCE 2020 BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM In the 21st century, we do not have the luxury of deciding...businesses, painting contractors, gas stations and garages, and auto dealerships. There should also be banks and money lenders, restaurants and cafes... hotels , internet cafes, public utilities and associated infrastructure, as well as newspapers and radio stations. In addition to the portrayal of

  12. 10 CFR 1049.7 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force. 1049.7 Section 1049.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.7 Exercise of arrest authority...

  13. Fatigue-induced dissociation between rate of force development and maximal force across repeated rapid contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether the presence of fatigue induced by prolonged running influenced the time courses of force generating capacities throughout a series of intermittent rapid contractions. Thirteen male amateur runners performed a set of 15 intermittent isometric rapid contractions of the knee extensor muscles, (3s/5s on/off) the day before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) a half marathon. The maximal voluntary contraction force, rate of force development (RFDpeak), and their ratio (relative RFDpeak) were calculated. At POST, considering the first (out of 15) repetition, the maximal force and RFDpeak decreased (p<0.0001) at the same extent (by 22±6% and 24±22%, respectively), resulting in unchanged relative RFDpeak (p=0.6). Conversely, the decline of RFDpeak throughout the repetitions was more pronounced at POST (p=0.02), thus the decline of relative RFDpeak was more pronounced (p=0.007) at POST (-25±13%) than at PRE (-3±13%). The main finding of this study was that the fatigue induced by a half-marathon caused a more pronounced impairment of rapid compared to maximal force in the subsequent intermittent protocol. Thus, the fatigue-induced impairment in rapid muscle contractions may have a greater effect on repeated, rather than on single, attempts of maximal force production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Combined Aerobic and High-Force Eccentric Resistance Exercise With Aerobic Exercise Only for People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Robin L.; Smith, Sheldon; Morrell, Glen; Addison, Odessa; Dibble, Leland E.; Wahoff-Stice, Donna; LaStayo, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes between a diabetes exercise training program using combined aerobic and high-force eccentric resistance exercise and a program of aerobic exercise only.

  15. Exercise habits in south Trinidad: motivating forces and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babwah, T J R; Nunes, P

    2010-10-01

    There are many benefits of regular exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the exercise habits and knowledge of the benefits of exercise in a south Trinidad population. This study also sought to determine the motivating factors for exercise and the barriers experienced by those who did not exercise. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 700 persons between the ages of 15-75-years in Princes Town, South Trinidad. The exercise habits of the population, the effect of age on exercise and the impact of knowledge of benefits of exercise on the desire to participate in exercise were determined. Of the 66.6% (95% CI: 62.6, 70.3) respondents who exercised, only 10.7% exercised adequately. Walking was the main form of exercise (60.6%). Health reasons were cited as the major motivating factor for exercising in the 60-75-year age group. Persons 15-59 years indicated that time constraints were the major reason for not exercising. Most participants (77.2%) felt that the healthcare provider should advise on exercise. Knowledge of at least one benefit of exercise increased the likelihood of exercising (p < 0.0001). Younger persons were more likely to exercise at least once weekly than older persons (p = 0.0002). A high proportion of persons do not exercise regularly or adequately and efforts are needed to encourage exercise in this population. This study suggests that encouragement should come from healthcare providers. Time management and accumulating daily exercise are two areas to consider when advising sedentary individuals about exercise.

  16. Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J R; Dizio, P

    1994-07-01

    1. Forward reaching movements made during body rotation generate tangential Coriolis forces that are proportional to the cross product of the angular velocity of rotation and the linear velocity of the arm. Coriolis forces are inertial forces that do not involve mechanical contact. Virtually no constant centrifugal forces will be present in the background when motion of the arm generates transient Coriolis forces if the radius of body rotation is small. 2. We measured the trajectories of arm movements made in darkness to a visual target that was extinguished as movement began. The reaching movements were made prerotation, during rotation at 10 rpm in a fully enclosed rotating room, and postrotation. During testing the subject was seated at the center of the room and pointed radially. Neither visual nor tactile feedback about movement accuracy was present. 3. In experiment 1, subjects reached at a fast or slow rate and their hands made contact with a horizontal surface at the end of the reach. Their initial perrotary movements were highly significantly deviated relative to prerotation in both trajectories and end-points in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces that had been generated during the reaches. Despite the absence of visual and tactile feedback about reaching accuracy, all subjects rapidly regained straight movement trajectories and accurate endpoints. Postrotation, transient errors of opposite sign were present for both trajectories and endpoints. 4. In a second experiment the conditions were identical except that subjects pointed just above the location of the extinguished target so that no surface contact was involved. All subjects showed significant initial perrotation deviations of trajectories and endpoints in the direction of the transient Coriolis forces. With repeated reaches the trajectories, as viewed from above, again became straight, but there was only partial restoration of endpoint accuracy, so that subjects reached in a straight

  17. An analytical model of the knee for estimation of internal forces during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, N; Fleisig, G S; Escamilla, R F; Barrentine, S W

    1998-10-01

    An analytical model of the knee joint was developed to estimate the forces at the knee during exercise. Muscle forces were estimated based upon electromyographic activities during exercise and during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), muscle fiber length at contraction and the maximum force produced by an unit PCSA under MVIC. Tibiofemoral compressive force and cruciate ligaments' tension were determined by using resultant force and torque at the knee, muscle forces, and orientations and moment arms of the muscles and ligaments. An optimization program was used to minimize the errors caused by the estimation of the muscle forces. The model was used in a ten-subject study of open kinetic chain exercise (seated knee extension) and closed kinetic chain exercises (leg press and squat). Results calculated with this model were compared to those from a previous study which did not consider muscle length and optimization. Peak tibiofemoral compressive forces were 3134 +/- 1040 N during squat, 3155 +/- 755 N during leg press and 3285 +/- 1927 N during knee extension. Peak posterior cruciate ligament tensions were 1868 +/- 878 N during squat, 1866 +/- 383 N during leg press and 959 +/- 300 N for seated knee extension. No significant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tension was found during leg press and squat. Peak ACL tension was 142 +/- 257 N during seated knee extension. It is demonstrated that the current model provided better estimation of knee forces during exercises, by preventing significant overestimates of tibiofemoral compressive forces and cruciate ligament tensions.

  18. A COMPARISON OF UPPER-EXTREMITY REACTION FORCES BETWEEN THE YURCHENKO VAULT AND FLOOR EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kirk Seeley

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05 during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38 than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15. Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise.

  19. Force and power characteristics of a resistive exercise device for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E.; Tesch, Per A.

    We have developed a non-gravity dependent mechanical device, which provides resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric muscle actions, through the inertia of a spinning fly-wheel (Fly-Wheel Ergometry; FWE). Our research shows that lower-limb FWE exercise can produce forces and thus muscular stress comparable to what is typical of advanced resistance training using free weights. FWE also offers greater training stimuli during eccentric relative to concentric muscle actions, as evidenced by force and electromyographic (EMG) measurements. Muscle use of specific muscle groups, as assessed by the exercise-induced contrast shift of magnetic resonance images, is similar during lower-limb FWE and the barbell squat. Unlike free-weight exercise, FWE allows for maximal voluntary effort in each repetition of an exercise bout. Likewise, FWE exercise, not unassisted free-weight exercise, produces eccentric "overload". Collectively, the inherent features of this resistive exercise device and the results of the physiological evaluations we have performed, suggest that resistance exercise using FWE could be used as an effective exercise counter-measure in space. The flywheel principle can be employed to any exercise configuration and designed into a compact device allowing for exercises stressing those muscles and bone structures, which are thought to be most affected by long-duration spaceflight.

  20. Effect of combined variation of force amplitude and rate of force development on the modulation characteristics of muscle activation during rapid isometric aiming force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E

    2006-01-01

    Studies of rapid target-directed limb movements have suggested that various control schemes can be defined by the modulation pattern of the muscle activity. The present study was aimed to address the question regarding the extent to which a simultaneous control of force amplitude, and rate of force development influences the modulation characteristics of muscle activation associated with producing rapid isometric aiming forces at the elbow joint. The subjects were instructed to produce rapid isometric force pulses to three different force amplitudes (15, 35, and 55% of their maximal voluntary contractions) under systematically varied force-rate conditions ranging from a fast and accurate force-rate to the fastest force-rate possible. The results showed that larger force amplitudes were achieved by increasing the rate of force development (d F/d t) while the time to peak force remained relatively constant. The magnitude of the electromyographic (EMG) burst systematically increased as a function of force amplitude at all force-rate conditions. The primary finding was that the characteristic of the EMG burst duration associated with different force amplitudes showed a significant difference among force-rate conditions. Under a fast and accurate force-rate condition, the duration of the agonist burst increased linearly with force amplitude. A gradual transition into a fixed duration of the agonist burst then was observed over the remaining three force-rate requirements. With increasingly faster force-rates, there were no changes in the agonist burst duration over three force amplitudes. These results indicate that the combined variations in force amplitude and force-rate examined relative to the most rapid force-rate influence the control patterns for the muscle activation during the fast isometric force production. Changes in the EMG modulation patterns observed are likely due to the constraints imposed by muscle contractile properties.

  1. PGC-1α mediates a rapid, exercise-induced downregulation of glycogenolysis in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jin Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Jung, Su Ryun; Holloszy, John O; Han, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise. The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in environment that necessitates prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation. This adaptation, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1α, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and is further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts. It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. PMID:25416622

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation attenuates the perception of force output production in non-exercised hand muscles after unilateral exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Stuart; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Voller, Bernhard; Lomarev, Mike; Howatson, Glyn; Dang, Nguyet; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether unilateral exercise creates perception bias in the non-exercised limb and ascertained whether rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) interferes with this perception. All participants completed 4 interventions: 1) 15-min learning period of intermittent isometric contractions at 35% MVC with the trained hand (EX), 2) 15-min learning period of intermittent isometric contractions at 35% MVC with the trained hand whilst receiving rTMS over the contralateral M1 (rTMS+EX); 3) 15-min of rTMS over the 'trained' M1 (rTMS) and 4) 15-min rest (Rest). Pre and post-interventions, the error of force output production, the perception of effort (RPE), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were measured in both hands. EX did not alter the error of force output production in the trained hand (Δ3%; P>0.05); however, the error of force output production was reduced in the untrained hand (Δ12%; Phand. EX increased RPE in the trained hand (9.1±0.5 vs. 11.3±0.7; Phand (8.8±0.6 vs. 9.2±0.6; P>0.05). RPE was significantly higher after rTMS+EX in the trained hand (9.2±0.5 vs. 10.7±0.7; Phand (8.5±0.6 vs. 9.2±0.5; P>0.05). The novel finding was that exercise alone reduced the error in force output production by over a third in the untrained hand. Further, when exercise was combined with rTMS the transfer of force perception was attenuated. These data suggest that the contralateral M1 of the trained hand might, in part, play an essential role for the transfer of force perception to the untrained hand.

  3. Physical exercise induces rapid release of small extracellular vesicles into the circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Frühbeis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs by default and in response to diverse stimuli for the purpose of cell communication and tissue homeostasis. EVs are present in all body fluids including peripheral blood, and their appearance correlates with specific physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we show that physical activity is associated with the release of nano-sized EVs into the circulation. Healthy individuals were subjected to an incremental exercise protocol of cycling or running until exhaustion, and EVs were isolated from blood plasma samples taken before, immediately after and 90 min after exercise. Small EVs with the size of 100–130 nm, that carried proteins characteristic of exosomes, were significantly increased immediately after cycling exercise and declined again within 90 min at rest. In response to treadmill running, elevation of small EVs was moderate but appeared more sustained. To delineate EV release kinetics, plasma samples were additionally taken at the end of each increment of the cycling exercise protocol. Release of small EVs into the circulation was initiated in an early phase of exercise, before the individual anaerobic threshold, which is marked by the rise of lactate. Taken together, our study revealed that exercise triggers a rapid release of EVs with the characteristic size of exosomes into the circulation, initiated in the aerobic phase of exercise. We hypothesize that EVs released during physical activity may participate in cell communication during exercise-mediated adaptation processes that involve signalling across tissues and organs.

  4. Effects of oncoming target velocities on rapid force production and accuracy of force production intensity and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi

    2016-12-12

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of oncoming target velocities on the ability of rapid force production and accuracy and variability of simultaneous control of both force production intensity and timing. Twenty male participants (age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rapid gripping with a handgrip dynamometer to coincide with the arrival of an oncoming target by using a horizontal electronic trackway. The oncoming target velocities were 4, 8, and 12 m · s(-1), which were randomly produced. The grip force required was 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Although the peak force (Pf) and rate of force development (RFD) increased with increasing target velocity, the value of the RFD to Pf ratio was constant across the 3 target velocities. The accuracy of both force production intensity and timing decreased at higher target velocities. Moreover, the intrapersonal variability in temporal parameters was lower in the fast target velocity condition, but constant variability in 3 target velocities was observed in force intensity parameters. These results suggest that oncoming target velocity does not intrinsically affect the ability for rapid force production. However, the oncoming target velocity affects accuracy and variability of force production intensity and timing during rapid force production.

  5. Forced exercise improves passive avoidance memory in morphine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadipour, K; Sarkaki, A; Alaei, H; Badavi, M; Rahim, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term forced exercise protocol on passive avoidance retention in morphine-exposed rats. Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of retention have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. Twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups including: (1) non-morphine-exposed without exercise (nA.nE) (2) non-morphine-exposed with exercise (nA.E) (3) morphine-exposed without exercise (A.nE) and (4) morphine-exposed with exercise (A.E). Rats ran as forced exercise on the motorized treadmill 1 h daily for ten days. Morphine-exposed animals received intraperitoneal morphine during first 5 days of the exercise period and their dependence to morphine was confirmed by naloxane admistration (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and withdrawal test. After 10 days of forced exercise, step down latency was tested and Inflexion Ratio (IR) was evaluated in each rat. Baseline step down latencies before any morphine exposing or exercise have shown no significant alteration in all groups. Inflexion Ratio (IR) ofnA.E group has increased significantly (pexercise on treadmill improved retention in both morphine-exposed and non morphine-exposed rats at least up to 7 days and more than 14 days, respectively. Alteration in retention between exercised groups may attribute the release of adrenal stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone because of the emotional arousal.

  6. Effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Asadi Rizi; Parham Reisi; Nooshin Naghsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The forced treadmill running can influence the opioid contents of the brain, through both effects of exercise and the effects of stress caused by coercion. Since opioids can cause negative effects on brain functions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental groups were the control, the exercise, the naloxone, and the naloxone exercise. The exerc...

  7. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga

    2011-01-01

    ) has often been used to evaluate the H/Q ratio, the ability to rapidly develop force (rate of force development [RFD]) is more relevant in relation to fast dynamic movements. The aim of this study was to introduce and investigate a rapid RFD H/Q strength ratio compared with the traditional MVC H...

  8. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia Friis

    2013-01-01

    the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1a, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day......The beneficial effect of exercise on hippocampal plasticity is possibly mediated by increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In angiogenesis insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1a) are important factors...... of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric...

  9. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg, forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise. Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001. This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  10. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (Pdiazepam and treated by forced exercise and Pdiazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  11. PGC-1α mediates a rapid, exercise-induced downregulation of glycogenolysis in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jin Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Jung, Su Ryun; Holloszy, John O; Han, Dong-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Long-term endurance exercise training results in a reduction in the rates of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation during submaximal exercise; this adaptation is mediated by an increase in muscle mitochondria. There is evidence suggesting that short-term training induces adaptations that downregulate glycogenolysis before there is an increase in functional mitochondria. We discovered that a single long bout of exercise induces decreases in expression of glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in rat skeletal muscle; this adaptation results in slower rates of glycogenolysis and lactic acid accumulation in muscle during contractile activity. Two additional days of training amplified the adaptive response, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1α; this adaptation is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are major causes of muscle fatigue. Endurance exercise training can increase the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise. The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in environment that necessitates prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation. This adaptation, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1α, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and is further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts. It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  12. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan P. Palstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (Uopt in m s-1 or body lengths s-1, BL s-1 were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at Uopt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. Uopt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145 mm, 206 mm and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: 1 0.70 m s-1 or 4.83 BL s-1, 2 0.82 m s-1 or 3.25 BL s-1 and 3 0.85 m s-1 or 2.73 BL s-1. Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of Uopt (BL s-1 = 234.07(BL-0.779 (R2= 0.9909 was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s-1 (‘swimmers’ or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow (‘resters’ in a newly designed 3,600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor, were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n= 23 showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n= 23. As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31% in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 mL min-1 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min-1, respectively, under anesthesia. Thus growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments.

  13. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  14. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  15. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Mes, D.; Kusters, K.; Roques, J.A.C.; Flik, G.; Kloet, K.; Blonk, R.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (U-opt in m s(-1) or body lengths s(-1), BL s(-1)) were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and

  16. Intramuscular pressure and electromyography as indexes of force during isokinetic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratow, M.; Ballard, R. E.; Grenshaw, A. G.; Styf, J.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    A direct method for measuring force production of specific muscles during dynamic exercise is presently unavailable. Previous studies indicate that both intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) correlate linearly with muscle contraction force during isometric exercise. The objective of this study was to compare IMP and EMG as linear assessors of muscle contraction force during dynamic exercise. IMP and surface EMG activity were recorded during concentric and eccentric isokinetic plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of nine male volunteers. Ankle torque was measured using a dynamometer, and IMP was measured via catheterization. IMP exhibited better linear correlation than EMG with ankle joint torque during concentric contractions of the SOL and the TA, as well as during eccentric contractions. IMP provides a better index of muscle contraction force than EMG during concentric and eccentric exercise through the entire range of torque. IMP reflects intrinsic mechanical properties of individual muscles, such as length-tension relationships, which EMG is unable to assess.

  17. Associated decrements in rate of force development and neural drive after maximal eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Bjerre, J; de Paoli, F; Vissing, K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD) and the neural drive following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-four subjects performed 15 × 10 maximal isokinetic eccentric knee extensor contractions. Prior to and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h during post-exercise recovery, isometric RFD (30, 50 100, and 200 ms), normalized RFD [1/6,1/2, and 2/3 of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of electromyography rise (RER; 30, 50, and 75 ms) were measured. RFD decreased by 28-42% peaking at 48 h (P eccentric exercise. This association suggests that exercise-induced decrements in RFD can, in part, be explained decrements in neural drive. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effects of stretching exercise for upper trapezius on the asymmetric rate of bite force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomjin; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Heo, Kwangjin; Hwang, Hojin; Kim, Boyoung; Han, Dongwook

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of stretching the upper trapezius muscle on the asymmetric rate of bite force. [Subjects] Forty-seven female university students who had all their original teeth, had no disorders in the temporomandibular joints, and had never worn braces; participated in this study. [Methods] An occlusometer was used to measure biting forces. Subsequently, stretching exercises of the upper trapezius were performed. The subjects were divided into 3 groups at the start of the testing: the asymmetric rate of the first group was less than 10%; the asymmetric rate of the second group was between 10% and 20%; and the asymmetric rate of the third group was more than 20%. The stretching exercises were done on the dominant side of the upper trapezius. [Results] After the stretching exercises of the upper trapezius, the results showed that for the first group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was less than 10%, there was a significant increase in asymmetric rate (from 5.1% to 10.3%). For the second group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was measured to be between 10% and 20%, the asymmetric rate decreased from 14.7% to 14.3%, but the change was not statistically significant. For the third group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was more than 20%, there was a significant decrease in asymmetric rate (from 27.8% to 12.6%). [Conclusion] We concluded that stretching exercises of the upper trapezius muscle had a direct effect on the asymmetric rate of biting force.

  19. Using Hand Grip Force as a Correlate of Longitudinal Acceleration Comfort for Rapid Transit Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Beiyuan; Gan, Weide; Fang, Weining

    2015-07-02

    Longitudinal acceleration comfort is one of the essential metrics used to evaluate the ride comfort of train. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using hand grip force as a correlate of longitudinal acceleration comfort of rapid transit trains. In the paper, a motion simulation system was set up and a two-stage experiment was designed to investigate the role of the grip force on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. The results of the experiment show that the incremental grip force was linearly correlated with the longitudinal acceleration value, while the incremental grip force had no correlation with the direction of the longitudinal acceleration vector. The results also show that the effects of incremental grip force and acceleration duration on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains were significant. Based on multiple regression analysis, a step function model was established to predict the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains using the incremental grip force and the acceleration duration. The feasibility and practicably of the model was verified by a field test. Furthermore, a comparative analysis shows that the motion simulation system and the grip force based model were valid to support the laboratory studies on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains.

  20. The 1991 Department of the Army Service Response Force exercise: Procedural Guide SRFX-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madore, M.A.; Thomson, R.S.; Haffenden, R.A.; Baldwin, T.E.; Meleski, S.A.

    1991-09-01

    This procedural guide was written to assist the US Army in planning for a chemical emergency exercise at Tooele Army Depot in Utah. The roles of various members of the emergency response community are described for various accident scenarios, and the relationships between the various responders are identified. For the June 1991 exercise at Tooele, the emergency response community includes the command structure at Tooele Army Depot; the US Army Service Response Force and other Department of Defense agencies; emergency response personnel from Tooele, Salt Lake, and Utah counties and municipal governments; the Utah Comprehensive Emergency Management Agency and other state agencies; and various federal agencies.

  1. The 1991 Department of the Army Service Response Force exercise: Procedural Guide SRFX-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madore, M.A.; Thomson, R.S.; Haffenden, R.A.; Baldwin, T.E.; Meleski, S.A.

    1991-09-01

    This procedural guide was written to assist the US Army in planning for a chemical emergency exercise at Tooele Army Depot in Utah. The roles of various members of the emergency response community are described for various accident scenarios, and the relationships between the various responders are identified. For the June 1991 exercise at Tooele, the emergency response community includes the command structure at Tooele Army Depot; the US Army Service Response Force and other Department of Defense agencies; emergency response personnel from Tooele, Salt Lake, and Utah counties and municipal governments; the Utah Comprehensive Emergency Management Agency and other state agencies; and various federal agencies.

  2. USMC Contingency Contracting Force: An Analysis of Transient Officers in a Rapidly Changing Acquisition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    due to the highly technical and frequently changing regulations that govern contracting operations. Figure 2. Question 2 Survey Response Chart ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT USMC CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING FORCE: AN ANALYSIS OF...CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING FORCE: AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT OFFICERS IN A RAPIDLY CHANGING ACQUISITION ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam

  3. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women...... performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm...... relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Prapid force development and...

  4. Delayed onset of vastii muscle activity in response to rapid postural perturbations following eccentric exercise: a mechanism that underpins knee pain after eccentric exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatpour, Nosratollah; Falla, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Appropriate timing of activity of the vastus medialis obliqus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles is a key factor for proper tracking of the patella in the trochlear groove during knee extension. This study investigates the relative timing of activation of the VMO and VL muscles during unexpected perturbations performed before and after eccentric exercise. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the VMO and VL muscles of the right leg in 11 healthy men during rapid postural perturbations performed at baseline, immediately after eccentric exercise of the quadriceps, and at 24 and 48 h after exercise. Participants stood on a moveable platform during which eight randomised postural perturbations were performed (4 repetitions of 2 perturbation types: 8 cm forward slides, 8 cm backward slides). Before the eccentric exercise, the onset of VMO activity was significantly earlier than the VL muscle (average for both forward and backward perturbations: VMO 39.0±7.1 ms; VL 43.7±7.9 ms). However, the onset of VMO activity was significantly later compared with VL muscle immediately after eccentric exercise and this remained 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise (average across all postexercise sessions and perturbation directions: VMO 72.3±11.1 ms; VL 56.0±8.2 ms; peccentric exercise and during eccentric exercise-induced muscle soreness up to 48 h later. These observations may help explain the high prevalence of knee disorders after high intensity eccentric exercise.

  5. Rapid upregulation and clearance of distinct circulating microRNAs after prolonged aerobic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2014-01-01

    Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as “circulating” miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499–5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation. PMID:24436293

  6. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to exercise for 5 min at treadmill speeds above 1.79 m/s in the NM mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  7. Force Responses and Sarcomere Dynamics of Cardiac Myofibrils Induced by Rapid Changes in [Pi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Robert

    2017-01-24

    The second phase of the biphasic force decay upon release of phosphate from caged phosphate was previously interpreted as a signature of kinetics of the force-generating step in the cross-bridge cycle. To test this hypothesis without using caged compounds, force responses and individual sarcomere dynamics upon rapid increases or decreases in concentration of inorganic phosphate [Pi] were investigated in calcium-activated cardiac myofibrils. Rapid increases in [Pi] induced a biphasic force decay with an initial slow decline (phase 1) and a subsequent 3-5-fold faster major decay (phase 2). Phase 2 started with the distinct elongation of a single sarcomere, the so-called sarcomere "give". "Give" then propagated from sarcomere to sarcomere along the myofibril. Propagation speed and rate constant of phase 2 (k+Pi(2)) had a similar [Pi]-dependence, indicating that the kinetics of the major force decay (phase 2) upon rapid increase in [Pi] is determined by sarcomere dynamics. In contrast, no "give" was observed during phase 1 after rapid [Pi]-increase (rate constant k+Pi(1)) and during the single-exponential force rise (rate constant k-Pi) after rapid [Pi]-decrease. The values of k+Pi(1) and k-Pi were similar to the rate constant of mechanically induced force redevelopment (kTR) and Ca(2+)-induced force development (kACT) measured at same [Pi]. These results indicate that the major phase 2 of force decay upon a Pi-jump does not reflect kinetics of the force-generating step but results from sarcomere "give". The other phases of Pi-induced force kinetics that occur in the absence of "give" yield the same information as mechanically and Ca(2+)-induced force kinetics (k+Pi(1) ∼ k-Pi ∼ kTR ∼ kACT). Model simulations indicate that Pi-induced force kinetics neither enable the separation of Pi-release from the rate-limiting transition f into force states nor differentiate whether the "force-generating step" occurs before, along, or after the Pi-release.

  8. A comparison of low- and high-impact forced exercise: effects of training paradigm on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, John A; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S

    2012-06-25

    In this study we compared two types of forced exercise-a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that 5 weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 rpm speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, 5 weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning.

  9. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 group...

  10. Conceptual and Laboratory Exercise to Apply Newton's Second Law to a System of Many Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A pair of objects on an inclined plane are connected together by a string. The upper object is then connected to a fixed post via a spring. The situation is first analysed as a classroom exercise in using free-body diagrams to solve Newton's second law for a system of objects upon which many different kinds of force are acting (string tension,…

  11. Clinical Usefulness of Response Profiles to Rapidly Incremental Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta P. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of microprocessed “metabolic carts” and rapidly incremental protocols greatly expanded the clinical applications of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET. The response normalcy to CPET is more commonly appreciated at discrete time points, for example, at the estimated lactate threshold and at peak exercise. Analysis of the response profiles of cardiopulmonary responses at submaximal exercise and recovery, however, might show abnormal physiologic functioning which would not be otherwise unraveled. Although this approach has long been advocated as a key element of the investigational strategy, it remains largely neglected in practice. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the usefulness of selected submaximal metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiovascular variables in different clinical scenarios and patient populations. Special care is taken to physiologically justify their use to answer pertinent clinical questions and to the technical aspects that should be observed to improve responses’ reproducibility and reliability. The most recent evidence in favor of (and against these variables for diagnosis, impairment evaluation, and prognosis in systemic diseases is also critically discussed.

  12. A comparison of low- and high-impact forced exercise: Effects of training paradigm on learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we compared two types of forced exercise—a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that five weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 RPM speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, five weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning. PMID:22402029

  13. Determination and optimization of joint torques and joint reaction forces in therapeutic exercises with elastic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A model has been developed to definitively characterize the resistance properties and the joint loading (i.e., shear and compressive components of the joint reaction force) in single-joint exercises with ideal elastic bands. The model accounts for the relevant geometric and elastic properties of the band, the band pre-stretching, and the relative positioning among the joint center of rotation and the fixation points of the band. All the possible elastic torque profiles of ascending-descending, descending, or ascending type were disclosed in relation to the different ranges of joint angles. From these results the elastic resistance setting that best reproduces the average-user's knee extensor torque in maximal isometric/isokinetic efforts was determined. In this optimized setting, the shear tibiofemoral reaction force corresponding to an anterior (posterior) tibial displacement was 65% smaller than (nearly the same as) that obtained in a cam-equipped leg-extension equipment for equal values of resistance torque peak, whereas the compressive tibiofemoral reaction force was 22% higher. Compared to a weight-stack leg-extension equipment, an elastic resistance optimized setting has the potential to give a more effective quadriceps activation across the range of motion, and greatly reduces the anterior cruciate ligament strain force, which represents the main drawback of existing open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises.

  14. Dissociated time course recovery between rate of force development and peak torque after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the association between isokinetic peak torque (PT) of quadriceps and the corresponding peak rate of force development (peak RFD) during the recovery of eccentric exercise. Twelve untrained men (aged 21·7 ± 2·3 year) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions for knee extensors (10 sets of 10 repetitions with a 2-min rest between each set) on isokinetic dynamometer. PT and peak RFD accessed by maximal isokinetic knee concentric contractions at 60° s(-1) were obtained before (baseline) and at 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Indirect markers of muscle damage included delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. The eccentric exercise resulted in elevated DOMS and CK compared with baseline values. At 24 h, PT (-15·3%, P = 0·002) and peak RFD (-13·1%, P = 0·03) decreased significantly. At 48 h, PT (-7·9%, P = 0·002) was still decreased but peak RFD have returned to baseline values. Positive correlation was found between PT and peak RFD at baseline (r = 0·62, P = 0·02), 24 h (r = 0·99, P = 0·0001) and 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) after eccentric exercise. The magnitude of changes (%) in PT and peak RFD from baseline to 24 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) and from 24 to 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) were significantly correlated. It can be concluded that the muscle damage induced by the eccentric exercise affects differently the time course of PT and peak RFD recovery during isokinetic concentric contraction at 60° s(-1). During the recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, PT and peak RFD are determined but not fully defined by shared putative physiological mechanisms. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  15. Load, Force and Power-Velocity Relationships in the Prone Pull-Up Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, Mario; Marchante, David; Cano-Ruiz, Miguel A; Chicharro, José López; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos

    2017-03-02

    To analyze the load, force and power-velocity relationships, as well as to determine the load that optimizes power output on the pull-up exercise. Eighty-two resistance trained males (Age = 26.8 ± 5.0 yrs.; Pull-up 1RM - normalized per kg of body mass- = 1.5 ± 0.34) performed two repetitions with 4 incremental loads (ranging 70-100%1-RM) in the pull-up exercise while mean propulsive velocity (MPV), force (MPF) and power (MPP) were measured using a linear transducer. Relationships between variables were studied using first and second order least-squares regression, and subjects were divided into three groups depending on their 1-RM for comparison purposes. Almost perfect individual load-velocity (R(2) = 0.975 ± 0.02), force-velocity (R(2) = 0.954 ± 0.04) and power-velocity (R(2) = 0.966 ± 0.04) relationships, which allowed to determine the velocity at each %1-RM as well as the maximal theoretical force (F0), velocity (V0) and power (Pmax) for each subject were observed. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed for F0 (p0.05). Also, high correlations between F0 and 1-RM (r = 0.811) and V0 and Pmax (r = 0.865) were observed. Finally, we observed that the load that maximized MPP was 71.0 ± 6.6 %1-RM. The very high load-velocity, force-velocity and power-velocity relationships allows to estimate 1-RM by measuring movement velocity, as well as to determine maximal force, velocity and power capabilities. This information could be of great interest for strength and conditioning coaches who wish to monitor pull-up performance.

  16. Changes in spatial memory and BDNF expression to simultaneous dietary restriction and forced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Alzubi, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that learning and memory formation can be influenced by diet and exercise. In the current study, we investigated the combined effects of forced swimming exercise (FSE) and every other day fasting (EODF) on spatial memory formation and on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of Wistar male rats. The radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm was used to assess changes in learning and memory formation, whereas ELISA assay was used to measure BDNF protein levels. The FSE and/or EODF were simultaneously instituted for 6 weeks. Results show that FSE improved learning, short-term as well as long-term memory formation, and significantly increased BDNF protein in the hippocampus (peffect on either spatial learning and memory formation or the levels of hippocamapal BDNF protein (p>0.05). In addition, EODF did not modulate beneficial effect of swimming exercise on cognitive function (p>0.05). Thus exercise enhanced, while EODF did not affect spatial learning and memory formation.

  17. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment, and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency.

  18. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  19. Rapid muscle activation and force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2008-01-01

    during the stable high-force phase of maximal voluntary shoulder abduction, whereas rapid capacity was determined as the steepest slope of the torque-time and EMG-time curves, defined as rate of torque development and rate of EMG rise. Intensity of pain was registered prior to the test on a visual......-analogue-scale. FINDINGS: Peak torque was 18% lower at 115 degrees shoulder joint angle in women with myalgia compared with healthy controls (PRate of torque development was 33-54% lower (P...BACKGROUND: The association between musculoskeletal pain and decreased maximal muscle strength capacity has been extensively studied, but knowledge about functional rapid force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate rapid...

  20. Rapid and serial quantification of adhesion forces of yeast and Mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Potthoff

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion to surfaces represents the basis for niche colonization and survival. Here we establish serial quantification of adhesion forces of different cell types using a single probe. The pace of single-cell force-spectroscopy was accelerated to up to 200 yeast and 20 mammalian cells per probe when replacing the conventional cell trapping cantilever chemistry of atomic force microscopy by underpressure immobilization with fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM. In consequence, statistically relevant data could be recorded in a rapid manner, the spectrum of examinable cells was enlarged, and the cell physiology preserved until approached for force spectroscopy. Adhesion forces of Candida albicans increased from below 4 up to 16 nN at 37°C on hydrophobic surfaces, whereas a Δhgc1-mutant showed forces consistently below 4 nN. Monitoring adhesion of mammalian cells revealed mean adhesion forces of 600 nN of HeLa cells on fibronectin and were one order of magnitude higher than those observed for HEK cells.

  1. Laboratory measurement verification of laser hazard analysis for miles weapon simulators used in force on force exercises.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the change in the batteries used with the Small Arm Laser Transmitters (SALT) from 3-volts dc to 3.6-volts dc and changes to SNL MILES operating conditions, the associated laser hazards of these units required re-evaluation to ensure that the hazard classification of the laser emitters had not changed as well. The output laser emissions of the SNL MILES, weapon simulators and empire guns, used in Force-On-Force (FOF) training exercises, was measured in accordance to the ANSI Standard Z136.4-2005, ''Recommended Practice for Laser Safety Measurements for Hazard Evaluation''. The laser hazard class was evaluated in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, ''Safe Use of Lasers'', using ''worst'' case conditions associated with these MILES units. Laser safety assessment was conducted in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2005, ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The laser hazard evaluation of these MILES laser emitters was compared to and supersedes SAND Report SAND2002-0246, ''Laser Safety Evaluation of the MILES and Mini MILES Laser Emitting Components'', which used ''actual'' operating conditions of the laser emitters at the time of its issuance.

  2. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Michiya; Ishii, Naokata

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the acute and long-term effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength. This type of exercise was expected to enhance the intramuscular hypoxic environment that might be a factor for muscular hypertrophy. Twenty-four healthy young men without experience of regular exercise training were assigned into three groups (n = 8 for each) and performed the following resistance exercise regimens: low-intensity [ approximately 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] with slow movement and tonic force generation (3 s for eccentric and concentric actions, 1-s pause, and no relaxing phase; LST); high-intensity ( approximately 80% 1RM) with normal speed (1 s for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 s for relaxing; HN); low-intensity with normal speed (same intensity as for LST and same speed as for HN; LN). In LST and HN, the mean repetition maximum was 8RM. In LN, both intensity and amount of work were matched with those for LST. Each exercise session consisting of three sets was performed three times a week for 12 wk. In LST and HN, exercise training caused significant (P exercise. The results suggest that intramuscular oxygen environment is important for exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy.

  3. Effect of exercise training and myocardial infarction on force development and contractile kinetics in isolated canine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Benjamin D; Haizlip, Kaylan M; Xu, Ying; Monasky, Michelle M; Hiranandani, Nitisha; Milani-Nejad, Nima; Varian, Kenneth D; Slabaugh, Jessica L; Schultz, Eric J; Fedorov, Vadim V; Billman, George E; Janssen, Paul M L

    2016-04-15

    It is well known that moderate exercise training elicits a small increase in ventricular mass (i.e., a physiological hypertrophy) that has many beneficial effects on overall cardiac health. It is also well known that, when a myocardial infarction damages part of the heart, the remaining myocardium remodels to compensate for the loss of viable functioning myocardium. The effects of exercise training, myocardial infarction (MI), and their interaction on the contractile performance of the myocardium itself remain largely to be determined. The present study investigated the contractile properties and kinetics of right ventricular myocardium isolated from sedentary and exercise trained (10-12 wk progressively increasing treadmill running, begun 4 wk after MI induction) dogs with and without a left ventricular myocardial infarction. Exercise training increased force development, whereas MI decreased force development that was not improved by exercise training. Contractile kinetics were significantly slower in the trained dogs, whereas this impact of training was less or no longer present after MI. Length-dependent activation, both evaluated on contractile force and kinetics, was similar in all four groups. The control exercise-trained group exhibited a more positive force-frequency relationship compared with the sedentary control group while both sedentary and trained post-MI dogs had a more negative relationship. Last, the impact of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol resulted in a similar increase in force and acceleration of contractile kinetics in all groups. Thus, exercise training increased developed force but slowed contractile kinetics in control (noninfarcted animals), actions that were attenuated or completely absent in post-MI dogs.

  4. The single-bout forearm critical force test: a new method to establish forearm aerobic metabolic exercise intensity and capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mikhail Kellawan

    Full Text Available No non-invasive test exists for forearm exercise that allows identification of power-time relationship parameters (W', critical power and thereby identification of the heavy-severe exercise intensity boundary and scaling of aerobic metabolic exercise intensity. The aim of this study was to develop a maximal effort handgrip exercise test to estimate forearm critical force (fCF; force analog of power and establish its repeatability and validity. Ten healthy males (20-43 years completed two maximal effort rhythmic handgrip exercise tests (repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVC; 1 s contraction-2 s relaxation for 600 s on separate days. Exercise intensity was quantified via peak contraction force and contraction impulse. There was no systematic difference between test 1 and 2 for fCF(peak force (p = 0.11 or fCF(impulse (p = 0.76. Typical error was small for both fCF(peak force (15.3 N, 5.5% and fCF(impulse (15.7 N ⋅ s, 6.8%, and test re-test correlations were strong (fCF(peak force, r = 0.91, ICC = 0.94, pfCF(peak force. TTE predicted by W' showed good agreement with actual TTE during the TTE tests (r = 0.97, ICC = 0.97, P<0.01; typical error 0.98 min, 12%; regression fit slope = 0.99 and y intercept not different from 0, p = 0.31. MVC did not predict fCF(peak force (p = 0.37, fCF(impulse (p = 0.49 or W' (p = 0.15. In conclusion, the poor relationship between MVC and fCF or W' illustrates the serious limitation of MVC in identifying metabolism-based exercise intensity zones. The maximal effort handgrip exercise test provides repeatable and valid estimates of fCF and should be used to normalize forearm aerobic metabolic exercise intensity instead of MVC.

  5. Increased difference between slow and forced vital capacity is associated with reduced exercise tolerance in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Wei; He, Xin; Xu, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Hao-Yan; Casaburi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background A higher slow vital capacity (VC) compared with forced vital capacity (FVC) indicates small airway collapse and air trapping. We hypothesized that a larger difference between VC and FVC (VC-FVC) would predict impaired exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Pulmonary function and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise responses were assessed in 97 COPD patients. Patients were then divided into two groups: one in which VC > FVC (n = 77)...

  6. Forced treadmill exercise can induce stress and increase neuronal damage in a mouse model of global cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svensson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is known to be a beneficial factor by increasing the cellular stress tolerance. In ischemic stroke, physical exercise is suggested to both limit the brain injury and facilitate behavioral recovery. In this study we investigated the effect of physical exercise on brain damage following global cerebral ischemia in mice. We aimed to study the effects of 4.5 weeks of forced treadmill running prior to ischemia on neuronal damage, neuroinflammation and its effect on general stress by measuring corticosterone in feces. We subjected C57bl/6 mice (n = 63 to either treadmill running or a sedentary program prior to induction of global ischemia. Anxious, depressive, and cognitive behaviors were analyzed. Stress levels were analyzed using a corticosterone ELISA. Inflammatory and neurological outcomes were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, multiplex electrochemoluminescence ELISA and Western blot. To our surprise, we found that forced treadmill running induced a stress response, with increased anxiety in the Open Field test and increased levels of corticosterone. In accordance, mice subjected to forced exercise prior to ischemia developed larger neuronal damage in the hippocampus and showed higher cytokine levels in the brain and blood compared to non-exercised mice. The extent of neuronal damage correlated with increased corticosterone levels. To compare forced treadmill with voluntary wheel running, we used a different set of mice that exercised freely on running wheels. These mice did not show any anxiety or increased corticosterone levels. Altogether, our results indicate that exercise pre-conditioning may not be beneficial if the animals are forced to run as it can induce a detrimental stress response.

  7. Energy to the Edge (E2E) Equipment Assessment U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    USCENTCOM 12 TOC UPS, REAP, TALS USPACOM 1 11 Power Surety for NetZero Camp (Lite Camps) TS & HOA USSOUTHCOM 3 Power Surety for NetZero Camp (Lite Camps...Deployment AOR LOCATION APPLICATIONS SUPPORTED CAPABILITIES Lite Camp USCENTCOM 10* Mobile Kitchen, Dining Building , Mortar Fire Control USSOUTHCOM Power...Surety for NetZero Camp (Lite Camps) * six awaiting installation Appendixes U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force | 35 Demonstrated Capabilities Equipment

  8. AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR QUASI-GEOSTROPHIC MOTION UNDER RAPIDLY OSCILLATING FORCING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪俊; 段金桥

    2005-01-01

    A class of large scale geophysical fluid flows are modelled by the quasigeostrophic equation. An averaging principle for quasi-geostrophic motion under rapidly oscil-lating( non-autonomous ) forcing was obtained, both on finite but large time intervals and on the entire time axis. This includes comparison estimate, stability estimate, and convergence result between quasi-geostrophic motions and its averaged motions.Furthermore, the existence of almost periodic quasi-geostrophic motions and attractor convergence were also investigated.

  9. Morphological analysis of force/velocity relationship in dynamic exercise at varying loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Eloisa; Sacchi, Massimiliano

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the force/velocity (F/V) curve morphology among the entire concentric phase of the countermovement squat (CMS). The hypothesis is that F/V curve shape of the lower limb muscles complex is different from F/V isolated muscle curve and that these analyses could be useful in characterizing athletes' muscular capacity and training programs. Squat exercise was performed by 29 subjects (15 men and 14 women, divided into resistance and endurance athletes). The protocol was 6 x 1 CMS at maximal speed with increasing loads: 20, 35, 50, 65, 80, 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Displacement, speed, and acceleration of the weight bar, joint knee angles, knee angular speed, and total and normalized forces were collected. F/V relation was obtained by force and velocity values of each 10 degrees angular interval of the concentric phase for any load. Results show that the F/V relationship does not follow a linear shape and an equivalent criterion for all loads. We observed a "second peak force" statistically higher (p men showed a "second peak" higher and larger than that shown by endurance trained men. This indicated a higher ability to produce and maintain greater force at higher relative speed. These results may be helpful to identify the muscle characteristics of the athletes at various speeds and joint positions. With a phase division of the specific move, it will be possible to determine an individualized program to monitor the specific phases of technical moves and to evaluate the training effect in long run.

  10. Three-Dimensional Force Measurements During Rapid Palatal Expansion in Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Goeckner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment approach because the forces applied in the three dimensions are indeterminate. To enable optimal and individualized treatment, it is essential to measure the three-dimensional (3D forces and displacements created by the expander. This paper proposes a method for performing these 3D measurements using a single embedded strain sensor, combining experimental measurements of strain in the palatal expander with 3D finite element analysis (FEA. The method is demonstrated using the maxillary jaw from a freshly euthanized pig (Sus scrofa and a hyrax-design rapid palatal expander (RPE appliance with integrated strain gage. The strain gage measurements are recorded using a computer interface, following which the expansion forces and extent of expansion are estimated by FEA. A total activation of 2.0 mm results in peak total force of about 100 N—almost entirely along the direction of expansion. The results also indicate that more than 85% of the input activation is immediately transferred to the palate and/or teeth. These studies demonstrate a method for assessing and individualizing expansion magnitudes and forces during orthopedic expansion of the maxilla. This provides the basis for further development of smart orthodontic appliances that provide real-time readouts of forces and movements, which will allow personalized, optimal treatment.

  11. [The effect of the motion of forefoot joint at the force exerted upon the floor during walking exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, A; Nishizono, H; Ebashi, H; Shibayama, H

    1993-11-01

    In walking exercise the human body is exposed to external forces. Some of them are produced by constraints such as surface, shoes or opponent. In kick action of walking, the ground reaction force (GRF) is the most important external force. The magnitude of the GRF, its direction, and point of application have an influence on the load on the human body. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of forefoot joint (artt. metatarsophalangeae) at the force exerted upon the floor during kick action of walking. The device used in this study to analyze the GRF and its three components consists of Kistler's force platform. Output from force transducer was collected online with a TEAC data recorder and MEM-4101 minicomputer. The impact force measurements were taken from the anterior-posterior force time curves at the take-off for 1 subject walking 10 trials at 2 m/sec with 2 different pairs of shoes (Shoes 1: thin sole of 4mm, and Shoes 2: thick sole of 40mm) and without shoes. High speed (200f/sec) cinematography was also used to analyze the angular displacement of forefoot joint at the take-off of walking exercise. The force acting at the forefoot joint may produce the anterior-posterior force of the GRF which is defined as the propelling power acting on the human body during walking exercise. The result showed that the impact force peak occurred 40-60 msec before take-off and the propelling part of kick action accounted for only about 6% of the external force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Dynamic of arm’s micro movements of elite athlete in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol and Air Pistol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatkov V.T.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements in Olympic exercises with pistol. Material: in the research we used the data of 37 elite athletes in exercise Air Pistol (n=32 and in exercise Rapid Fire Pistol (n=5. Registration of pistol projection’s quickness of movement in target area was realized with the help of computer system Scatt. In total we analyzed 3100 space-time parameters of athletes’ technical-tactic actions in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. Results: we tested innovative method of contactless measuring of athlete’s hand’s micro movements in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. We found uncontrolled deviations from optimal pistol pointing position in vertical, horizontal and sagittal planes. Quickness of athlete hand’s movements in shooting process was determined. Conclusions: we scientifically substantiated the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements at a distance in Olympic exercises with pistol. Besides, we determined the dynamic of athlete’s hand micro movements in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol та Air Pistol.

  13. Effects of Inertial Setting on Power, Force, Work, and Eccentric Overload During Flywheel Resistance Exercise in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Aranda, Luis M; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n = 11) and men (n = 11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing 6 inertias (0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 kg·m). Power decreased as higher inertias were used, with men showing greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrements than women (-36 vs. -29% from lowest to highest inertia). In contrast, work increased as higher inertias were employed, independent of sex (p ≤ 0.05; ∼48% from lowest to highest inertia). Women increased CON and ECC mean force (46-55%, respectively) more (p ≤ 0.05) than men (34-50%, respectively) from the lowest to the highest inertia evaluated, although the opposite was found for peak force data (i.e., peak force increased more in men than in women as inertia was increased). Men, but not women, increased ECC overload from inertia 0.0125 to 0.0375 kg·m2. Although estimated stretch-shorting cycle use during flywheel exercise was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in men (6.6%) than women (4.9%), values were greater for both sexes when using low-to-medium inertias. The information gained in this study could help athletes and sport and health professionals to better understand the impact of different inertial settings on skeletal muscle responses to flywheel resistance exercise.

  14. Eye exercises enhance accuracy and letter recognition, but not reaction time, in a modified rapid serial visual presentation task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Di Noto

    Full Text Available Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders.

  15. Eye exercises enhance accuracy and letter recognition, but not reaction time, in a modified rapid serial visual presentation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noto, Paula; Uta, Sorin; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2013-01-01

    Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders.

  16. Forced exercise as a rehabilitation strategy after unilateral cervical spinal cord contusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R; Izzi, Jessica; Shumsky, Jed S; Zhukareva, Victoria; Houle, John D

    2009-05-01

    Evaluation of locomotor training after spinal cord injury (SCI) has primarily focused on hind limb recovery, with evidence of functional and molecular changes in response to exercise. Since trauma at a cervical (C) level is common in human SCI, we used a unilateral C4 contusion injury model in rats to determine whether forced exercise (Ex) would affect spinal cord biochemistry, anatomy, and recovery of fore and hind limb function. SCI was created with the Infinite Horizon spinal cord impactor device at C4 with a force of 200 Kdyne and a mean displacement of 1600-1800 microm in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that had been acclimated to a motorized exercise wheel apparatus. Five days post-operatively, the treated group began Ex on the wheel for 20 min per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Wheel speed was increased daily according to the abilities of each animal up to 14 m/min. Control rats were handled daily but were not exposed to Ex. In one set of animals experiencing 5 days of Ex, there was a moderate increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and heat shock protein-27 (HSP-27) levels in the lesion epicenter and surrounding tissue. Long-term (8 weeks) survival groups were exposed to weekly behavioral tests to assess qualitative aspects of fore limb and hind limb locomotion (fore limb scale, FLS and BBB [Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale]), as well as sensorimotor (grid) and motor (grip) skills. Biweekly assessment of performance during wheel walking examined gross and fine motor skills. The FLS indicated a significant benefit of Ex during weeks 2-4. The BBB test showed no change with Ex at the end of the 8-week period, however hind limb grid performance was improved during weeks 2-4. Lesion size was not affected by Ex, but the presence of phagocytic and reactive glial cells was reduced with Ex as an intervention. These results suggest that Ex alone can influence the evolution of the injury and transiently improve fore and hind limb

  17. Application of atomic force microscopy on rapid determination of microorganisms for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Wang, Y

    2008-10-01

    Rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms is important for food quality, safety, and security. In this field, nanotechnology appears to be promising in its ability to characterize an individual microorganism and detect heterogeneous distribution of microbes in food samples. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM), a nanotechnology tool, was used to investigate Escherichia coli (E. coli) qualitatively and quantitatively. E. coli strains B and K12 were used as surrogates to represent pathogenic strains, such as E. coli O157: H7. The results from AFM were compared with those from scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). The qualitative determination was obtained using morphology and characteristic parameters from AFM images, and the quantitative determination was obtained by calculating the microorganisms in AFM images. The results show that AFM provides a new approach for rapid determination of microorganisms for food safety.

  18. Rapid synthesis of zinc oxide nanoforest: use of microwave and forced seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Chakraborty, J.

    2016-12-01

    A rapid synthesis technique has been developed for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoforest using microwave assisted hydrothermal method. This microwave assisted process takes less than 4 h whereas conventional hydrothermal synthesis takes 25 h to fabricate nanoforest of comparable dimensions. The simple dipping technique for secondary seeding on the primary nanorods has been studied and it has been shown that such seeding would take at least an hour. A ‘forced seeding’ technique has been developed which reduces the seeding time drastically. The microwave assisted branch growth occurs at a speed of 10 nm min-1 which is 10 fold faster than that of hydrothermal method.

  19. The role of natural versus forced change in future rapid summer Arctic ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Marika M.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Tremblay, L.-Bruno; Bailey, David A.

    Climate model simulations from the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) suggest that Arctic sea ice could undergo rapid September ice retreat in the 21st century. A previous study indicated that this results from a thinning of sea ice to more vulnerable conditions, a "kick" in the form of pulse-like increases in ocean heat transport and positive feedbacks that accelerate the retreat. Here we further examine the factors affecting these events, including the role of natural versus forced change and the possibility of threshold-like behavior in the simulated sea ice cover. We find little indication that a critical sea ice state is reached that then leads to rapid ice loss. Instead, our results suggest that the rapid ice loss events result from anthropogenic change reinforced by growing intrinsic variability. The natural variability in summer ice extent increases in the 21st century because of the thinning ice cover. As the ice thins, large regions can easily melt out, resulting in considerable ice extent variations. The important role of natural variability in the simulated rapid ice loss is such that we find little capability for predicting these events based on a knowledge of prior ice and ocean conditions. This is supported by results from sensitivity simulations initialized several years prior to an event, which exhibit little predictive skill.

  20. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Aagaard, Per

    2011-07-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC) has often been used to evaluate the H/Q ratio, the ability to rapidly develop force (rate of force development [RFD]) is more relevant in relation to fast dynamic movements. The aim of this study was to introduce and investigate a rapid RFD H/Q strength ratio compared with the traditional MVC H/Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability for the RFD H/Q ratio was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.664-0.933). The initial contraction phase up to 50 milliseconds from the onset of contraction showed a low RFD H/Q ratio compared to the MVC H/Q ratio (p rupture at a later occasion. The high reliability of the new RFD H/Q strength ratio indicates that the method is a relevant tool in standardized clinical evaluation of the knee joint agonist-antagonist relationship.

  1. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  2. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Conditions Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Balo’s Disease HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) Schilder's ... a Muscle, Too: The Relationship Between Exercise and Cognition - telelearning brought to you by the National MS ...

  3. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye, E-mail: dryetian@hotmail.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  4. Rapid activation of Rac GTPase in living cells by force is independent of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Chuin Poh

    Full Text Available It is well known that mechanical forces are crucial in regulating functions of every tissue and organ in a human body. However, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical activities and biological responses at the cellular and molecular level. Using the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, we applied local mechanical stresses to living human airway smooth muscle cells with a magnetic bead bound to the cell surface via transmembrane adhesion molecule integrins. The temporal and spatial activation of Rac, a small guanosine triphosphatase, was quantified using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET method that measures changes in Rac activity in response to mechanical stresses by quantifying intensity ratios of ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein as a donor and YPet (a variant yellow fluorescent protein as an acceptor of the Rac biosensor. The applied stress induced rapid activation (less than 300 ms of Rac at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF induced Rac activation at a much later time (>30 sec. There was no stress-induced Rac activation when a mutant form of the Rac biosensor (RacN17 was transfected or when the magnetic bead was coated with transferrin or with poly-L-lysine. It is known that PDGF-induced Rac activation depends on Src activity. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of the cells with specific Src inhibitor PP1 or knocking-out Src gene had no effects on stress-induced Rac activation. In addition, eliminating lipid rafts through extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane did not prevent stress-induced Rac activation, suggesting a raft-independent mechanism in governing the Rac activation upon mechanical stimulation. Further evidence indicates that Rac activation by stress depends on the magnitudes of the applied stress and cytoskeletal integrity. Our results suggest that Rac activation by mechanical forces is rapid, direct and does not depend on Src

  5. Rapid release of growth factors regenerates force output in volumetric muscle loss injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasman, Jonathan M; Do, Duc M; Page, Raymond L; Pins, George D

    2015-12-01

    A significant challenge in the design and development of biomaterial scaffolds is to incorporate mechanical and biochemical cues to direct organized tissue growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) loaded, crosslinked fibrin (EDCn-HGF) microthread scaffolds on skeletal muscle regeneration in a mouse model of volumetric muscle loss (VML). The rapid, sustained release of HGF significantly enhanced the force production of muscle tissue 60 days after injury, recovering more than 200% of the force output relative to measurements recorded immediately after injury. HGF delivery increased the number of differentiating myoblasts 14 days after injury, and supported an enhanced angiogenic response. The architectural morphology of microthread scaffolds supported the ingrowth of nascent myofibers into the wound site, in contrast to fibrin gel implants which did not support functional regeneration. Together, these data suggest that EDCn-HGF microthreads recapitulate several of the regenerative cues lost in VML injuries, promote remodeling of functional muscle tissue, and enhance the functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. Further, by strategically incorporating specific biochemical factors and precisely tuning the structural and mechanical properties of fibrin microthreads, we have developed a powerful platform technology that may enhance regeneration in other axially aligned tissues.

  6. Tropical forcing of the recent rapid Arctic warming in northeastern Canada and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qinghua; Wallace, John M; Battisti, David S; Steig, Eric J; Gallant, Ailie J E; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Geng, Lei

    2014-05-08

    Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we show that the recent warming in this region is strongly associated with a negative trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a response to anomalous Rossby wave-train activity originating in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric model experiments forced by prescribed tropical sea surface temperatures simulate the observed circulation changes and associated tropospheric and surface warming over northeastern Canada and Greenland. Experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (ref. 16) models with prescribed anthropogenic forcing show no similar circulation changes related to the North Atlantic Oscillation or associated tropospheric warming. This suggests that a substantial portion of recent warming in the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic arises from unforced natural variability.

  7. Vertical ground reaction force responses to different head-out aquatic exercises performed in water and on dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberton, Cristine Lima; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Antunes, Amanda Haberland; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to analyse the vertical ground reaction forces (Fz) of head-out aquatic exercises [stationary running (SR), frontal kick (FK), cross-country skiing (CCS), jumping jacks (JJ), adductor hop (ADH) and abductor hop (ABH)] at two cadences in both aquatic and dry land environments. Twelve young women completed two sessions in each environment, each consisting of three exercises performed at two cadences (first and second ventilatory thresholds - C1 and C2, respectively). Two-way and three-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to the statistical analysis. The results showed that the peak Fz and impulse were significantly lower in the aquatic environment, resulting in values from 28.2% to 58.5% and 60.4% to 72.8% from those obtained on dry land, respectively. In the aquatic environment, the peak Fz was lower and the impulse was higher at the C1 than at the C2. Furthermore, it was observed that SR and FK (0.9-1.1 BW) elicited a significantly higher peak Fz values compared to the ADH and JJ exercises (0.5-0.8 BW). It can be concluded that the aquatic environment reduces the Fz during head-out aquatic exercises. It should be noted that its magnitude is also dependent on the intensity and the identity of the exercise performed.

  8. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  9. Exercise rapidly increases eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Broholm, Christa; Kiillerich, Kristian;

    2005-01-01

    Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is known to decrease during contractions but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, the effect of exercise on skeletal muscle eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation, a key component in protein translation machinery, was examined...

  10. Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes , despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC. Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28, all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001. Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people

  11. Increase in interstitial interleukin-6 of human skeletal muscle with repetitive low-force exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Søgaard, Karen; Kjaer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6, which is released from muscle tissue during intense exercise, possesses important metabolic and probably anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate the IL-6 response to low-intensity exercise, we conducted two studies: 1) a control study with insertion of microdialysis catheter...

  12. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P

    2007-01-01

    quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men...

  13. Physical exercise leads to rapid adaptations in hippocampal vasculature: temporal dynamics and relationship to cell proliferation and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Borght, Karin; Kóbor-Nyakas, Dóra E; Klauke, Karin; Eggen, Bart J L; Nyakas, Csaba; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Meerlo, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Increased levels of angiogenesis and neurogenesis possibly mediate the beneficial effects of physical activity on hippocampal plasticity. This study was designed to investigate the temporal dynamics of exercise-induced changes in hippocampal angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Mice were housed with a running wheel for 1, 3, or 10 days. Analysis of glucose transporter Glut1-positive vessel density showed a significant increase after 3 days of wheel running. Cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus showed a trend towards an increase after 3 days of running and was significantly elevated after 10 days of physical exercise. Ten days of wheel running resulted in a near-significant increase in the number of immature neurons, as determined by a doublecortin (DCX) staining. In the second part of the study, the persistence of the exercise-induced changes in angiogenesis and cell proliferation was determined. The running wheel was removed from the cage after 10 days of physical activity. Glut-1 positive vessel density and hippocampal cell proliferation were determined 1 and 6 days after removal of the wheel. Both parameters had returned to baseline 24 h after cessation of physical activity. The near-significant increase in the number of DCX-positive immature neurons persisted for at least 6 days, indicating that new neurons formed during the period of increased physical activity had survived. Together these experiments show that the hippocampus displays a remarkable angiogenic and neurogenic plasticity and rapidly responds to changes in physical activity.

  14. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training

  15. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    Full Text Available Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD, 50 (6 % of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28. Some investigations (n = 13 lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i optimizing electrode positioning, (ii fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise

  16. Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the

  17. Rapid Modelling and Grinding of Workpieces’ Inner-surface by Robot with Impedance Model Based Fuzzy Force Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve rapid automatic grinding of workpieces’ inner-surface by industrial robot, a rapid translational detection strategy of workpieces’ inner-surface and fuzzy force control algorithm of grinding are proposed in this paper. The rapid translational detection strategy introduces a way to establish an inner-surface’s model quickly by recording key points of the axial section contour which reflects big curvature changes of the contour. The established model is feasible but imprecision. The force control algorithm is based on impedance model. To promote adaptability to the imprecision of the established inner-surface’s model, a fuzzy adjusting strategy is introduced in the force control algorithm. By adopting an adjusting factor, which determined by force response and a fuzzy logic, the strategy can adjust the reference trajectory of impedance model in time. Taking advantage of proposed detection and force control method, grinding experiments shows that the contact normal force maintains approximately constant, the relative mean error is within 6.5%, and the material removal thickness of the inner-surface is approximately consistent. The proposed strategy’s feasibility is verified.

  18. The Influence of Oblique Angle Forced Exercise in Surgically Destabilized Stifle Joints Is Synergistic with Bone, but Antagonistic with Cartilage in an Ovine Model of Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel J; Mason, Holly M; Yeip, Gavin; Merchant, Samer S; Olsen, Aaron L; Stott, Rusty D; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Bressel, Eadric; Mason, Jeffrey B

    2017-01-01

    Large animal models of osteoarthritis are a necessary testing ground for FDA approval of human medicine applications. Sheep models have advantages over other available large animals, but development and progression of osteoarthritis in sheep is exceedingly slow, which handicaps progress in development of potential treatments. We combined oblique angle forced exercise to increase stress on the stifle, with surgical destabilization to hasten the development of osteoarthritis in ewes. Methods for early detection of clinical signs included radiography, urine, and serum biomarker assays and gait analysis and ex vivo we used microcomputed tomography and macroscopic joint analysis. Our model was able to produce clinically detectable signs of osteoarthritis in a relatively short period (14 weeks). Changes in bone were highly correlated between microcomputed tomography and radiographic analysis and changes in cartilage correlated well between urinary glycosaminoglycan levels and serum aggrecanase analyses. Exercise improved the negative effects of destabilization in bone but exacerbated the negative effects of destabilization in cartilage. These observations suggest that we may need to consider treatments for bone and cartilage separately. These results represent an improved large animal model of osteoarthritis with rapid onset of disease and superior detection of bone and soft tissue changes.

  19. Nonlinear switched models for control of unsteady forces on a rapidly pitching airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Scott; Brunton, Steven; Rowley, Clarence

    2013-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces incident on a pitching flat plate airfoil at a Reynolds number of 100 are investigated through direct numerical simulation. Linear state-space models, identified from impulse response data via the eigensystem realization algorithm, are used to accurately track rapid changes in lift coefficient through either feedback or feedforward control, even in the presence of gust disturbances. We develop a technique to project between states of linear models obtained at different angles of attack using primal and pseudo-adjoint balanced POD modes. This allows for the formation of a nonlinear switched model that is accurate over a wide range of angles of attack, in both pre- and post-stall regimes. We additionally investigate phenomena that are not captured by linear models, such as an increase in mean lift that occurs when vortex shedding frequencies are excited. The effect of changing the pitch axis is also investigated, where it is found that pitching aft of the mid-chord results in right half plane zeros that increase the difficulty of the control problem. This work was supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-12-1-0075.

  20. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Moonsung; Jung, Myungtak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities.

  1. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control: An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    operators, civil engineers, C2 planners, and mobility planners throughout the Department of Defense, espe - cially those in the Air Force and those who rely...ACS for the entire Air Force. Teach ACS critical thinking and problem-solving in an operational environment. Invest in the education of personnel who...common vocabulary for these personnel. In addition to the on-site assess- ment team, RAND Project AIR FORCE and Air Force participants gathered a group

  2. Rapid onset pressor response to exercise in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Greaney, Jody L; Wenner, Megan M

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Alterations in blood pressure control at exercise onset are apparent in older adults with established cardiovascular disease. It is currently not known whether these alterations are evident in young adults with a family history of hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that young women with a family history of hypertension display a larger change in blood pressure within the first 10 s of isometric exercise. These data suggest altered blood pressure control in young women with a family history of hypertension. Hypertensive adults demonstrate atypical increases in blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at the immediate onset of static muscle contraction. However, it is unknown whether these abnormal responses occur in young, otherwise healthy adults at risk for developing future disease, such as those with a family history of hypertension (+FH). We tested the hypothesis that +FH young women have exaggerated increases in BP and MSNA at the onset of static muscle contraction compared with those without a family history of hypertension (-FH). We retrospectively examined beat-by-beat BP and MSNA during the initial 30 s of isometric handgrip exercise (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in 16 +FH (22 ± 2 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m(-2) ) and 16 -FH (22 ± 3 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m(-2) ) women. Resting mean arterial pressure (+FH 80 ± 11 mmHg versus -FH 84 ± 13 mmHg), MSNA burst frequency (+FH 7 ± 3 bursts min(-1) versus -FH 9 ± 5 bursts min(-1) ) and burst incidence [+FH 12 ± 4 bursts (100 heart beats)(-1) versus -FH 12 ± 8 bursts (100 heart beats)(-1) ] were similar between groups (all P > 0.05). Within the first 10 s of exercise, changes in mean arterial pressure (+FH Δ8 ± 6 mmHg versus -FH Δ3 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and heart rate (+FH Δ8 ± 5 beats min(-1) versus -FH Δ4 ± 4 beats min(-1) , P < 0

  3. The effect of gender on force, muscle activity, and frontal plane knee alignment during maximum eccentric leg-press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebensteiner, Michael C; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Burtscher, Martin; Hanser, Friedrich; Raschner, Christian

    2012-03-01

    To investigate for gender differences during eccentric leg-press exercise. Tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are considered to be related to eccentric tasks, altered neuromuscular control (e.g., reduced co-contraction of hamstrings), and increased knee abduction (valgus alignment). Based on these observations and the fact that ACL tears are more common in women, it was hypothesized that men and women differ significantly with regard to key parameters of force, knee stabilization, and muscle activity when exposed to maximum eccentric leg extension. Thirteen women and thirteen men were matched for age and physical activity. They performed maximum isokinetic eccentric leg-pressing against footplates of varied stability. The latter was done because earlier studies had shown that perturbational test conditions might be relevant in respect of ACL injuries. Key parameters of force, frontal plane knee stabilization, and muscle recruitment of significant muscles crossing the knee were recorded. The 'force stabilization deficit' (difference between maximum forces under normal and perturbed leg-pressing) did not differ significantly between genders. Likewise, parameters of muscle activity and frontal plane leg stabilization revealed no significant differences between men and women. This study is novel, in that gender differences in parameters of force, muscle activity, and leg kinematic were investigated during functional conditions of eccentric leg-pressing. No gender differences were observed in the measured parameters. However, the conclusion should be viewed with caution because the findings concurred with, but also contrasted, previous research in this field. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  4. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-10

    Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of 20Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF-pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF-pCREB signaling in non-irradiation group. These results suggest that forced running exercise offers a potentially effective treatment for radiation-induced cognitive deficits.

  5. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control. An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    espe - cially those in the Air Force and those who rely on Air Force bases and support to shape their combat capability. This study is one of a series of...means for building knowledge of best practices across ACS for the entire Air Force. Teach ACS critical thinking and problem-solving in an operational...consensus, at least greater understanding and a common vocabulary for these personnel. In addition to the on-site assess- ment team, RAND Project

  6. Rapid Exercise-Induced Mobilization of Dendritic Cells Is Potentially Mediated by a Flt3L- and MMP-9-Dependent Process in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, one exercise bout induces a substantial increase in the number of circulating leukocytes, while their function is transiently suppressed. The effect of one exercise bout in multiple sclerosis (MS is less studied. Since recent evidence suggests a role of dendritic cells (DC in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of one combined endurance/resistance exercise bout on the number and function of DC in MS patients and healthy controls. Our results show a rapid increase in the number of DC in response to physical exercise in both MS patients and controls. Further investigation revealed that in particular DC expressing the migratory molecules CCR5 and CD62L were increased upon acute physical activity. This may be mediated by Flt3L- and MMP-9-dependent mobilization of DC, as demonstrated by increased circulating levels of Flt3L and MMP-9 following one exercise bout. Circulating DC display reduced TLR responsiveness after acute exercise, as evidenced by a less pronounced upregulation of activation markers, HLA-DR and CD86, on plasmacytoid DC and conventional DC, respectively. Our results indicate mobilization of DC, which may be less prone to drive inflammatory processes, following exercise. This may present a negative feedback mechanism for exercise-induced tissue damage and inflammation.

  7. Epilepsy, seizures, physical exercise, and sports: A report from the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, Giuseppe; Kaufman, Kenneth R; Perucca, Emilio; Moshé, Solomon L; Arida, Ricardo M

    2016-01-01

    People with epilepsy (PWEs) are often advised against participating in sports and exercise, mostly because of fear, overprotection, and ignorance about the specific benefits and risks associated with such activities. Available evidence suggests that physical exercise and active participation in sports may favorably affect seizure control, in addition to producing broader health and psychosocial benefits. This consensus paper prepared by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidance concerning participation of PWEs in sport activities, and provides suggestions on the issuance of medical fitness certificates related to involvement in different sports. Sports are divided into three categories based on potential risk of injury or death should a seizure occur: group 1, sports with no significant additional risk; group 2, sports with moderate risk to PWEs, but no risk to bystanders; and group 3, sports with major risk. Factors to be considered when advising whether a PWE can participate in specific activities include the type of sport, the probability of a seizure occurring, the type and severity of the seizures, seizure precipitating factors, the usual timing of seizure occurrence, and the person's attitude in accepting some level of risk. The Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy considers this document as a work in progress to be updated as additional data become available.

  8. Chronic exercise prevents repeated restraint stress-provoked enhancement of immobility in forced swimming test in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Jang-Kyu; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether chronic treadmill exercise attenuated the depressive phenotype induced by restraint stress in ovariectomized mice (OVX). Immobility of OVX in the forced swimming test was comparable to that of sham mice (CON) regardless of the postoperative time. Immobility was also no difference between restrained mice (exposure to periodic restraint for 21 days; RST) and control mice (CON) on post-exposure 2nd and 9th day, but not 15th day. In contrast, the immobility of ovariectomized mice with repeated stress (OVX + RST) was profoundly enhanced compared to ovariectomized mice-alone (OVX), and this effect was reversed by chronic exercise (19 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks; OVX + RST + Ex) or fluoxetine administration (20 mg/kg, OVX + RST + Flu). In parallel with behavioral data, the immunoreactivity of Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in OVX was significantly decreased by repeated stress. However, the reduced numbers of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in OVX + RST were restored in response to chronic exercise (OVX + RST + Ex) and fluoxetine (OVX + RST + Flu). In addition, the expression pattern of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) was similar to that of the hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis markers (Ki-67 and DCX, respectively). These results suggest that menopausal depression may be induced by an interaction between repeated stress and low hormone levels, rather than a deficit in ovarian secretion alone, which can be improved by chronic exercise.

  9. A rapid magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging sequence for ultrasonic refocusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougenot, Charles; Pichardo, Samuel; Engler, Steven; Waspe, Adam; Constanciel Colas, Elodie; Drake, James M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance guided acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is being used to correct for aberrations induced by tissue heterogeneities when using high intensity focusing ultrasound (HIFU). A compromise between published MR-ARFI adaptive solutions is proposed to achieve efficient refocusing of the ultrasound beam in under 10 min. In addition, an ARFI sequence based on an EPI gradient echo sequence was used to simultaneously monitor displacement and temperature with a large SNR and low distortion. This study was conducted inside an Achieva 3T clinical MRI using a Philips Sonalleve MR-HIFU system to emit a 1 ms pulsed sonication with duty cycle of 2.3% at 300 Wac inside a polymer phantom. Virtual elements defined by a Hadamard array with sonication patterns composed of 6 phase steps were used to characterize 64 groups of 4 elements to find the optimal phase of the 256 elements of the transducer. The 384 sonication patterns were acquired in 580 s to identify the set of phases that maximize the displacement at the focal point. Three aberrators (neonatal skull, 8 year old skull and a checkered pattern) were added to each sonication pattern to evaluate the performance of this refocusing algorithm (n  =  4). These aberrators reduced the relative intensities to 95.3%, 69.6% and 25.5% for the neonatal skull, 8 year old skull, and checkered pattern virtual aberrators respectively. Using a 10 min refocusing algorithm, relative intensities of 101.6%, 91.3% and 93.3% were obtained. Better relative intensities of 103.9%, 94.3% and 101% were achieved using a 25 min refocusing algorithm. An average temperature increase of 4.2 °C per refocusing test was induced for the 10 min refocusing algorithm, resulting in a negligible thermal dose of 2 EM. A rapid refocusing of the beam can be achieved while keeping thermal effects to a minimum.

  10. Effects of rapid-acting insulin analogues insulin glulisine and insulin aspart on postprandial glycemic excursion with single bout of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nagaaki; Hiura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    The analogue insulin glulisine (Glu) shows both more rapid onset and shorter duration of action compared with the other rapid-acting insulin analogues. The current study investigates these properties in regard to the occurrence of hypoglycemia related to exercise. A randomized, single-center, open-label, crossover study was conducted in 12 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients (all male, mean ± SD age of 51.9 ± 11.3 years; BMI: 25.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2; HbA1c: 11.2 ± 2.4 %). Glu or insulin aspart (Asp) was subcutaneously administered just before breakfast. Insulin dosage was determined as the usual dose of pre-prandial rapid-acting insulin for patients treated with insulin therapy or as 0.1 unit/kg for patients treated with oral anti-hyperglycemic agents. Sixty min after the start of eating, the patients began aerobic exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 30 min at 50% of maximum heart rate. Hypoglycemic episodes (plasma glucose level exercise plasma glucose levels at 90, 120, and 150 min were significantly lower in Asp group (p exercise blood glucose levels were significantly lower in Asp group (p type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of post-exercise hypoglycemia.

  11. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  12. A force-activated trip switch triggers rapid dissociation of a colicin from its immunity protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E Farrance

    Full Text Available Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (K(d ≈ fM, lifetime ≈ 4 days, immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9 and immunity protein 9 (Im9 complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (<20 pN increases the rate of complex dissociation 10(6-fold, to a timescale (lifetime ≈ 10 ms compatible with intoxication. We term this catastrophic force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21-30 whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods.

  13. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  14. Evidence for a rapid vasodilatory contribution to immediate hyperemia in rest-to-mild and mild-to-moderate forearm exercise transitions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Natasha R; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2004-09-01

    Controversy exists regarding the contribution of a rapid vasodilatory mechanism(s) to immediate exercise hyperemia. Previous in vivo investigations have exclusively examined rest-to-exercise (R-E) transitions where both the muscle pump and early vasodilator mechanisms may be activated. To isolate vasodilatory onset, the present study investigated the onset of exercise hyperemia in an exercise-to-exercise (E-E) transition, where no further increase in muscle pump contribution would occur. Eleven subjects lay supine and performed a step increase from rest to 3 min of mild (10% maximal voluntary contraction), rhythmic, dynamic forearm handgrip exercise, followed by a further step to moderate exercise (20% maximal voluntary contraction) in each of arm above (condition A) or below (condition B) heart level. Beat-by-beat measures of brachial arterial blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and blood pressure (arterial tonometry) were performed. We observed an immediate increase in forearm vascular conductance in E-E transitions, and the magnitude of this increase matched that of the R-E transitions within each of the arm positions (condition A: E-E, 52.8 +/- 10.7 vs. R-E, 60.3 +/- 11.7 ml.min(-1).100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.66; condition B: E-E, 43.2 +/- 12.8 vs. R-E, 33.9 +/- 8.2 ml.min(-1).100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.52). Furthermore, changes in forearm vascular conductance were identical between R-E and E-E transitions over the first nine contraction-relaxation cycles in condition A. The immediate and identical increase in forearm vascular conductance in R-E and E-E transitions within arm positions provides strong evidence that rapid vasodilation contributes to immediate exercise hyperemia in humans. Specific vasodilatory mechanisms responsible remain to be determined.

  15. Effects of gum chewing exercises on saliva secretion and occlusal force in community-dwelling elderly individuals: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kazuharu; Matsuo, Koichiro; Takagi, Daisuke; Morita, Yu; Ooka, Takafumi; Hironaka, Shouji; Mukai, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Elderly individuals face the risk of reductions in saliva secretion and occlusal force caused by systemic diseases or medications that can eventually result in malnutrition and systemic complications. We tested the hypothesis that regular gum chewing exercises (GCE) would enhance saliva secretion and occlusal force in an elderly population. A total of 12 community-dwelling elderly individuals (3 men and 9 women) participated in this study after providing informed consent. Participants carried out GCE regimens using a soft gum (GCE-S) or hard gum (GCE-H) for 2 weeks each, with a 2-week rest period between trials. Mucosal moisture on the tongue surface, resting saliva, and occlusal force were measured before and after each test gum, and changes in parameters at relevant time-points were statistically analyzed. Differences in each measurement item were assessed using the Friedman test for before and after the GCE. We used the Holm's correction for multiple comparisons if the Friedman test results were significant. The critical value for rejecting the null hypothesis was set at P moisture and occlusal force followed a similar trend, with a significant rise after GCE-H. The results of the present study suggest that GCE can increase resting saliva secretion and occlusal force in elderly individuals. Further investigations are required on the appropriate use of soft and hard gums to address oral frailty in elderly individuals. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 48-53. © 2015 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Charged Geosynchronous Debris Perturbation Using Rapid Electromagnetic Force and Torque Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.; Schaub, H.

    2016-09-01

    Space objects experience small perturbation torques and forces from their interaction with the local space environment. In the Geosynchronous orbit regime, objects have been shown to charge to 10s of kiloVolts in Earth's shadow, but also to kiloVolt levels in sun-lit conditions if the object's surface is not continuously conducting. This charging results in electrostatic torques and forces being produced due to the interactions with the local electric and magnetic fields. This paper investigates faster-than-real time numerical methods such as Appropriate Fidelity Measures and the Multi-Sphere Method to approximate these forces and torques on uncontrolled High Area-to-Mass Ratio (HAMR) space debris. Numerical simulations show how these electrostatic forces and torques couple to stronger perturbations such as Solar Radiation Pressure to create position differences of hundreds of kilometers over periods of 12 hours, and thousands of kilometers over 48 hours for certain highly charged HAMR objects.

  17. Residual force depression following muscle shortening is exaggerated by prior eccentric drop jump exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargeviciute, Gintare; Masiulis, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2013-10-15

    We studied the relation between two common force modifications in skeletal muscle: the prolonged force depression induced by unaccustomed eccentric contractions, and the residual force depression (rFD) observed immediately after active shortening. We hypothesized that rFD originates from distortion within the sarcomeres and the extent of rFD: 1) correlates to the force and work performed during the shortening steps, which depend on sarcomeric integrity; and 2) is increased by sarcomeric disorganization induced by eccentric contractions. Nine healthy untrained men (mean age 26 yr) participated in the study. rFD was studied in electrically stimulated knee extensor muscles. rFD was defined as the reduction in isometric torque after active shortening compared with the torque in a purely isometric contraction. Eccentric contractions were performed as 50 repeated drop jumps with active deceleration to 90° knee angle, immediately followed by a maximal upward jump. rFD was assessed before and 5 min to 72 h after drop jumps. The series of drop jumps caused a prolonged force depression, which was about two times larger at 20-Hz than at 50-Hz stimulation. There was a significant correlation between increasing rFD and increasing mechanical work performed during active shortening both before and after drop jumps. In addition, a given rFD was obtained at a markedly lower mechanical work after drop jumps. In conclusion, the extent of rFD correlates to the mechanical work performed during active shortening. A series of eccentric contractions causes a prolonged reduction of isometric force. In addition, eccentric contractions exaggerate rFD, which further decreases muscle performance during dynamic contractions.

  18. Effect of melatonin on element distribution in the liver tissue of diabetic rats subjected to forced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, M; Akil, M; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Sivrikaya, A; Akkus, H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin supplementation on elements in the liver of diabetic rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. Eighty adult male rats were equally divided into eight groups. Group 1, general control. Group 2, melatonin-supplemented control. Group 3, melatonin-supplemented diabetic control. Group 4, swimming control. Group 5, melatonin-supplemented swimming. Group 6, melatonin-supplemented diabetic swimming. Group 7, diabetic swimming. Group 8, diabetic control. Liver tissue samples were analyzed for lead, cobalt, molybdenum, chrome, sulphur, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, iron, calcium, zinc, selenium. The highest cobalt, chrome values were found in the groups 7, 8 and the groups 5, 6 respectively. Groups 3 and 7 had the highest copper values. Iron and potassium values were higher in the groups 1 and 4. Group 6 had increased magnesium value, and groups 6, 7, 8 were found to have the highest manganese levels. The highest lead values were found in the groups 5 and 6. Group 6 had the highest selenium levels. The highest zinc levels were established in 1 and 2. Groups 1, 2, 5 and 6 were found to have the highest calcium values. The results of our study indicate that melatonin supplementation in diabetes and forced exercise significantly alters the element metabolism in the liver (Tab. 3,Ref. 33).

  19. Electromyographic and Neuromuscular Force Patterns Associated with Unexpectedly Loaded Rapid Limb Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Charles; Simmons, Roger W.

    Bi-articular, unidirectional arm movements were studied to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) and neuromuscular force patterns that occur when a limb is unexpectedly perturbed. A series of training trials were continued with a control load spring attached to the apparatus until a pre-specified criterion for learning was attained. The limb was…

  20. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  1. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (∼29% and ∼25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ∼13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These

  2. A stochastic mechanism for signal propagation in the brain: Force of rapid random fluctuations in membrane potentials of individual neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dawei; Man, Shushuang; Martin, Joseph V

    2016-01-21

    There are two functionally important factors in signal propagation in a brain structural network: the very first synaptic delay-a time delay about 1ms-from the moment when signals originate to the moment when observation on the signal propagation can begin; and rapid random fluctuations in membrane potentials of every individual neuron in the network at a timescale of microseconds. We provide a stochastic analysis of signal propagation in a general setting. The analysis shows that the two factors together result in a stochastic mechanism for the signal propagation as described below. A brain structural network is not a rigid circuit rather a very flexible framework that guides signals to propagate but does not guarantee success of the signal propagation. In such a framework, with the very first synaptic delay, rapid random fluctuations in every individual neuron in the network cause an "alter-and-concentrate effect" that almost surely forces signals to successfully propagate. By the stochastic mechanism we provide analytic evidence for the existence of a force behind signal propagation in a brain structural network caused by rapid random fluctuations in every individual neuron in the network at a timescale of microseconds with a time delay of 1ms.

  3. Negative g-Force Ocular Trauma Caused by a Rapidly Spinning Carousel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Moisseiev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages after spinning rapidly on a carousel attached to an electrical scooter. We present his clinical course and discuss the physics and pathophysiology of this unique mechanism of ocular trauma.

  4. Large Crater Repair at Silver Flag Exercise Site, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    strength requirement (> 25 CBR) for a subbase under rigid pavement and was acceptable for use as a backfill layer under rapid-setting concrete...adequately mixed. All DCPs for flowable fill backfill did meet the strength requirement for a subbase under a rigid pavement . ERDC/GSL TR-15-27 57 5.4.4...15 Figure 9. Ruler for lining up wheel saw according to pavement thickness or cut depth

  5. Force-Field Based Quasi-Chemical Method for Rapid Evaluation of Binary Phase Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweere, Augustinus J M; Fraaije, Johannes G E M

    2015-11-05

    We present the Pair Configurations to Molecular Activity Coefficients (PAC-MAC) method. The method is based on the pair sampling technique of Blanco (Fan, C. F.; Olafson, B. D.; Blanco, M.; Hsu, S. L. Application of Molecular Simulation to Derive Phase Diagrams of Binary Mixtures. Macromolecules 1992, 25, 3667-3676) with an extension that takes the packing of the molecules into account by a free energy model. The intermolecular energy is calculated using classical force fields. PAC-MAC is able to predict activity coefficients and corresponding vapor-liquid equilibrium diagrams at least 4 orders of magnitude faster than molecular simulations. The accuracy of the PAC-MAC method is tested by comparing the results with experimental data and with the results of the COSMO-SAC model (Lin, S.-T.; Sandler, S. I. A Priori Phase Equilibrium Prediction from a Segment Contribution Solvation Model. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2002, 41, 899-913). PAC-MAC (using the OPLS-aa force field) is shown to be comparable in accuracy to COSMO-SAC, at the considerable advantage that PAC-MAC in principle does not require quantum calculation, provided proper force fields to be available.

  6. Doublet stimulation increases Ca(2+) binding to troponin C to ensure rapid force development in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anthony J; Cully, Tanya R; Wingate, Catherine D; Barclay, Christopher J; Launikonis, Bradley S

    2017-03-06

    Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers. Single isolated fibers respond to doublet pulses with two clear Ca(2+) spikes, at doublet frequencies up to 1 KHz. A 200-Hz doublet at the start of a tetanic stimulation train (70 Hz) decreases the drop in free Ca(2+) between the first three Ca(2+) spikes of the transient, maintaining a higher overall free Ca(2+) level during first 20-30 ms of the response. Doublet stimulation also increased the rate of force development in isolated fast-twitch muscles. We also modeled SR Ca(2+) release rates during doublet stimulation and showed that Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of ryanodine receptor activity is rapid, occurring ≤1ms after initial release. Furthermore, we modeled Ca(2+) binding to the main intracellular Ca(2+) buffers of troponin C (TnC), parvalbumin, and the SR Ca(2+) pump during Ca(2+) release and found that the main effect of the second response in the doublet is to more rapidly increase the occupation of the second Ca(2+)-binding site on TnC (TnC2), resulting in earlier activation of force. We conclude that doublet stimulation maintains high cytosolic Ca(2+) levels for longer in the early phase of the Ca(2+) response, resulting in faster saturation of TnC2 with Ca(2+), faster initiation of cross-bridge cycling, and more rapid force development.

  7. EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force Meeting on 'Quark Matter in Compact Star'

    CERN Document Server

    Buballa, Michael; Drago, Alessandro; Fraga, Eduardo; Haensel, Pawel; Mishustin, Igor; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Schramm, Stefan; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    The recent measurement of two solar mass pulsars has initiated an intense discussion on its impact on our understanding of the high-density matter in the cores of neutron stars. A task force meeting was held from October 7-10, 2013 at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies to address the presence of quark matter in these massive stars. During this meeting, the recent oservational astrophysical data and heavy-ion data was reviewed. The possibility of pure quark stars, hybrid stars and the nature of the QCD phase transition were discussed and their observational signals delineated.

  8. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We...... be explained by changes in background TA EMG activity. These effects seemed specific to walking, as similar changes in TA MEP were not seen when seated subjects were tested during static dorsiflexion. These observations suggest that the corticospinal tract contributes to the adaptation of walking...

  9. Observations on the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force: Origins, Direction, and Mission,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Readiness Items Not Avail. Not Avail. Not Avail. aData are from Secretary Weinberger’s Annual Report to Congress, [1] which does not break out separately...8217,’’," ’’,. .’ . ..’ .’ :2 -, .-- , - .. . . • • , - 22 - the status of the big Soviet-invasion scenario (in one form or the other) will continue to be special. .9 O...European missions are only a small percentage of total NATO forces--and, in most cases, not particularly well suited to a big war in Europe in any event; (2

  10. Ice flow dynamics forced by rapid water pressure variations in subglacial granular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Beem, Lucas H.;

    2016-01-01

    mechanical processes driving transitions from stability to slip. We performed computational experiments that show how rearrangements of load-bearing force chains within the granular sediments drive the mechanical transitions. Cyclic variations in pore water pressure give rise to rate-dependent creeping......Glaciers and ice streams can move by deforming underlying water-saturated sediments, and the nonlinear mechanics of these materials are often invoked as the main reason for initiation, persistence, and shutdown of fast-flowing ice streams. Existing models have failed to fully explain the internal...

  11. Rapid Calculation of Thermal Forces in Coarse Grained Simulation of Colloidal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, James; Fiore, Andrew; Donev, Aleksander; Balboa, Florencio

    2016-11-01

    In the presented work, we will demonstrate a spectrally accurate method for calculation of thermal forces in implicit solvent simulations of soft materials such as colloidal dispersions. For implicit solvent models, the stochastic forces must be drawn from a normal distribution whose covariance is a complicated function of the particle configuration. For a system of interacting N particles, drawing a single sample requires O (N3) operations, if numerically exact techniques from linear algebra are employed. So-called "fast" methods can approximate the sampling with roughly O (Nm logN) computational complexity, where m is a coefficient greater than one which depends on the configuration of the particles. The computational complexity of the presented approach is O (N(logN) d / (d + 3)) , where d is the fractal dimension of the particulate structures being modeled. Remarkably, this new approach adapts to the structure of the material under study by leveraging the algebraic structure of Ewald summation and balancing the computational effort spent evaluating near-field and far-field contributions to the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles. Applications of this approach to modeling colloidal gelation and particulate suspensions will be discussed.

  12. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi, E-mail: xuzhe6249@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  13. Negative effects of ultrafine particle exposure during forced exercise on the expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, I; De Boever, P; Int Panis, L; Sarre, S; Meeusen, R

    2012-10-25

    Exercise improves cognitive function, and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) plays a key role in this process. We recently reported that particulate matter (PM) exposure negatively contributed to the exercise-induced increase in human serum BDNF concentration. Furthermore, PM exposure is associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) during a single bout of forced exercise on the expression of inflammatory (IL1α, IL1β, TNF, IL6, NOS2, NOS3) and oxidative stress (NFE2L2)-related genes, as well as BDNF in the brain of rats. Four groups (n=6/group) of Wistar rats were exposed for 90 min to one of the following exposure regimes: UFP+exercise, UFP+rest, ambient air+exercise, ambient air+rest (control). Hippocampus, olfactory bulb and prefrontal cortex were collected 24h after exposure. Gene expression changes were analyzed with real-time PCR. In the condition ambient air+exercise, hippocampal expression of BDNF and NFE2L2 was up-regulated, while the expression of IL1α and NOS3 in the prefrontal cortex and IL1α in the olfactory bulb was down-regulated compared to the control. In contrast, gene expression in the condition UFP+exercise did not differ from the control. In the condition UFP+rest, hippocampal expression of NFE2L2 was down-regulated and there was a trend toward down-regulation of BDNF expression compared to the control. This study shows a negative effect of UFP exposure on the exercise-induced up-regulation of BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus of rats.

  14. Traction force microscopy in rapidly moving cells reveals separate roles for ROCK and MLCK in the mechanics of retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Timothy R; Ghassem-Zadeh, Sean A; Lee, Juliet

    2014-08-15

    Retraction is a major rate-limiting step in cell motility, particularly in slow moving cell types that form large stable adhesions. Myosin II dependent contractile forces are thought to facilitate detachment by physically pulling up the rear edge. However, retraction can occur in the absence of myosin II activity in cell types that form small labile adhesions. To investigate the role of contractile force generation in retraction, we performed traction force microscopy during the movement of fish epithelial keratocytes. By correlating changes in local traction stress at the rear with the area retracted, we identified four distinct modes of retraction. "Recoil" retractions are preceded by a rise in local traction stress, while rear edge is temporarily stuck, followed by a sharp drop in traction stress upon detachment. This retraction type was most common in cells generating high average traction stress. In "pull" type retractions local traction stress and area retracted increase concomitantly. This was the predominant type of retraction in keratocytes and was observed mostly in cells generating low average traction stress. "Continuous" type retractions occur without any detectable change in traction stress, and are seen in cells generating low average traction stress. In contrast, to many other cell types, "release" type retractions occur in keratocytes following a decrease in local traction stress. Our identification of distinct modes of retraction suggests that contractile forces may play different roles in detachment that are related to rear adhesion strength. To determine how the regulation of contractility via MLCK or Rho kinase contributes to the mechanics of detachment, inhibitors were used to block or augment these pathways. Modulation of MLCK activity led to the most rapid change in local traction stress suggesting its importance in regulating attachment strength. Surprisingly, Rho kinase was not required for detachment, but was essential for localizing

  15. Effects of Hemibridge with Ball and Balloon Exercise on Forced Expiratory Volume and Pain in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorida Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Suboptimal breathing patterns and impairments of posture and trunk stability are often associated with musculoskeletal complaints such as low back pain. Respiration is also affected by poor neuromuscular control of core muscles. Immediate effects of hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise has been studied on chronic pain in athlete population. Objective: To evaluate the effects of hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise on pain, forced expiratory volume and functional abilities in patients with chronic low back pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted among 30 participants between the age of 21 to 55 years with chronic non-specific LBP. The participants were given a hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise. Pre-interventional and 3rd day Post-interventional outcome measurements were taken using VAS, FEV1 and FEV6 and MODQ. Results: The difference between pre-and post of VAS was statistically highly significant (p=0.0001. The p value of FEV6 and MODQ by paired t test was statistically significant with p value of 0.02 and 0.0007 respectively. Conclusion: The study concludes that there is an immediate effect of hemibridge with ball and balloon exercise on pain, FEV6 and functional ability in patients with chronic LBP.

  16. Association between rapid force production by the plantar flexors and balance performance in elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Ryoichi; Saito, Megumi; Ohki, Shunsuke; Takayama, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yosuke; Akagi, Ryota

    2016-12-01

    Plantar flexion strength and balance ability are considered to be crucial for avoiding falls. However, no clear relationship has been established between these two factors in elderly population. This study aimed to examine the association between plantar flexion strength and balance performance in elderly men and women. Forty-three men and 35 women aged over 65 years performed isometric plantar flexion as fast and hard as possible. From the time-torque curve, the rate of torque development in time intervals of 30, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ms from the onset of contraction was determined and normalized to peak torque. In addition, the center of pressure displacement during single-leg standing was calculated and normalized to height. When the data were collapsed over sexes, the normalized rate of torque development was negatively correlated with the normalized center of pressure displacement, except for the time interval of 200 ms. By sex, regardless of the time interval, there was a negative correlation between the normalized rate of torque development and the normalized center of pressure displacement in the elderly men but not in the elderly women. No correlation was seen between the peak torque and normalized center of pressure displacement in either pooled or separated data. The findings suggest that the capability of rapid force production rather than maximal force production of the plantar flexion is important for balance ability in elderly men, but this capability may not be relevant in elderly women.

  17. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  18. Research of a Rapid Exercise Intensity Detection for Wearable Devices%一种可穿戴快速运动强度检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩子鹏; 敖国政; 吉长东

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid exercise intensity detection method based on wearable de‐vice for complex equipment of existing exercise intensity detection and low real‐time .This method fusion the ECG signal and acceleration signal .The method collects ECG signal via wearable devices and shows exercise intensity level on the computer screen .With the improved median filtering method and wavelet packet decomposition reconstruction method ,respectively , remove the high frequency noise and baseline drift in the ECG signal .Combination of accelera‐tion signal ,this paper puts forward a kind of ECG characteristic vector fusion calculation meth‐od .Exercise intensity by the SVM classification .Experimental results show that the wearable fast exercise intensity detection method can effective exercise intensity detection .Compared with Actigraph wGT 3X‐BT exercise intensity detection method and the traditional ECG exer‐cise intensity detection method ,wearable fast exercise intensity detection method has higher re‐al‐time performance .%针对现有运动强度检测方法设备复杂和实时性不高的问题,提出一种心电信号(e‐lectrocardiogram ,ECG )与加速度信号相融合的可穿戴快速运动强度检测方法。该方法通过可穿戴设备采集 ECG ,通过电脑进行运动强度等级显示。采用改进中值滤波方法和小波包分解重构方法分别去除 ECG中的高频噪声和基线漂移。结合加速度信号,提出一种 ECG特征向量融合计算方法。通过支持向量机(Support Vector Machine ,SVM )进行运动强度等级分类。实验结果表明,可穿戴快速运动强度检测方法可以有效地进行运动强度检测,并且同Actigraph wGT3X‐BT运动强度检测方法和传统 ECG运动强度检测方法相比,实时性更高。

  19. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  20. A rapid rotation to an inverted seated posture inhibits muscle force, activation, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Pramod; Grover, Varun; DiSanto, Mario C; Button, Duane C; Behm, David G

    2013-08-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated neuromuscular and cardiovascular changes with slow inversion rates, emergencies, such as overturned vehicles and helicopters can occur rapidly. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses with rapid (1 s) and slower (3 s) transitions from upright to inverted seated positions. Twenty-two subjects performed separate and concurrent unilateral elbow flexion and leg extension maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) for 6 s in an upright seated position and when inverted with 1 and 3 s rotations. Elbow flexion and leg extension force; biceps, triceps, quadriceps and hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) activity, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Whether the elbow flexion or leg extension contractions occurred concurrently or individually, significant (p leg extension MVC as compared to the initial second of rotation to inversion. HR, SBP and DBP demonstrated (p < 0.001) decreases when inverted within 1 and 3 s rotations as compared to upright. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that irrespective of rotation speed, inversion inhibited neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses, similar to the more deliberate, slower rotation of previous inversion studies.

  1. THE EFFECT OF A 12-WEEK PHYSIOTHERAPY PROGRAM WITH RESPIRATORY EXERCISES ON THE VITAL CAPACITY AND FORCED VITAL CAPACITY IN ADULT MALES AND FEMALES WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitsios A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if breathing exercises can improve specific respiratoryparameters in adult males and females with cerebral palsy. 18 adults (11males/7 females with spastic cerebralpalsy consisted the experimental group and 18 (11males/7 females serving as control group took part in thestudy. A spirometer was used to measure vital capacity (VC and the forced vital capacity (FVC before and afterthe exercising protocol. The breathing exercises selected, emphasized strengthening of the muscles of inspirationand the muscles of expiration. The study revealed that a breathing exercise program can increase the VC andFVC in people with cerebral palsy. The pre-test and post-test examined variables of both groups were withinnormal limits The VC of the experimental group was increased by 0.20 litres and this of FVC increased by 0,25litres after exercising for five to seven minutes each day for a period of twelve weeks. The mean increase of theVC and FVC was 6% and 7% respectively over the baseline values. The control group showed no change in VCneither in FVC. The results support application and development of the treatment concept with respiratoryexercises and highlight that physical activity at its simple status can improve function and quality of life in adultswith cerebral palsy when added to standard care.

  2. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise, metabol

  3. Conceptual and Laboratory Exercise to Apply Newton’s Second Law to a System of Many Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    laboratory. Figure 1. Sketch of the setup for the classroom exercise. Classroom exercise Begin with the following problem that groups of 2–3 students...getting closer to the extramural interests of many students, the free rolling (coasting) of vehicles (such as bicycles [14] or cars [15]) can be measured

  4. Physical Exercise Leads to Rapid Adaptations in Hippocampal Vasculature : Temporal Dynamics and Relationship to Cell Proliferation and Neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Borght, Karin; Kobor-Nyakas, Dora E.; Klauke, Karin; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Nyakas, Csaba; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Meerlo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Increased levels of angiogenesis and neurogenesis possibly mediate the beneficial effects of physical activity on hippocampal plasticity. This study was designed to investigate the temporal dynamics of exercise-induced changes in hippocampal angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Mice were housed with

  5. Methodologies to determine forces on bones and muscles of body segments during exercise, employing compact sensors suitable for use in crowded space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    and at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, are continuing the work of reducing the experimental data from the KC-135 flight, and the implementation of the optimization methods to estimate muscle forces. As soon as results from these efforts are available, they will be published in reputable journals. Results of this work will impact studies addressing bone density loss and development of countermeasures to minimize bone loss in zero gravity conditions. By analyzing muscle forces on Earth and in Space during exercise, scientists could eventually formulate new exercises and machines to help maintain bone density. On Earth, this work will impact studies concerning arthritis, and will provide the means to study possible exercise countermeasures to minimize arthritis problems.

  6. Medium-intensity, high-volume "hypertrophic" resistance training did not induce improvements in rapid force production in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to improve both maximum and rapid force production using resistance training that is typically used to induce muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained older men. Subjects (60-72 years) performed 20 weeks of "hypertrophic" resistance training twice weekly (n = 27) or control (n = 11). Maximum dynamic and isometric leg press, as well as isometric force over 0-100 ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle activity was assessed during these tests by surface electromyogram of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed by panoramic ultrasound of the vastus lateralis. The intervention group increased their maximum isometric (from 2268 ± 544 to 2538 ± 701 N) and dynamic force production (from 137 ± 24 to 165 ± 29 kg), and these changes were significantly different to control (isometric 12 ± 16 vs. 1 ± 9 %; dynamic 21 ± 12 vs. 2 ± 4 %). No within- or between-group differences were observed in rapid isometric force or concentric power. Relative increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area trended to be statistically greater in the intervention group (10 ± 8 vs. 3 ± 6 %, P = 0.061). It is recommendable that resistance training programs for older individuals integrate protocols emphasizing maximum force/muscle hypertrophy and rapid force production in order to induce comprehensive health-related and functionally important improvements in this population.

  7. Mechanisms underlying enhancements in muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Onslev, Johan

    2015-01-01

    of muscle proteins involved in growth, ion handling, lactate production and clearance increased (P≤0.05) with the intervention in TER compared to PLA, with no change in oxidative enzymes. Our observations suggest that muscle hypertrophy is the primary mechanism underlying enhancements in muscle force......The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating mechanisms by which chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in young men. Eighteen trained men were assigned to an experimental group (oral terbutaline 5 mg∙30...... kgbw(-1) twice daily; TER, n=9) or a control group (placebo; PLA, n=9) for a four-week intervention. No changes were observed with the intervention in PLA. Isometric muscle force of the quadriceps increased (P≤0.01) by 97±29 N (mean±SE) with the intervention in TER compared to PLA. Peak and mean power...

  8. Effect of short-term fatigue, induced by high-intensity exercise, on the profile of the ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Saya; Aizawa, Junya; Shimoda, Manabu; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fatigue may be an important contributing factor to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled lower limb fatigue, induced by a short-term, high-intensity exercise protocol, on the profile of the ground reaction force during landings from single-leg anterior drop-jumps. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy males, 18 to 24 years old, performed single-leg anterior drop-jumps, from a 20 cm height, under two conditions, ‘fatigue’ and ‘non-fatigue’. Short-term fatigue was induced by high-intensity interval cycling on an ergometer. Effects of fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were evaluated by paired t-test. [Results] Fatigue shortened the time-to-peak duration of the vertical ground reaction force by 10% (non-fatigue, 44.0 ± 16.8 ms; fatigue, 39.6 ± 15.8 ms). Fatigue also yielded a 3.6% lowering in peak vertical ground reaction force and 9.4% increase in loading rate, although these effects were not significant. [Conclusion] The effects of fatigue in reducing time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps may increase the risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in males. PMID:28174454

  9. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile gamma ray spectrometry Processing of results from the RESUME99 exercise, Gaevle, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Smetkurst, M A

    2000-01-01

    Data from mobile measuring teams participating in the RESUME99 Fixed Route exercise in Sweden have been processed to facilitate a detailed comparison between the data sets. The exercise was organised by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and is part of the BOK-1.2 project Mobile Measurements and Measurements Strategies within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme for 1998-2000. 11 car borne gamma ray spectrometer systems measured a fixed route in the vicinity of Gaevle in Sweden so that the capabilities of the different measuring systems in determining the levels and patterns of sup 1 37Cs contamination along the route could be studied. This report describes how the data sets from the different measuring systems were projected into the known trace of the fixed route so that the results can be compared. Estimates of equivalent surface activity of sup 1 37Cs from the different measuring systems were normalised to data obtained by the Danish Emergency management Agency (system DKA1) an...

  10. Self-control predicts exercise behavior by force of habit, a conceptual replication of Adriaanse et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Adriaanse, Marieke A.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study suggests that habits play a mediating role in the association between trait self-control and eating behavior, supporting a notion of effortless processes in trait self-control (Adriaanse et al., 2014). We conceptually replicated this research in the area of exercise behavior,

  11. High-field (11.75T) multimodal MR imaging of exercising hindlimb mouse muscles using a non-invasive combined stimulation and force measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondin, Julien; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David; Duhamel, Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    We have designed and constructed an experimental set-up allowing electrical stimulation of hindlimb mouse muscles and the corresponding force measurements at high-field (11.75T). We performed high-resolution multimodal MRI (including T2 -weighted imaging, angiography and diffusion) and analysed the corresponding MRI changes in response to a stimulation protocol. Mice were tested twice over a 1-week period to investigate the reliability of mechanical measurements and T2 changes associated with the stimulation protocol. Additionally, angiographic images were obtained before and immediately after the stimulation protocol. Finally, multislice diffusion imaging was performed before, during and immediately after the stimulation session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated on the basis of diffusion weighted images (DWI). Both force production and T2 values were highly reproducible as illustrated by the low coefficient of variation (muscle contractions, motion artifacts were minimal for DWI recorded under exercising conditions, thereby underlining the robustness of the measurements. Mean ADC values increased under exercising conditions and were higher during the recovery period as compared with the corresponding control values. The proposed experimental approach demonstrates accurate high-field multimodal MRI muscle investigations at a preclinical level which is of interest for monitoring the severity and/or the progression of neuromuscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ground Reaction Force and Mechanical Differences Between the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) and Smith Machine While Performing a Squat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, William E.; Bentley, Jason R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Schneider, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Musculoskeletal unloading in microgravity has been shown to induce losses in bone mineral density, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength. Currently, an Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is being flown on board the ISS to help counteract these losses. Free weight training has shown successful positive musculoskeletal adaptations. In biomechanical research, ground reaction forces (GRF) trajectories are used to define differences between exercise devices. The purpose of this evaluation is to quantify the differences in GRF between the iRED and free weight exercise performed on a Smith machine during a squat. Due to the differences in resistance properties, inertial loading and load application to the body between the two devices, we hypothesize that subjects using iRED will produce GRF that are significantly different from the Smith machine. There will be differences in bar/harness range of motion and the time when peak GRF occurred in the ROMbar. Three male subjects performed three sets of ten squats on the iRED and on the Smith Machine on two separate days at a 2-second cadence. Statistically significant differences were found between the two devices in all measured GRF variables. Average Fz and Fx during the Smith machine squat were significantly higher than iRED. Average Fy (16.82 plus or minus.23; p less than .043) was significantly lower during the Smith machine squat. The mean descent/ascent ratio of the magnitude of the resultant force vector of all three axes for the Smith machine and iRED was 0.95 and 0.72, respectively. Also, the point at which maximum Fz occurred in the range of motion (Dzpeak) was at different locations with the two devices.

  13. Chronic low-frequency rTMS of primary motor cortex diminishes exercise training-induced gains in maximal voluntary force in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Lomarev, Mikhael; Shamim, Ejaz; Meunier, Sabine; Russman, Heike; Dang, Nguyet; Hallett, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Although there is consensus that the central nervous system mediates the increases in maximal voluntary force (maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) produced by resistance exercise, the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in these processes remains controversial. We hypothesized that 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 during resistance training would diminish strength gains. Forty subjects were divided equally into five groups. Subjects voluntarily (Vol) abducted the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) (5 bouts x 10 repetitions, 10 sessions, 4 wk) at 70-80% MVC. Another group also exercised but in the 1-min-long interbout rest intervals they received rTMS [Vol+rTMS, 1 Hz, FDI motor area, 300 pulses/session, 120% of the resting motor threshold (rMT)]. The third group also exercised and received sham rTMS (Vol+Sham). The fourth group received only rTMS (rTMS_only). The 37.5% and 33.3% gains in MVC in Vol and Vol+Sham groups, respectively, were greater (P = 0.001) than the 18.9% gain in Vol+rTMS, 1.9% in rTMS_only, and 2.6% in unexercised control subjects who received no stimulation. Acutely, within sessions 5 and 10, single-pulse TMS revealed that motor-evoked potential size and recruitment curve slopes were reduced in Vol+rTMS and rTMS_only groups and accumulated to chronic reductions by session 10. There were no changes in rMT, maximum compound action potential amplitude (M(max)), and peripherally evoked twitch forces in the trained FDI and the untrained abductor digiti minimi. Although contributions from spinal sources cannot be excluded, the data suggest that M1 may play a role in mediating neural adaptations to strength training.

  14. Does growth hormone therapy in conjunction with resistance exercise increase muscle force production and muscle mass in men and women aged 60 years or older?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, J J; Yarasheski, K E

    1999-01-01

    Improved muscle protein mass and increments in maximum voluntary muscle force have rarely been observed in men and women aged 60 years and older who were treated with rhGH. Although rhGH administration has been reported to increase lean body mass in older men and women, it is doubtful that this increase is localized to skeletal muscle contractile proteins. When rhGH administration was combined with 16 weeks of resistance exercises, increases in muscle mass, muscle protein synthesis, and muscle force were not greater in the rhGH-treated group than in a weight training group that received placebo injections. Side effects of rhGH treatment in elderly people are prevalent, not trivial, and further limit its usefulness as an effective anabolic agent for promoting muscle protein accretion in men and women. In particular, the induction of insulin resistance and carpal tunnel compression reduces the efficacy of rhGH replacement therapy in elderly individuals. The evidence for a GH-induced increase in human skeletal muscle protein and maximum voluntary muscle force is weak. The optimum dose and GH-replacement paradigm (GHRH, GH-secretagogues) have not been identified. Whether rhGH therapy improves muscle protein mass and force in individuals with severe cachexia associated with major trauma, burns, surgery, or muscular dystrophy is controversial and under investigation.

  15. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, M.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.T. [Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  16. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Chang, M W; Chang, C P; Chan, S C; Chang, W Y; Yang, C L; Lin, M T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  17. Medium-intensity, high-volume “hypertrophic” resistance training did not induce improvements in rapid force production in healthy older men

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to improve both maximum and rapid force production using resistance training that is typically used to induce muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained older men. Subjects (60–72 years) performed 20 weeks of “hypertrophic” resistance training twice weekly (n = 27) or control (n = 11). Maximum dynamic and isometric leg press, as well as isometric force over 0–100 ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-in...

  18. Gender Differences among Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematic and Ground Reaction Force Characteristics during a Rapid Sprint and Cut Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James

    2004-01-01

    Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…

  19. PEGylated interferon-beta modulates the acute inflammatory response and recovery when combined with forced exercise following cervical spinal contusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R; Zhukareva, Victoria; Santi, Lauren; Miller, Kassi; Shumsky, Jed S; Baker, Darren P; Houle, John D

    2010-06-01

    Secondary degeneration leads to an expansion of the initial tissue damage sustained during a spinal cord injury (SCI). Dampening the cellular inflammatory response that contributes to this progressive tissue damage is one possible strategy for neuroprotection after acute SCI. We initially examined whether treatment with a PEGylated form of rat interferon-beta (IFN-beta) would modulate the expression of several markers of inflammation and neuroprotection at the site of a unilateral cervical level 5 contusion injury. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injured using the Infinite Horizon Impactor at a force of 200 kdyn (equivalent to a severe injury) and a mean displacement of 1600-1800 mum. A single dose (5x10(6) units) of PEGylated IFN-beta or vehicle was administered 30 min following SCI. Here we demonstrate temporal changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and the expression of heat shock proteins and iNOS (involved in neuroprotection) at the lesion epicenter and one segment caudally after SCI and PEG IFN-beta treatment. The results suggested a potential therapeutic treatment strategy for modulation of secondary damage after acute SCI. Therefore, we examined whether acute treatment with PEG IFN-beta would improve forelimb function alone or when combined with forced exercise (Ex). Animals began the Ex paradigm 5 days post SCI and continued for 5 days/week over 8 weeks. Locomotion (forelimb locomotor scale [FLS], hindlimb BBB, and TreadScan) and sensorimotor function (grid walking) was tested weekly. Additional outcome measures included lesion size and glial cell reactivity. Significant FLS improvements occurred at 1 week post SCI in the PEGylated IFN-beta-treated group but not at any other time point or with any other treatment approaches. These results suggest that this acute neuroprotective treatment strategy does not translate into long term behavioral recovery even when combined with forced exercise.

  20. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jonathan D; Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; DeNichilo, Mark O; Rowney, Michelle K

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPI(HD)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In a double-blind randomised parallel trial, 28 sedentary males had muscle soreness (MS), serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma TNFalpha, and PIT assessed at baseline and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions (ECC) of their knee extensors. Participants then consumed 250 ml of flavoured water (FW; n=11), or FW containing 25 g WPI (n=11) or 25 g WPI(HD) (n=6) and the assessments were repeated 1, 2, 6 and 24h later. PIT decreased approximately 23% following ECC, remained suppressed in FW and WPI, but recovered fully in WPI(HD) by 6h (P=0.006, treatment x time interaction). MS increased following ECC (P0.45). WPI(HD) may be a useful supplement for assisting athletes to recover from fatiguing eccentric exercise. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... editorial staff Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Why Exercise? Why Exercise? Share Print Why Exercise? Exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Exercise prevents health problems, builds strength, boosts energy, ...

  2. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Paleckis, Mantas Mickevičius, Audrius Snieckus, Vytautas Streckis, Mati Pääsuke, Saulius Rutkauskas, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Albertas Skurvydas, Sigitas Kamandulis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9 performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP, patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1 steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2 larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3 increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4 increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF 4-WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM USING ELASTIC TUBING AS PERTURBATION FORCE ON BALANCE IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.Divya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Ageing commonly disrupts the balance control and compensatory postural responses that con-tribute to maintaining balance and preventing falls during perturbation of posture due to the weakness ofankle Dorsiflexors and plantar flexor. This can lead to increase of falling in older adults over theage of 65.Materials and Methods:Study Design: Pre – Post-test Experimental Design,40 elderly subjects both male andfemale in the age group of 60-70 years were randomised in to two groups : Subjects in Experimental (n=20were treated with 4-week exercise programme using elastic tubing with conventional Physiotherapy andControl(n=20 were treated with conventional Physiotherapy for 4 weeks. The duration of treatment was 4weeks in both groups. Outcome measures included were Berg Balance Scale and Manual Muscle Testing.Results:In Experimental group Berg Balance score was found to be significant (EXP-45.00±2.4P0.108, Right ankle PF- 3.45±0.51,P > 0.059, Lt DF-3.45±0.51, P > 0.3.17, Left anklePF 3.40±0.50, P >0.157.In control group post interventionBerg Balance and Manual Muscle Testing score was not found to be significant.Conclusion:The4-week exer-cise programme using elastic tubing is effective on balance in elderly subjects.

  4. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... activity, and ignore irrelevant information. For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...

  8. Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup; Jacobsen, Jacob Ole; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2008-01-01

    of force development, and maximal jump height were tested to assess muscle strength/power along with whole-body impedance analysis before and after SSR. RESULTS: Body weight, fat-free mass, and total body water decreased (4-5%) after SSR, along with impairments in maximal jump height (-8%) and knee...

  9. Metabolic response to light exercise after exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Stephen P; Clarkson, Priscilla; Patel, Jehangir J

    2002-01-01

    Inherent compromises in substrate metabolism, or impaired perfusion of muscle may contribute to the occurrence of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. In this study, the lactate response of the elbow flexor muscles to light exercise was examined in eight subjects (five males, three females) who previously demonstrated rhabdomyolysis with extreme swelling (ES; n = 4) or no swelling (NS; n = 4) of the upper arm after eccentric exercise. Subjects performed identical light exercise bouts (45 s of rapid isotonic biceps curls consisting of both concentric and eccentric actions at 25% of maximum voluntary contraction force) using their previously eccentrically exercised arm (E-ARM) and control arm, which was not used previously to perform eccentric exercise (C-ARM). Blood lactate concentration ([La]b) was assessed 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 9 min post-exercise. Peak [La]b and the area under the curve (AUC) were compared between the E-ARM of the ES and NS groups and between the C-ARM and E-ARM of the ES group. The AUC did not differ between the E-ARM of the ES and NS groups (P > 0.05) or between the C-ARM and E-ARM of the ES group (P > 0.05). In the ES group, the increase in [La]b after light exercise with the C-ARM [mean (SD) change, delta: 1.98 (0.7) mmol/l] was not different from the increase after exercising the E-ARM [delta: 2.10 (0.7) mmol/l; P>0.05]. Comparing the response of the E-ARM between groups, the increase in [La]b of the NS group [delta: 1.40 (0.4) mmol/l] was not different than that observed in the ES group [delta: 2.10 (0.7) mmol/l; P>0.05). Thus, subjects who had previously exhibited signs of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis did not show an abnormal response to low-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  10. Spinal loads during post-operative physiotherapeutic exercises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available After spinal surgery, physiotherapeutic exercises are performed to achieve a rapid return to normal life. One important aim of treatment is to regain muscle strength, but it is known that muscle forces increase the spinal loads to potentially hazardous levels. It has not yet been clarified which exercises cause high spinal forces and thus endanger the surgical outcome. The loads on vertebral body replacements were measured in 5 patients during eleven physiotherapeutic exercises, performed in the supine, prone, or lateral position or on all fours (kneeling on the hands and knees. Low resultant forces on the vertebral body replacement were measured for the following exercises: lifting one straight leg in the supine position, abduction of the leg in the lateral position, outstretching one leg in the all-fours position, and hollowing the back in the all-fours position. From the biomechanical point of view, these exercises can be performed shortly after surgery. Implant forces similar or even greater than those for walking were measured during: lifting both legs, lifting the pelvis in the supine position, outstretching one arm with or without simultaneously outstretching the contralateral leg in the all-fours position, and arching the back in the all-fours position. These exercises should not be performed shortly after spine surgery.

  11. Preliminary indications from atomic force microscopy of the presence of rapidly-formed nanoscale films on aquifer material surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Claudia; Lead, Jamie R.; Renshaw, Joanna C.; Tellam, John H.

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there is a nanoscale surface film on aquifer-like materials exposed to deep groundwaters, as has previously been found on surfaces exposed to surface and soil waters. Such surface films will modify surface properties that are so important in determining the mobility of many groundwater pollutants. Muscovite mica was used because a) it is a good analogue for the main sorbing phases of many clastic aquifers and b) its cleavage planes are atomically flat allowing high resolution imaging. Freshly-cleaved muscovite plates were exposed to groundwater from a sandstone aquifer for 30 min, and surface properties (morphology, coverage, roughness and tip-substrate force interactions) were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A patchy surface film of several nanometres in depth, incorporating larger separate particles, was found on the mica surface. This film was associated with significantly increased roughness values and AFM probe-sample interaction forces compared with pure water and inorganic (synthetic groundwater) solution controls. Although the results reported are preliminary in nature, if confirmed, such films are likely to affect sorption reactions, surface-facilitated redox interactions, non-aqueous phase liquid wetting angles, and colloid-pathogen-rock attachment, and will thus be of importance in understanding natural attenuation and migration of dissolved, non-aqueous and particulate phases in groundwaters.

  12. Efficacy of performing Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force on the same beef steak following rapid cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Calkins, C R; Green, M D; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E

    2010-08-01

    The ability to perform Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force on the same beef top loin steak was investigated. Three, 2.54-cm steaks from top loins (n=99) were allotted to either Warner-Bratzler only (WBS), slice shear force only (SSF), or Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force (WBS/SSF). Steaks were thawed at 2 degrees C for 48h prior to cooking. Steaks were cooked to 71 degrees C using a conveyor convection oven and allowed to cool at room temperature for a minimum of 4h. Steaks allotted to WBS used six 1.27-cm cores and steaks allotted for WBS/SSF used four cores. Steaks allotted to SSF and WBS/SSF used one, 1 cm x 5 cm slice. Correlations among WBS and SSF for all steaks ranged from 0.49 to 0.69 (Pcorrelations were generated for steak location within the top loin, the relationships among WBS and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.53 to 0.70 (P<0.05). These results indicate that it may be feasible to conduct WBS and SSF on the same top loin steak, and that the steak taken 2.54 cm from the 13th rib is the optimal location for this combination of procedures.

  13. Force analysis of the exhaled bio-aerosol particles in a well-ventilated room for a physical exerciser%基于GIS的危险气体扩散实时预测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 陈东升; 程水源; 黄青

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes it as its goal to analyze the exhaled bioaerosol particles in a well-ventilated room condition for a physical exerciser. For the given research purpose, we are trying to discuss and represent different kinds of force spent on it physical exercises, such as the drag force, the gravitational force, Brownian force, the thermophoretic force, and Saffman's lifting force, which are convenient as well as scientifically rational for us to calculate the exhaled bioaerosol particles in a well-ventilated room. The decisive factors, such as exhaled particle size, the inside-room air velocity, room air temperature, velocity gradient, and temperature gradient, which are all needed to determine so that the above-said forces ean be adopted in accordance with the recent experimental data on the exhaled droplet sizes and ASHRAE handbooks. In addition, the so-called drag force,Brownian force, thermophoretic force, Saffman's lift force, are also likely to be derived as a function of particle diameter. Thus, from our work, it can be found that the particle diameter should be made the dominant factor affecting the relative magnitude of all the other forms of force under discussion. With the increase of particle diameter, the magnitudes of other forces, such as Brownian force, drag force, thermophoretic force, and Saffman's lift force all tend to decrease. We have also found that the influence of particle diameter on the Brownian force proves to be the most significant, which is followed by the drag force, thermophoretic force, and then the impact on Saffman's lift force. The relative magnitudes of these forces can likely be normalized by the gravitational force at different particle-size levels.And, subsequently, the drag force, Brownian force, and Saffman's lift force of the so-called sub-microsome particles, are all larger than the gravitational force, also forces that shouldn't be ignored when analyzing the movement of sub-micro particles indoors. Since the

  14. Dopamine D2/D3 but not dopamine D1 receptors are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Zhuo R; Ou, Bao C; Wang, Ya Q; Tan, Zhou B; Deng, Chang M; Gao, Yi Y; Tang, Ming; So, Ji H; Mu, Yang L; Zhang, Lan Q

    2015-02-15

    Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses. The traditional antidepressants often take several weeks, even months, to obtain clinical effects. However, recent clinical studies have shown that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects within 2h and are long-lasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dopaminergic system was involved in the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. The acute administration of ketamine (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), the more selective NMDA antagonist, also exerted rapid antidepressant-like effects. In contrast, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) did not significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test after 30 min administration. Notably, pretreatment with haloperidol (0.15 mg/kg, a nonselective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg, a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), significantly prevented the effects of ketamine or MK-801. Moreover, the administration of sub-effective dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) in combination with pramipexole (0.3 mg/kg, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist) exerted antidepressant-like effects compared with each drug alone. In conclusion, our results indicated that the dopamine D2/D3 receptors, but not D1 receptors, are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine.

  15. Mechanisms underlying enhancements in muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Onslev, Johan; Jessen, Søren; Haase, Christoffer; Habib, Sajad; Ørtenblad, Niels; Backer, Vibeke; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-09-01

    The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating mechanisms by which chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in young men. Eighteen trained men were assigned to an experimental group [oral terbutaline 5 mg/30 kg body weight (bw) twice daily (TER); n = 9] or a control group [placebo (PLA); n = 9] for a 4-wk intervention. No changes were observed with the intervention in PLA. Isometric muscle force of the quadriceps increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 97 ± 29 N (means ± SE) with the intervention in TER compared with PLA. Peak and mean power output during 30 s of maximal cycling increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 32 ± 8 and 25 ± 9 W, respectively, with the intervention in TER compared with PLA. Maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max) and time to fatigue during incremental cycling did not change with the intervention. Lean body mass increased by 1.95 ± 0.8 kg (P ≤ 0.05) with the intervention in TER compared with PLA. Change in single fiber cross-sectional area of myosin heavy chain (MHC) I (1,205 ± 558 μm(2); P ≤ 0.01) and MHC II fibers (1,277 ± 595 μm(2); P ≤ 0.05) of the vastus lateralis muscle was higher for TER than PLA with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in MHC isoform distribution. Expression of muscle proteins involved in growth, ion handling, lactate production, and clearance increased (P ≤ 0.05) with the intervention in TER compared with PLA, with no change in oxidative enzymes. Our observations suggest that muscle hypertrophy is the primary mechanism underlying enhancements in muscle force and peak power during maximal cycling induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in humans.

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  17. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and their Implications for Bone Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Effective countermeasures to prevent loss of bone mineral during long duration space flight remain elusive. Despite an exercise program on MIR flights, the data from LeBlanc et al. (1996) indicated that there was still a mean rate of loss of bone mineral density in the proximal femur of 1.58% per month (n=18, flight duration 4 - 14.4 months). The specific mechanisms regulating bone mass are not known, but most investigators agree that bone maintenance is largely dependent upon mechanical demand and the resultant local bone strains. A plausible hypothesis is that bone loss during space flight, such as that reported by LeBlanc et al. (1996), may result from failure to effectively load the skeleton in order to generate localized bone strains of sufficient magnitude to prevent disuse osteoporosis. A variety of methods have been proposed to simulate locomotor exercise in reduced gravity. In such simulations, and in an actual microgravity environment, a gravity replacement load (GRL) must always be added to return the exercising subject to the support surface and the resulting skeletal load is critically dependent upon the magnitude of the GRL. To our knowledge, GRLs during orbital flight have only been measured once (on STS 81) and it is likely that most or all prior treadmill exercise in space has used GRLs that were less than one body weight. McCrory (1997) has shown that subjects walking and running in simulated zero-G can tolerate GRLs of 1 if an appropriate harness is used. Several investigators have attempted to measure in vivo strains and forces in the bones of humans, but have faced ethical and technical limitations. The anteromedial aspect of the tibial midshaft has been a common site for the placement of strain gauges; one reason to measure strains in the anterior tibia is that this region is surgically accessible. Aamodt et al. (1997) were able to measure strains on the lateral surface of the proximal femur only because their experimental subjects were

  18. Impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy is associated with reduced rapid force generation and increased passive stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Kirk, Henrik; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    analysis of the ankle joint during treadmill walking was obtained by 3-D motion analysis. RESULTS: Passive stiffness was significantly increased in adults with CP compared to controls. Passive stiffness and RFDdf were correlated to reduced toe lift. RFDpf provided the best correlation to push-off velocity...... (mean age 34.3, range 18-57years) and fifteen healthy age-matched controls were biomechanically measured for passive and reflex-mediated stiffness of the ankle plantarflexors at rest, maximal voluntary plantarflexion and dorsiflexion effort (MVCpf,df) and rate of force development (RFDpf,df). Kinematic......, range of movement in the ankle joint and gait speed. Reflex-mediated stiffness was not correlated to any parameters of impaired gait. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired gait function in adults with CP is associated with reduced RFD and increased passive stiffness of ankle muscles. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings...

  19. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  20. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  1. The teacher simulation exercise: changes in physician teaching emphasis and strategy. The SGIM Task Force on the Medical Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, K; Gordon, G H

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of a faculty development course in teaching medical interviewing on participants' ability to provide effective feedback to interviewers. The study used a non-concurrent control group design which randomized subjects into two groups before the intervention. The two groups completed different pre-tests; each group then completed the other group's pre-test as its post-test. The post-course scores of one group were compared with the pre-course scores of the other group to establish differences. The research was conducted at the 1985 faculty development course sponsored by the SGIM Task Force on the Medical Interview. 49 of 52 teachers of medical interviewing attending the course completed the study. The week-long intervention consisted of a variety of educational activities which assisted the participants in defining and actively pursuing their learning objectives in interviewing, teaching, and self-awareness. In their assessment of two videotaped segments of initial medical visits, participants were more likely after the course to comment on the interviewer's lack of attention to patient affect (69.0% versus 27.2%, p = 0.005 in one segment) and somewhat more likely to identify teaching strategies that actively involved the interviewer (47.2% vs. 35.0%, p = 0.09 in one segment). Both shifts were congruent with assessments made by course faculty. Faculty development can influence teachers to recognize the need to provide feedback on skills that expert teachers would emphasize. The non-concurrent control group design provides an innovative approach to common constraints in evaluating faculty development courses.

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  4. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety ...

  6. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ... exercise dilates blood vessels inside the skull. Secondary exercise headaches Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an ...

  7. Impact of external resistance and maximal effort on force-velocity characteristics of the knee extensors during strengthening exercise: a randomized controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Bautmans, Ivan; Boonen, Steven; Coudyzer, Walter; Kennis, Eva; Delecluse, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    It remains controversial whether maximal effort attained by high external resistance is required to optimize muscle adaptation to strengthening exercise. Here, we compared different training protocols reaching maximal effort with either high-resistance (HImax, 80% of 1-repetition maximum [1RM]) or low-resistance (LOmax, ≤40% 1RM). Thirty-six young volunteers were randomly assigned to 9 weeks of leg extension training at either HImax (1 set of 10-12 repetitions at 80% 1RM), LO (1 set of 10-12 repetitions at 40% 1RM, no maximal effort), or LOmax (1 set of 10-12 repetitions at 40% 1RM, preceded [no rest] by 60 repetitions at 20-25% 1RM). Knee extension 1RM was measured preintervention and postintervention and before the 7th, 13th, and 19th training sessions. Preintervention and postintervention, knee extensor static (PTstat) and dynamic (PTdyn) peak torque, maximal work (MW), and speed of movement at 20% (S20), 40% (S40), and 60% (S60) of PTstat were recorded with a Biodex dynamometer. All the groups showed a significant increase in 1RM, with a greater improvement in HImax from the 13th session on (p < 0.05). The HImax was the only group that significantly increased PTstat (+7.4 ± 8.1%, p = 0.01). The LOmax showed a significantly greater increase in S20 (+6.0 ± 3.2%), PTdyn (+9.8 ± 5.6%), and MW (+15.1 ± 10.6%) than both HImax and LO (p = 0.044 for S20, p = 0.030 for PTdyn, p = 0.025 for MW) and was the only group that increased in S40 (+7.7 ± 9.7%, p = 0.032). In conclusion, significant differences between HImax and LOmax on force-velocity characteristics of the knee extensors were found, although maximal effort was achieved in both training regimens. Thus, LOmax may not be considered as a replacement for HImax but rather as an alternative with different training-specific adaptations.

  8. Force analysis of the exhaled bio-aerosol particles in a well-ventilated room for a physical exerciser%人体呼出气溶胶在通风房间中运动的受力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺启滨; 高乃平; 朱彤; 吴家正

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes it as its goal to analyze the exhaled bioaerosol particles in a well-ventilated room condition for a physical exerciser. For the given research purpose, we are trying to discuss and represent different kinds of force spent on it physical exercises, such as the drag force, the gravitational force, Brewnian force, the thermophoretic force, and Saffman's lifting force, which are convenient as well as scientifically rational for us to calculate the exhaled bioaerosol particles in a well-ventilated room. The decisive factors, such as exhaled particle size, the inside-room air velocity, room air temperature, velocity gradient, and temperature gradient, which are all needed to determine so that the above-said forces ean be adopted in accordance with the recent experimental data on the exhaled droplet sizes and ASHRAE handbooks. In addition, the so-called drag force,Brownian force, thermophoretic force, Saffman's lift force, are also likely to be derived as a function of particle diameter. Thus, from our work, it can be found that the particle diameter should be made the dominant factor affecting the relative magnitude of all the other forms of force under discussion. With the increase of particle diameter, the magnitudes of other forces, such as Brownian force, drag force, thermophoretic force, and Saffman's lift force all tend to decrease. We have also found that the influence of particle diameter on the Brownian force proves to be the most significant, which is followed by the drag force, thermophoretic force, and then the impact on Saffman's lift force. The relative magnitudes of these forces can likely be normalized by the gravitational force at different panicle-size levels.And, subsequently, the drag force, Brownian force, and Saffman's lift force of the so-called sub-microsome particles, are all larger than the gravitational force, also forces that shouldn't be ignored when analyzing the movement of sub-micro particles indoors. Since the

  9. Simulated Variable Inertia for Exercise Equipment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exercise equipment for on-orbit or very low gravity use has been developed using springs or motors to provide a constant force for resistive exercise.  These...

  10. Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight,...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment for many chronic conditions. For example, studies show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of medicines for a variety of illnesses. Prevent or Delay Disease Scientists have found that staying physically active and exercising regularly can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some ...

  13. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum. METHODS: P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years. RESULTS: On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  15. Forced Treadmill Exercise Prevents Spatial Memory Deficits in Aged Rats Probably Through the Activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Cláudia; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Odorcyk, Felipe Kawa; Nicola, Fabrício; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-02-16

    Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training. Animals of all ages were assigned to naïve (with no behavioral or exercise training), sedentary (non-exercised, with cognitive training) and exercised (20 min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks and with cognitive training) groups. Cognition was assessed by reference and working memory tasks run in the Morris Water maze; 24 h after last session of behavioral testing, hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrated that: (a) a moderate treadmill running exercise prevented spatial learning and memory deficits in aged rats; (b) training in the Water maze increased both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus of mature and aged rats; (c) aged exercised rats displayed an even further increase of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, (d) enzyme activity correlated with memory performance in aged rats. It is suggested that exercise prevents spatial memory deficits in aged rats probably through the activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hippocampus.

  16. SPORT AND EXERCISE BIOMECHANICS (BIOS INSTANT NOTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Grimshaw

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION Instant Notes on Sport and Exercise Biomechanics provides a broad overview of the fundamental concepts in exercise and sport biomechanics. PURPOSE The book aims to provide instant notes on essential information about biomechanics, and is designed to help undergraduate students to grasp the corresponding subjects in physical effort rapidly and easily. AUDIENCE The book provides a useful resource for undergraduate and graduate students as a fundamental reference book. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a starting point to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in the field of exercise and sport biomechanics. It would also be interest to anyone who wonders the concepts like momentum possessed, whole body angular momentum, opposite parallel forces, superman position, parabolic flight path, joint/normal reaction force, etc. FEATURES This textbook is divided into following sections from A to F: kinematics of motion, kinetics of linear motion, kinetics of angular motion, special topics, applications and measurement techniques, respectively. In sub-sections the kinematics of motion are reviewed in detail, outlining the physics of motion. Furthermore, the discussions of mechanical characteristics of motion, the mechanisms of injury, and the analysis of the sport technique provide a source of valuable information for both students and lecturers in appropriate fields. ASSESSMENT This book is an important reading for biomechanics students, teachers and even researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion.

  17. Exercise HIMALAYAN SERPENT: feedback article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, K; Mellor, A

    2015-01-01

    Exercise HIMALAYAN SERPENT was open to junior doctors from the United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces and aimed to educate potential expedition doctors on aspects of high altitude and wilderness medicine as well as conducting adventurous training (AT) and medical research. This was the first time such an exercise had been undertaken and this article explores the views of those junior doctors taking part to assess whether the exercise met the aims and objectives it set out.

  18. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions.

  19. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short...... of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares...

  20. The senses of force and heaviness at the human elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jack; Allen, Trevor J; Proske, Uwe

    2013-05-01

    The present-day view of the neural basis for the senses of muscle force and heaviness is that they are generated centrally, within the brain, from copies of motor commands. A corollary of the motor discharge generates a sense of effort which underlies these sensations. In recent experiments on force and heaviness sensations using thumb flexor muscles, a rather different explanation has been invoked: Subjects were proposed to rely predominantly on inputs of a peripheral origin, in particular, the signals of muscle spindles. The present experiments have been carried out at the elbow joint to determine whether these new ideas apply more widely. The effects of fatigue of elbow flexor muscles have been studied in force and heaviness matching tasks using three exercise regimes, a sustained maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), a maintained contraction of 35 % MVC, and a maintained contraction of 35 % MVC combined with muscle vibration at 80 Hz. In force-matching experiments, subjects were required to contract both arms and while the reference arm generated the target force under visual control, it was matched by the indicator arm without visual feedback. During the 100 % MVC exercise, force in the exercising reference arm fell rapidly to almost a half of its original value over 90 s while force in the indicator did not fall, leading to a significant overestimation of the reference force. During the 35 % MVC exercise, subjects also overestimated the reference force and this persisted at 5 and 10 min after the exercise. When 35 % MVC was combined with vibration, the amount by which the indicator arm overestimated the reference force was significantly reduced. In heaviness matching experiments, subjects could move their arms through a small range. The reference arm was loaded with a weight, and weights were added or removed from the indicator until heaviness felt the same in the two arms. There was a small, but significant fall in the matching weight used after 100 % MVC

  1. Estimation of the forces acting on the tibiofemoral joint during knee extension exercises performed on an open kinetic chain strength-training machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fagundes Loss

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to: (1 evaluate the resistive torque of an open kinetic chain strength-training machine for performing knee extensions, and (2 perform an analysis estimating internal forces in the tibiofemoral joint. During a fi rst phase of the study, measurements were taken of the machine under analysis (external forces, and then calculations were performed to estimate forces on the lower limb (internal forces. Equations were defi ned to calculate human force (HF, and the moment of muscular force (MMF. Perpendicular muscular force (MFp and joint force (JFp, axial muscular force (MF” and joint force (JF”, and total muscular force (MF and joint force (JF were all calculated. Five knee angles were analyzed (zero, 30, 45, 60, and 90 degrees. A reduction was observed in HF at higher knee angles, while MF and JF also increased at the same time. HF was always lower than the load selected on the machine, which indicates a reduced overload imposed by the machine. The reduction observed in MFp and JFp at higher knee angles indicates a lower tendency to shear the tibia in relation to the femur. At the same time, there was an increase in JF” due to higher MF”. The biomechanical model proposed in this study has shown itself adequate for the day-to-day needs of professionals who supervise orient strength training. resumo Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: (1 avaliar o torque de resistência (TR de uma máquina de musculação para a realização do exercício de extensão dos joelhos em cadeia cinética aberta e (2 realizar um ensaio teórico a partir do comportamento do TR com o intuito de estimar as forças internas na articulação tíbio-femoral. O estudo foi realizado em dois momentos: (1 medições da máquina utilizada e (2 estimativa das forças externas (na máquina e internas (no membro inferior. Foram utilizadas equações baseadas em um modelo mecânico bi-dimensional para o cálculo das componentes perpendiculares

  2. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  4. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley George A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g’s, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6 and LS (28 g’s, 1504 participants, g = 0.179, 95% CI = −0.003, 0.361, p = 0.05, Q = 77.7, p I2 = 65.3%, NNT = 6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed

  5. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  6. Exercise and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  7. Biomechanical Analysis of T2 Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Everett, Meghan; Newby, Nathaniel; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Crewmembers regularly perform treadmill exercise on the ISS. With the implementation of T2 on ISS, there is now the capacity to obtain ground reaction force (GRF) data GRF data combined with video motion data allows biomechanical analyses to occur that generate joint torque estimates from exercise conditions. Knowledge of how speed and load influence joint torque will provide quantitative information on which exercise prescriptions can be based. The objective is to determine the joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, and joint kinetics associated with treadmill exercise on the ISS. This study will: 1) Determine if specific exercise speed and harness load combinations are superior to others in exercise benefit; and 2) Aid in the design of exercise prescriptions that will be most beneficial in maintaining crewmember health.

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ...

  9. Exercise and melatonin in humans: reciprocal benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escames, Germaine; Ozturk, Guler; Baño-Otálora, Beatriz; Pozo, María J; Madrid, Juan A; Reiter, Russel J; Serrano, Eric; Concepción, Melquiades; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the reader as to the association between physical exercise and melatonin, and to clarify how the melatonin rhythm may be affected by different types of exercise. Exercise may act as a zeitgeber, although the effects of exercise on the human circadian system are only now being explored. Depending on the time of the day, on the intensity of light, and on the proximity of the exercise to the onset or decline of the circadian production of melatonin, the consequence of exercise on the melatonin rhythm varies. Moreover, especially strenuous exercise per se induces an increased oxidative stress that in turn may affect melatonin levels in the peripheral circulation because indole is rapidly used to combat free radical damage. On the other hand, melatonin also may influence physical performance, and thus, there are mutually interactions between exercise and melatonin production which may be beneficial.

  10. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  11. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N I; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A

    2010-01-01

    Any bodily activity or movement that enhances and maintains overall health and physical fitness is called physical exercise. Habit of regular physical exercise has got numerous benefits. Exercise is of various types such as aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and flexibility exercise. Aerobic exercise moves the large muscle groups with alternate contraction and relaxation, forces to deep breath, heart to pump more blood with adequate tissue oxygenation. It is also called cardiovascular exercise. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, running, jogging, swimming etc. In anaerobic exercise, there is forceful contraction of muscle with stretching, usually mechanically aided and help to build up muscle strength and muscle bulk. Examples are weight lifting, pulling, pushing, sprinting etc. Flexibility exercise is one type of stretching exercise to improve the movements of muscles, joints and ligaments. Walking is a good example of aerobic exercise, easy to perform, safe, effective, does not require any training or equipment and less chance of injury. Regular 30 minutes brisk walking in the morning with 150 minutes per week is a good exercise. Regular exercise improves the cardiovascular status, reduces the risk of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease. It reduces body weight, improves insulin sensitivity, helps in glycemic control, prevents obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is helpful for relieving anxiety, stress, brings a sense of well being and overall physical fitness. Global trend is mechanization, labor savings and leading to epidemic of long term chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases etc. All efforts should be made to create public awareness promoting physical activity, physically demanding recreational pursuits and providing adequate facilities.

  12. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  13. The Effects of Exercise on Brain Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the effects of exercise on Tg2576 mice, which are bred to manifest Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (Nichol, Poon et al. 2008). Sedentary mice controls...i AFRL-RH-WP-TN-2010-0001 THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON BRAIN INFLAMMATION 2d Lt Megan C. Durbin Air Force Research Laboratory, 711th...December 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON BRAIN INFLAMMATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Exercise promotes alpha7 integrin gene transcription and protection of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Marni D; Volker, Sonja E; Alexander, Nicole; Burkin, Dean J; Kaufman, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    The alpha7beta1 integrin is increased in skeletal muscle in response to injury-producing exercise, and transgenic overexpression of this integrin in mice protects against exercise-induced muscle damage. The present study investigates whether the increase in the alpha7beta1 integrin observed in wild-type mice in response to exercise is due to transcriptional regulation and examines whether mobilization of the integrin at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a key determinant in its protection against damage. A single bout of downhill running exercise selectively increased transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene in 5-wk-old wild-type mice 3 h postexercise, and an increased alpha7 chain was detected in muscle sarcolemma adjacent to tendinous tissue immediately following exercise. The alpha7B, but not alpha7A isoform, was found concentrated and colocalized with tenascin-C in muscle fibers lining the MTJ. To further validate the importance of the integrin in the protection against muscle damage following exercise, muscle injury was quantified in alpha7(-/-) mice. Muscle damage was extensive in alpha7(-/-) mice in response to both a single and repeated bouts of exercise and was largely restricted to areas of high MTJ concentration and high mechanical force near the Achilles tendon. These results suggest that exercise-induced muscle injury selectively increases transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene and promotes a rapid change in the alpha7beta integrin at the MTJ. These combined molecular and cellular alterations are likely responsible for integrin-mediated attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  15. Neural blockade during exercise augments central command's contribution to carotid baroreflex resetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine central command's role on carotid baroreflex (CBR) resetting during exercise. Nine volunteer subjects performed static and rhythmic handgrip exercise at 30 and 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), respectively, before and after partial axillary neural blockade. Stimulus-response curves were developed using the neck pressure-neck suction technique and a rapid pulse train protocol (+40 to -80 Torr). Regional anesthesia resulted in a significant reduction in MVC. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were used as indexes of central command and were elevated during exercise at control force intensity after induced muscle weakness. The CBR function curves were reset vertically with a minimal lateral shift during control exercise and exhibited a further parallel resetting during exercise with neural blockade. The operating point was progressively reset to coincide with the centering point of the CBR curve. These data suggest that central command was a primary mechanism in the resetting of the CBR during exercise. However, it appeared that central command modulated the carotid-cardiac reflex proportionately more than the carotid-vasomotor reflex.

  16. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Eccentric exercise, in which the muscles exert force by lengthening, is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. How soreness occurs, how recovery proceeds, and what precautions athletes should take are described. (Author/MT)

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  18. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs rest. Overexercising can lead to injuries like stress fractures and muscle strains. Are You a Healthy Exerciser? Fitness experts recommend that teens do at least 60 minutes of moderate to ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that ... training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or ...

  20. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise appears......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following suggested ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are able to use progressively heavier ... be used instead of hand weights. Ask your doctor or physical therapist to prescribe an exercise program ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched Nerve Discitis Degenerative Conditions Bulge vs ... exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  4. Dynamics of corticospinal changes during and after high-intensity quadriceps exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Temesi, John; Rupp, Thomas; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2014-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that during fatiguing quadriceps exercise, supraspinal fatigue develops late, is associated with both increased corticospinal excitability and inhibition and recovers quickly. Eight subjects performed 20 s contractions [15 s at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 5 s MVC] separated by a 10 s rest period until task failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical femoral nerve stimulation (PNS) were delivered ∼ 2 s apart during 50% MVC, during MVC and after MVC in relaxed muscle. Voluntary activation was assessed by TMS (VATMS) immediately before and after exercise and then three times over a 6 min recovery period. During exercise, MVC and twitch force evoked by PNS in relaxed muscle decreased progressively to 48 ± 8 and 36 ± 16% of control values, respectively (both P MVC were observed during the last quarter of exercise only (from 96.4 ± 1.7 to 86 ± 13%, P = 0.03 and from 0.76 ± 0.8 to 4.9 ± 4.7% MVC, P = 0.02, from baseline to task failure, respectively). The TMS-induced silent period increased linearly during both MVC (by ∼ 79 ms) and 50% MVC (by ∼ 63 ms; both P MVC and twitch force evoked by PNS in relaxed muscle recovered to only 84 ± 9 and 73 ± 17% of control values 6 min after exercise, respectively. In conclusion, high-intensity single-joint quadriceps exercise induces supraspinal fatigue near task failure, with increased intracortical inhibition and, in contrast to previous upper-limb results, unchanged corticospinal excitability. These changes recover rapidly after task failure, emphasizing the need to measure corticospinal adaptations immediately at task failure to avoid underestimation of exercise-induced corticospinal changes.

  5. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  6. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consider providing positive physical contact with humans that encourages exercise through play or other... prescribed by the attending veterinarian; or (iv) Other similar activities. (4) Forced exercise methods or... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8...

  7. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  8. VA/Q distribution during heavy exercise and recovery in humans: implications for pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, W.; Poole, D. C.; Derion, T.; Tsukimoto, K.; Hogan, M. C.; Arcos, J. P.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality has been shown to increase with exercise. Potential mechanisms for this increase include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventilatory time constant inequality, reduced large airway gas mixing, and development of interstitial pulmonary edema. We hypothesized that persistence of VA/Q mismatch after ventilation and cardiac output subside during recovery would be consistent with edema; however, rapid resolution would suggest mechanisms related to changes in ventilation and blood flow per se. Thirteen healthy males performed near-maximal cycle ergometry at an inspiratory PO2 of 91 Torr (because hypoxia accentuates VA/Q mismatch on exercise). Cardiorespiratory variables and inert gas elimination patterns were measured at rest, during exercise, and between 2 and 30 min of recovery. Two profiles of VA/Q distribution behavior emerged during heavy exercise: in group 1 an increase in VA/Q mismatch (log SDQ of 0.35 +/- 0.02 at rest and 0.44 +/- 0.02 at exercise; P less than 0.05, n = 7) and in group 2 no change in VA/Q mismatch (n = 6). There were no differences in anthropometric data, work rate, O2 uptake, or ventilation during heavy exercise between groups. Group 1 demonstrated significantly greater VA/Q inequality, lower vital capacity, and higher forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity for the first 20 min during recovery than group 2. Cardiac index was higher in group 1 both during heavy exercise and 4 and 6 min postexercise. However, both ventilation and cardiac output returned toward baseline values more rapidly than did VA/Q relationships. Arterial pH was lower in group 1 during exercise and recovery. We conclude that greater VA/Q inequality in group 1 and its persistence during recovery are consistent with the hypothesis that edema occurs and contributes to the increase in VA/Q inequality during exercise. This is supported by observation of greater blood flows and acidosis and, presumably therefore

  9. Rapid Repression of ADP Transport by Palmitoyl-CoA Is Attenuated by Exercise Training in Humans: A Potential Mechanism to Decrease Oxidative Stress and Improve Skeletal Muscle Insulin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludzki, Alison; Paglialunga, Sabina; Smith, Brennan K; Herbst, Eric A F; Allison, Mary K; Heigenhauser, George J; Neufer, P Darrell; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial ADP transport may represent a convergence point unifying two prominent working models for the development of insulin resistance, as reactive lipids (specifically palmitoyl-CoA [P-CoA]) can inhibit ADP transport and subsequently increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emissions. In the current study, we aimed to determine if exercise training in humans diminished P-CoA attenuation of mitochondrial ADP respiratory sensitivity. Six weeks of exercise training increased whole-body glucose homeostasis and skeletal muscle Akt signaling and reduced markers of oxidative stress without reducing maximal mitochondrial H2O2 emissions. To ascertain if enhanced mitochondrial ADP transport contributed to the improvement in the in vivo oxidative state, we determined mitochondrial ADP sensitivity in the presence and absence of P-CoA. In the absence of P-CoA, exercise training reduced mitochondrial ADP sensitivity. In contrast, exercise training increased mitochondrial ADP sensitivity with P-CoA present. We further show that P-CoA noncompetitively inhibits mitochondrial ADP transport and the ability of ADP to attenuate mitochondrial H2O2 emission. Altogether, the current data provide a potential mechanism for how P-CoA contributes to insulin resistance and highlight the ability of exercise training to diminish P-CoA attenuation in mitochondrial ADP transport. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  11. Exercise gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smaerup, M.; Grönvall, E.; Larsen, S. B.;

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify possible reasons for a modest level of exercise compliance during computer-assisted training for vestibular rehabilitation. Method Qualitative design and analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews with seven participants before and after a period......, but their knowledge and understanding of the training programme were insufficient. The participants asked for a greater variation in the exercises and asked for closer contact with the physiotherapist. When Mitii is used for vestibular rehabilitation, the system has some limitations. Conclusions The modest level...... understanding of the training programme with supplying information on the parts of the vestibular system addressed by the training. Implications for Rehabilitation Computer-assisted technologies should generate feedback on the quality of user performance and inform the patient of the relevance of the exercise...

  12. Control of heart rate variability by cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity during voluntary static exercise in humans with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Matsukawa, Kanji; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Sakaguchi, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Kotaro; Onari, Kiyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Heart rate (HR) is controlled solely by via cardiac parasympathetic outflow in tetraplegic individuals, who lack supraspinal control of sympathetic outflows and circulating catecholamines but have intact vagal pathways. A high-frequency component (HF; at 0.15-0.40 Hz) of the power spectrum of HR variability and its relative value against total power (HF/Total) were assessed using a wavelet transform to identify cardiac parasympathetic outflow. The relative contribution of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows to controlling HR was estimated by comparing the HF/Total-HR relationship between age-matched tetraplegic and normal men. Six tetraplegic men with complete cervical spinal cord injury performed static arm exercise at 35% of the maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Although resting cardiac output and arterial blood pressure were lower in tetraplegic than normal subjects, HR, HF, and HF/Total were not statistically different between the two groups. When tetraplegic subjects developed the same force during exercise as normal subjects, HF and HF/Total decreased to 67-90% of the preexercise control and gradually recovered 1.5 min after exercise. The amount and time course of the changes in HF/Total during and after exercise coincided well between both groups. In contrast, the increase in HR at the start of exercise was blunted in tetraplegic compared with normal subjects, and the HR recovery following exercise was also delayed. It is likely that, although the withdrawal response of cardiac parasympathetic outflow is preserved in tetraplegic subjects, sympathetic decentralization impairs the rapid acceleration of HR at the onset of exercise and the rapid deceleration following exercise.

  13. Deployment Threats to Rapid Deployment Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    coffee consumption, "tapering off" is best accomplished by the substitution of decaffeinated coffee. While it is possible to reduce caffeine intake by...Any coffee, tea, or soft drinks that are served should be decaffeinated . No alcohol should be consumed. Water and fruit drinks are the fluids of choice

  14. Physical Exercise as a Preventive or Disease-Modifying Treatment of Dementia and Brain Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlskog, J. Eric; Geda, Yonas E.; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    A rapidly growing literature strongly suggests that exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, may attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. We used PubMed (keywords exercise and cognition) and manuscript bibliographies to examine the published evidence of a cognitive neuroprotective effect of exercise. Meta-analyses of prospective studies documented a significantly reduced risk of dementia associated with midlife exercise; similarly, midlife exercise significantly reduced later ...

  15. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  16. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  17. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2010;105:S1. Krafczyk ... up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma ...

  18. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format Exercise During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy? ...

  19. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy expenditure in ... treadmill at 57% of maximum heart rate, as well as for 4 hours post exercise. ... in order to increase energy expenditure as well as enhance the oxidation of fat ...

  20. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

  1. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  2. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of workouts completed and the effort put into training is never satisfied with his or her own physical achievements It's important, too, to recognize the types of athletes who are more prone to compulsive exercise because their sports place a particular emphasis on being thin. Ice ...

  3. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  4. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive...

  5. Quantifying plyometric intensity via rate of force development, knee joint, and ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

    2007-08-01

    Because the intensity of plyometric exercises usually is based simply upon anecdotal recommendations rather than empirical evidence, this study sought to quantify a variety of these exercises based on forces placed upon the knee. Six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes who routinely trained with plyometric exercises performed depth jumps from 46 and 61 cm, a pike jump, tuck jump, single-leg jump, countermovement jump, squat jump, and a squat jump holding dumbbells equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). Ground reaction forces obtained via an AMTI force plate and video analysis of markers placed on the left hip, knee, lateral malleolus, and fifth metatarsal were used to estimate rate of eccentric force development (E-RFD), peak ground reaction forces (GRF), ground reaction forces relative to body weight (GRF/BW), knee joint reaction forces (K-JRF), and knee joint reaction forces relative to body weight (K-JRF/BW) for each plyometric exercise. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that E-RFD, K-JRF, and K-JRF/BW were different across the conditions (p 0.05). Results indicate that there are quantitative differences between plyometric exercises in the rate of force development during landing and the forces placed on the knee, though peak GRF forces associated with landing may not differ.

  6. Effect of age on the hemodynamic and sympathetic responses at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Sophie; Sawicki, Carolyn P; Baker, Jacquie R; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2014-01-15

    Cardiac and peripheral vasomotor factors contribute to the rapid pressor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise. We tested the hypothesis that age enhances the sympathetic and vasoconstrictor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise so that the pressor response is maintained, despite a diminished cardiac function. Twelve young and twelve older (24 ± 3 and 63 ± 8 yr) individuals performed 20-s isometric handgrip exercise at 30, 40, or 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured using microneurography. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (Q) were assessed continuously by finger plethysmography and total peripheral resistance was calculated. MAP increased with the onset of handgrip; this increase was associated with handgrip intensity and was similar in both groups. Heart rate and Q increased with increasing handgrip intensity in both groups, but increases were greater in young vs. older individuals (age × handgrip intensity interaction, P change in MSNA between baseline and handgrip, for both frequency and incidence, increased with increasing handgrip intensity for both groups. There was no effect of handgrip intensity or age on total peripheral resistance. The smaller heart rate and Q response during the first 20 s of handgrip exercise in older individuals was not accompanied by a greater sympathetic activation or vasoconstrictor response. However, increases in MAP were similar between groups, indicating that the pressor response at the onset of handgrip exercise is preserved with aging.

  7. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  9. Computer-Controlled Force Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  10. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  11. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  12. RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a naturally occurring physiological process, where in most control systems of the body are transitorily modified in an attempt to maintain the homeostasis. Exercise is another physiological state in which the bodily systems undergo adaptations, more so in pregnant women. There are many advantages of exercise in pregnant women as in any other individual; from the sense of well-being to prevention of hypertension and diabetes. There are not many studies done on Indian women to know the effect of exercise on the pulmonary function tests. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of moderate exercise on the respiratory functions in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 healthy pregnant women in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy were taken as subjects. Minute Ventilation (MV, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC & Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second were measured in pregnant women who were then compared with age- matched controls. Respiratory parameters were recorded using a computerized spirometry (Medspiror. It was done at two instances once at rest and other after subjecting them to moderate exercise on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: At rest, Minute ventilation was more in the pregnant group when compared to controls. Increase in MV after exercise was more in the pregnant women. FVC was not statistically different from those of controls at rest, though exercise increased FVC to greater value in pregnant women as compared to controls. Resting FEV1 was less in pregnant women. It decreased after exercise in both the groups; the percentage decrease was not much different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our study, changes in respiratory functions to exercise in pregnant women were towards positive side giving the advantage of hyperventilation to the woman and the fetus. Keeping in mind the tremendous advantages of exercise, all healthy pregnant women should be encouraged to make exercise an integral part of their ante-natal care.

  13. Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jeremy; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Wallman, Karen; Beilby, John

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m x 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (pCOLD also facilitated a more rapid return to baseline repeated sprint performances. The only benefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments.

  14. The Changes in Force-electricity and Histopathology of Myocardium in Rats after Acute Heavy Load Exercise%一次大负荷跑台运动后大鼠心脏力-电变化和组织病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶小平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes in force-electricity and histopathoiogy of myocardium in rats after a quantitative heavy load exercise. Methods Twenty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into control group(n = 8) and exercise group(n = 14). Exercise group was divided into abnormal ECG group (abnormal ST segment,n= 8) and normal ECG group (n = 6) according to ECG changes after exercise. Electrocardiogram and cardiac function in exercise group were recorded at 0,5,10,20,30,50,70,90,and 110 min after a quantitative heavy load exercise through a physiological data recorder,and rats in exercise group were killed 110 min after treadmill exercise;and rats in control group were killed HOmin after anesthesia;Then the histology of cardiac front wall of rats in both groups was observed. Results (l)The phase changes in LVESP and +dp/dtmax were not synchronized after a quantitative heavy load exercise,the LVESP decreased 20 and 70 min after treadmill exercise,while the +dp/dtmax decreased 15 and 90 min after treadmill exercise,and both recovered to normal after treadmill exercise with 110 min.(2)The T wave and J points lowered 15 and 50 min after treadmill exercise,and T wave recovered to normal 110 min after treadmill exercise when J points had not been fully restore. (3) HE dyeing showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion There was no pathological changes in rat myocardium after a quantitative heavy load exercise, the left ventricular force-electricity change after exercise was transient and reversible.%目的:观察一次定量大负荷跑台运动后大鼠心脏心肌力-电变化和心肌组织病理学变化.方法:22只心电图正常SD大鼠随机分为对照组(n=8)和运动组(n=14).采用BL-420E+型四道生理记录仪连续测定运动组一次定量大负荷跑台运动后0、5、10、20、30、50、70、90、110 min的心电图和左心室收缩功能,并于运动后110 min处死;对照组安静状态麻醉测定心电图和

  15. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Swathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers conduct studies on effectiveness of interval exercise with continuous exercise on exercise tolerance in subjects with COPD. Methods: 60 subjects were selected by lottery method. All the subjects were explained about the condition and mode of assessment and written informed consent were obtained from them and divided into 2 groups interval training group and continuous exercise training group and subjects were scheduled to attend exercise session 5 days a week for 4 weeks with exercise duration 20 min’s with cycle ergometer. Outcome measure: six minute walk test and heart rate. Results: On observing the means of post test parameters of experimental group A and experimental group B Independent t-test was done and the P- value is >0.05 .It shows a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results had shown that both interval exercise group and continuous exercise group who received four weeks of therapy has improved significantly on pre and post test values within the groups but when compared between these groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between interval exercise group and continuous exercise group in improving exercise tolerance among COPD subjects.

  17. Study on muscular damage biomarkers of armed police force soldiers after intensive exercise%大强度训练后某部队员肌肉损伤标志物水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简明; 罗俊卿; 喻红波; 刘阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the muscular damage biomarkers level changes and clinical significance of creatine kinase, myoglobin, heart-type fatty-acid binding protein, glycogen phosphorylase BB and cardiac troponin of the armed police force soldiers after intensive exercise. Methods:The levels of CK、Mb、H-FABP、GPBB、cTnI were tested and compared at the moment of before the 20-km cross-coutry run, immediately after the run, and 3h, 6h, 24h thereafter from 20 commandos.Results:20 soldiers completed the whole course of the 20 km cross-country training and had a 24h observation period rest after the training without other activities. The average drinking water during the cross-country run was (0.50+0.27) L. Because of the loss of water, and avoiding the effect of the change of blood volume on the changes of blood volume, the change of hemoglobin level before and after the training was used to calculate the changes of blood volume and each indicator concentration were corrected by it.At the time of before and after train-ing, the level of muscle damage markers in each time point were listed as table 1.In all the indexes, there were significantly differences of CK,Mb,H-FABP and GPBB, which were F=85.70,P<0.001;F=44.91,P<0.001;F=21.99,P<0.001;F=33.34,P<0.001. While there was no signicantly difference of cTnI(F=1.599,P=0.221).Mb increased range was biggest, showing the most obvious change which was more than 3 times the baseline level after training and more than 4 times at the highest point of 3h. But the change was still high at 6h after the training in which there were 7 cases showing beyond the critical value 72μg/L of cardiac events. The ini-tial 6h of CK was not significantly increased, and the 24h was gradually increased in the situation. GPBB increased significantly, while the highest point was 2 times higher than the baseline level at 3h, but the decrease was not obvious, and remained at a high lev-el at 24h. After training, H-FABP reached the highest level and

  18. Neurochemical and behavioural indices of exercise reward are independent of exercise controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jonathan J; Fedynska, Sofiya; Ghasem, Parsa R; Wieman, Tyler; Clark, Peter J; Gray, Nathan; Loetz, Esteban; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2016-05-01

    Brain reward circuits are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related disorders, but the contribution of exercise reward to stress resistance is unknown. Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability; both voluntary running (VR) and forced running (FR) protect rats against the anxiety-like and depression-like behavioural consequences of stress. Voluntary exercise is a natural reward, but whether rats find FR rewarding is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of dopamine (DA) and striatal reward circuits to exercise reward is not well characterized. Adult, male rats were assigned to locked wheels, VR, or FR groups. FR rats were forced to run in a pattern resembling the natural wheel running behavior of rats. Both VR and FR increased the reward-related plasticity marker ΔFosB in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, and increased the activity of DA neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area, as revealed by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and pCREB. Both VR and FR rats developed conditioned place preference (CPP) to the side of a CPP chamber paired with exercise. Re-exposure to the exercise-paired side of the CPP chamber elicited conditioned increases in cfos mRNA in direct-pathway (dynorphin-positive) neurons in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens in both VR and FR rats, and in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of VR rats only. The results suggest that the rewarding effects of exercise are independent of exercise controllability and provide insight into the DA and striatal circuitries involved in exercise reward and exercise-induced stress resistance.

  19. Learn to love exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease: Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More > Español In Your Area NPF Shop Exercise Make Text Smaller Make Text Larger You are ... Emory University School of Medicine. Next >> 4th level - Exercise Medications for Motor Symptoms Surgical Treatment Options Exercise ...

  1. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise After Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format Exercise After Pregnancy Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are some ...

  2. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Exercise and Fitness, Injury Rehabilitation, Prevention and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, prevention, Shoulder Problems, sports medicine, treatment Exercise and Fitness, Injury Rehabilitation, Prevention ...

  3. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  4. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  5. Sport and Exercise Biomechanics (Bios Instant Notes)

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Grimshaw; Adrian Lees; Neil Fowler; Adrian Burden

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Instant Notes on Sport and Exercise Biomechanics provides a broad overview of the fundamental concepts in exercise and sport biomechanics. PURPOSE The book aims to provide instant notes on essential information about biomechanics, and is designed to help undergraduate students to grasp the corresponding subjects in physical effort rapidly and easily. AUDIENCE The book provides a useful resource for undergraduate and graduate students as a fundamental reference book. For the resear...

  6. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  7. Estimation of Errors in Force Platform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psycharakis, Stelios G.; Miller, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Force platforms (FPs) are regularly used in the biomechanical analysis of sport and exercise techniques, often in combination with image-based motion analysis. Force time data, particularly when combined with joint positions and segmental inertia parameters, can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a wide range of movement patterns in sport…

  8. Can flow-volume loops be used to diagnose exercise induced laryngeal obstructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Maltbæk, Niels; Jørgensen, Inger M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops are often recommended as an easy non-invasive method for diagnosing or excluding exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions in patients with exercise-related respiratory symptoms. However, at present there is no evidence for this recommendation....... AIMS: To compare physician evaluated pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops and flow data with laryngoscopic findings during exercise. METHODS: Data from 100 consecutive exercise tests with continuous laryngoscopy during the test were analysed. Laryngoscopic images were compared...... with the corresponding pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops assessed by four separate physicians and with data from the loops (forced inspiratory flow (FIF) at 25% vs. FIF at 75% of forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced expiratory volume vs. FIF at 50% of FIVC, and FIVC vs...

  9. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  10. The Bioenergetics of Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, P Darrell

    2017-05-10

    Animals possess a remarkable ability to perform physical activity over a wide range of workloads and durations, reflecting both the inherent efficiency and large reserve capacity of energy transfer systems. Deciphering how different organ/physiological systems respond to the acute and chronic demands of exercise depends on a foundational understanding of the redox and bioenergetic principles that underlie the flow of electrons in living systems and its coupling to ATP synthesis. The purpose of this review is to set the stage to cover (1) the thermodynamic driving forces responsible for generating and maintaining the energy charge that establishes and sustains life for cells, and (2) how cellular energy transfer systems respond to changes in energy demand to ensure energy charge is preserved. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  12. Aquatic exercise in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević Lidija; Bjelaković Bojko; Lazović Milica; Stanković Ivona; Čolović Hristina; Kocić Mirjana; Zlatanović Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Aquatic exercise is one of the most popular supplementary treatments for children with neuro-motor impairment, especially for cerebral palsy (CP). As water reduces gravity force which increases postural stability, a child with CP exercises more easily in water than on land. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine aquatic exercise effects on gross motor functioning, muscle tone and cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. Methods. The study included 1...

  13. Exercise Limitation Imposed by an Approved Air Purifying Respirator (APR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    fraction of CO2 measured at the end of a tidal breath and assumed to represent an alveolar gas sample FICO2 = minimum inspired fraction of CO2; that...explain performance deficit (change in exercise time or fractional change in exercise time) in terms of measured variables. Unless otherwise specified...exercising subjects increase VE enough to increase alveolar PO2 and thus the driving force for oxygen transfer to the blood — and thereby to compensate for

  14. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  15. Substrate utilization during exercise in active people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    1995-04-01

    When people walk at low intensity after fasting, the energy needed is provided mostly by oxidation of plasma fatty acids. As exercise intensity increases (eg, to moderate running), plasma fatty acid turnover does not increase and the additional energy is obtained by utilization of muscle glycogen, blood glucose, and intramuscular triglyceride. Further increases in exercise intensity are fueled mostly by increases in muscle glycogen utilization with some additional increase in blood glucose oxidation. Muscle glycogen and blood glucose contribute equally to carbohydrate energy production over 2-3 h of moderate-intensity exercise; fatigue develops when these substrates are depleted. Active people can deplete muscle glycogen with 30-60 min of high intensity, intermittent exercise. When the ingestion of dietary carbohydrate is optimal, it is possible to resynthesize muscle glycogen to high concentrations in approximately 24 h, which is the major factor in recovery of exercise tolerance. However, this requires that a 70-kg person eat at least 50 g carbohydrate per every 2 h, beginning soon after exercise, and ingest 500-600 g in 24 h (ie; approximately 7-9 g/kg body wt). Carbohydrate foods eliciting high glycemic and insulinemic responses promote more rapid glycogen resynthesis than do foods eliciting lower glycemic responses. Therefore, foods ingested for energy before, during, or after exercise should be classified according to their glycemic index. Although carbohydrate ingestion before and during exercise adds exogenous substrate to the body, it usually attenuates plasma fatty acid mobilization and oxidation.

  16. Limiting factors of exercise performance 1 year after lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinsma, G. D.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Grevink, R. G.; van der Bij, W.; Koer, G. H.; van Weert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: After lung transplantation (LTx). exercise capacity frequently remains limited, despite significantly improved pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to evaluate maximal exercise capacity and peripheral muscle force before and 1 year after LTx, and to determine whether peripheral

  17. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma A A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  18. Effect of Exercise and Vitamin E on Cardiac Troponin Alterations in Myocardium and Serum of Rats after Stressful Intense Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. AL-Sowyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased concentrations of biomarkers reflecting myocardial stress such as cardiac troponin have been observed following strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether the stress of forced exercise would result in injury to the myocardium. The effects of stress induced by short bout strenuous exercise and long term exercise on serum, cardiac and skeletal muscle troponin, also blood glucose and insulin were measured. Moreover, to determine whether vitamin E supplementation could modulate these effects or not. Five groups of rats were investigated, control, strenuous exercised rats, exercised and supplemented rats with vitamin E, long term exercise and long term exercised rats supplemented with vitamin E. Strenuous exercised rats and supplemented rats with vitamin E. produced significant increase in serum, cardiac and skeletal muscle troponin concentration. Long term exercise and long term exercised rats supplemented with vitamin E induced insignificant elevation of serum and muscle troponin concentration with significant increase in cardiac troponin level. In rats subjected to both strenuous and long term exercise and after supplementation of both group with vitamin E, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin level. These results suggest that stressful exercise induces alteration in myocardial troponin and that training before exercise and vitamin E attenuates the exercise induced heart damage. Accordingly, we can advise individuals who are subjected to strenuous exercise to supplement their diet with vitamin E to protect their heart from myocardial damage and sudden death which may be recorded in some athletes. Furthermore, these results demonstrate another support for the importance of exercise in diabetes mellitus.

  19. EXERCISE WITH THE BARBELL-EXTENSOR CONCENTRIC DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiu Bogdan Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study has shown that exercise performed with concentric barbell-extensor system that forearm flexion-extension defeat both elastic and gravitational resistance (oriented in the same direction can lead to considerable progress of muscular force. Exercise has a complex character because requesting simultaneously both biceps and triceps. Developing passive force can be used to relieve elbow joint pain and for diversification of bodybuilding programs.

  20. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin Peplinski; Ami Patel; Berggren, Kiersten L.; Kerr, Abigail L.; Rodney A. Swain; Angela M. Sikorski

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underl...

  1. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  2. Force-Time Curve Comparison Between Weightlifting Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sole, Christopher J

    2016-08-24

    The force production characteristics of three weightlifting derivatives were examined by comparing the force-time curves of each exercise. Sixteen resistance-trained men performed repetitions of the hang power clean (HPC), jump shrug (JS), and hang high pull (HHP) on a force platform at several relative loads. Relative peak force (PFRel), relative impulse (IMPRel), peak rate of force development (PRFD), and time normalized force-time curves of each exercise were compared. The JS produced greater PFRel compared to the HPC (p force-time profiles were similar during the first 75-80% of the movement; however, the JS produced markedly different force-time characteristics in the final 20-25% of the movement. The JS produced superior force production characteristics, namely PFRel, IMPRel, and PRFD, as well as a unique force-time profile, compared to the HPC and HHP across several loads.

  3. Prevalence of exercise and non-exercise physical activity in Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alison M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA is an important part of energy expenditure. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of exercise and NEPA among adolescents. In the HKSOS project 2006-2007, the proportions of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 32,005 achieving 60-minute exercise and 60-minute NEPA per day were analyzed. Exercise was defined as structured and planned physical activities, and NEPA was defined as unstructured and unplanned physical activities including walking for transportation and climbing stairs. The prevalence of exercise was higher in boys than girls (after school: 63.8% vs 39.6%; holidays: 78.7% vs 60.0%, but the prevalence of NEPA in boys was similar to that in girls (after school: 72.2% vs 68.0%; holidays: 80.3% vs 79.4%. In general, the prevalence of both exercise and NEPA decreased with age in boys and girls, but was more marked for exercise than NEPA. In conclusion, the prevalence of exercise was lower in adolescent girls than boys, and decreased more rapidly with age than NEPA. NEPA seems to be easier to accumulate than exercise among adolescents regardless of sex and age.

  4. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-01-01

    An ever-growing volume of peer-reviewed publications speaks to the recent and rapid growth in both scope and understanding of exercise immunology. Indeed, more than 95% of all peer-reviewed publications in exercise immunology (currently >2, 200 publications using search terms "exercise" and "immune...... exercise-induced anti-inflammatory mechanisms needs to be understood better. There is consensus that exercise training protects against some types of cancers. Training also enhances aspects of anti-tumour immunity and reduces inflammatory mediators. However, the evidence linking immunological......") have been published since the formation of the International Society of Exercise and Immunology (ISEI) in 1989 (ISI Web of Knowledge). We recognise the epidemiological distinction between the generic term "physical activity" and the specific category of "exercise", which implies activity for a specific...

  5. Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

  6. Radial forces of stents used in thoracic endovascular aortic repair and bare self-expanding nitinol stents measured ex vivo - Rapid rescue for obstruction of the innominate artery using bare self-expanding nitinol stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Inoue, Kentaro; Tanaka, Shinichi; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Matsubara, Yutaka; Matsuda, Daisuke; Yoshiya, Keiji; Yoshiga, Ryosuke; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Our objective was to compare the radial forces of several stents ex vivo to identify stents suitable for rescue of the unexpected coverage of aortic arch branches in thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Methods We measured the radial forces of two types of self-expanding bare nitinol stents (E-luminexx and Epic) used singly or as double-walled pairs, and of three endoprostheses used in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR, Gore c-TAG, Relay, and Valiant) by compressing the stent using an MTS Instron universal testing machine (model #5582). We also examined the compressive effects of the TEVAR endoprostheses and the bare nitinol stents on each other. Results The radial force was greater in the center than at the edge of each stent. In all stents tested, the radial force decreased incrementally with increasing stent diameter. The radial force at the center was two times greater when using two stents than with a single stent. In the compression test, only E-luminexx used as a pair was not compressed after compressing a Relay endoprosthesis by 12 mm. Conclusion Two E-luminexx stents are appropriate to restore the blood flow if a TEVAR endoprosthesis covers the innominate artery following innominate-carotid-left subclavian arterial bypass.

  7. 7 CFR 1900.6 - Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. 1900.6 Section... AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL Delegations of Authority § 1900.6 Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. The Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force is delegated the following authorities, to be exercised...

  8. Exercise and heat stress: cerebral challenges and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This review deals with new aspects of exercise in the heat as a challenge that not only influences the locomotive and cardiovascular systems, but also affects the brain. Activation of the brain during such exercise is manifested in the lowering of the cerebral glucose to oxygen uptake ratio...... to relate to central fatigue arising as the core/brain increases, the central fatigue during exercise with hyperthermia thus can be considered as the ultimate safety break against catastrophic hyperthermia. This would force the subject to stop exercising or decrease the internal heat production. It appears...

  9. 10 CFR 1049.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines. 1049.5 Section 1049.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.5 Exercise of arrest authority...

  10. 10 CFR 1047.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines. 1047.5 Section 1047.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.5 Exercise of arrest authority—general...

  11. Exercise in weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, B M; Szymanski, L

    1997-11-01

    Exercise is integral to successful weight loss and maintenance. When talking to patients about exercise, consider their readiness, and address the barriers that prevent exercise. Physicians can help those patients who already exercise by encouraging them to continue and helping them anticipate, and recover from, lapses. Providing resource material to patients on behavioral strategies for exercise adoption and weight management can supplement the physician's efforts. Overall, patients need to hear that any regular exercise, be it step-aerobics, walking, or taking the stairs, will benefit them.

  12. Osteoporosis: What is the Role of Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnings, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Research has not yet identified the best combination of estrogen replacement, calcium, and exercise for fighting osteoporosis, but clinical experience indicates all are needed to prevent the rapid bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women. Physicians must encourage women to reduce their risk using all available options. (SM)

  13. Exercise training improves liver steatosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alex, Sheril; Boss, Andreas; Heerschap, Arend; Kersten, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly turning into the most common liver disorder worldwide. One of the strategies that has been shown to effectively improve NAFLD is regular exercise, which seems to lower steatosis partly independent of weight loss. However,

  14. Exercise training improves liver steatosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alex, S.; Boss, A.; Heerschap, A.; Kersten, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly turning into the most common liver disorder worldwide. One of the strategies that has been shown to effectively improve NAFLD is regular exercise, which seems to lower steatosis partly independent of weight loss. However, limited data

  15. Multiaxis, Lightweight, Computer-Controlled Exercise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Leonard; Bachrach, Benjamin; Harvey, William

    2006-01-01

    The multipurpose, multiaxial, isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) is a computer-controlled system of exercise machinery that can serve as a means for quantitatively assessing a subject s muscle coordination, range of motion, strength, and overall physical condition with respect to a wide variety of forces, motions, and exercise regimens. The MMID is easily reconfigurable and compactly stowable and, in comparison with prior computer-controlled exercise systems, it weighs less, costs less, and offers more capabilities. Whereas a typical prior isokinetic exercise machine is limited to operation in only one plane, the MMID can operate along any path. In addition, the MMID is not limited to the isokinetic (constant-speed) mode of operation. The MMID provides for control and/or measurement of position, force, and/or speed of exertion in as many as six degrees of freedom simultaneously; hence, it can accommodate more complex, more nearly natural combinations of motions and, in so doing, offers greater capabilities for physical conditioning and evaluation. The MMID (see figure) includes as many as eight active modules, each of which can be anchored to a floor, wall, ceiling, or other fixed object. A cable is payed out from a reel in each module to a bar or other suitable object that is gripped and manipulated by the subject. The reel is driven by a DC brushless motor or other suitable electric motor via a gear reduction unit. The motor can be made to function as either a driver or an electromagnetic brake, depending on the required nature of the interaction with the subject. The module includes a force and a displacement sensor for real-time monitoring of the tension in and displacement of the cable, respectively. In response to commands from a control computer, the motor can be operated to generate a required tension in the cable, to displace the cable a required distance, or to reel the cable in or out at a required speed. The computer can be programmed, either locally or via

  16. Exercise-induced rescue of tongue function without striatal dopamine sparing in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Michelle R; Schaser, Allison J; Russell, John A

    2013-09-01

    Unilateral lesions to the medial forebrain bundle with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lead to force and timing deficits during a complex licking task. We hypothesized that training targeting tongue force generation during licking would improve timing and force measures and also lead to striatal dopamine sparing. Nine month-old male Fisher344/Brown Norway rats were used in this experiment. Sixteen rats were in the control condition and received tongue exercise (n=8) or no exercise (n=8). Fourteen rats were in the 6-OHDA lesion condition and underwent tongue exercise (n=7) and or no exercise (n=7). Following 4 weeks of training and post-training measures, all animals underwent bilateral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves to measure muscle contractile properties and were then transcardially perfused and brain tissues collected for immunohistochemistry to examine striatal dopamine content. Results demonstrated that exercise animals performed better for maximal force, average force, and press rate than their no-exercise counterparts, and the 6-OHDA animals that underwent exercise performed as well as the Control No Exercise group. Interestingly, there were no group differences for tetanic muscle force, despite behavioral recovery of forces. Additionally, behavioral and neurochemical analyses indicate that there were no differences in striatal dopamine. Thus, targeted exercise can improve tongue force and timing deficits related to 6-OHDA lesions and this exercise likely has a central, versus peripheral (muscle strength) mechanism. However, this mechanism is not related to sparing of striatal dopamine content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  18. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  19. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  20. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  1. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regular exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health. It has many benefits, including ... chronic diseases. There are many different types of exercise; it is important that you pick the right ...

  2. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , Gisele Bousquet Download PDF https:// ... if you already have heart disease. How Can Exercise Help? There are many modifiable risk factors for ...

  3. Exercise for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  4. Take the (Exercise) Plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167533.html Take the (Exercise) Plunge Pool workouts offer a range of health ... the pool. Whether you swim or do aquatic exercises, working out in water improves strength, flexibility and ...

  5. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  6. Endocannabinoids and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A; McDaniel, WF

    2004-01-01

    Exercise induces changes in mental status, particularly analgesia, sedation, anxiolysis, and a sense of wellbeing. The mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown. Recent findings show that exercise increases serum concentrations of endocannabinoids, suggesting a possible explanation for a nu

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  8. Kids and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cold-Weather Sports Strength Training Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises (Video) Advice for Athletes From a Gold-Medal Coach Kickboxing Easy Exercises for Teens Choosing the Right Sport ...

  9. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  10. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  11. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... start slowly, and find ways to fit more physical activity into your life. To get the most benefit, ... the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may Help you control your weight. Along with ...

  12. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on this page, ... know exactly if or how exercise increases your immunity to certain illnesses. There are several theories. However, ...

  13. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  14. Cyber Exercise Playbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The

  15. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  16. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  17. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  18. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  19. Getting Exercise in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College Print A A A What's in ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...

  20. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  1. Why Exercise Is Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each day. Here are some of the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. ... conditions may affect how — and how much — you exercise. Doctors know that most people benefit from regular exercise, even those with disabilities or ...

  2. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  3. Exercise and Your Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  4. Exercise stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise stress test is used to measure the effect of exercise on your heart. How the Test is Performed This test is ... sensation that may feel tight. Baseline measurements of heart rate and blood pressure will be taken before exercise starts. You will start walking on a treadmill ...

  5. Force Development during Target-Directed Isometric Force Production in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E.

    2006-01-01

    Performing various daily activities requires precise application and control of forces, which has been well addressed in neurologically healthy individuals. Recent experiments have demonstrated that in young, normal subjects generating rapid force pulses over various force amplitudes was accomplished by linearly increasing the rate of force development while keeping time to peak force approximately constant (i.e., a pulse-height control strategy). Using Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients the p...

  6. Optimizing Force Deployment and Force Structure for the Rapid Deployment Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    this st. wiIl address only air-deployed, air-supported units. Tf close presence, in a crisis , of logistics ships or Marlr Amphibious units is fortuitous...Intnatneater UTE -at-es are generally less than intertheater UTE Rates +or the same aircraft. At the cargo handling ends of the flight route, critica

  7. Muscle glucose metabolism following exercise in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N

    1982-01-01

    Muscle glycogen stores are depleted during exercise and are rapidly repleted during the recovery period. To investigate the mechanism for this phenomenon, untrained male rats were run for 45 min on a motor-driven treadmill and the ability of their muscles to utilize glucose was then assessed during...... perfusion of their isolated hindquarters. Glucose utilization by the hindquarter was the same in exercised and control rats perfused in the absence of added insulin; however, when insulin (30-40,000 muU/ml) was added to the perfusate, glucose utilization was greater after exercise. Prior exercise lowered...... both, the concentration of insulin that half-maximally stimulated glucose utilization (exercise, 150 muU/ml; control, 480 muU/ml) and modestly increased its maximum effect. The increase in insulin sensitivity persisted for 4 h following exercise, but was not present after 24 h. The rate-limiting step...

  8. Clinical application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation induced cardiovascular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Crowe, Louis; Coughlan, Garrett; Minogue, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological response consistent with cardiovascular exercise. Work to date has indicated that this is best achieved by using a stimulation protocol that results in rapid rhythmical isometric contractions of the large leg muscle groups at sub tetanic frequencies. Studies completed by our group indicate that this technique can serve as a viable alternative to voluntary cardiovascular exercise. Apart from being able to induce a cardiovascular exercise effect in patient populations (e.g. heart failure, COPD, spinal cord injury, obesity), this approach may also have value in promotion of exercise activity in a microgravity environment.

  9. Caffeine, exercise and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine can improve exercise performance when it is ingested at moderate doses (3-6 mg/kg body mass). Caffeine also has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS), and it is now recognized that most of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine is accomplished through the antagonism of the adenosine receptors, influencing the dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. Adenosine and dopamine interact in the brain, and this might be one mechanism to explain how the important components of motivation (i.e. vigor, persistence and work output) and higher-order brain processes are involved in motor control. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with 'attention'. Through this neurochemical interaction, caffeine improves sustained attention, vigilance, and reduces symptoms of fatigue. Other aspects that are localized in the CNS are a reduction in skeletal muscle pain and force sensation, leading to a reduction in perception of effort during exercise and therefore influencing the motivational factors to sustain effort during exercise. Because not all CNS aspects have been examined in detail, one should consider that a placebo effect may also be present. Overall, it appears that the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine reside in the brain, although more research is necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms through which the CNS effect is established.

  10. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  11. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  12. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  13. Effects of submaximal eccentric exercise on muscle activity at different elbow joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna; Jaskólska, Anna; Janecki, Damian; Andrzejewska, Renata; Marusiak, Jarosław; Jaskólski, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to determine whether electrical and mechanical factors contributing to acute or long-term maximal torque reduction and muscle soreness due to submaximal eccentric exercise (ECC) are elbow-joint-angle specific and to what extent the joint angle affects the contribution of antagonist coactivation to this torque reduction. Maximal isometric torque (MIT), muscle soreness assessment, agonist electromechanical activities, and antagonist coactivation during the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured at elbow joint angles of 60°, 90°, and 150° before ECC, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr after exercise. ECC causes an immediate decrease in MIT as well as increased antagonist coactivation at three angles. Antagonist coactivation returned to its baseline level at 24 hr regardless of joint angle. The most rapid torque recovery and the highest force level at which pain occurred were found after ECC at a joint angle of 60°. During the recovery period, no mechanomyographical changes were observed when measuring surface mechanomyography changes at three angles, while the electrical activity differed between angles.

  14. Morning and evening exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  15. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  16. Aviation Security Force Assistance: A 21st Century Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    narrative to address the “irregular” challenges proliferating into the 21st century. Much of the focus was directly related to building the capacity of...a holistic narrative for AvSFA, has developed a different perspective on their roles and missions relative to aviation in SFA. The Joint Force as a...mission with the Honduran Air Force in January and February 2012, exercised the comprehensive components of nascent Air Force general purpose forces

  17. The economics of intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David O; Jena, Anupam B

    2010-05-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercise constant. Our empirical results identify an association between income and exercise intensity that is consistent with the hypothesis that people respond to increased time costs of exercise by increasing intensity. More generally, our results suggest that time costs may be an important determinant of exercise patterns and that factors that can influence the time costs of exercise, such as intensity, may be important concerns in designing interventions to promote exercise.

  18. Forced Snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponedel, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    We study spatial localization in the real subcritical Ginzburg-Landau equation ut =m0 u +m1 cos2/π l x u +uxx +d | u | 2 u -| u | 4 u with spatially periodic forcing. When d > 0 and m1 = 0 this equation exhibits bistability between the trivial state u = 0 and a homogeneous nontrivial state u =u0 with stationary localized structures which accumulate at the Maxwell point m0 = - 3d2 / 16 . When spatial forcing is included its wavelength is imprinted on u0 creating conditions favorable to front pinning and hence spatial localization. We use numerical continuation to show that under appropriate conditions such forcing generates a sequence of localized states organized within a snakes-and-ladders structure centered on the Maxwell point, and refer to this phenomenon as forced snaking. We determine the stability properties of these states and show that longer lengthscale forcing leads to stationary trains consisting of a finite number of strongly localized, weakly interacting pulses exhibiting foliated snaking.

  19. Intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A D

    1975-11-06

    The nature of molecular interactions is examined. Intermolecular forces are divided into long-range and short-range components; the former operate at distances where the effects of electron exchange are negligible and decrease as an inverse power of the separation. The long-range interactions may be subdividied into electrostatic, induction and dispersion contributions, where the electrostatic component is the interaction of the permanent charge distributions and the others originate in the fluctuations in the distributions. Typical magnitudes of the various contributions are given. The forces between macroscopic bodies are briefly considered, as are the effects of a medium. Some of the manifestations of molecular interactions are discussed.

  20. Exercise on land or in water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussuges A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alain Boussuges1, Olivier Gavarry21French Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute, Brétigny sur Orge and UMR MD2, Aix-Marseilles University, Marseilles, France; 2Engineering Laboratory for Handicaps. South University of Toulon – Var, La Garde, FranceWe have read with interest the study published in the International Journal of General Medicine entitled “Hypotensive response after water-walking and land walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women” by Rodriguez et al.1 In this study, the authors investigated cardiovascular changes induced by walking in water in comparison with walking on land. Water exercises are commonly used in rehabilitation programs, particularly patients with mobility problems. Recently, some studies have suggested that exercise performed in water could improve cardiovascular function.2View original paper by Bocalini et al.

  1. United States Air Force Posture Statement 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-24

    Mozanoique r v • South Africa •Japan Guam Tiailand J • Philippines Malaysia Singapore Australia • t^t USfll- Operstions Rcross the Spectrum of...valuable exercise. Air Force Test and Training Ranges "Vital National Assets"—An F-16 CJ pilot fires an AGM-65D Maverick missile at a target during an

  2. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings...... of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced...

  3. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  4. Diabetes and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Alistair

    2014-12-01

    Exercise has a beneficial effect on metabolic parameters affecting cardiovascular risk, such as lipids and blood glucose, and is a key component in both the prevention and the management of type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control improves with both aerobic and resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes, but no glycaemic benefit is seen in type 1 diabetes. This probably results from glucose fluctuations commonly seen with exercise. Low and moderate intensity exercise are generally associated with a fall in blood glucose, and high intensity exercise can be associated with a rise in blood glucose. Trial evidence is suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk with exercise, although evidence from prospective, randomised controlled trials is certainly not conclusive.

  5. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    , a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB......Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group...... improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic...

  6. Water-based exercise in COPD with physical comorbidities: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; McKeough, Zoe J; McKenzie, David K; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-06-01

    Land-based exercise is often difficult for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have coexisting obesity or musculoskeletal or neurological conditions. This randomised controlled trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of water-based exercise training in improving exercise capacity and quality of life compared to land-based exercise training and control (no exercise) in people with COPD and physical comorbidities. Participants referred to pulmonary rehabilitation were randomly allocated to a water-based exercise, land-based exercise or the control group. The two exercise groups trained for 8 weeks, completing three sessions per week. 45 out of 53 participants (mean ± SD age 72 ± 9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 59 ± 15% predicted) completed the study. Compared to controls, water-based exercise training significantly increased 6-min walking distance, incremental and endurance shuttle walk distances, and improved Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ) dyspnoea and fatigue. Compared to land-based exercise training, water-based exercise training significantly increased incremental shuttle walk distance (mean difference 39 m, 95% CI 5-72 m), endurance shuttle walk distance (mean difference 228 m, 95% CI 19-438 m) and improved CRDQ fatigue. Water-based exercise training was significantly more effective than land-based exercise training and control in increasing peak and endurance exercise capacity and improving aspects of quality of life in people with COPD and physical comorbidities.

  7. Force protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is concerned with rapid, continuous inspection of vehicles entering military facilities or compounds, searching for high explosives, or the rapid survey of facilities if it is found that security has been breached. The author reviews methods which are in use now, including: x-rays; x-ray tomography; thermal or fast neutrons; quadrupole resonance; trace detection; electron capture; chemiluminesence; ion mobility spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; antibodies; and layered, synergistic approaches. He then discusses the limitations of these methods and proposes new approaches which are a combination of old techniques such as weighing vehicles with technological advances in some present methods.

  8. Dispassionate Thinking amid Rapid Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> By the end of 2003, the GDP per capita of China was over US$1,000, which means that China has reached the climax of industrialization. As industrialization is a driving force for the rapid development of cities, it should be brought to the agenda to accelerate the urbanization process and expand the city scale so as to meet the requirements of economic development.

  9. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  10. Parallel Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises. PMID:27799727

  11. Parallel Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarpanah, Alireza; Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises.

  12. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  13. Parallel Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rastegarpanah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators’ forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators’ forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg’s model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot’s capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises.

  14. Exercise in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswaran P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med, Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.

  15. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), pexercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  16. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), pexercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  17. The measurement of energy consumption by exercise bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chien, Chao-Chun; Jeng, Lung-Yue

    2006-11-01

    This paper is intended as an investigation is that to measure the amount of energy consumption can be consumed by riding bikes and also could recycle the consuming energy during exercising. Exercisers ride the bicycle inputting the driving force through a compressor of refrigeration system, which can circulate the refrigerant in the system and calculate the calorific capacity from the spread of the condenser. In addition, we can make up chiller water in the evaporator. Experiments were performed to prove the hypotheses. Therefore, this experiment has designed the sports goods which reach the purpose of doing exercise, measuring accurately the consuming calorific capacity and having the function of making chiller water. After exercising, you can drink the water producing during exercise and apply on the system of air conditioner, which attains two objectives.

  18. Regulation and limitations to fatty acid oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Kiens, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) as fuel for energy utilization during exercise originate from different sources: FA transported in the circulation either bound to albumin or as triacylglycerol (TG) carried by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and FA from lipolysis of muscle TG stores (IMTG). Despite a high...... rate of energy expenditure during high intensity exercise the total fatty acid oxidation is suppressed to below that observed during moderate intensity exercise. Although this has been known for many years, the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are still not fully elucidated. A failure of adipose...... tissue to deliver sufficient fatty acids to exercising muscle has been proposed, but evidence is emerging that factors within the muscle might be of more importance. The high rate of glycolysis during high intensity exercise might be the "driving force" via the increased production of acetyl CoA which...

  19. People have feelings! Exercise psychology in paradigmatic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

    2017-08-01

    Exercise psychology has yet to produce intervention methods capable of increasing exercise and physical activity behavior in a sustainable manner. This situation is forcing a critical reevaluation of current conceptual models, especially the assumption that behavioral decisions are driven solely by the rational evaluation of information. Like other behavioral sciences, exercise psychology is transitioning to dual-process models that acknowledge the importance of non-reflective processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the pleasure or displeasure experienced during exercise may influence subsequent physical activity. These data raise the possibility of inactivity resulting from a conflict between positively evaluated information on health benefits and unpleasant affective experiences. Thus, researchers must devise methods to make exercise and physical activity more pleasant and enjoyable across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knee proprioception after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R; Vasques, J; Duarte, J A; Cabri, J M H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exercise-induced quadriceps muscle damage affects knee proprioception such as joint position sense (JPS), force sense and the threshold to detect passive movement (TTDPM). Fourteen young men performed sets of eccentric quadriceps contractions at a target of 60% of the maximal concentric peak torque until exhaustion; the exercise was interrupted whenever the subject could not complete two sets. Muscle soreness, JPS, the TTDPM and force sense were examined before the exercise as well as one, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exercise. The results were compared using one-way repeated-measure ANOVA. Plasma CK activity, collected at the same times, was analyzed by the Friedman's test to discriminate differences between baseline values and each of the other assessment moments (pknee flexion and force sense were significantly decreased up to 48 h, whereas TTDPM decreased significantly at only one hour and 24 h after exercise, at 30 and 70 degrees of the knee flexion, respectively. The results allow the conclusion that eccentric exercise leading to muscle damage alters joint proprioception, suggesting that there might be impairment in the intrafusal fibres of spindle muscles and in the tendon organs.

  1. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Thrive Managing Anxiety Exercise for Stress and Anxiety The physical benefits of exercise — improving physical condition ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part ...

  2. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  3. How to avoid exercise injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  4. Force decomposition in robot force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  5. Down the Aisle of Criminalization : The Practice of Forced Marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, I.E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the practice of forced marriage — which refers to a marriage that at least one of the spouses entered into against their will, as a result of some form of coercion exercised by another person — is growing in Europe. Forced marriage is a daily reality in all European countries and has se

  6. Liver and Muscle Contribute Differently to the Plasma Acylcarnitine Pool During Fasting and Exercise in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G; Hansen, Jakob; Zhao, X J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. AIM: To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise...... in humans. METHODS: In 2 independent studies, young healthy males were fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n = 9) or the flux over the hepato...... in the exercising leg. In plasma and in the exercising muscle, exercise induced an increase of most acylcarnitines followed by a rapid decline to preexercise values during recovery. In contrast, free carnitine was decreased in the exercising muscle and quickly restored thereafter. C8-, C10-, C10:1-, C12-, and C12...

  7. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  8. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  9. Saliva composition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.

  10. Exercise Against Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  11. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  12. Easy Exercises for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios fáciles para ... not enough.) What more should we do? First, teens should do 60 minutes or more of physical ...

  13. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  14. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FENG'AN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speedboats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations and surface ship formations." The exercise was a component in a military campaign coded "Sword-2010."

  15. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  16. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  17. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  18. Muscle Adaptations Permitting Fatigue-Resistant Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    in this proposal were: 1. Test the hypothesis that the rapid transition from glycogen-depleting to glycogen sparing is associated with increased rate...of disappearance of fatty acids from the systemic circulation during exercise, with concurrent increased rate of oxidation. 2. Test the hypothesis...the CHO dependence of the Alaskan Husky. Previous studies in yearling Alaskan Huskies have reported an average VO2max of 198.7 ml/kg/min after 4

  19. Physical exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The α7β1-integrin accelerates fiber hypertrophy and myogenesis following a single bout of eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Tara N; Zou, Kai; Huntsman, Heather D; Meador, Benjamin; Mahmassani, Ziad; Abel, Megan; Valero, M Carmen; Huey, Kimberly A; Boppart, Marni D

    2011-10-01

    The α(7)β(1)-integrin is a heterodimeric transmembrane protein that adheres to laminin in the extracellular matrix, representing a critical link that maintains structure in skeletal muscle. In addition to preventing exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury, the α(7)-integrin has been proposed to act as an intrinsic mechanosensor, initiating cellular growth in response to mechanical strain. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the α(7)-integrin regulates muscle hypertrophy following eccentric exercise. Wild-type (WT) and α(7)-integrin transgenic (α(7)Tg) mice completed a single bout of downhill running exercise (-20°, 17 m/min, 60 min), and gastrocnemius-soleus complexes were collected 1, 2, 4, and 7 days (D) postexercise (PE). Maximal isometric force was maintained and macrophage accumulation was suppressed in α(7)Tg muscle 1D PE. Mean fiber cross-sectional area was unaltered in WT mice but increased 40% in α(7)Tg mice 7D PE. In addition, a rapid and striking fivefold increase in embryonic myosin heavy chain-positive fibers appeared in α(7)Tg mice 2D PE. Although Pax7-positive satellite cells were increased in α(7)Tg muscle 1D PE, the number of nuclei per myofiber was not altered 7D PE. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly elevated in α(7)Tg 1D PE. This study provides the first demonstration that the presence of the α(7)β(1)-integrin in skeletal muscle increases fiber hypertrophy and new fiber synthesis in the early time course following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism by which the α(7)-integrin can enhance muscle hypertrophy following exercise.

  1. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17 and professional clarinettists (N = 6 were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 x 2 x 2 design (register: low--high; tempo: slow--fast, dynamics: soft--loud. There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low--high of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions. The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean and peak force (Fmax were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g. guitar. Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N.For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N. Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  2. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low-high; tempo: slow-fast, dynamics: soft-loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low-high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (F mean ) and peak force (F max ) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (F mean = 1.17 N, F max = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (F mean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (F mean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  3. Effects of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitada S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Yoshimura, Ryoji Maekura, Toru Hiraga, Seigo Kitada, Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Yoshitaka TateishiDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: Tiotropium partially relieves exertional dyspnea and reduces the risk of congestive heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, its effect on the sympathetic activation response to exercise is unknown.Aims: This study aimed to determine whether tiotropium use results in a sustained reduction in sympathetic activation during exercise.Methods: We conducted a 12-week, open-label (treatments: tiotropium 18 µg or oxitropium 0.2 mg × 3 mg, crossover study in 17 COPD patients. Treatment order was randomized across subjects. The subjects underwent a pulmonary function test and two modes of cardiopulmonary exercise (constant work rate and incremental exercise testing using a cycle ergometer, with measurement of arterial catecholamines after each treatment period.Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly larger in the tiotropium treatment group. In constant exercise testing, exercise endurance time was longer, with improvement in dyspnea during exercise and reduction in dynamic hyperinflation in the tiotropium treatment group. Similarly, in incremental exercise testing, exercise time, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at peak exercise were significantly higher in the tiotropium treatment group. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations and dyspnea intensity were also lower during submaximal isotime exercise and throughout the incremental workload exercise in the tiotropium treatment group.Conclusion: Tiotropium suppressed the increase of sympathetic activation during exercise at the end of the 6-week treatment, as compared with the effect of oxipropium. This effect might be attributed to improvement in lung function and exercise capacity and reduction in exertional dyspnea

  4. EFFECT OF ISOMETRIC QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISE AT MULTIPLE ANGLES IN KNEE JOINT AMONG NORMAL ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JibiPaul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strengthening exercises have been routinely used in persons with orthopaedic problems and athletes to increase force production or minimize muscle imbalance and joint injuries.Many studies have reported that isometric contractions can rapidly increases strength in quadriceps muscle. Objective: Objective of the study was to find out the effect of isometric strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint and also to compare the effect of strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at multiple angles of knee joint among control and experimental group. Methodology: This was a ccomparative experimental study with forty female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 20 subjects in each group. Isometric strengthening exercise and squatting exercise were given as intervention program for eight weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of quadriceps muscle strength measured were collected separately at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint using goniometry during resisted extension of knee in multi gym. Result: In experimental group Pre –Post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.0001.****In control group quadriceps pre-post statistical analysis found no significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.083NS and P<0.055 NS respectively. Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 90 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength with P< 0.001.*** Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 45 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of

  5. Exercise-induced neuromuscular dysfunction under reflex conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, T; Burke, J R; Davis, J M; Durstine, J L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe further the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on reflex sensitivity. The subjects were eight physically active, but untrained males, between the ages of 18 and 29 years. The effects of eccentric and concentric exercise on patellar tendon reflex responses were determined. The 8 week experiment consisted of two, 5 day, test protocols with a 6 week wash-out period between test protocols. Each 5 day test protocol consisted of the following six test sessions: (1) day 1--baseline, (2) day 2 baseline, (3) day 2--immediate post-exercise, and (4-6) days 3-5: 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. On day 2, the subjects made either 100 fatiguing concentric or eccentric isotonic contractions using the right leg at 75% of the corresponding repetition maximum values. During each test session, the electromyogram (EMG) and force-time characteristics of basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses were measured. The reflex amplitudes of basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses were decreased following fatiguing concentric exercise. There were no immediate effects of fatiguing eccentric exercise on the basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses, but the EMG amplitudes of these reflex responses were reduced on the days following eccentric exercise. The amount of conditioned patellar tendon reflex facilitation was decreased following the concentric exercise protocol and at 48 h post-eccentric exercise. Our conditioned reflex data suggest that post-exercise changes to the physiological mechanisms that modulate the recruitment gain of the alpha-motoneuron pool may depend upon the type of fatiguing exercise.

  6. Negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kamidozono, Yoshika; Ishiizumi, Atsushi; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kita, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Physical exercise can improve brain function, but the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. Mice in the ExC group were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 wk and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant increase in the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0). Following exercise cessation, the density of DCX-positive neurons gradually decreased and was significantly lower than that in the Con group at 5 and 8 wk after cessation, indicating that exercise cessation leads to a negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that the negative rebound in neurogenesis is caused by diminished cell survival, not by suppression of cell proliferation and neural maturation. Neither elevated expression of ΔFosB, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis regulation, nor increased plasma corticosterone, were involved in the negative neurogenesis rebound. Importantly, exercise cessation suppressed ambulatory activity, and a significant correlation between change in activity and DCX-positive neuron density suggested that the decrease in activity is involved in neurogenesis impairment. Forced treadmill running following exercise cessation failed to prevent the negative neurogenesis rebound. This study indicates that cessation of exercise or a decrease in physical activity is associated with an increased risk for impaired hippocampal function, which might increase vulnerability to stress-induced mood disorders.

  7. Voluntary exercise produces antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Catharine H; Schlesinger, Lee; Russell, David S; Duman, Ronald S

    2008-03-14

    Reports of beneficial effects of exercise on psychological health in humans are increasingly supported by basic research studies. Exercise is hypothesized to regulate antidepressant-related mechanisms and we therefore characterized the effects of chronic exercise in mouse behavioral paradigms relevant to antidepressant actions. Mice given free access to running wheels showed antidepressant-like behavior in learned helplessness, forced-swim (FST) and tail suspension paradigms. These responses were similar to responses of antidepressant drug-treated animals. When tested under conditions where locomotor activity was not altered, exercising mice also showed reduced anxiety compared to sedentary control mice. In situ hybridization analysis showed that BDNF mRNA was increased in specific subfields of hippocampus after wheel running. We chose one paradigm, the FST, in which to investigate a functional role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the behavioral response to exercise. We tested mice heterozygous for a deletion of the BDNF gene in the FST after wheel-running. Exercising wild-type mice showed the expected antidepressant-like behavioral response in the FST but exercise was ineffective in improving FST performance in heterozygous BDNF knockout mice. A possible functional contribution of a BDNF signaling pathway to FST performance in exercising mice was investigated using the specific MEK inhibitor PD184161 to block the MAPK signaling pathway. Subchronic administration of PD184161 to exercising mice blocked the antidepressant-like behavioral response seen in vehicle-treated exercising mice in the FST. In summary, chronic wheel-running exercise in mice results in antidepressant-like behavioral changes that may involve a BDNF related mechanism similar to that hypothesized for antidepressant drug treatment.

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  9. Crew Exercise Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  10. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  11. Effect of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Riis, Simone; Lund, Ditte; Møller, Anders; Farina, Dario; Falla, Deborah

    2011-02-01

    The study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise of the quadriceps on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks. Proprioception of the exercised leg was assessed at 120° and 150° of knee extension in 15 healthy adults (age 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) before, immediately after, and 24h following eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. Three tests of proprioception were performed: 1. matching the position of the exercised leg (right leg) to the reference leg (left leg) in sitting (non-weight bearing matching task); 2. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in sitting (non-weight bearing repositioning task); 3. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in standing (weight bearing task). Maximum knee extension force was reduced by 77.0 ± 12.3 % immediately after the exercise, and by 82.7 ± 16.2% 24h post exercise, with respect to baseline (Peccentric exercise (12.3 ± 5.6, Pexercise (8.1 ± 4.5, Pexercise (5.2 ± 3.0°, Peccentric exercise by adopting a more extended knee position of the exercised limb. Furthermore, the subjects showed higher variability in their performance immediately post exercise (Peccentric exercise did not affect the repositioning errors in the weight bearing task. In conclusion, eccentric exercise of the quadriceps impairs proprioception of the knee both immediately after and 24h post exercise, but only in non-weight bearing tasks.

  12. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  13. The effect of lumbar stabilization exercise on the pulmonary function of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dae-Sik; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at assessing the effect of lumbar stabilization exercise on the pulmonary function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated into lumbar stabilization exercise group and a general physical therapy group. The program consisted of 30-min sessions conducted 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed based on lung performance parameters, including forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 second to forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow. [Results] In the assessment of pulmonary function, the values of all the lung performance parameters were significantly increased in the lumbar stabilization exercise group but were significantly decreased in the general physical therapy group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that lumbar stabilization exercise had a more positive effect on pulmonary function than general physical therapy.

  14. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.

  15. Exercise induced capillary growth in human skeletal muscle and the dynamics of VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, growth of capillaries is an important adaptation to exercise training that secures adequate diffusion capacity for oxygen and nutrients even at high intensity exercise when increases in muscle blood flow are profound. Mechanical forces present during muscle activity, such as s...

  16. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    stages of exercise and at high work intensities. Thus, patients with GSDs typically have symptoms early in exercise, have low peak work capacities and develop painful contractures in exercised muscles. Muscle relies on fat oxidation at rest and to a great extent during prolonged exercise, and therefore...

  17. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  18. Low fat loss response after medium-term supervised exercise in obese is associated with exercise-induced increase in food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  19. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  20. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  1. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  2. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    focus of this review is to discuss the therapeutic efficacy of exercise on ... as high level of sodium in diet, alcohol consumption, obesity, physical inactivity, age, and .... idiopathic (essential) hypertension, there are two modes or approaches.

  3. Eating and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yogurt and fruit Peanut butter sandwich Low-fat chocolate milk and pretzels Post-workout recovery smoothie Turkey ... References Kenney WL, et al. Body composition and nutrition for sport. In: Physiology of Sport and Exercise. ...

  4. Osteoporosis and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, J; Robinson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common medical problem. Lifestyle measures to prevent or help treat existing osteoporosis often only receive lip service. The evidence for the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is reviewed.

  5. Exercises in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasiński, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    This second of two Exercises in Analysis volumes covers problems in five core topics of mathematical analysis: Function Spaces, Nonlinear and Multivalued Maps, Smooth and Nonsmooth Calculus, Degree Theory and Fixed Point Theory, and Variational and Topological Methods. Each of five topics corresponds to a different chapter with inclusion of the basic theory and accompanying main definitions and results, followed by suitable comments and remarks for better understanding of the material. Exercises/problems are presented for each topic, with solutions available at the end of each chapter. The entire collection of exercises offers a balanced and useful picture for the application surrounding each topic. This nearly encyclopedic coverage of exercises in mathematical analysis is the first of its kind and is accessible to a wide readership. Graduate students will find the collection of problems valuable in preparation for their preliminary or qualifying exams as well as for testing their deeper understanding of the ...

  6. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  7. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000357.htm Rotator cuff exercises To use the sharing features on this ... gov/pubmed/25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder ...

  8. Exercise as medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Saltin, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis...

  9. Electromyographic comparison of various exercises to improve elbow flexion following intercostal nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalidapong, P; Sananpanich, K; Klaphajone, J

    2006-05-01

    We compared the quantitative electromyographic activity of the elbow flexors during four exercises (forced inspiration, forced expiration, trunk flexion and attempted elbow flexion), following intercostal nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in 32 patients who had sustained root avulsion brachial plexus injuries. Quantitative electromyographic evaluation of the mean and maximum amplitude was repeated three times for each exercise. We found that mean and maximum elbow flexor activity was highest during trunk flexion, followed by attempted elbow flexion, forced inspiration and finally forced expiration. The difference between each group was significant (p intercostal nerve transfer.

  10. Postinjury Exercise and Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapies Improve Skeletal Muscle Healing in Rats But Are Not Synergistic When Combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Muñoz, Paola; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Serres, Xavier; Rizo-Roca, David; De la Varga, Meritxell; Viscor, Ginés; Martínez-Ibáñez, Vicente; Peiró, José Luis; Järvinen, Tero A H; Rodas, Gil; Marotta, Mario

    2017-07-01

    percentage of dMHC-positive regenerating fibers (35% and 47% decrease in dMHC expression, respectively), indicating that exercise therapies accelerated the muscle healing process witnessed by the more rapid replacement of the embryonic-developmental myosin isoform by mature muscle myosin isoforms. Intramuscular PRP injection and, especially, treadmill exercise improve histological outcome and force recovery of the injured skeletal muscle in a rat injury model that imitates sports-related muscle injuries in athletes. However, there was not a synergistic effect when both treatments were combined, suggesting that PRP does not add any beneficial effect to exercise-based therapy in the treatment of injured skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an early active rehabilitation protocol or single intramuscular PRP injection on muscle recovery. The data also reveal that the outcome of the early active rehabilitation is adversely affected by the PRP injection when the two therapies are combined, and this could explain why PRP therapies have failed in randomized clinical trials where the athletes have adhered to postinjection rehabilitation protocols based on the principle of early, active mobilization.

  11. Cardiovascular control during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mohr, Thomas; Jensen, Christina M R

    2003-01-01

    We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise.......We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise....

  12. Exercise in Individuals with CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Kirsten L.; Painter, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for implementation of exercise in this population.

  13. Do Exercises Suitable To Yourself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IF You Are Thin—Choose fast, bursting exercises to build up your muscles. Take such exercises for 20 minutes everyday or 50 minutes every other day. For example, weight training and working particularly on isolated parts of your body. If You Are Stout—Choose slow, low intensity endurance exercises. Continue such exercises for a long time and you can effectively mobilize the fat stored in your body to participate in the supply of consumed energy; besides slow exercises can help

  14. Systemic cytokine response to three bouts of eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Cornish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the changes in inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, as well as muscle force, muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and range of motion in response to 3 bouts of eccentric knee extension. Ten males were recruited to participate. The participants performed eccentric exercise on 3 consecutive days on the knee extensors on the right leg separated by 24 h. Participants performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic eccentric knee extension at 120° per second. Blood was sampled before and after each exercise bout and 24 h after the final exercise bout. Muscle isometric force, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, thigh circumference, and range of motion were evaluated before and after each exercise bout and 24 h after the final exercise bout. There were no statistically significant differences noted for the changes in isometric strength, thigh circumference, and range of motion, or IL-6 over the 4 days (all p > 0.05. On the second day and third day there was a significant increase noted in DOMS as compared with baseline (p < 0.05. These results suggest that 3 consecutive days of eccentric exercise results in DOMS but does not produce a sustained systemic inflammatory reaction or changes in muscle function.

  15. Systemic cytokine response to three bouts of eccentric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Stephen M.; Johnson, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the changes in inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, as well as muscle force, muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and range of motion in response to 3 bouts of eccentric knee extension. Ten males were recruited to participate. The participants performed eccentric exercise on 3 consecutive days on the knee extensors on the right leg separated by 24??h. Participants performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic eccentric knee extension at 120° per second. Blood was sampled before and after each exercise bout and 24?h after the final exercise bout. Muscle isometric force, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), thigh circumference, and range of motion were evaluated before and after each exercise bout and 24?h after the final exercise bout. There were no statistically significant differences noted for the changes in isometric strength, thigh circumference, and range of motion, or IL-6 over the 4 days (all p > 0.05). On the second day and third day there was a significant increase noted in DOMS as compared with baseline (p eccentric exercise results in DOMS but does not produce a sustained systemic inflammatory reaction or changes in muscle function. PMID:24809007

  16. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm and Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Caggiano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an essential part of childhood, with precious and acknowledged positive health effects but the impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB significantly reduces participation in physical activity. It is important to recognize EIB, differentiating EIB with or without asthma if the transient narrowing of the airways after exercise is associated with asthmatic symptoms or not, in the way to select the most appropriate treatment among the many treatment options available today. Therapy is prescribed based on symptoms severity but diagnosis of EIB is established by changes in lung function provoked by exercise evaluating by direct and indirect tests. Sometimes, in younger children it is difficult to obtain the registration of difference between the preexercise forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 value and the lowest FEV1 value recorded within 30 min after exercise, defined as the gold standard, but interrupter resistance, in association with spirometry, has been showed to be a valid alternative in preschool age. Atopy is the main risk factor, as demonstrated by epidemiologic data showing that among the estimated pediatric population with EIB up to 40% of them have allergic rhinitis and 30% of these patients may develop adult asthma, according with atopic march. Adopting the right treatment and prevention, selecting sports with no marked hyperventilation and excessive cooling of the airways, children with EIB can be able to take part in physical activity like all others.

  17. Exercise and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobf, M Tish; Winters-Stone, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. Persistent and late effects of cancer therapy have contributed to an increased risk for co-morbid illness and higher all-cause mortality. Physical exercise is a targeted rehabilitative intervention following cancer therapy and a health promotion risk reduction intervention for patients as they transition into survivorship. This chapter provides a brief overview of the research on exercise and cancer survivor outcomes with a specific focus on randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of exercise on body composition and bone health. There were 17 RCT trials that were identified with body composition outcomes. There was no change in weight in 16/17 trials, 4 reported decreases in percent fat mass and 2 reported increases in lean mass. Eight exercise trials were identified with bone outcomes, two of which had pharmacologic comparison arms. These trials demonstrated preservation of bone in the intervention group compared with loss in the usual care or placebo control group. The majority of trials were with breast cancer survivors, the largest survivor group. Many are overweight or obese at diagnosis; weight gain continues to increase after therapy; and treatment is associated with bone loss. The findings of the 25 trials reviewed suggest that exercise maintains weight and bone mass in a high risk population. However, differences in design, measurement of body composition and bone mass and lack of targeted exercise to the specific outcomes warrants additional research to improve the quality of life for survivors.

  18. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm by laboratory exercise challenge among Ragunan Sport School athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a common condition among adolescent athletes. There has been no study examining the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes in Indonesia. This study aimed to get the prevalence of EIB among Ragunan Sport School athletes by laboratory exercise challenge. Subjects performed static cycle ergometer exercise (Monark, Sweden to reach minimal workload of 90% maximal heart rate. Force expiratory ventilation (FEV₁ was examined by spirometry (Minato AS-PAL, Japan at minute 0, 5, 10 and 20 post exercise. The EIB was defined as a decline of FEV₁ as much as 10% or more from baseline value. Room temperature and humidity were 28°C-31°C and 74%-82% respectively. There were 168 athletes from 12 sport types who participated in this study. Among them, 23 athletes (13.7% were EIB positive. The highest percentage of EIB was in taekwondo (54.5%. Sixteen athletes with EIB (70% were from less asthmogenic sports. Athletes with EIB consisted of 17 (17.5% females and 6 (8.4% males. In conclusion, the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes was moderately high, and was more prevalent in female. More over, laboratory exercise challenge could elicit EIB in less asthmogenic sport. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 33-6Keywords: adolescent athlete, asthmogenic sports

  19. "Mind Blown"--Including Exercise Science Students as Research Assistants to Reduce Ageist Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T.; Bourassa, Dara

    2017-01-01

    The amount of older adults is increasing rapidly and the demands of an aging population will need to be met by professionals in many fields, including exercise science. However, many undergraduate students do not want to work with older adults. Therefore, this qualitative study sought to examine the experiences and perceptions of exercise science…

  20. Níveis distintos de Hsp72 no miocárdio de ratas em resposta aos exercícios voluntário e forçado Niveles distintos de Hsp72 en el miocardio de ratas en respuesta a los ejercicios voluntario y forzado Different levels of Hsp72 in female rat myocardium in response to voluntary exercise and forced exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphano Freitas Soares Melo

    2009-11-01

    los grupos ECV, ECF y C (4,54 ± 0,79 mg/g vs. 4,94 ± 0,89 mg/g vs. 4,34 ± 0,87 mg/g, respectivamente. Las ratas entrenadas con carrera presentaron niveles de Hsp72 mayores (pBACKGROUND: Physical exercise induces hemodynamic stress. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if voluntary running and forced running induced different levels of stress protein (Hsp72 in the myocardium of female Wistar rats. METHODS: Female rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: forced treadmill running group (FR; n= 6, voluntary running group (VR; n=6 and control group (C; n=6. VR group animals had free access to running wheels, and those from FR group underwent a running program on a treadmill (18 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 8 weeks. Left ventricle (LV and right ventricle (RV fragments were collected at sacrifice, and the relative immunoblot contents of stress protein (Hsp72 were determined. RESULTS: VR animals ran on average 4.87 km/wk, and FR rats ran 4.88 km/wk. Animals from VR and FR groups had less body weight gain (p0.05 among VR, FR and C groups (4.54 ± 0.79 mg/g vs 4.94 ± 0.89 mg/g vs 4.34 ± 0.87 mg/g, respectively. FR group animals had levels of Hsp72 (p<0.05 higher than those from VR, both in LV (287.45 ± 35.86 % vs 135.59 ± 5.10 %, respectively and RV (241.31 ± 25.83 % vs 137.91 ± 45.20 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: Voluntary running and forced running induced different levels of Hsp72 in the myocardium of female Wistar rats.

  1. United States Air Force Role in Mass Atrocity Response Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    through the lens of their own perspective. They cannot view the world objectively because of their own preconceptions : history, prejudices, ideology...initial stages of the genocide. Similarly, the RC-135’s ability to detect and locate those stations would provide the perfect target for strikes having...all levels. Air Force unit exercises would integrate air power, focusing on those specific tasks required in a MARO. These training exercises , in

  2. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  3. Facilitation of quadriceps activation is impaired following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatpour, N; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Falla, D

    2014-04-01

    Contracting the knee flexor muscles immediately before a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension increases the maximal force that the extensor muscles can exert. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon can be impaired by muscle fiber damage following eccentric exercise [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)]. This study investigates the effect of eccentric exercise and DOMS on knee extension MVC immediately following a reciprocal-resisted knee flexion contraction. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the knee extensors and flexors of 12 healthy men during knee extension MVCs performed in a reciprocal (maximal knee extension preceded by resisted knee flexion), and nonreciprocal condition (preceded by relaxation of the knee flexors). At baseline, knee extension MVC force was greater during the reciprocal condition (P eccentric exercise, the MVC force was not different between conditions. Similarly, at baseline, the EMG amplitude of the quadriceps during the MVC was larger for the reciprocal condition (P eccentric exercise abolished the facilitation of force production for the knee extensors, which normally occurs when maximum knee extension is preceded by activation of the knee flexors.

  4. The effect of acute exhaustive swimming exercise and high altitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows 7

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... LA, forced swimming exercise resulted in a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TChol), triacylglycerides ... effect of different types of stress on lipid metabolism has .... samples were immediately taken from the heart and placed in plain ... 50% inhibition of the rate reduction of 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-.

  5. heterogeneity and adaptability of selected exercise and skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-12-09

    Dec 9, 1997 ... acteristics that may influence endurance performance, namely. V02max ... ity and resistance to fatigue during submaximal exercise. ... Whole body maximal oxygen uptake (VO,max) ... ence, The analysis excluding these pairs and one dizygotic ..... These authors clearly showed differences in the force.

  6. Sex modifies exercise and cardiac adaptation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konhilas, JP; Maass, AH; Luckey, SW; Stauffer, BL; Olson, EN; Leinwand, LA

    2004-01-01

    How an individual's sex and genetic background modify cardiac adaptation to increased workload is a topic of great interest. We systematically evaluated morphological and physiological cardiac adaptation in response to voluntary and forced exercise. We found that sex/gender is a dominant factor in e

  7. Respiratory physiology: adaptations to high-level exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-05-01

    Most exercise scientists would agree that the physiological determinants of peak endurance performance include the capacity to transport oxygen to the working muscle, diffusion from the muscle to the mitochondria, energy production and force generation, all influenced by signals from the central nervous system. In general, the capacity of the pulmonary system far exceeds the demands required for ventilation and gas exchange during exercise. Endurance training induces large and significant adaptations within the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and haematological systems. However, the structural and functional properties of the lung and airways do not change in response to repetitive physical activity and, in elite athletes, the pulmonary system may become a limiting factor to exercise at sea level and altitude. As a consequence to this respiratory paradox, highly trained athletes may develop intrathoracic and extrathoracic obstruction, expiratory flow limitation, respiratory muscle fatigue and exercise-induced hypoxaemia. All of these maladaptations may influence performance.

  8. Responses of adult women to programmed exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B; Daggett, A

    1977-09-01

    A group of eighty healthy women was studied following two months of programmed exercise (3 x 15 mins/per week) at 60 to 80 percent of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Physical work capacity corresponding to a heartrate of 170 bts. (PWC-170) was determined using a bicycle ergometer. Anthropometric and lung function variables were also ascertained prior to (T1) and following training (T2). The post training measurements of this exercise group, compared with measurements of a sedentary control group, displayed significant changes in PWC-170, resting systolic blood pressure and fat index. There were no significant changes in vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), strength and perceived exertion measures (RPE). The implication of these findings are discussed.

  9. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), p< 0.05. Post-BR orthostatic tolerance time (mean se) decreased significantly less in EX (19.3+/-1.3 to 14.4+/-1.5 min) than in CON (17.5+/-0.1 to 9.1+/- 1.5 min), p=0.03. Post-BR muscle strength decreased significantly in CON, but was preserved in EX. Post-BR bone resorption was greater than pre-BR in both groups (p<0.05). Bone formation markers, were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in EX than in CON. CONCLUSIONS: Supine LBNP treadmill exercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  10. Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Nuzzo, James L; Cavill, Michael J; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare 4 different methods of calculating volume when comparing resistance exercise protocols of varying intensities. Ten Appalachian State University students experienced in resistance exercise completed 3 different resistance exercise protocols on different days using a randomized, crossover design, with 1 week of rest between each protocol. The protocols included 1) hypertrophy: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (90-second rest periods); 2) strength: 11 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM (5-minute rest periods); and 3) power: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% 1RM (3-minute rest periods). The volume of resistance exercise completed during each protocol was determined with 4 different methods: 1) volume load (VL) (repetitions [no.] x external load [kg]); 2) maximum dynamic strength volume load (MDSVL) (repetitions [no.] x [body mass--shank mass (kg) + external load (kg)]); 3) time under tension (TUT) (eccentric time +milliseconds] + concentric time +milliseconds]); and 4) total work (TW) (force [N] x displacement [m]). The volumes differed significantly (p , 0.05) between hypertrophy and strength in comparison with the power protocol when VL and MDSVL were used to determine the volume of resistance exercise completed. Furthermore, significant differences in TUT existed between all 3 resistance exercise protocols. The TW calculated was not significantly different between the 3 protocols. These data imply that each method examined results in substantially different values when comparing various resistance exercise protocols involving different levels of intensity.

  11. The invisible benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Perrino, Andrea; Gillis, Randall; Viel, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether--and why--people underestimate how much they enjoy exercise. Across four studies, 279 adults predicted how much they would enjoy exercising, or reported their actual feelings after exercising. Main outcome measures were predicted and actual enjoyment ratings of exercise routines, as well as intention to exercise. Participants significantly underestimated how much they would enjoy exercising; this affective forecasting bias emerged consistently for group and individual exercise, and moderate and challenging workouts spanning a wide range of forms, from yoga and Pilates to aerobic exercise and weight training (Studies 1 and 2). We argue that this bias stems largely from forecasting myopia, whereby people place disproportionate weight on the beginning of a workout, which is typically unpleasant. We demonstrate that forecasting myopia can be harnessed (Study 3) or overcome (Study 4), thereby increasing expected enjoyment of exercise. Finally, Study 4 provides evidence for a mediational model, in which improving people's expected enjoyment of exercise leads to increased intention to exercise. People underestimate how much they enjoy exercise because of a myopic focus on the unpleasant beginning of exercise, but this tendency can be harnessed or overcome, potentially increasing intention to exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Force Health Protection: Nutrition and Exercise Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    based sauces. Cream and butter sauces. Canola, olive, and safflower oils. Animal fats, coconut oil, and palm oil. Cocoa . Chocolate . Spray butter or...Eating 1 extra chocolate chip cookie (65 kcal) each day for 1 year would be: 65 kcal x 365=23,725 kcal. You see? The energy balance...table sugar (sucrose), sugars in fruit (fructose), honey (fructose and glucose), sugar in milk (lactose), maple syrup, and molasses. Some are added in

  13. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  14. Effects of low-intensity concentric and eccentric exercise combined with blood flow restriction on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity blood-flow restriction (BFR) resistance training significantly increases strength and muscle size, but some studies report it produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in the lower body after exercise to failure. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a pre-set number of repetitions of upper body concentric and eccentric exercise when combined with BFR on changes in EIMD. Methods: Ten young men had arms randomly assigned to either concentric BFR (CON-BFR) or eccentric BFR (ECC-BFR) dumbbell curl exercise (30% one-repetition maximum (1-RM), 1 set of 30 repetitions followed by 3 sets of 15 repetitions). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC), muscle thickness (MTH), circumference, range of motion (ROM), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, and daily for 4 days post-exercise. Results: MVC decreased by 36% for CON-BFR and 12% for ECC-BFR immediately after exercise but was not changed 1–4 days post-exercise (p > 0.05). Only CON-BFR had significant changes in MTH and circumference immediately after exercise (p exercise. Conclusions: Low-intensity ECC-BFR produces significant muscle soreness at 24 h but neither ECC-BFR nor CON-BFR exercise produces significant changes in multiple indices of EIMD. PMID:24265891

  15. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes...... to the heart ultra structure possibly also play a role for improving Qmax. Other mechanisms that can improve exercise capacity include hypoxia. It is universally accepted that hypoxia is a main stimulant of erythropoiesis and altitude training is considered a possibility to increase red blood cell volume...... and hence exercise performance in elite athletes. However, the efficacy of altitude training for sea level performance is still debated and the literature is divergent on this matter. Even if the haematological changes following altitude training may be inadequate to substantially improve performance...

  16. The effects of exercise on finger extension of CVA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, C A; Quintana, L A

    1983-03-01

    The choice of activity to improve finger extension of post-CVA patients is based on untested assumptions and hypotheses. In this study, using electromyography of the extrinsic finger muscles and electrogoniometry of wrist and finger joints, the effects of five types of exercise on the finger extension of post-CVA patients were documented. Results indicated that resisted and rapid exercises recruited high percentages of output of all three muscles. Slow, unresisted extension exercises preferentially recruited the extensor digitorum. No exercise caused significant immediate changes in range of motion (ROM), flexor/extensor balance, time required to open the hand, or level of activity of the extensor digitorum during opening of the hand. Resisted grasp did not limit the patients' ability to extend the fingers. Variability in percent of motor output among the subjects of this study indicates the need to monitor each patient during therapy.

  17. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes...... to the heart ultra structure possibly also play a role for improving Qmax. Other mechanisms that can improve exercise capacity include hypoxia. It is universally accepted that hypoxia is a main stimulant of erythropoiesis and altitude training is considered a possibility to increase red blood cell volume...... and hence exercise performance in elite athletes. However, the efficacy of altitude training for sea level performance is still debated and the literature is divergent on this matter. Even if the haematological changes following altitude training may be inadequate to substantially improve performance...

  18. NIGARI (DEEP SEAWATER CONCENTRATE) ENHANCES THE TREADMILL EXERCISE PERFORMANCE OF GERBILS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance has been reported by many researchers. In the present study, the effect of nigari, a concentrate of deep seawater containing high magnesium levels, on exercise performance, was examined. Gerbils were given double-distilled water or nigari (18 mg · kg−1, po) orally 30 min before exercise. All animals were subjected to forced exercise on a treadmill for 90 min at three successive speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m · min−1. The r...

  19. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  20. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K; McAlindon, T

    2000-09-01

    Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.

  2. Fish under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  3. Evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, O; de Bruin, E D; Schindelholz, M; Schuster, C; de Bie, R A; Hunt, K J

    2013-01-01

    Robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) with focus on motor recovery has become popular in early post-stroke rehabilitation but low endurance for exercise is highly prevalent in these individuals. This study aimed to develop an exercise testing method using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to evaluate aerobic capacity after severe stroke. Constant load testing (CLT) based on body weight support (BWS) control, and incremental exercise testing (IET) based on guidance force (GF) control were implemented during RATE. Analyses focussed on step change, step response kinetics, and peak performance parameters of oxygen uptake. Three subjects with severe motor impairment 16-23 days post-stroke were included. CLT yielded reasonable step change values in oxygen uptake, whereas response kinetics of oxygen uptake showed low goodness of fit. Peak performance parameters were not obtained during IET. Exercise testing in post-stroke individuals with severe motor impairments using a BWS control strategy for CLT is deemed feasible and safe. Our approach yielded reasonable results regarding cardiovascular performance parameters. IET based on GF control does not provoke peak cardiovascular performance due to uncoordinated walking patterns. GF control needs further development to optimally demand active participation during RATE. The findings warrant further research regarding the evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke.

  4. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Ines; Richter, Anja; Gordt, Katharina; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in the

  5. Differential effects of sauna-, diuretic-, and exercise-induced hypohydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J E; Ahonen, E; Nousiainen, U

    1984-10-01

    The physiological effects on submaximal and maximal exercise of three methods commonly used by athletes for achieving rapid weight loss were determined by measuring cardiorespiratory variables in 62 nonendurance athletes. A mean weight loss of 4.1% was achieved by those who followed either a sauna (SAU), diuretic (DIU), or exercise (ACT) protocol, compared with the average weight loss of 1.2% in the control group. At maximal exercise O2 consumption, O2 pulse, blood lactate concentration, and work load decreased in SAU and DIU groups relative to the ACT group, whereas only a few differences were observed at the aerobic threshold. Weight loss achieved over a 48-h period was less detrimental to an athlete than was a more rapid (24-h) weight reduction achieved through sauna bathing or the use of diuretics. We conclude that not only the quantity of weight loss but also the method itself may limit physical performance.

  6. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Peplinski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging.

  7. [Effect of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory system during incremental exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaki, N; Sasaki, J; Shoji, M; Iwasaki, H; Asano, K; Eda, M

    1986-01-01

    According to the results of questionnaires to college athletes, they believe the follicular phase is better than luteal phase for competitive sports. However, it is not clear whether there is significant difference in athletic performance between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the cardiorespiratory system were investigated in exercising women who are top players of basketball in Japan. They performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. During the exercise, the ECG and heart rate (HR) were monitored. The expired air was sampled continuously and expiratory gas volume/minute (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), gas exchange ratio(R) and respiratory rate (Resp. E.) were measured. Blood samples were collected to measure the blood lactic acid concentration during the exercise. HR in the luteal phase is higher than in the follicular phase at rest and throughout the exercise. VE, R and Resp. R. at rest and during exercise indicated a tendency to a higher level in the follicular phase. The blood lactic acid concentration during exercise in the follicular phase indicated a tendency to increase more rapidly than in luteal phase. However, no statistical differences in the cardiorespiratory system were detected when the follicular and luteal phase were compared. These results did not indicate conclusively in which phase it is better for athletic women to take part in competitive sports.

  8. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  9. Asthma Bronchiale and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Harshani; Kopsaftis, Zoe; Carson, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Exercising regularly has a wide range of beneficial health effects; in particular, it has been well documented to help in the management of chronic illnesses including asthma. However, in some individuals, exertion can also trigger an exacerbation of asthmatic episodes and subsequent acute attacks of breathlessness, coughing, tightness of the chest and wheezing. This physiological process is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) whereby post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s is reduced by 10-15% from baseline. While EIB is highly prevalent in asthmatics and presents with similar respiratory symptoms, asthma and EIB are not mutually exclusive. The aim of this review is to present a broad overview of both conditions in order to enhance the understanding of the similarities and differences distinguishing them as two separate entities. The pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying asthma are well described with research now focussing on defining phenotypes for targeted management strategies. Conversely, the mechanistic understanding of EIB remains largely under-described. Diagnostic pathways for both are established and similar, as are pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments and management approaches, which have enhanced success with early detection. Given the potential for exacerbation of asthma, exercise avoidance is common but counterproductive as current evidence indicates that it is well tolerated and improves quality of life. Literature supporting the benefit of exercise for EIB sufferers is at present favourable, yet extremely limited; therefore, future research should be directed in this area as well as towards further developing the understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms underpinning both EIB and asthma.

  10. Exercise and Rehabilitation Delivered through Exergames in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjæret, Nina; Nawaz, Ather; Morat, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been a rapid increase in research on the use of virtual reality (VR) and gaming technology as a complementary tool in exercise and rehabilitation in the elderly population. Although a few recent studies have evaluated their efficacy, there is currently no in-depth description...

  11. Unilateral arm strength training improves contralateral peak force and rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Michael; Macquaide, Niall; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan; Kemi, Ole Johan

    2008-07-01

    Neural adaptation following maximal strength training improves the ability to rapidly develop force. Unilateral strength training also leads to contralateral strength improvement, due to cross-over effects. However, adaptations in the rate of force development and peak force in the contralateral untrained arm after one-arm training have not been determined. Therefore, we aimed to detect contralateral effects of unilateral maximal strength training on rate of force development and peak force. Ten adult females enrolled in a 2-month strength training program focusing of maximal mobilization of force against near-maximal load in one arm, by attempting to move the given load as fast as possible. The other arm remained untrained. The training program did not induce any observable hypertrophy of any arms, as measured by anthropometry. Nevertheless, rate of force development improved in the trained arm during contractions against both submaximal and maximal loads by 40-60%. The untrained arm also improved rate of force development by the same magnitude. Peak force only improved during a maximal isometric contraction by 37% in the trained arm and 35% in the untrained arm. One repetition maximum improved by 79% in the trained arm and 9% in the untrained arm. Therefore, one-arm maximal strength training focusing on maximal mobilization of force increased rapid force development and one repetition maximal strength in the contralateral untrained arm. This suggests an increased central drive that also crosses over to the contralateral side.

  12. Exercise and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Douglas M; Jackson, Paul V; Marcinkiewicz, Marek; Papino, M Novella

    2009-06-01

    Obesity and overweight are linked to a wide range of medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, and coronary artery disease. Overweight and obese patients who are unable to lose weight with diet alone can benefit from well-structured exercise. Potentially, an individual exercise prescription can become one of the most important components of an obesity treatment program, along with an appropriate diet. Short-term (exercise combined with appropriate diet and counseling can produce a significant weight loss. No consensus exists on the amount of physical activity necessary to maintain the weight loss achieved during a short-term intervention. Long-term intervention is frequently influenced by weight regain related to complex interactions between physiologic and psychosocial factors.

  13. Hematologic Response to Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernando Bonilla Briceño

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to intensive physical exercisegenerates different types of response in an individual.These responses depend upon the typeof exercise and the duration of it, and they canbe acute or chronic. Exercise affects differentcorporal system, among those is the hematologicalsystem. Literature describes changes inthe blood volume, changes in the activity andpopulation of white blood cells, as well asmodifications in the humoral and cellularimmunity, and in the count and shape of bloodplatelets. Also and as a result of those changes, ithas been determined too, that exercise modifiesin a negative way the life time of red blood cells,generating an apparent anemia, that has beenwidely discuss and that might be, among manyfactors, associated to hemolysis. This hemolysismight be associated with osmotic mechanismsor oxidative stress. The true is that all thoseevents are strongly related and may cause a lowperformance in the practice of any physicalactivity, including that of sportsmen.

  14. Diabetes and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Schneider, S H

    1981-01-01

    This review describes (1) the metabolic and hormonal response to exercise in normal and diabetic man, and (2) the potential benefits of physical training in diabetes. Whereas in normal man plasma glucose varies little during exercise, the insulin-dependent diabetic subject may experience...... its site of injection. The response to exercise of noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects and of diabetic subjects with autonomic neuropathy is also described. Physical training improves glucose tolerance in some noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects and in insulin-dependent patients, it may diminish...... insulin requirements. It may also have a role in retarding the development of cardiovascular complications. Physical training is not totally innocuous, however, and in many patients with diabetes special precautions are required....

  15. Physical exercise and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Chiden Bueno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgic syndrome is a non-inflammatory rheumatic disease which affects primarily Caucasianwomen. Fibromyalgic syndrome can be classified as primary, when there is no other associated pathology; orsecondary, when it is diagnosed related to some other pathology. The fibromyalgic patient needs to receivemultidisciplinary treatment and different areas should work together to promote the improvement of symptoms.The most common classical symptom of this disease is the chronic and diffuse pain. The specialized literaturepresents several works that point out the effects and benefits of physical exercise as a non-pharmacologicaltreatment for patients with fibromyalgic syndrome. Aerobic activity, stretching and strength training are amongthe physical exercises. Thus, this review aimed to highlight the several ways physical exercise can be useful tothe fibromyalgic patient, especially concerning the improvement of symptoms.

  16. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than.......05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1) min(-1), respectively; P

  17. Biomechanical Modeling Analysis of Loads Configuration for Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen; De Witt, John K.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to assist loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft for travel to the Moon or to Mars is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. METHODS The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim [1] software platform, consisting of open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, using biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The OpenSim Full Body Model [2] is used for all analyses. The model incorporates simplified wrap surfaces, a new knee model and updated lower body muscle parameters derived from cadaver measurements and magnetic resonance imaging of young adults. The upper body uses torque actuators at the lumbar and extremity joints. The test subjects who volunteer for this study are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while performing squat exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device (ZIN Technologies, Middleburg Heights, OH). Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet, and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include

  18. Rapid response systems update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Fiona; Castex, Julie; Campbell, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Rapid response is a mature concept that is undergoing metamorphosis. The ideal structure and function of these safety teams has not yet been realized but new developments in the field of rapid response systems are evolving.

  19. Effects of two exercise interventions on pulmonary functions in the patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Dilek; Alayli, Gamze; Uzun, Oğuz; Tander, Berna; Cantürk, Ferhan; Bek, Yüksel; Erkan, Levent

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two different home-based daily exercise programs on pulmonary functions in the patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Fifty-one patients with AS were distributed into three groups. Group 1 (n=19) was given a conventional exercise regimen. Group 2 (n=19) received exercises based on the Global Posture Reeducation (GPR) method. Group 3 (n=13) was accepted as the control group. Patients were assessed according to pain, functional capacity (The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index - BASFI), disease activity (The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index - BASDAI), chest expansion, pulmonary function parameters, and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) test. Although there were significant improvements for BASDAI and BASFI scores in all groups, significant improvements in the VAS pain, chest expansion, pulmonary function parameters and 6MWD test were observed in the exercise groups. The improvements in pain, functional capacity, disease activity, chest expansion, pulmonary function parameters and 6MWD test were better in the exercise groups than in the control group. The GPR method resulted in greater improvements than the conventional exercise program in specific pulmonary function parameters like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1s, and peak expiratory flow parameters. Both exercises are efficient in improving pulmonary functions. Since the improvements in pulmonary function tests were greater in the patients who performed the exercise according to GPR method, motivated patients should be encouraged to perform this exercise program.

  20. Rotator-cuff muscle-recruitment strategies during shoulder rehabilitation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanik, Kathleen A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie; Swanik, Charles Buz

    2011-11-01

    There are contradictory data on optimal muscle-activation strategies for restoring shoulder stability. Further investigation of neuromuscular-control strategies for glenohumeral-joint stability will guide clinicians in decisions regarding appropriate rehabilitation exercises. To determine whether subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor (anteroposterior force couple) muscle activation differ between 4 shoulder exercises and describe coactivation ratios and individual muscle-recruitment characteristics of rotator-cuff muscles throughout each shoulder exercise. Crossover. Laboratory. healthy, physically active men, age 20.55 ± 2.0 y. 4 rehabilitation exercises: pitchback, PNF D2 pattern with tubing, push-up plus, and slide board. Mean coactivation level, coactivation-ratio patterns, and level (area) of muscle-activation patterns of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor throughout each exercise. Coactivation levels varied throughout each exercise. Subscapularis activity was consistently higher than that of the infraspinatus and teres minor combined at the start of each exercise and in end ranges of motion. Individual muscle-recruitment levels in the subscapularis were also different between exercises. Results provide descriptive data for determining normative coactivation-ratio values for muscle recruitment for the functional exercises studied. Differences in subscapularis activation suggest a reliance to resist anteriorly directed forces.

  1. Physical exercise can reverse the deficit in fear memory induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Pâmela Billig; Benetti, Fernando; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-10-01

    Maternal deprivation during the first 10 days of life induces significant behavioral alterations in rodents which persist through adulthood. Physical exercise reduces the cognitive deficits associated with pharmacologic and pathological conditions. Here we investigated whether forced physical exercise alters memory deficits caused by postnatal maternal deprivation. Male rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) deprived, (3) exercised, and (4) deprived+exercised. In groups 2 and 4, pups were deprived from their mothers for 3h/day during the first 10 days post-birth. In groups 3 and 4, from postnatal day 45 (PND-45) on, animals were submitted to forced treadmill exercise. At adulthood, animals were submitted to four different behavioral tasks: open field, Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition (OR) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). Maternal deprivation had no effect on open field behavior, but disrupted memory in the three other tasks. Physical exercise alone had no effect, except for a slight enhancement of MWM learning. Importantly, physical exercise reversed the deficit of IA and reduced the deficit of spatial memory but not that of OR seen in deprived animals. It is possible that physical exercise may counteract the influence of maternal deprivation on neurohumoral or hormonal memory modulatory systems related to stress. Indeed, the decreasing order of the effect of exercise on the memory disturbances induced by deprivation roughly follows the descending degree of stress associated with each task (IA>MWM>OR). Maternal deprivation is known to hinder hormonal mechanisms involved in coping with stress.

  2. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, M C

    2012-09-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients.

  3. Exercise 5+6 - Introduction to Control and Lab Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Exercises for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The laboratory exercises are including both numerical and experimental work. A simulink model is provided to make realtime control on the laboratory setups. The groups are welcome to modify the program during the exercises. The groups...

  4. Exercise and NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Susanne Germann; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).......The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)....

  5. Combinatorial problems and exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Lovász, László

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to provide help in learning existing techniques in combinatorics. The most effective way of learning such techniques is to solve exercises and problems. This book presents all the material in the form of problems and series of problems (apart from some general comments at the beginning of each chapter). In the second part, a hint is given for each exercise, which contains the main idea necessary for the solution, but allows the reader to practice the techniques by completing the proof. In the third part, a full solution is provided for each problem. This book w

  6. Exercise following burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  7. Exercise boosts immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-06-29

    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  8. The roles of exercise in bone remodeling and in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Lingli; Wu, Juanni; Guo, Jianming; Zou, Dongchen; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Shen, Chao; Zou, Jun

    2016-11-01

    With a rapid increase in the aging population, osteoporosis has become a global health problem. Although anti-resorption and anabolic drugs are available, osteoporosis cannot be completely cured. Exercise is an economical, efficacious, and safe way to prevent the development of osteoporosis. Recent studies have investigated the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Here we update the progress made on the effects of exercise on bone cells, including bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, as well as on bone mass, bone strength, and geometry, hoping to provide a theoretical basis to improve osteoporosis prevention and treatment with exercise.

  9. Temporal Geophysical Investigations of the FT-2-Plume at the Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) facility has been the focus of several geophysical investigations. After several decades of fire training exercises, significant amounts of hydrocarbons and some solvents seeped into the subsurface cont...

  10. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlskog, J Eric; Geda, Yonas E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2011-09-01

    A rapidly growing literature strongly suggests that exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, may attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. We used PubMed (keywords exercise and cognition) and manuscript bibliographies to examine the published evidence of a cognitive neuroprotective effect of exercise. Meta-analyses of prospective studies documented a significantly reduced risk of dementia associated with midlife exercise; similarly, midlife exercise significantly reduced later risks of mild cognitive impairment in several studies. Among patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documented better cognitive scores after 6 to 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls. Meta-analyses of RCTs of aerobic exercise in healthy adults were also associated with significantly improved cognitive scores. One year of aerobic exercise in a large RCT of seniors was associated with significantly larger hippocampal volumes and better spatial memory; other RCTs in seniors documented attenuation of age-related gray matter volume loss with aerobic exercise. Cross-sectional studies similarly reported significantly larger hippocampal or gray matter volumes among physically fit seniors compared with unfit seniors. Brain cognitive networks studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging display improved connectivity after 6 to 12 months of exercise. Animal studies indicate that exercise facilitates neuroplasticity via a variety of biomechanisms, with improved learning outcomes. Induction of brain neurotrophic factors by exercise has been confirmed in multiple animal studies, with indirect evidence for this process in humans. Besides a brain neuroprotective effect, physical exercise may also attenuate cognitive decline via mitigation of cerebrovascular risk, including the contribution of small vessel disease to dementia. Exercise should not be overlooked as an important therapeutic strategy.

  11. Rapid Reading, Yes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  12. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 52+00:00 Download & Print PDF Recommendations for Exercise in Patients with PAH Consensus Statement Issued by ... published data in the medical literature regarding routine exercise in patients with PAH. However, there are considerable ...

  13. Seniors' Lungs Can Tackle Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167082.html Seniors' Lungs Can Tackle Exercise Researchers find older adults' respiratory systems keep up ... News) If seniors want to start a vigorous exercise program, there's a good chance their lungs can ...

  14. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a degree in exercise physiology, physical education, physical therapy, or a similar specialty. Be sure to ask if he or she is familiar with the special needs of people with osteoporosis. A Complete Osteoporosis Program Remember, exercise is only ...

  15. What Is 'Moderate' Exercise Anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166905.html What Is 'Moderate' Exercise Anyway? How to figure out the best intensity ... most adults to get 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days to stay fit. But what ...

  16. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise is very beneficial for healthy individuals, increasing cardiovascular and muscular fitness, improving mood, controlling weight and lowering the risk of systemic hypertension and heart disease. Exercise may help lower the risk of chronic illnesses ...

  17. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  18. Kegel exercises - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000141.htm Kegel exercises - self-care To use the sharing features ... and move up and down. How to do Kegel Exercises Once you know what the movement feels ...

  19. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  20. A Show of Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S.-South Korea joint military exercise highlights mounting security concerns in Northeast Asia The United States and South Korea held a joint naval and air exercise,codenamed Invincible Spirit,in the Sea of Japan on My 25-28. The exercise,which involved 20 ships and submarines including the U.S.aircraft carrier USS George Washington,as well as 200 aircraft and 8,000 troops, was the biggest between the two countries since 1976.

  1. The effect of oxidative stress during exercise in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance of the oxidant-to-antioxidant ratio in the body. Increases in oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant status have been shown during endurance and intense exercise and eventing competition in horses. Antioxidants include vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and proteins that must be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet. Therefore, exercise level and diet are both factors that play a role in influencing the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of the equine athlete. Along with exercise intensity and duration, diet, age, and training program can also affect oxidative stress in the horse. Several studies using exogenous supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and alpha-lipoic acid have shown positive results in decreasing the effects of exercise (endurance and intense exercise)-induced oxidative stress and increasing the antioxidant status based on the markers and antioxidants measured, whereas other studies using superoxide dismutase showed little effects on the exercise horse. The "free radical theory of aging" states that long-term effects of the degenerative changes associated with aging may induce oxidative stress. However, in old horses (22 ± 2 yr), lipid peroxidation levels and blood antioxidant concentrations were similar to those found in younger but mature (12 ± 2 yr) horses both at rest and during exercise. Other studies found that yearlings (18 ± 2.4 mo) that are novel to forced exercise had less lipid peroxidation and greater antioxidant status than mature mares (13 ± 2.1 yr) prior to exercise training. Exercise training reduced oxidative stress markers and improved antioxidant status in mares, whereas few effects were seen in yearlings. This indicates that youth provided more defense against oxidative stress due to exercise than the exercise training program. Other studies during competition (endurance, jumping, eventing, and racing) have investigated the influence on oxidative stress with varying results

  2. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghoon Lee; Kyu-Tae Chang; Yonggeun Hong; Jinhee Shin; Minkyung Lee; Yunkyung Hong; Sang-Kil Lee; Youngjeon Lee; Tserentogtokh Lkhagvasuren; Dong-Wook Kim; Young-Ae Yang

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

  3. Repeated high-intensity exercise modulates Ca(2+) sensitivity of human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, K D; Hvid, L G; Willis, S J;

    2016-01-01

    The effects of short-term high-intensity exercise on single fiber contractile function in humans are unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (a) to access the acute effects of repeated high-intensity exercise on human single muscle fiber contractile function; and (b) to examine whether...... the fourth sprint with respect to Ca(2+) sensitivity and maximal Ca(2+) -activated force. To investigate the oxidative effects of exercise on single fiber contractile function, a subset of fibers was incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT) before analysis. Ca(2+) sensitivity was enhanced by exercise in both MHC...... I (17%, P exercise. In conclusion, repeated high-intensity exercise increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in both MHC I and MHC II...

  4. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...

  5. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  6. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  7. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can improve your mood. If you’re feeling low, take a walk, jump rope, or run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your head, and makes you feel great. Tweet This Get ...

  8. Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tripodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance is a toolbox to examine and disentangle urban complexities. Not the city, not the urban territory, not the urbanization process but the irreducible condition produced by the dialectical relation and the semantic stratification resulting from these factors.

  9. Life Chances Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  10. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speed-boats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations

  11. An exercise in safety

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 14 October, a large-scale evacuation exercise took place. Ten buildings (1-2-3-4-50-51-52-53-58-304), with a total capacity of almost 1900 people, were successfully evacuated.   The exercise, which for the first time involved all of the central buildings on the Meyrin site, was organised by the PH Department in collaboration with the HSE Unit, the GS Department and the safety officers of all the various departments involved. On the day, around 400 people were evacuated in just a few minutes.  “It took us three months to prepare for the exercise,” explains Niels Dupont, safety officer for the PH Department, who organised the exercise. “Around 100 people: safety officers, firefighters, emergency guides, observers, representatives from the control centre, etc. attended four preparatory meetings and five training sessions. We also purchased equipment such as evacuation chairs, high-visibility vests and signs to mark the evacuation route.” The dec...

  12. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  13. Forecast of drifter trajectories using a Rapid Environmental Assessment based on CTD observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgente, R.; Tedesco, C.; Pessini, F.; De Dominicis, M.; Gerin, R.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Di Maio, A.; Ribotti, A.

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution submesoscale resolving ocean model was implemented in a limited area north of Island of Elba where a maritime exercise, named Serious Game 1 (SG1), took place on May 2014 in the framework of the project MEDESS-4MS (Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety). During the exercise, CTD data have been collected responding to the necessity of a Rapid Environmental Assessment, i.e. to a rapid evaluation of the marine conditions able to provide sensible information for initialisation of modelling tools, in the scenario of possible maritime accidents. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of such mesoscale-resolving CTD observations on short-term forecasts of the surface currents, within the framework of possible oil-spill related emergencies. For this reason, modelling outputs were compared with Lagrangian observations at sea: the high resolution modelled currents, together with the ones of the coarser sub-regional model WMED, are used to force the MEDSLIK-II oil-spill model to simulate drifter trajectories. Both ocean models have been assessed by comparing the prognostic scalar and vector fields as an independent CTD data set and with real drifter trajectories acquired during SG1. The diagnosed and prognosed circulation reveals that the area was characterised by water masses of Atlantic origin influenced by small mesoscale cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies, which govern the spatial and temporal evolution of the drifter trajectories and of the water masses distribution. The assimilation of CTD data into the initial conditions of the high resolution model highly improves the accuracy of the short-term forecast in terms of location and structure of the thermocline and positively influence the ability of the model in reproducing the observed paths of the surface drifters.

  14. The effect of priming exercise on O2 uptake kinetics, muscle O2 delivery and utilization, muscle activity, and exercise tolerance in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alan R; Trebilcock, Emily; Breese, Brynmor; Jones, Andrew M; Armstrong, Neil

    2014-03-01

    This study used priming exercise in young boys to investigate (i) how muscle oxygen delivery and oxygen utilization, and muscle activity modulate oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise; and (ii) whether the accelerated oxygen uptake kinetics following priming exercise can improve exercise tolerance. Seven boys that were aged 11.3 ± 1.6 years completed either a single bout (bout 1) or repeated bouts with 6 min of recovery (bout 2) of very heavy-intensity cycling exercise. During the tests oxygen uptake, muscle oxygenation, muscle electrical activity and exercise tolerance were measured. Priming exercise most likely shortened the oxygen uptake mean response time (change, ±90% confidence limits; -8.0 s, ±3.0), possibly increased the phase II oxygen uptake amplitude (0.11 L·min(-1), ±0.09) and very likely reduced the oxygen uptake slow component amplitude (-0.08 L·min(-1), ±0.07). Priming resulted in a likely reduction in integrated electromyography (-24% baseline, ±21% and -25% baseline, ±19) and a very likely reduction in Δ deoxyhaemoglobin/Δoxygen uptake (-0.16, ±0.11 and -0.09, ±0.05) over the phase II and slow component portions of the oxygen uptake response, respectively. A correlation was present between the change in tissue oxygenation index during bout 2 and the change in the phase II (r = -0.72, likely negative) and slow component (r = 0.72, likely positive) oxygen uptake amplitudes following priming exercise, but not for muscle activity. Exercise tolerance was likely reduced (change -177 s, ±180) following priming exercise. The altered phase II and slow component oxygen uptake amplitudes in boys following priming exercise are linked to an improved localised matching of muscle oxygen delivery to oxygen uptake and not muscle electrical activity. Despite more rapid oxygen uptake kinetics following priming exercise, exercise tolerance was not enhanced.

  15. Effect of prior exercise in Pi/PC ratio and intracellular pH during a standardized exercise. A study on human muscle using [31P]NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D; Authier, B; Lebas, J F; Rossi, A

    1992-01-01

    Seven subjects underwent a standard localized exercise of calf muscles in order to investigate whether the metabolic exercise-induced steady-state, as revealed by the evaluation of inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio, depends on the conditioning of the muscle just prior to the exercise. The experimental protocols consisted of two separate experiments using first [31P]nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and second (on 3 subjects) infrared oxyphotometry to respectively follow variation of energy metabolism and tissular deoxygenation. The exercise consisted of 240 successive plantar flexions (0.5 Hz frequency) against a high load equivalent to 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction. This exercise was accomplished before cold exercise and after warm exercise, a warming-up period bringing to approximately 50% of VO2max. The results showed that: (1) steady-state level of phosphate/phosphocreatine and intracellular acidosis was significantly lowered by warming-up; (2) cold and warm exercise steady-state of calculated adenosine diphosphate values were not significantly different; (3) cold exercise rapidly induced a high tissular deoxygenation that is not observed during warm exercise; and (4) time-constant of phosphocreatine resynthesis is lowered after warm exercise but the initial slope of time-evolution is not modified. Parallel experiments also showed that phosphate/phosphocreatine steady-state was not modified in comparison with warm exercise when the same power of exercise was reached by stepwise incrementation of the charge. From these results we postulate that a better tissue oxygenation due to a global or localized warming-up allows to reach the same mechanical performance with a lower decrease of PCr content, owing to a faster adjustment of oxidative metabolism during the transitional period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Limitations of constant-force-feedback experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Phillip J; Chodera, John D; Bustamante, Carlos J; Marqusee, Susan

    2012-10-03

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has provided important insights into the properties and mechanisms of biological molecules and systems. A common experiment is to measure the force dependence of conformational changes at equilibrium. Here, we demonstrate that the commonly used technique of force feedback has severe limitations when used to evaluate rapid macromolecular conformational transitions. By comparing the force-dependent dynamics of three major classes of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) using both a constant-force-feedback and a constant-trap-position technique, we demonstrate a problem in force-feedback experiments. The finite response time of the instrument's force feedback can modify the behavior of the molecule, leading to errors in the reported parameters, such as the rate constants and the distance to the transition state, for the conformational transitions. We elucidate the causes of this problem and provide a simple test to identify and evaluate the magnitude of the effect. We recommend avoiding the use of constant force feedback as a method to study rapid conformational changes in macromolecules.

  17. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males.

  18. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  19. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  20. Carnitine and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, O J

    1996-08-01

    Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine