WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid execution time

  1. Scheduling with time-dependent execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider systems of tasks where the task execution times are time-dependent and where all tasks have some common deadline. We describe how to compute in polynomial time a schedule that minimizes the number of late tasks. This answers a question raised in a recent paper by Ho, Leung and Wei.

  2. The SUCCESS model for laboratory performance and execution of rapid molecular diagnostics in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekmezian, Mhair; Beal, Stacy G; Damashek, Mary Jane; Benavides, Raul; Dhiman, Neelam

    2015-04-01

    Successful performance and execution of rapid diagnostics in a clinical laboratory hinges heavily on careful validation, accurate and timely communication of results, and real-time quality monitoring. Laboratories must develop strategies to integrate diagnostics with stewardship and evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We present a collaborative SUCCESS model for execution and monitoring of rapid sepsis diagnostics to facilitate timely treatment. Six months after execution of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP) and the AdvanDx PNA-FISH assays, data were collected on 579 and 28 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia, respectively. Clinical testing was executed using a SUCCESS model comprising the following components: stewardship, utilization of resources, core strategies, concierge services, education, support, and surveillance. Stewardship needs were identified by evaluating the specialty services benefiting from new testing. Utilization of resources was optimized by reviewing current treatment strategies and antibiogram and formulary options. Core strategies consisted of input from infectious disease leadership, pharmacy, and laboratory staff. Concierge services included automated Micro-eUpdate and physician-friendly actionable reports. Education modules were user-specific, and support was provided through a dedicated 24/7 microbiology hotline. Surveillance was performed by daily audit by the director. Using the SUCCESS model, the turnaround time for the detailed report with actionable guidelines to the physician was ∼3 hours from the time of culture positivity. The overall correlation between rapid methods and culture was 94% (546/579). Discrepant results were predominantly contaminants such as a coagulase-negative staphylococci or viridans streptococci in mixed cultures. SUCCESS is a cost-effective and easily adaptable model for clinical laboratories with limited stewardship resources.

  3. Estimation Accuracy on Execution Time of Run-Time Tasks in a Heterogeneous Distributed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Computing has achieved tremendous development since cloud computing was proposed in 2006, and played a vital role promoting rapid growth of data collecting and analysis models, e.g., Internet of things, Cyber-Physical Systems, Big Data Analytics, etc. Hadoop has become a data convergence platform for sensor networks. As one of the core components, MapReduce facilitates allocating, processing and mining of collected large-scale data, where speculative execution strategies help solve straggler problems. However, there is still no efficient solution for accurate estimation on execution time of run-time tasks, which can affect task allocation and distribution in MapReduce. In this paper, task execution data have been collected and employed for the estimation. A two-phase regression (TPR method is proposed to predict the finishing time of each task accurately. Detailed data of each task have drawn interests with detailed analysis report being made. According to the results, the prediction accuracy of concurrent tasks’ execution time can be improved, in particular for some regular jobs.

  4. Real-time Executive for a basic principle simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Szegi, Zs.; Vegh, E.

    1987-09-01

    A basic principle simulator for WWER-440 type nuclear power plants is under development in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. So far the technological models of both to primary and secondary circuits are ready and this paper presents the Real-time Executive and the on-line operating environment which controls the simulator. This executive system contains eight programs and the detailed structure of the data base is presented. The control of the execution of the model programs, their timing and the error recoveries are also discussed. (author) 5 refs

  5. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  6. Real Time Monitor of Grid job executions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colling, D J; Martyniak, J; McGough, A S; Krenek, A; Sitera, J; Mulac, M; Dvorak, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and operation of the Real Time Monitor (RTM), developed by the Grid team in the HEP group at Imperial College London. This is arguably the most popular dissemination tool within the EGEE [1] Grid. Having been used, on many occasions including GridFest and LHC inauguration events held at CERN in October 2008. The RTM gathers information from EGEE sites hosting Logging and Bookkeeping (LB) services. Information is cached locally at a dedicated server at Imperial College London and made available for clients to use in near real time. The system consists of three main components: the RTM server, enquirer and an apache Web Server which is queried by clients. The RTM server queries the LB servers at fixed time intervals, collecting job related information and storing this in a local database. Job related data includes not only job state (i.e. Scheduled, Waiting, Running or Done) along with timing information but also other attributes such as Virtual Organization and Computing Element (CE) queue - if known. The job data stored in the RTM database is read by the enquirer every minute and converted to an XML format which is stored on a Web Server. This decouples the RTM server database from the client removing the bottleneck problem caused by many clients simultaneously accessing the database. This information can be visualized through either a 2D or 3D Java based client with live job data either being overlaid on to a 2 dimensional map of the world or rendered in 3 dimensions over a globe map using OpenGL.

  7. Executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and timing deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal L Parker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD have deficits in perceptual timing, or the perception and estimation of time. PD patients can also have cognitive symptoms, including deficits in executive functions such as working memory, planning, and visuospatial attention. Here, we discuss how PD-related cognitive symptoms contribute to timing deficits. Timing is influenced by signaling of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum. Timing also involves the frontal cortex, which is dysfunctional in PD. Frontal cortex impairments in PD may influence memory subsystems as well as decision processes during timing tasks. These data suggest that timing may be a type of executive function. As such, timing can be used to study the neural circuitry of cognitive symptoms of PD as they can be studied in animal models. Performance of timing tasks also maybe a useful clinical biomarker of frontal as well as striatal dysfunction in PD.

  8. Support for the Logical Execution Time Model on a Time-predictable Multicore Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin; Ungerer, Theo

    2016-01-01

    The logical execution time (LET) model increases the compositionality of real-time task sets. Removal or addition of tasks does not influence the communication behavior of other tasks. In this work, we extend a multicore operating system running on a time-predictable multicore processor to support...... the LET model. For communication between tasks we use message passing on a time-predictable network-on-chip to avoid the bottleneck of shared memory. We report our experiences and present results on the costs in terms of memory and execution time....

  9. Online Synthesis for Operation Execution Time Variability on Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    have assumed that each biochemical operation in an application is characterized by a worst-case execution time (wcet). However, during the execution of the application, due to variability and randomness in biochemical reactions, operations may finish earlier than their wcets. In this paper we propose...... an online synthesis strategy that re-synthesizes the application at runtime when operations experience variability in their execution time, obtaining thus shorter application execution times. The proposed strategy has been evaluated using several benchmarks....

  10. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and exponential execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction takes an exponential execution

  11. Performance enhancement of various real-time image processing techniques via speculative execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mohamed F.; Sinha, Purnendu; Marlowe, Thomas J.; Stoyenko, Alexander D.

    1996-03-01

    In real-time image processing, an application must satisfy a set of timing constraints while ensuring the semantic correctness of the system. Because of the natural structure of digital data, pure data and task parallelism have been used extensively in real-time image processing to accelerate the handling time of image data. These types of parallelism are based on splitting the execution load performed by a single processor across multiple nodes. However, execution of all parallel threads is mandatory for correctness of the algorithm. On the other hand, speculative execution is an optimistic execution of part(s) of the program based on assumptions on program control flow or variable values. Rollback may be required if the assumptions turn out to be invalid. Speculative execution can enhance average, and sometimes worst-case, execution time. In this paper, we target various image processing techniques to investigate applicability of speculative execution. We identify opportunities for safe and profitable speculative execution in image compression, edge detection, morphological filters, and blob recognition.

  12. Computer architecture for efficient algorithmic executions in real-time systems: New technology for avionics systems and advanced space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Youngblood, John N.; Saha, Aindam

    1987-01-01

    Improvements and advances in the development of computer architecture now provide innovative technology for the recasting of traditional sequential solutions into high-performance, low-cost, parallel system to increase system performance. Research conducted in development of specialized computer architecture for the algorithmic execution of an avionics system, guidance and control problem in real time is described. A comprehensive treatment of both the hardware and software structures of a customized computer which performs real-time computation of guidance commands with updated estimates of target motion and time-to-go is presented. An optimal, real-time allocation algorithm was developed which maps the algorithmic tasks onto the processing elements. This allocation is based on the critical path analysis. The final stage is the design and development of the hardware structures suitable for the efficient execution of the allocated task graph. The processing element is designed for rapid execution of the allocated tasks. Fault tolerance is a key feature of the overall architecture. Parallel numerical integration techniques, tasks definitions, and allocation algorithms are discussed. The parallel implementation is analytically verified and the experimental results are presented. The design of the data-driven computer architecture, customized for the execution of the particular algorithm, is discussed.

  13. Combining loop unrolling strategies and code predication to reduce the worst-case execution time of real-time software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Carminati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Worst-case execution time (WCET is a parameter necessary to guarantee timing constraints on real-time systems. The higher the worst-case execution time of tasks, the higher will be the resource demand for the associated system. The goal of this paper is to propose a different way to perform loop unrolling on data-dependent loops using code predication targeting WCET reduction, because existing techniques only consider loops with fixed execution counts. We also combine our technique with existing unrolling approaches. Results showed that this combination can produce aggressive WCET reductions when compared with the original code.

  14. An Analysis of a Hard Real-Time Execution Environment Extension for FreeRTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANGACIU, C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available FreeRTOS is a popular real-time operating system, which has been under a significant attention in the last years due to its main advantages: it is open source, portable, well documented and implemented on more than 30 architectures. FreeRTOS execution environment is dynamic, preemptive and priority based, but it is not suitable for hard real-time tasks, because it provides task execution determinism only to a certain degree and cannot guarantee the absence of task execution jitter. As a solution to this problem, we propose a hard real time execution extension to FreeRTOS in order to support a particular model of HRT tasks, called ModXs, which are executed with no jitter. This article presents a detailed analysis, in terms of scheduling, task execution and memory usage of this hard real time execution environment extension. The article is concluding with the advantages this extension brings to the system compared to the small memory and timing overhead introduced.

  15. Less-structured time in children's daily lives predicts self-directed executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jane E; Semenov, Andrei D; Michaelson, Laura; Provan, Lindsay S; Snyder, Hannah R; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) in childhood predict important life outcomes. Thus, there is great interest in attempts to improve EFs early in life. Many interventions are led by trained adults, including structured training activities in the lab, and less-structured activities implemented in schools. Such programs have yielded gains in children's externally-driven executive functioning, where they are instructed on what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. However, it is less clear how children's experiences relate to their development of self-directed executive functioning, where they must determine on their own what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. We hypothesized that time spent in less-structured activities would give children opportunities to practice self-directed executive functioning, and lead to benefits. To investigate this possibility, we collected information from parents about their 6-7 year-old children's daily, annual, and typical schedules. We categorized children's activities as "structured" or "less-structured" based on categorization schemes from prior studies on child leisure time use. We assessed children's self-directed executive functioning using a well-established verbal fluency task, in which children generate members of a category and can decide on their own when to switch from one subcategory to another. The more time that children spent in less-structured activities, the better their self-directed executive functioning. The opposite was true of structured activities, which predicted poorer self-directed executive functioning. These relationships were robust (holding across increasingly strict classifications of structured and less-structured time) and specific (time use did not predict externally-driven executive functioning). We discuss implications, caveats, and ways in which potential interpretations can be distinguished in future work, to advance an understanding of this fundamental aspect of growing up.

  16. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  17. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Operation Execution Time Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    that each biochemical operation in an application is characterized by a worst-case execution time (wcet). However, during the execution of the application, due to variability and randomness in biochemical reactions, operations may finish earlier than their wcetswcets, resulting in unexploited slack...... in the schedule. In this paper, we first propose an online synthesis strategy that re-synthesizes the application at runtime when operations experience variability in their execution time, exploiting thus the slack to obtain shorter application completion times. We also propose a quasi-static synthesis strategy...... approaches have been proposed for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. Researchers have assumed...

  18. The system chief nurse executive role: sign of the changing times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joan Shinkus

    2012-01-01

    As the health care system landscape continues to evolve toward more integrated care, a trend toward consolidation of hospitals into larger systems continues. The systems are more than the traditional hospital-centric structures, as acute care becomes just one component to a larger system that includes ambulatory care, acute and post-acute care, chronic disease and end-of-life management, and all structures in between. To provide leadership in these new models, there have been an increasing number of system chief nurse executives hired both to facilitate the integration of care and to align and standardize nursing practice across the continuum. By definition, the role of the system chief nurse executive differs from that of the entity chief nursing officer. A crosswalk is presented that describes the differences between the roles and reflects on the implication for system chief nurse executives during our changing times.

  19. Timing measurements of some tracking algorithms and suitability of FPGA's to improve the execution speed

    CERN Document Server

    Khomich, A; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Müller, M; Baines, J T M

    2003-01-01

    Some of track reconstruction algorithms which are common to all B-physics channels and standard RoI processing have been tested for execution time and assessed for suitability for speed-up by using FPGA coprocessor. The studies presented in this note were performed in the C/C++ framework, CTrig, which was the fullest set of algorithms available at the time of study For investigation of possible speed-up of algorithms most time consuming parts of TRT-LUT was implemented in VHDL for running in FPGA coprocessor board MPRACE. MPRACE (Reconfigurable Accelerator / Computing Engine) is an FPGA-Coprocessor based on Xilinx Virtex-2 FPGA and made as 64Bit/66MHz PCI card developed at the University of Mannheim. Timing measurements results for a TRT Full Scan algorithm executed on the MPRACE are presented here as well. The measurement results show a speed-up factor of ~2 for this algorithm.

  20. Standardization of the time for the execution of HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Kang, T. J.; Youn, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    For the standardization of the time to execute HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures, code names were assigned to the individual procedures and the work time were investigated. The data recorded by the operators during start-up and shutdown were statistically analyzed. The analysis results will be used for the standardization of start-up and shutdown procedures and it will be reflected in the procedure document

  1. Executive Functions, Time Organization and Quality of Life among Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kineret Sharfi

    Full Text Available This study compared the executive functions, organization in time and perceived quality of life (QoL of 55 adults with learning disabilities (LD with those of 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years. Furthermore, relationships and predictive relationships between these variables among the group with LD were examined.All participants completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A, the Time Organization and Participation (TOPS, A-C and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL questionnaires. Chi-square tests, independent t-tests and MANOVA were used to examine group differences in each of the subscales scores and ratings of each instrument. Pearson correlations and regression predictive models were used to examine the relationships between the variables in the group with LD.Adults with LD had significantly poorer executive functions (BRIEF-A, deficient organization in time abilities (TOPS A-B, accompanied with negative emotional response (TOPS- C, and lower perceived QoL (physical, psychological, social and environmental in comparison to adults without LD. Regression analysis revealed that Initiation (BRIEF-A significantly predicted approximately 15% of the participants' organization in time abilities (TOPS A, B scores beyond group membership. Furthermore, initiation, emotional control (BRIEF-A subscales and emotional responses following unsuccessful organization of time (TOPS-C together accounted for 39% of the variance of psychological QoL beyond the contribution of group membership.Deficits in initiation and emotional executive functions as well as organization in time abilities and emotional responses to impairments in organizing time affect the QoL of adults with LD and thus should be considered in further research as well as in clinical applications.

  2. Executive Functions, Time Organization and Quality of Life among Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the executive functions, organization in time and perceived quality of life (QoL) of 55 adults with learning disabilities (LD) with those of 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years). Furthermore, relationships and predictive relationships between these variables among the group with LD were examined. All participants completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A), the Time Organization and Participation (TOPS, A-C) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires. Chi-square tests, independent t-tests and MANOVA were used to examine group differences in each of the subscales scores and ratings of each instrument. Pearson correlations and regression predictive models were used to examine the relationships between the variables in the group with LD. Adults with LD had significantly poorer executive functions (BRIEF-A), deficient organization in time abilities (TOPS A-B), accompanied with negative emotional response (TOPS- C), and lower perceived QoL (physical, psychological, social and environmental) in comparison to adults without LD. Regression analysis revealed that Initiation (BRIEF-A) significantly predicted approximately 15% of the participants' organization in time abilities (TOPS A, B scores) beyond group membership. Furthermore, initiation, emotional control (BRIEF-A subscales) and emotional responses following unsuccessful organization of time (TOPS-C) together accounted for 39% of the variance of psychological QoL beyond the contribution of group membership. Deficits in initiation and emotional executive functions as well as organization in time abilities and emotional responses to impairments in organizing time affect the QoL of adults with LD and thus should be considered in further research as well as in clinical applications.

  3. Rapid Time Response: A solution for Manufacturing Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respond time in manufacturing give the major impact that able to contribute too many manufacturing issues. Based on two worst case scenario occurred where Toyota in 2009 made a massive vehicles call due to car complexity of 11 major models and over 9 million vehicles. The recalls cost at least $2 billion in cost of repair, lost deals and result in lost 5% of its market share in United State of America, while A380 was reported on missing target in new production and leads to delayed market entry due to their weak product life cycle management (PLM. These cases give a sign to all industries to possess and optimize the facilities for better traceability in shortest time period. In Industry 4.0, the traceability and time respond become the factors for high performance manufacturing and rapid time respond able to expedite the traceability process and strengthen the communication level between man, machine and management. The round trip time (RTT experiment gives variant time respond between two difference operating system for intra and inter-platform signal. If this rapid time respond is adopted in any manufacturing process, the delay in traceability on every issue that lead to losses can be successfully avoided.

  4. Supporting Real-Time Operations and Execution through Timeline and Scheduling Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Pyrzak, Guy; Hashemi, Sam; Ahmed, Samia; McMillin, Kevin Edward; Medwid, Joseph Daniel; Chen, Diana; Hurtle, Esten

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, the NASA Ames Research Center has been actively involved in researching and advancing the state-of-the-art of planning and scheduling tools for NASA mission operations. Our planning toolkit SPIFe (Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration) has supported a variety of missions and field tests, scheduling activities for Mars rovers as well as crew on-board International Space Station and NASA earth analogs. The scheduled plan is the integration of all the activities for the day/s. In turn, the agents (rovers, landers, spaceships, crew) execute from this schedule while the mission support team members (e.g., flight controllers) follow the schedule during execution. Over the last couple of years, our team has begun to research and validate methods that will better support users during realtime operations and execution of scheduled activities. Our team utilizes human-computer interaction principles to research user needs, identify workflow processes, prototype software aids, and user test these. This paper discusses three specific prototypes developed and user tested to support real-time operations: Score Mobile, Playbook, and Mobile Assistant for Task Execution (MATE).

  5. Fluid Intelligence as a Mediator of the Relationship between Executive Control and Balanced Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Witowska, Joanna; Maciantowicz, Oliwia; Łowicki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults ( N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control. Moreover, we found that the relationship between executive control and BTP was completely mediated by fluid intelligence with the effect size (the ratio of the indirect effect to the total effect) of 0.75, which suggests that cognitive abilities play an important role in adoption of temporal balance. The findings have relevance to time perspective theory as they provide valuable insight into the mechanisms involved in assigning human experience to certain time frames.

  6. Load power device and system for real-time execution of hierarchical load identification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Madane, Mayura Arun; Zambare, Prachi Suresh

    2017-11-14

    A load power device includes a power input; at least one power output for at least one load; and a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output. A processor is structured to provide real-time execution of: (a) a plurality of load identification algorithms, and (b) event detection and operating mode detection for the at least one load.

  7. Time-based prospective memory in young children-Exploring executive functions as a developmental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Anett; Voigt, Babett; Friedrich, Sylva; Pfeiffer, Kathrin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated time-based prospective memory (PM) during the transition from kindergarten/preschool to school age and applied mediation models to test the impact of executive functions (working memory, inhibitory control) and time monitoring on time-based PM development. Twenty-five preschool (age: M = 5.75, SD = 0.28) and 22 primary school children (age: M = 7.83, SD = 0.39) participated. To examine time-based PM, children had to play a computer-based driving game requiring them to drive a car on a road without hitting others cars (ongoing task) and to refill the car regularly according to a fuel gauge, which serves as clock equivalent (PM task). The level of gas that was still left in the fuel gauge was not displayed on the screen and children had to monitor it via a button press (time monitoring). Results revealed a developmental increase in time-based PM performance from preschool to school age. Applying the mediation models, only working memory was revealed to influence PM development. Neither inhibitory control alone nor the mediation paths leading from both executive functions to time monitoring could explain the link between age and time-based PM. Thus, results of the present study suggest that working memory may be one key cognitive process driving the developmental growth of time-based PM during the transition from preschool to school age.

  8. X-real-time executive (X-RTE) an ultra-high reliable real-time executive for safety critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Babu, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    With growing number of application of computers in safety critical systems of nuclear plants there has been a need to assure high quality and reliability of the software used in these systems. One way to assure software quality is to use qualified software components. Since the safety systems and control systems are real-time systems there is a need for a real-time supervisory software to guarantee temporal response of the system. This report describes one such software package, called X-Real-Time Executive (or X-RTE), which was developed in Reactor Control Division, BARC. The report describes all the capabilities and unique features of X-RTE and compares it with a commercially available operating system. The features of X-RTE include pre-emptive scheduling, process synchronization, inter-process communication, multi-processor support, temporal support, debug facility, high portability, high reliability, high quality, and extensive documentation. Examples have been used very liberally to illustrate the underlying concepts. Besides, the report provides a brief description about the methods used, during the software development, to assure high quality and reliability of X-RTE. (author). refs., 11 figs., tabs

  9. Late-time dynamics of rapidly rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glampedakis, K.; Andersson, N.

    2001-01-01

    We study the late-time behaviour of a dynamically perturbed rapidly rotating black hole. Considering an extreme Kerr black hole, we show that the large number of virtually undamped quasinormal modes (that exist for nonzero values of the azimuthal eigenvalue m) combine in such a way that the field (as observed at infinity) oscillates with an amplitude that decays as 1/t at late times. For a near extreme black hole, these modes, collectively, give rise to an exponentially decaying field which, however, is considerably 'long-lived'. Our analytic results are verified using numerical time-evolutions of the Teukolsky equation. Moreover, we argue that the physical mechanism behind the observed behaviour is the presence of a 'superradiance resonance cavity' immediately outside the black hole. We present this new feature in detail, and discuss whether it may be relevant for astrophysical black holes. (author)

  10. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  11. Contribution to the building of an execution engine for UML models for the simulation of competitor and timed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyahia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) places models at the heart of the software engineering process. MDE helps managing the complexity of software systems and improving the quality of the development process. The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative from the Object Management Group (OMG) defines a framework for building design flows in the context of MDE. MDA relies heavily on formalisms which are normalized by the OMG, such as UML for modeling, QVT for model transformations and so on. This work deals with the execution semantics of the UML language applied to embedded real-time applications. In this context, the OMG has a norm which defines an execution model for a subset of UML called fUML (foundational UML subset). This execution model gives a precise semantics to UML models, which can be used for analyzing models, generating code, or verifying transformations. The goal of this PhD thesis is to define and build an execution engine for UML models of embedded real-time systems, which takes into account the explicit hypothesis made by the designer about the execution semantics at a high level of abstraction, in order to be able to execute models as early as possible in the design flow of a system. To achieve this goal, we have extended the fUML execution model along three important axes with regard to embedded real-time systems: - Concurrence: fUML does not provide any mechanism for handling concurrent activities in its execution engine. We address this issue by introducing an explicit scheduler which allows us to control the execution of concurrent tasks. - Time: fUML does not provide any mean to handle time. By adding a clock to the model of execution, we can take into account the elapsed time as well as temporal constraints on the execution of activities. - Profiles: fUML does not take profiles into account, which makes it difficult to personalize the execution engine with new semantic variants. The execution engine we propose allows the use of UML models with

  12. Scales of Time Where the Quantum Discord Allows an Efficient Execution of the DQC1 Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ávila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power of one qubit deterministic quantum processor (DQC1 (Knill and Laflamme (1998 generates a nonclassical correlation known as quantum discord. The DQC1 algorithm executes in an efficient way with a characteristic time given by τ=Tr[Un]/2n, where Un is an n qubit unitary gate. For pure states, quantum discord means entanglement while for mixed states such a quantity is more than entanglement. Quantum discord can be thought of as the mutual information between two systems. Within the quantum discord approach the role of time in an efficient evaluation of τ is discussed. It is found that the smaller the value of t/T is, where t is the time of execution of the DQC1 algorithm and T is the scale of time where the nonclassical correlations prevail, the more efficient the calculation of τ is. A Mösbauer nucleus might be a good processor of the DQC1 algorithm while a nuclear spin chain would not be efficient for the calculation of τ.

  13. Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4 rest life time program execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genov, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the following tasks are considered: Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4 life time evaluation; programme for the units life time assuring; units 3 and 4 renewals. The main activities for the programme implementation are described and the obtained results are presented. In conclusion, the executed activities of program for assuring the life time of units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy NPP, cogently prove that the lifetime of structures, systems and components, is assured duly and those structures, systems and components will be in service safely, economically effectively and mostly reliable till the end of the 30 years design lifetime. For some of them it has been proved even for 35 and 40 years. Program activities continue during 2005, although the early shutdown of units 3 and 4 is possible

  14. Worst-case execution time analysis-driven object cache design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    result in a WCET analysis‐friendly design. Aiming for a time‐predictable design, we therefore propose to employ WCET analysis techniques for the design space exploration of processor architectures. We evaluated different object cache configurations using static analysis techniques. The number of field......Hard real‐time systems need a time‐predictable computing platform to enable static worst‐case execution time (WCET) analysis. All performance‐enhancing features need to be WCET analyzable. However, standard data caches containing heap‐allocated data are very hard to analyze statically....... In this paper we explore a new object cache design, which is driven by the capabilities of static WCET analysis. Simulations of standard benchmarks estimating the expected average case performance usually drive computer architecture design. The design decisions derived from this methodology do not necessarily...

  15. Operating Security System Support for Run-Time Security with a Trusted Execution Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier

    Software services have become an integral part of our daily life. Cyber-attacks have thus become a problem of increasing importance not only for the IT industry, but for society at large. A way to contain cyber-attacks is to guarantee the integrity of IT systems at run-time. Put differently......, it is safe to assume that any complex software is compromised. The problem is then to monitor and contain it when it executes in order to protect sensitive data and other sensitive assets. To really have an impact, any solution to this problem should be integrated in commodity operating systems...... sensitive assets at run-time that we denote split-enforcement, and provide an implementation for ARM-powered devices using ARM TrustZone security extensions. We design, build, and evaluate a prototype Trusted Cell that provides trusted services. We also present the first generic TrustZone driver...

  16. The Representation and Execution of Articulatory Timing in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A; Oh, Grace E

    2017-07-01

    The early acquisition of language-specific temporal patterns relative to the late development of speech motor control suggests a dissociation between the representation and execution of articulatory timing. The current study tested for such a dissociation in first and second language acquisition. American English-speaking children (5- and 8-year-olds) and Korean-speaking adult learners of English repeatedly produced real English words in a simple carrier sentence. The words were designed to elicit different language-specific vowel length contrasts. Measures of absolute duration and variability in single vowel productions were extracted to evaluate the realization of contrasts (representation) and to index speech motor abilities (execution). Results were mostly consistent with a dissociation. Native English-speaking children produced the same language-specific temporal patterns as native English-speaking adults, but their productions were more variable than the adults'. In contrast, Korean-speaking adult learners of English typically produced different temporal patterns than native English-speaking adults, but their productions were as stable as the native speakers'. Implications of the results are discussed with reference to different models of speech production.

  17. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  18. Operating Security System Support for Run-Time Security with a Trusted Execution Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier

    , it is safe to assume that any complex software is compromised. The problem is then to monitor and contain it when it executes in order to protect sensitive data and other sensitive assets. To really have an impact, any solution to this problem should be integrated in commodity operating systems...... in the Linux operating system. We are in the process of making this driver part of the mainline Linux kernel.......Software services have become an integral part of our daily life. Cyber-attacks have thus become a problem of increasing importance not only for the IT industry, but for society at large. A way to contain cyber-attacks is to guarantee the integrity of IT systems at run-time. Put differently...

  19. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  20. Staying on Task: Age-Related Changes in the Relationship Between Executive Functioning and Response Time Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Brandon P; Binns, Malcolm A; Anderson, Nicole D

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the relationship of executive functioning with age-related increases in response time (RT) distribution indices (intraindividual standard deviation [ISD], and ex-Gaussian parameters mu, sigma, tau). The goals of this study were to (a) replicate findings of age-related changes in response time distribution indices during an engaging touch-screen RT task and (b) investigate age-related changes in the relationship between executive functioning and RT distribution indices. Healthy adults (24 young [aged 18-30], 24 young-old [aged 65-74], and 24 old-old [aged 75-85]) completed a touch-screen attention task and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The relationships between RT performance and executive functions were examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). ISD, mu, and tau, but not sigma, increased with age. SEM revealed tau as the most salient RT index associated with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Further analysis demonstrated that correlations between tau and a weighted executive function composite were significant only in the old-old group. Our results replicate findings of greater RT inconsistency in older adults and reveal that executive functioning is related to tau in adults aged 75-85. These results support literature identifying tau as a marker of cognitive control, which deteriorates in old age. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  2. Execution and executability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert W.; Harrison, Denise

    2015-09-01

    "We have a new strategy to grow our organization." Developing the plan is just the start. Implementing it in the organization is the real challenge. Many organizations don't fail due to lack of strategy; they struggle because it isn't effectively implemented. After working with hundreds of companies on strategy development, Denise and Robert have distilled the critical areas where organizations need to focus in order to enhance profitability through superior execution. If these questions are important to your organization, you'll find useful answers in the following articles: Do you find yourself overwhelmed by too many competing priorities? How do you limit how many strategic initiatives/projects your organization is working on at one time? How do you balance your resource requirements (time and money) with the availability of these resources? How do you balance your strategic initiative requirements with the day-to-day requirements of your organization?

  3. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  7. Executive Function and Mathematics Achievement: Are Effects Construct- and Time-General or Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Nguyen, Tutrang; Miao, Alicia; McClelland, Megan; Bailey, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is considered a set of interrelated cognitive processes, including inhibitory control, working memory, and attentional shifting, that are connected to the development of the prefrontal cortex and contribute to children's problem solving skills and self regulatory behavior (Best & Miller, 2010; Garon, Bryson, &…

  8. Anxiety in Williams Syndrome: The Role of Social Behaviour, Executive Functions and Change over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Cordell, Elise; Hanley, Mary; Kelly, Alyssa; Riby, Deborah M.

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety is a prevalent mental health issue for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Relatively little is known about the developmental course of anxiety, or how it links with core features of WS, namely social and executive functioning (EF). In this study, parent-reports of anxiety were compared across a 4-year period (N = 17), and links…

  9. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  10. Assessing the actions of the farm managers to execute field operations at opportune times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Gareth Thomas Charles; Dybro, Niels; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field's readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when...... fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations' execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two...... parameterise the crop model. The evaluation criteria could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of promoting the use of sustainable farming practices....

  11. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  12. 3 CFR 13527 - Executive Order 13527 of December 30, 2009. Establishing Federal Capability for the Timely...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capacity for rapid residential delivery of medical countermeasures for self administration across all... of Defense, within 90 days of the date of this order, shall develop a concept of operations and...

  13. Ongoing activity in temporally coherent networks predicts intra-subject fluctuation of response time to sporadic executive control demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Ihara, Mizuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kanno, Akitake; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person's response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color-word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT). The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute "cognitive readiness," which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance.

  14. Executive functioning, motor programming, and functional independence: accounting for variance, people, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraybill, Matthew L; Suchy, Yana

    2011-02-01

    Assessing functional independence is an important part of making diagnostic decisions and treatment recommendations but is often complicated by the limitations of self-report and behavioral measures. Alternatively, it may be worthwhile to investigate neurocognitive correlates of incipient functional declines including using tests of executive functioning (EF) and motor programming (MP). The current study examined an electronic MP task and pitted it against other assessment instruments to evaluate its relative utility in assessing both EF and functional independence. Participants were 72 community-dwelling older adults. Results of this study showed that the MP task was correlated with other measures of EF, an efficient and reliable predictor of functionality, useful for identifying at-risk patients, and comparable to a longer battery in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Original Article. Evaluation of Rapid Detection of Nasopharyngeal Colonization with MRSA by Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Feng-feng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical application of Real-Time PCR for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA directly from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

  16. Innovative methods for calculation of freeway travel time using limited data : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    ODOTs policy for Dynamic Message Sign : utilization requires travel time(s) to be displayed as : a default message. The current method of : calculating travel time involves a workstation : operator estimating the travel time based upon : observati...

  17. The Effects of Reducing Preparation Time on the Execution of Intentionally Curved Trajectories: Optimization and Geometrical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovrat Kohen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the “go” signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively. While trajectories with short preparation times showed target specificity at their onset, they were significantly more variable and showed larger angular deviations from the lines connecting their initial position and the target, compared to the trajectories with long preparation times. Importantly, the trajectories of the short preparation time movements still reached their end-point targets accurately, with comparable movement durations. We hypothesize that success in the short preparation time condition is a result of an online control mechanism that allows further refinement of the plan during its execution and study this control mechanism with a novel trajectory analysis approach using minimum jerk optimization and geometrical modeling approaches. Results show a later agreement of the short preparation time trajectories with the optimal minimum jerk trajectory, accompanied by a later initiation of a parabolic segment. Both observations are consistent with the existence of an online trajectory planning process.Our results suggest that when preparation time is not sufficiently long, subjects execute a more variable and less optimally prepared initial trajectory and exploit online control mechanisms to refine their actions on the fly.

  18. The Effects of Reducing Preparation Time on the Execution of Intentionally Curved Trajectories: Optimization and Geometrical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Dovrat; Karklinsky, Matan; Meirovitch, Yaron; Flash, Tamar; Shmuelof, Lior

    2017-01-01

    When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the “go” signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively. While trajectories with short preparation times showed target specificity at their onset, they were significantly more variable and showed larger angular deviations from the lines connecting their initial position and the target, compared to the trajectories with long preparation times. Importantly, the trajectories of the short preparation time movements still reached their end-point targets accurately, with comparable movement durations. We hypothesize that success in the short preparation time condition is a result of an online control mechanism that allows further refinement of the plan during its execution and study this control mechanism with a novel trajectory analysis approach using minimum jerk optimization and geometrical modeling approaches. Results show a later agreement of the short preparation time trajectories with the optimal minimum jerk trajectory, accompanied by a later initiation of a parabolic segment. Both observations are consistent with the existence of an online trajectory planning process.Our results suggest that when preparation time is not sufficiently long, subjects execute a more variable and less optimally prepared initial trajectory and exploit online control mechanisms to refine their actions on the fly. PMID:28706478

  19. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Fraser, Thomas G; Bauer, Thomas W; Joyce, Michael J; Hall, Gerri S; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction on a specimen from an osteolytic lesion of a femoral condyle, in which the frozen section demonstrated granulomas. The process was much more rapid than is possible with culture. The rapid detection of M tuberculosis and the concomitant exclusion of granulomatous disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or systemic fungi are necessary to appropriately treat skeletal tuberculosis. The detection and identification of M tuberculosis by culture may require several weeks using traditional methods. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method used has been shown to be rapid and reliable, and is able to detect and differentiate both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction may become a diagnostic standard for the evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of mycobacteria; this case demonstrates the potential utility of this assay for the rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

  20. Upper Bounds Prediction of the Execution Time of Programs Running on ARM Cortex-A Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova , Irina; Krause , Bernd; Siemens , Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Embedded and Real Time Systems; International audience; This paper describes the application of statistical analysis of the timing behavior for a generic real-time task model. Using specific processor of ARM Cortex-A series and an empirical approach of time values retrieval, the algorithm to predict the upper bounds for the task of the time acquisition operation has been formulated. For the experimental verification of the algorithm, we have used the robust Measurement-Based Probabili...

  1. Reduced variability and execution time to reach a target with a needle GPS system: Comparison between physicians, residents and nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Marie-Cécile; Vincent, Caroline; Picard, Julien; Vighetti, Arnaud; Chapuis, Claire; Detavernier, Maxime; Allenet, Benoît; Payen, Jean-François; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) guided needle positioning is safer than anatomical landmark techniques for central venous access. Hand-eye coordination and execution time depend on the professional's ability, previous training and personal skills. Needle guidance positioning systems (GPS) may theoretically reduce execution time and facilitate needle positioning in specific targets, thus improving patient comfort and safety. Three groups of healthcare professionals (41 anaesthesiologists and intensivists, 41 residents in anaesthesiology and intensive care, 39 nurse anaesthetists) were included and required to perform 3 tasks (positioning the tip of a needle in three different targets in a silicon phantom) by using successively a conventional US-guided needle positioning and a needle GPS. We measured execution times to perform the tasks, hand-eye coordination and the number of repositioning occurrences or errors in handling the needle or the probe. Without the GPS system, we observed a significant inter-individual difference for execution time (Pgaming were found to be independent factors associated with a shorter execution time. Use of GPS attenuated the inter-individual and group variability. We observed a reduced execution time and improved hand-eye coordination in all groups as compared to US without GPS. Neither US training, video gaming nor demographic personal or professional factors were found to be significantly associated with reduced execution time when GPS was used. US associated with GPS systems may improve safety and decrease execution time by reducing inter-individual variability between professionals for needle-handling procedures. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploiting Redundancy and Application Scalability for Cost-Effective, Time-Constrained Execution of HPC Applications on Amazon EC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, Aniruddha P.; Harris, Rachel A.; Lowenthal, David K.; Supinski, Bronis R. de; Rountree, Barry L.; Schulz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The use of clouds to execute high-performance computing (HPC) applications has greatly increased recently. Clouds provide several potential advantages over traditional supercomputers and in-house clusters. The most popular cloud is currently Amazon EC2, which provides fixed-cost and variable-cost, auction-based options. The auction market trades lower cost for potential interruptions that necessitate checkpointing; if the market price exceeds the bid price, a node is taken away from the user without warning. We explore techniques to maximize performance per dollar given a time constraint within which an application must complete. Specifically, we design and implement multiple techniques to reduce expected cost by exploiting redundancy in the EC2 auction market. We then design an adaptive algorithm that selects a scheduling algorithm and determines the bid price. We show that our adaptive algorithm executes programs up to seven times cheaper than using the on-demand market and up to 44 percent cheaper than the best non-redundant, auction-market algorithm. We extend our adaptive algorithm to incorporate application scalability characteristics for further cost savings. In conclusion, we show that the adaptive algorithm informed with scalability characteristics of applications achieves up to 56 percent cost savings compared to the expected cost for the base adaptive algorithm run at a fixed, user-defined scale.

  3. Worst-case Throughput Analysis for Parametric Rate and Parametric Actor Execution Time Scenario-Aware Dataflow Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Skelin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenario-aware dataflow (SADF is a prominent tool for modeling and analysis of dynamic embedded dataflow applications. In SADF the application is represented as a finite collection of synchronous dataflow (SDF graphs, each of which represents one possible application behaviour or scenario. A finite state machine (FSM specifies the possible orders of scenario occurrences. The SADF model renders the tightest possible performance guarantees, but is limited by its finiteness. This means that from a practical point of view, it can only handle dynamic dataflow applications that are characterized by a reasonably sized set of possible behaviours or scenarios. In this paper we remove this limitation for a class of SADF graphs by means of SADF model parametrization in terms of graph port rates and actor execution times. First, we formally define the semantics of the model relevant for throughput analysis based on (max,+ linear system theory and (max,+ automata. Second, by generalizing some of the existing results, we give the algorithms for worst-case throughput analysis of parametric rate and parametric actor execution time acyclic SADF graphs with a fully connected, possibly infinite state transition system. Third, we demonstrate our approach on a few realistic applications from digital signal processing (DSP domain mapped onto an embedded multi-processor architecture.

  4. A lightweight messaging-based distributed processing and workflow execution framework for real-time and big data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2014-05-01

    To achieve a rapid, simple and reliable parallel processing of different types of tasks and big data processing on any compute cluster, a lightweight messaging-based distributed applications processing and workflow execution framework model is proposed. The framework is based on Apache ActiveMQ and Simple (or Streaming) Text Oriented Message Protocol (STOMP). ActiveMQ , a popular and powerful open source persistence messaging and integration patterns server with scheduler capabilities, acts as a message broker in the framework. STOMP provides an interoperable wire format that allows framework programs to talk and interact between each other and ActiveMQ easily. In order to efficiently use the message broker a unified message and topic naming pattern is utilized to achieve the required operation. Only three Python programs and simple library, used to unify and simplify the implementation of activeMQ and STOMP protocol, are needed to use the framework. A watchdog program is used to monitor, remove, add, start and stop any machine and/or its different tasks when necessary. For every machine a dedicated one and only one zoo keeper program is used to start different functions or tasks, stompShell program, needed for executing the user required workflow. The stompShell instances are used to execute any workflow jobs based on received message. A well-defined, simple and flexible message structure, based on JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), is used to build any complex workflow systems. Also, JSON format is used in configuration, communication between machines and programs. The framework is platform independent. Although, the framework is built using Python the actual workflow programs or jobs can be implemented by any programming language. The generic framework can be used in small national data centres for processing seismological and radionuclide data received from the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear

  5. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work : zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and : distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed...

  6. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  7. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta; Esteve, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated ...

  8. Acceptability and feasibility of potential intervention strategies for influencing sedentary time at work: focus group interviews in executives and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Veldeman, Charlene; De Bacquer, Dirk; Braeckman, Lutgart; Owen, Neville; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-02-18

    Occupational sitting can be the largest contributor to overall daily sitting time in white-collar workers. With adverse health effects in adults, intervention strategies to influence sedentary time on a working day are needed. Therefore, the present aim was to examine employees' and executives' reflections on occupational sitting and to examine the potential acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies to reduce and interrupt sedentary time on a working day. Seven focus groups (four among employees, n = 34; three among executives, n = 21) were conducted in a convenience sample of three different companies in Flanders (Belgium), using a semi-structured questioning route in five themes [personal sitting patterns; intervention strategies during working hours, (lunch) breaks, commuting; and intervention approach]. The audiotaped interviews were verbatim transcribed, followed by a qualitative inductive content analysis in NVivo 10. The majority of participants recognized they spend their working day mostly sitting and associated this mainly with musculoskeletal health problems. Participants suggested a variety of possible strategies, primarily for working hours (standing during phone calls/meetings, PC reminders, increasing bathroom use by drinking more water, active sitting furniture, standing desks, rearranging the office) and (lunch) breaks (physical activity, movement breaks, standing tables). However, several barriers were reported, including productivity concerns, impracticality, awkwardness of standing, and the habitual nature of sitting. Facilitating factors were raising awareness, providing alternatives for simply standing, making some strategies obligatory and workers taking some personal responsibility. There are some strategies targeting sedentary time on a working day that are perceived to be realistic and useful. However several barriers emerged, which future trials and practical initiatives should take into account.

  9. Time Estimation in Alzheimer's Disease and the Role of the Central Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Allegra, Adele; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of short-term memory and attention in time estimation. For this purpose we studied prospective time verbal estimation in 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and compared their performance with that of 21 matched normal controls in two different conditions: during a digit span task and during an…

  10. Exploring the Value of MBA Degrees: Students' Experiences in Full-Time, Part-Time, and Executive MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Grady D.

    2010-01-01

    Critics of the overall value of the MBA have not systematically considered the attitudes of MBA students about the value of their degree. The author used data from a large sample of graduates (N = 16,268) to do so, and to explore predictors of overall degree value. The author developed separate regression models for full-time, part-time, and…

  11. An approximate analysis of expected cycle time in business process execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, B.H.; Reijers, H.A.; Bae, J.; Bae, H.; Eder, J.; Dustdar, S

    2006-01-01

    The accurate prediction of business process performance during its design phase can facilitate the assessment of existing processes and the generation of alternatives. In this paper, an approximation method to estimate the cycle time of a business process is introduced. First, we propose a process

  12. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second

  13. Rapid and real-time detection technologies for emerging viruses of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-17

    Oct 17, 2008 ... The development of technologies with rapid and sensitive detection capabilities and increased throughput have become crucial for responding to greater number threats posed by emerging and re-emerging viruses in the recent past. The conventional identification methods require time-consuming culturing ...

  14. Time is of essence; rapid identification of veterinary pathogens using MALDI TOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Dalsgaard, Inger; Pedersen, Karl

    Rapid and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is a cornerstone for timely and correct treatment of diseases of livestock and fish. The utility of the MALDI-TOF technique in the diagnostic laboratory is directly related to the quality of mass spectra and quantity of different microbial...

  15. Executive functioning independently predicts self-rated health and improvement in self-rated health over time among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.

  16. [Introduction and some problems of the rapid time series laboratory reporting system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, M; Yamashita, K; Kuwajima, M

    1999-09-01

    We introduced an on-line system of biochemical, hematological, serological, urinary, bacteriological, and emergency examinations and associated office work using a client server system NEC PC-LACS based on a system consisting of concentration of outpatient blood collection, concentration of outpatient reception, and outpatient examination by reservation. Using this on-line system, results of 71 items in chemical serological, hematological, and urinary examinations are rapidly reported within 1 hour. Since the ordering system at our hospital has not been completed yet, we constructed a rapid time series reporting system in which time series data obtained on 5 serial occasions are printed on 2 sheets of A4 paper at the time of the final report. In each consultation room of the medical outpatient clinic, at the neuromedical outpatient clinic, and at the kidney center where examinations are frequently performed, terminal equipment and a printer for inquiry were established for real-time output of time series reports. Results are reported by FAX to the other outpatient clinics and wards, and subsequently, time series reports are output at the clinical laboratory department. This system allowed rapid examination, especially preconsultation examination. This system was also useful for reducing office work and effectively utilize examination data.

  17. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  18. Circadian Rhythms in Executive Function during the Transition to Adolescence: The Effect of Synchrony between Chronotype and Time of Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Constanze; Cowell, Jason M.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Goldstein, David; Ralph, Martin; Hasher, Lynn; Zelazo, Philip David

    2012-01-01

    To explore the influence of circadian rhythms on executive function during early adolescence, we administered a battery of executive function measures (including a Go-Nogo task, the Iowa Gambling Task, a Self-ordered Pointing task, and an Intra/Extradimensional Shift task) to Morning-preference and Evening-preference participants (N = 80) between…

  19. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  20. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  1. Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed "up & go" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Cochrane, Barbara B; Engel, Joyce M; Teri, Linda

    2011-08-01

    Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=-0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=-0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed "Up & Go" Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Pfunction performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Physical performance speed was associated with executive function after adjusting for age, sex, and age-related factors in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Further research is needed to determine

  2. Rapid growth, early maturation and short generation time in African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 24 (2013), s. 24 ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : extreme life history * annual fish * explosive growth * rapid maturation * generation time * killifish * diapause * vertebrate * reaction norm * Savanna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2013 http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/4/1/24

  3. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis with TaqMan-Based multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Feng; Shi, Xin-Ping; Chen, Yun; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The survival rate of septic patients mainly depends on a rapid and reliable diagnosis. A rapid, broad range, specific and sensitive quantitative diagnostic test is the urgent need. Thus, we developed a TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens within a few hours. Primers and TaqMan probes were designed to be complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rDNA gene of different kinds of bacteria. To evaluate accurately, sensitively, and specifically, the known bacteria samples (Standard strains, whole blood samples) are determined by TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 30 blood samples taken from patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis were tested by TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR and blood culture. The mean frequency of positive for Multiplex real-time PCR was 96% at a concentration of 100 CFU/mL, and it was 100% at a concentration greater than 1000 CFU/mL. All the known blood samples and Standard strains were detected positively by TaqMan-Based Multiplex PCR, no PCR products were detected when DNAs from other bacterium were used in the multiplex assay. Among the 30 patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis, 18 patients were confirmed positive by Multiplex real-time PCR and seven patients were confirmed positive by blood culture. TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assay with highly sensitivity, specificity and broad detection range, is a rapid and accurate method in the detection of bacterial pathogens of sepsis and should have a promising usage in the diagnosis of sepsis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Modeling of RFID-Enabled Real-Time Manufacturing Execution System in Mixed-Model Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To quickly respond to the diverse product demands, mixed-model assembly lines are well adopted in discrete manufacturing industries. Besides the complexity in material distribution, mixed-model assembly involves a variety of components, different process plans and fast production changes, which greatly increase the difficulty for agile production management. Aiming at breaking through the bottlenecks in existing production management, a novel RFID-enabled manufacturing execution system (MES, which is featured with real-time and wireless information interaction capability, is proposed to identify various manufacturing objects including WIPs, tools, and operators, etc., and to trace their movements throughout the production processes. However, being subject to the constraints in terms of safety stock, machine assignment, setup, and scheduling requirements, the optimization of RFID-enabled MES model for production planning and scheduling issues is a NP-hard problem. A new heuristical generalized Lagrangian decomposition approach has been proposed for model optimization, which decomposes the model into three subproblems: computation of optimal configuration of RFID senor networks, optimization of production planning subjected to machine setup cost and safety stock constraints, and optimization of scheduling for minimized overtime. RFID signal processing methods that could solve unreliable, redundant, and missing tag events are also described in detail. The model validity is discussed through algorithm analysis and verified through numerical simulation. The proposed design scheme has important reference value for the applications of RFID in multiple manufacturing fields, and also lays a vital research foundation to leverage digital and networked manufacturing system towards intelligence.

  5. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Adzic, Aleksandar R.; Sullivan, Michael; Kovacs, Kevin; Miller, Lisa M.; Rousseau, Denis L.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid mixer for the analysis of reactions in the millisecond and submillisecond time domains by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy has been constructed. The cell was tested by examination of cytochrome-c folding kinetics. The device allows collection of full infrared spectral data on millisecond and faster time scales subsequent to chemical jump reaction initiation. The data quality is sufficiently good such that spectral fitting techniques could be applied to analysis of the data. Thus, this method provides an advantage over kinetic measurements at single wavelengths using infrared laser or diode sources, particularly where band overlap exists

  6. Rapid-mixing studies on the time-scale of radiation damage in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.E.; Michael, B.D.; Asquith, J.C.; Shenoy, M.A.; Watts, M.E.; Whillans, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid mixing studies were performed to determine the time scale of radiation damage in cells. There is evidence that the sensitizing effects of oxygen and other chemical dose-modifying agents on the response of cells to ionizing radiation involve fast free-radical processes. Fast response technique studies in bacterial systems have shown that extremely fast processes occur when the bacteria are exposed to oxygen or other dose-modifying agents during irradiation. The time scales observed were consistent with the involvement of fast free-radical reactions in the expression of these effects

  7. Space-Time Trellis Coded 8PSK Schemes for Rapid Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A. Zummo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of 8PSK space-time (ST trellis codes suitable for rapid fading channels. The proposed codes utilize the design criteria of ST codes over rapid fading channels. Two different approaches have been used. The first approach maximizes the symbol-wise Hamming distance (HD between signals leaving from or entering to the same encoder′s state. In the second approach, set partitioning based on maximizing the sum of squared Euclidean distances (SSED between the ST signals is performed; then, the branch-wise HD is maximized. The proposed codes were simulated over independent and correlated Rayleigh fading channels. Coding gains up to 4 dB have been observed over other ST trellis codes of the same complexity.

  8. Rapid evolution in insect pests: the importance of space and time in population genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissié, Benjamin; Crossley, Michael S; Cohen, Zachary Paul; Schoville, Sean D

    2018-04-01

    Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change. We examine the strengths of recent studies that stratify population samples both in space (along environmental gradients and comparing ancestral vs. derived populations) and in time (using chronological sampling, museum specimens and comparative phylogenomics), resulting in critical insights on evolutionary processes, and providing new directions for studying pests in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Networks of VTA Neurons Encode Real-Time Information about Uncertain Numbers of Actions Executed to Earn a Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Wood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple and unpredictable numbers of actions are often required to achieve a goal. In order to organize behavior and allocate effort so that optimal behavioral policies can be selected, it is necessary to continually monitor ongoing actions. Real-time processing of information related to actions and outcomes is typically assigned to the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, but also depends on midbrain regions, especially the ventral tegmental area (VTA. We were interested in how individual VTA neurons, as well as networks within the VTA, encode salient events when an unpredictable number of serial actions are required to obtain a reward. We recorded from ensembles of putative dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA as animals performed multiple cued trials in a recording session where, in each trial, serial actions were randomly rewarded. While averaging population activity did not reveal a response pattern, we observed that different neurons were selectively tuned to low, medium, or high numbered actions in a trial. This preferential tuning of putative dopamine and non-dopamine VTA neurons to different subsets of actions in a trial allowed information about binned action number to be decoded from the ensemble activity. At the network level, tuning curve similarity was positively associated with action-evoked noise correlations, suggesting that action number selectivity reflects functional connectivity within these networks. Analysis of phasic responses to cue and reward revealed that the requirement to execute multiple and uncertain numbers of actions weakens both cue-evoked responses and cue-reward response correlation. The functional connectivity and ensemble coding scheme that we observe here may allow VTA neurons to cooperatively provide a real-time account of ongoing behavior. These computations may be critical to cognitive and motivational functions that have long been associated with VTA dopamine neurons.

  10. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  11. Response time distributions in rapid chess: A large-scale decision making experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sigman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: 1 Response time (RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, 2 RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  12. A time-series approach to random number generation: Using recurrence quantification analysis to capture executive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eOomens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and working memory. Data from the RNG task are best seen as a series of successive events. However, traditional RNG measures that are used to quantify executive functioning are mostly summary statistics referring to deviations from mathematical randomness. In the current study, we explore the utility of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA, a nonlinear method that keeps the entire sequence intact, as a better way to describe executive functioning compared to traditional measures. To this aim, 242 first- and second-year students completed a non-paced RNG task. Principal component analysis of their data showed that traditional and RQA measures convey more or less the same information. However, RQA measures do so more parsimoniously and have a better interpretation.

  13. Status of IGS Ultra-Rapid Products for Real-Time Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J.; Griffiths, J.

    2008-12-01

    Since November 2000 the International GNSS Service (IGS) has produced Ultra-rapid (IGU) products for near real-time and real-time applications. They include GPS orbits, satellite clocks, and Earth rotation parameters for a sliding 48-hr period. The first day of each update is based on the most recent GPS observational data from the IGS hourly tracking network. At the time of release, these observed products have an initial latency of 3 hr. The second day of each update consists of predictions. So the predictions between about 3 and 9 hr into the second half are relevant for true real-time uses. Originally updated twice daily, the IGU products since April 2004 have been issued four times per day, at 3, 9, 15, and 21 UTC. Up to seven Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute to the IGU combinations: Astronomical Institute of the University of Berne (AIUB), European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam, Natural Resources Canada (NRC), Scripps Insitution of Oceanography (SIO), U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). This redundancy affords a high measure of reliability and enhanced orbit accuracy. IGU orbit precision has improved markedly since late 2007. This is due to a combination of factors: decommissioning of the old, poorly behaved PRN29 in October 2007; upgraded procedures implemented by GOP around the same time, by SIO in spring 2008, and by USNO in June 2008; better handling of maneuvered satellites at the combination level starting June 2008; and stricter AC rejection criteria since July 2008. As a consequence, the weighted 1D RMS residual of the IGU orbit predictions over their first 6 hr is currently about 20 to 30 mm (after a Helmert transformation) compared to the IGS Rapid orbits, averaged over the constellation. The median residual is about 15 to 20 mm. When extended to the full 24 hr prediction period, the IGU orbit errors approximately double. Systematic rotational offsets are probably more important than

  14. A Practical and Robust Execution Time-Frame Procedure for the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Minimal and Maximal Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.

  15. [Real-time PCR in rapid diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yoko; Ushita, Misuzu; Niinou, Norio; Koshizaki, Masayuki; Yamamori, Yuji; Kaneko, Sakae; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. We suspected Vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. No microbe had been detected at death. We extracted DNA from a blood culture bottle. SYBR green I real-time PCR was conducted but could not detect V. vulnificus vvh in the DNA sample. Aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized tissue samples. Real-time PCR was conducted to detect A. hydrophila ahh1, AHCYTOEN and aerA in the DNA sample extracted from the blood culture bottle and an isolated necrotized tissue strain, but only ahh1 was positive. High-mortality in necrotizing soft tissue infections makes it is crucial to quickly detect V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila. We found real-time PCR for vvh, ahh1, AHCYTOEN, and aerA useful in detecting V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila in necrotizing soft tissue infections.

  16. Response time distributions in rapid chess: a large-scale decision making experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Mariano; Etchemendy, Pablo; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Cecchi, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times (RTs) and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: (1) RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, (2) RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state-function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  17. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Jongman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS and social media penetration (Twitter. Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use.

  18. Research on rapid agile metrology for manufacturing based on real-time multitask operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Song, Zhen; Yang, Daoshan; Zhou, Ji; Buckley, Shawn

    1996-10-01

    Rapid agile metrology for manufacturing (RAMM) using multiple non-contact sensors is likely to remain a growing trend in manufacturing. High speed inspecting systems for manufacturing is characterized by multitasks implemented in parallel and real-time events which occur simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a real-time operating system into RAMM research. A general task model of a class-based object- oriented technology is proposed. A general multitask frame of a typical RAMM system using OPNet is discussed. Finally, an application example of a machine which inspects parts held on a carrier strip is described. With RTOS and OPNet, this machine can measure two dimensions of the contacts at 300 parts/second.

  19. Development of a Rapid Insulin Assay by Homogenous Time-Resolved Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Farino

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of insulin is critical for basic and clinical studies of insulin secretion. However, current methods are expensive and time-consuming. We developed an insulin assay based on homogenous time-resolved fluorescence that is significantly more rapid and cost-effective than current commonly used approaches. This assay was applied effectively to an insulin secreting cell line, INS-1E cells, as well as pancreatic islets, allowing us to validate the assay by elucidating mechanisms by which dopamine regulates insulin release. We found that dopamine functioned as a significant negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further, we showed that bromocriptine, a known dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist and newly approved drug used for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, also decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets to levels comparable to those caused by dopamine treatment.

  20. Rapid Modeling of and Response to Large Earthquakes Using Real-Time GPS Networks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Real-time GPS networks have the advantage of capturing motions throughout the entire earthquake cycle (interseismic, seismic, coseismic, postseismic), and because of this, are ideal for real-time monitoring of fault slip in the region. Real-time GPS networks provide the perfect supplement to seismic networks, which operate with lower noise and higher sampling rates than GPS networks, but only measure accelerations or velocities, putting them at a supreme disadvantage for ascertaining the full extent of slip during a large earthquake in real-time. Here we report on two examples of rapid modeling of recent large earthquakes near large regional real-time GPS networks. The first utilizes Japan’s GEONET consisting of about 1200 stations during the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki earthquake about 100 km offshore Hokkaido Island and the second investigates the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake recorded by more than 100 stations in the California Real Time Network. The principal components of strain were computed throughout the networks and utilized as a trigger to initiate earthquake modeling. Total displacement waveforms were then computed in a simulated real-time fashion using a real-time network adjustment algorithm that fixes a station far away from the rupture to obtain a stable reference frame. Initial peak ground displacement measurements can then be used to obtain an initial size through scaling relationships. Finally, a full coseismic model of the event can be run minutes after the event, given predefined fault geometries, allowing emergency first responders and researchers to pinpoint the regions of highest damage. Furthermore, we are also investigating using total displacement waveforms for real-time moment tensor inversions to look at spatiotemporal variations in slip.

  1. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  2. Improving multi-GNSS ultra-rapid orbit determination for real-time precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Chen, Xinghan; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-03-01

    Currently, with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the real-time positioning and navigation are undergoing dramatic changes with potential for a better performance. To provide more precise and reliable ultra-rapid orbits is critical for multi-GNSS real-time positioning, especially for the three merging constellations Beidou, Galileo and QZSS which are still under construction. In this contribution, we present a five-system precise orbit determination (POD) strategy to fully exploit the GPS + GLONASS + BDS + Galileo + QZSS observations from CDDIS + IGN + BKG archives for the realization of hourly five-constellation ultra-rapid orbit update. After adopting the optimized 2-day POD solution (updated every hour), the predicted orbit accuracy can be obviously improved for all the five satellite systems in comparison to the conventional 1-day POD solution (updated every 3 h). The orbit accuracy for the BDS IGSO satellites can be improved by about 80, 45 and 50% in the radial, cross and along directions, respectively, while the corresponding accuracy improvement for the BDS MEO satellites reaches about 50, 20 and 50% in the three directions, respectively. Furthermore, the multi-GNSS real-time precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution has been performed by using the improved precise satellite orbits. Numerous results indicate that combined GPS + BDS + GLONASS + Galileo (GCRE) kinematic PPP ambiguity resolution (AR) solutions can achieve the shortest time to first fix (TTFF) and highest positioning accuracy in all coordinate components. With the addition of the BDS, GLONASS and Galileo observations to the GPS-only processing, the GCRE PPP AR solution achieves the shortest average TTFF of 11 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation, while the TTFF of GPS-only, GR, GE and GC PPP AR solution is 28, 15, 20 and 17 min, respectively. As the cutoff elevation increases, the reliability and accuracy of GPS-only PPP AR solutions

  3. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS. In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS. The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 µm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K. A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer.

  4. Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovici, Gil D.; Stephens, Melanie L.; Possin, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice. Recent Findings: Executive functions can be split into four distinct components: working memory, inhibition, set shifting, and fluency. These components may be differentially affected in individual patients and act together to guide higher-order cognitive constructs such as planning and organization. Specific bedside and neuropsychological tests can be applied to evaluate components of executive function. While dysexecutive syndromes were first described in patients with frontal lesions, intact executive functioning relies on distributed neural networks that include not only the prefrontal cortex, but also the parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Executive dysfunction arises from injury to any of these regions, their white matter connections, or neurotransmitter systems. Dysexecutive symptoms therefore occur in most neurodegenerative diseases and in many other neurologic, psychiatric, and systemic illnesses. Management approaches are patient specific and should focus on treatment of the underlying cause in parallel with maximizing patient function and safety via occupational therapy and rehabilitation. Summary: Executive dysfunction is extremely common in patients with neurologic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment hinge on familiarity with the clinical components and neuroanatomic correlates of these complex, high-order cognitive processes. PMID:26039846

  5. Rapid identification of ST131 Escherichia coli by a novel multiplex real-time allelic discrimination assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Fankhauser, Carolina; Baud, Damien; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 is increasingly described in severe hospital infections. We developed a rapid real-time allelic discrimination assay for the rapid identification of E. coli ST131 isolates. This rapid assay represents an affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies before completing characterization of potentially highly virulent isolates of E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  7. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T 1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  8. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Rapid and Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay Method for Procalcitonin (PCT Based on Time-Resolved Immunochromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Shao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA. The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%–7.7% and 5.7%–13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p < 0.0001 and consistency (Kappa = 0.875 were obtained when compared with the PCT kit from Roche Elecsys BRAHMS. Thus, the new quantitative method for detecting PCT has been successfully established. The results indicated that the newly-developed system based on TRFIA combined with LFIA was suitable for rapid and on-site detection for PCT, which might be a useful platform for other biomarkers in point-of-care tests.

  10. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  11. A Swellable Microneedle Patch to Rapidly Extract Skin Interstitial Fluid for Timely Metabolic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao; Zheng, Mengjia; Yu, Xiaojun; Than, Aung; Seeni, Razina Z; Kang, Rongjie; Tian, Jingqi; Khanh, Duong Phan; Liu, Linbo; Chen, Peng; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-10-01

    Skin interstitial fluid (ISF) is an emerging source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Microneedle (MN) patch has been identified as an ideal platform to extract ISF from the skin due to its pain-free and easy-to-administrated properties. However, long sampling time is still a serious problem which impedes timely metabolic analysis. In this study, a swellable MN patch that can rapidly extract ISF is developed. The MN patch is made of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and further crosslinked through UV irradiation. Owing to the supreme water affinity of MeHA, this MN patch can extract sufficient ISF in a short time without the assistance of extra devices, which remarkably facilitates timely metabolic analysis. Due to covalent crosslinked network, the MN patch maintains the structure integrity in the swelling hydrated state without leaving residues in skin after usage. More importantly, the extracted ISF metabolites can be efficiently recovered from MN patch by centrifugation for the subsequent offline analysis of metabolites such as glucose and cholesterol. Given the recent trend of easy-to-use point-of-care devices for personal healthcare monitoring, this study opens a new avenue for the development of MN-based microdevices for sampling ISF and minimally invasive metabolic detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Rapid Large Earthquake and Run-up Characterization in Quasi Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, F. J.; Riquelme, S.; Koch, P.; Cararo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Several test in quasi real time have been conducted by the rapid response group at CSN (National Seismological Center) to characterize earthquakes in Real Time. These methods are known for its robustness and realibility to create Finite Fault Models. The W-phase FFM Inversion, The Wavelet Domain FFM and The Body Wave and FFM have been implemented in real time at CSN, all these algorithms are running automatically and triggered by the W-phase Point Source Inversion. Dimensions (Large and Width ) are predefined by adopting scaling laws for earthquakes in subduction zones. We tested the last four major earthquakes occurred in Chile using this scheme: The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, The 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake, The 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel Earthquake and The 7.6 Melinka Earthquake. We obtain many solutions as time elapses, for each one of those we calculate the run-up using an analytical formula. Our results are in agreements with some FFM already accepted by the sicentific comunnity aswell as run-up observations in the field.

  13. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  14. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao; Song Fengrui; Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. ► The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. ► Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. ► DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality

  15. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  16. Rapid expansion and pseudo spectral implementation for reverse time migration in VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C; Ursin, Bjø rn; Stoffa, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    In isotropic media, we use the scalar acoustic wave equation to perform reverse time migration (RTM) of the recorded pressure wavefield data. In anisotropic media, P- and SV-waves are coupled, and the elastic wave equation should be used for RTM. For computational efficiency, a pseudo-acoustic wave equation is often used. This may be solved using a coupled system of second-order partial differential equations. We solve these using a pseudo spectral method and the rapid expansion method (REM) for the explicit time marching. This method generates a degenerate SV-wave in addition to the P-wave arrivals of interest. To avoid this problem, the elastic wave equation for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media can be split into separate wave equations for P- and SV-waves. These separate wave equations are stable, and they can be effectively used to model and migrate seismic data in VTI media where |ε- δ| is small. The artifact for the SV-wave has also been removed. The independent pseudo-differential wave equations can be solved one for each mode using the pseudo spectral method for the spatial derivatives and the REM for the explicit time advance of the wavefield. We show numerically stable and high-resolution modeling and RTM results for the pure P-wave mode in VTI media. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

  17. Rapid expansion and pseudo spectral implementation for reverse time migration in VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C

    2012-04-24

    In isotropic media, we use the scalar acoustic wave equation to perform reverse time migration (RTM) of the recorded pressure wavefield data. In anisotropic media, P- and SV-waves are coupled, and the elastic wave equation should be used for RTM. For computational efficiency, a pseudo-acoustic wave equation is often used. This may be solved using a coupled system of second-order partial differential equations. We solve these using a pseudo spectral method and the rapid expansion method (REM) for the explicit time marching. This method generates a degenerate SV-wave in addition to the P-wave arrivals of interest. To avoid this problem, the elastic wave equation for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media can be split into separate wave equations for P- and SV-waves. These separate wave equations are stable, and they can be effectively used to model and migrate seismic data in VTI media where |ε- δ| is small. The artifact for the SV-wave has also been removed. The independent pseudo-differential wave equations can be solved one for each mode using the pseudo spectral method for the spatial derivatives and the REM for the explicit time advance of the wavefield. We show numerically stable and high-resolution modeling and RTM results for the pure P-wave mode in VTI media. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

  18. The Onset and Time Course of Semantic Priming during Rapid Recognition of Visual Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaker, Renske S.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we assessed the effects of response latency and task-induced goals on the onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid processing of visual words as revealed by ocular response tasks. In Experiment 1 (Ocular Lexical Decision Task), participants performed a lexical decision task using eye-movement responses on a sequence of four words. In Experiment 2, the same words were encoded for an episodic recognition memory task that did not require a meta-linguistic judgment. For both tasks, survival analyses showed that the earliest-observable effect (Divergence Point or DP) of semantic priming on target-word reading times occurred at approximately 260 ms, and ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the magnitude of the priming effect increased as a function of response time. Together, these distributional effects of semantic priming suggest that the influence of the prime increases when target processing is more effortful. This effect does not require that the task include a metalinguistic judgment; manipulation of the task goals across experiments affected the overall response speed but not the location of the DP or the overall distributional pattern of the priming effect. These results are more readily explained as the result of a retrospective rather than a prospective priming mechanism and are consistent with compound-cue models of semantic priming. PMID:28230394

  19. Rapid quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in meat and fermented sausages by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages.

  20. Effect of education on listening comprehension of sentences on healthy elderly: analysis of number of correct responses and task execution time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2017-11-13

    To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands. The indicators used for performance analysis were the number of correct responses (accuracy analysis) and task execution time (temporal analysis) in the different blocks. The low educated group had a lower number of correct responses than the high educated group on all blocks of the test. In the temporal analysis, participants with low education had longer execution time for commands on the first four blocks related to working memory. However, the two groups had similar execution time for blocks more related to syntactic comprehension. Education influenced sentence listening comprehension on elderly. Temporal analysis allowed to infer over the relationship between comprehension and other cognitive abilities, and to observe that the low educated elderly did not use effective compensation strategies to improve their performances on the task. Therefore, low educational level, associated with aging, may potentialize the risks for language decline.

  1. Effect of a Real-Time Electronic Dashboard on a Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grant S; Aaronson, Barry A; White, Andrew A; Julka, Reena

    2017-11-20

    A rapid response system (RRS) may have limited effectiveness when inpatient providers fail to recognize signs of early patient decompensation. We evaluated the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based alerting dashboard on outcomes associated with RRS activation. We used a repeated treatment study in which the dashboard display was successively turned on and off each week for ten 2-week cycles over a 20-week period on the inpatient acute care wards of an academic medical center. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) dashboard displayed all hospital patients in a single view ranked by severity score, updated in real time. The dashboard could be seen within the EMR by any provider, including RRT members. The primary outcomes were the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of all RRT activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests and deaths on general medical-surgical wards (wards). We conducted an exploratory analysis of first RRT activations. There were 6736 eligible admissions during the 20-week study period. There was no change in overall RRT activations (IRR = 1.14, p = 0.07), but a significant increase in first RRT activations (IRR = 1.20, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in unexpected ICU transfers (IRR = 1.15, p = 0.25), cardiopulmonary arrests on general wards (IRR = 1.46, p = 0.43), or deaths on general wards (IRR = 0.96, p = 0.89). The introduction of the RRT dashboard was associated with increased initial RRT activations but not overall activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests, or death. The RRT dashboard is a novel tool to help providers recognize patient decompensation and may improve initial RRT notification.

  2. Real-time patient survey data during routine clinical activities for rapid-cycle quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, James Lucius; Campos, Claudia L; Jones, Robert E; Stevens, Sheila F

    2015-03-12

    Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (30 words)-8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health care system.

  3. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  4. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Yao; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2012-11-08

    This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of toxic herbal medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accurate Rapid Lifetime Determination on Time-Gated FLIM Microscopy with Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique to assess the biochemistry of cells and tissues. When applied to living thick samples, it is hampered by the lack of optical sectioning and the need of acquiring many images for an accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes. Here, we report on the use of processing techniques to overcome these limitations, minimizing the acquisition time, while providing optical sectioning. We evaluated the application of the HiLo and the rapid lifetime determination (RLD) techniques for accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes with optical sectioning. HiLo provides optical sectioning by combining the high-frequency content from a standard image, obtained with uniform illumination, with the low-frequency content of a second image, acquired using structured illumination. Our results show that HiLo produces optical sectioning on thick samples without degrading the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. We also show that instrument response function (IRF) deconvolution can be applied with the RLD technique on HiLo images, improving greatly the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. These results open the possibility of using the RLD technique with pulsed diode laser sources to determine accurately fluorescence lifetimes in the subnanosecond range on thick multilayer samples, providing that offline processing is allowed.

  6. Comparisons of self-ratings on managerial competencies, research capability, time management, executive power, workload and work stress among nurse administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chun-Mei; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting; Hu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2012-10-01

    To assess the level of and the differences in managerial competencies, research capability, time management, executive power, workload and work-stress ratings among nurse administrators (NAs), and to determine the best predictors of managerial competencies for NAs. Although NAs require multifaceted managerial competencies, research related to NAs' managerial competencies is limited. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 330 NAs from 16 acute care hospitals. Managerial competencies were determined through a self-developed questionnaire. Data were collected in 2011. All NAs gave themselves the highest rating on integrity and the lowest on both financial/budgeting and business acumen. All scores for managerial competencies, research capability, time management and executive power showed a statistically significant correlation. The stepwise regression analysis revealed that age; having received NA training; having completed a nursing project independently; and scores for research capability, executive power and workload could explain 63.2% of the total variance in managerial competencies. The present study provides recommendations for future administrative training programmes to increase NAs' managerial competency in fulfilling their management roles and functions. The findings inform leaders of hospitals where NAs need to develop additional competencies concerning the type of training NAs need to function proficiently. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Preparing printed circuit boards for rapid turn-around time on a protomat plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtree, J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the use of the LPKF ProtoMat mill/drill unit circuit board Plotter, with the associated CAD/CAM software BoardMaster and CircuitCAM. At present its primarily use here at Fermilab's Particle Physics Department is for rapid-turnover of prototype PCBs double-sided and single-sided copper clad printed circuit boards (PCBs). (The plotter is also capable of producing gravure films and engraving aluminum or plastic although we have not used it for this.) It has the capability of making traces 0.004 inch wide with 0.004 inch spacings which is appropriate for high density surface mount circuits as well as other through-mounted discrete and integrated components. One of the primary benefits of the plotter is the capability to produce double-sided drilled boards from CAD files in a few hours. However to achieve this rapid turn-around time, some care must be taken in preparing the files. This document describes how to optimize the process of PCB fabrication. With proper preparation, researchers can often have a completed circuit board in a day's time instead of a week or two wait with usual procedures. It is assumed that the software and hardware are properly installed and that the machinist is acquainted with the Win95 operating system and the basics of the associated software. This paper does not describe its use with pen plotters, lasers or rubouts. The process of creating a PCB (printed circuit board) begins with the CAD (computer-aided design) software, usually PCAD or VeriBest. These files are then moved to CAM (computer-aided machining) where they are edited and converted to put them into the proper format for running on the ProtoMat plotter. The plotter then performs the actual machining of the board. This document concentrates on the LPKF programs CircuitCam BASIS and BoardMaster for the CAM software. These programs run on a Windows 95 platform to run an LPKF ProtoMat 93s plotter

  8. Phenomapping of rangelands in South Africa using time series of RapidEye data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parplies, André; Dubovyk, Olena; Tewes, Andreas; Mund, Jan-Peter; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Phenomapping is an approach which allows the derivation of spatial patterns of vegetation phenology and rangeland productivity based on time series of vegetation indices. In our study, we propose a new spatial mapping approach which combines phenometrics derived from high resolution (HR) satellite time series with spatial logistic regression modeling to discriminate land management systems in rangelands. From the RapidEye time series for selected rangelands in South Africa, we calculated bi-weekly noise reduced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. For the growing season of 2011⿿2012, we further derived principal phenology metrics such as start, end and length of growing season and related phenological variables such as amplitude, left derivative and small integral of the NDVI curve. We then mapped these phenometrics across two different tenure systems, communal and commercial, at the very detailed spatial resolution of 5 m. The result of a binary logistic regression (BLR) has shown that the amplitude and the left derivative of the NDVI curve were statistically significant. These indicators are useful to discriminate commercial from communal rangeland systems. We conclude that phenomapping combined with spatial modeling is a powerful tool that allows efficient aggregation of phenology and productivity metrics for spatially explicit analysis of the relationships of crop phenology with site conditions and management. This approach has particular potential for disaggregated and patchy environments such as in farming systems in semi-arid South Africa, where phenology varies considerably among and within years. Further, we see a strong perspective for phenomapping to support spatially explicit modelling of vegetation.

  9. Spectroscopic sensitivity of real-time, rapidly induced phytochemical change in response to damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, John J; Serbin, Shawn P; Townsend, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    An ecological consequence of plant-herbivore interactions is the phytochemical induction of defenses in response to insect damage. Here, we used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize the foliar induction profile of cardenolides in Asclepias syriaca in response to damage, tracked in vivo changes and examined the influence of multiple plant traits on cardenolide concentrations. Foliar cardenolide concentrations were measured at specific time points following damage to capture their induction profile. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling was employed to calibrate cardenolide concentrations to reflectance spectroscopy. In addition, subsets of plants were either repeatedly sampled to track in vivo changes or modified to reduce latex flow to damaged areas. Cardenolide concentrations and the induction profile of A. syriaca were well predicted using models derived from reflectance spectroscopy, and this held true for repeatedly sampled plants. Correlations between cardenolides and other foliar-related variables were weak or not significant. Plant modification for latex reduction inhibited an induced cardenolide response. Our findings show that reflectance spectroscopy can characterize rapid phytochemical changes in vivo. We used reflectance spectroscopy to identify the mechanisms behind the production of plant secondary metabolites, simultaneously characterizing multiple foliar constituents. In this case, cardenolide induction appears to be largely driven by enhanced latex delivery to leaves following damage. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Rapid tomographic reconstruction based on machine learning for time-resolved combustion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Yingzheng

    2018-04-01

    Optical tomography has attracted surged research efforts recently due to the progress in both the imaging concepts and the sensor and laser technologies. The high spatial and temporal resolutions achievable by these methods provide unprecedented opportunity for diagnosis of complicated turbulent combustion. However, due to the high data throughput and the inefficiency of the prevailing iterative methods, the tomographic reconstructions which are typically conducted off-line are computationally formidable. In this work, we propose an efficient inversion method based on a machine learning algorithm, which can extract useful information from the previous reconstructions and build efficient neural networks to serve as a surrogate model to rapidly predict the reconstructions. Extreme learning machine is cited here as an example for demonstrative purpose simply due to its ease of implementation, fast learning speed, and good generalization performance. Extensive numerical studies were performed, and the results show that the new method can dramatically reduce the computational time compared with the classical iterative methods. This technique is expected to be an alternative to existing methods when sufficient training data are available. Although this work is discussed under the context of tomographic absorption spectroscopy, we expect it to be useful also to other high speed tomographic modalities such as volumetric laser-induced fluorescence and tomographic laser-induced incandescence which have been demonstrated for combustion diagnostics.

  11. Rapid testing and identification of actuator using dSPACE real-time emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Daocheng; Wang, Zhongwei; Zeng, Qinghua

    2011-10-01

    To solve the problem of model identification of actuator in control system design of aerocraft, testing system based on dSPACE emulator is established, sending testing signal and receiving feedback voltage are realized using dSPACE interactive cards, communication between signal generating equipment and feedback voltage acquisition equipment is synchronized. This paper introduces the hardware architecture and key technologies of the simulation system. Constructing, downloading and calculating of the testing model is finished using dSPACE emulator, D/A transfer of testing signal is realized using DS2103 card, DS2002 card transfer the feedback voltage to digital value. Filtering module is added to the signal acquisition, for reduction of noise interference in the A/D channel. Precision of time and voltage is improved by setting acquisition period 1ms. The data gathered is recorded and displayed with Controldesk tools. The response of four actuators under different frequency are tested, frequency-domain analysis is done using least square method, the model of actuator is identified, simulation data fits well with real response of the actuator. The testing system created with dSPACE emulator satisfies the rapid testing and identification of actuator.

  12. Technical Note: Deep learning based MRAC using rapid ultra-short echo time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Gengyan; Bradshaw, Tyler; McMillan, Alan B

    2018-05-15

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of a novel framework for MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MR imaging based on deep learning via convolutional neural networks, which enables fully automated and robust estimation of a pseudo CT image based on ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat, and water images obtained by a rapid MR acquisition. MR images for MRAC are acquired using dual echo ramped hybrid encoding (dRHE), where both UTE and out-of-phase echo images are obtained within a short single acquisition (35 sec). Tissue labeling of air, soft tissue, and bone in the UTE image is accomplished via a deep learning network that was pre-trained with T1-weighted MR images. UTE images are used as input to the network, which was trained using labels derived from co-registered CT images. The tissue labels estimated by deep learning are refined by a conditional random field based correction. The soft tissue labels are further separated into fat and water components using the two-point Dixon method. The estimated bone, air, fat, and water images are then assigned appropriate Hounsfield units, resulting in a pseudo CT image for PET attenuation correction. To evaluate the proposed MRAC method, PET/MR imaging of the head was performed on 8 human subjects, where Dice similarity coefficients of the estimated tissue labels and relative PET errors were evaluated through comparison to a registered CT image. Dice coefficients for air (within the head), soft tissue, and bone labels were 0.76±0.03, 0.96±0.006, and 0.88±0.01. In PET quantification, the proposed MRAC method produced relative PET errors less than 1% within most brain regions. The proposed MRAC method utilizing deep learning with transfer learning and an efficient dRHE acquisition enables reliable PET quantification with accurate and rapid pseudo CT generation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Demography Monitor 2008 gives a concise overview of current demographic trends and related developments in education, the labour market and retirement for the European Union and some other countries. This executive summary highlights the major findings of the Demography Monitor 2008 and further

  14. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, A.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Lauciani, V.; Sensale, G.; Bucci, A.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and its evolutions are nowadays the most affordable and widespread data communication infrastructure available almost world wide. Moreover the always growing cellular phone market is pushing the development of new devices with higher performances and lower power consumption. All these characteristics make UMTS really useful for the implementation of an "easy to deploy" temporary real-time seismic station. Despite these remarkable features, there are many drawbacks that must be properly taken in account to effectively transmit the seismic data: Internet security, signal and service availability, power consumption. - Internet security: exposing seismological data services and seismic stations to the Internet is dangerous, attack prone and can lead to downtimes in the services, so we setup a dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to protect all the connected devices. - Signal and service availability: while for temporary experiment a carefull planning and an accurate site selection can minimize the problem, this is not always the case with rapid response networks. Moreover, as with any other leased line, the availability of the UMTS service during a seismic crisis is basically unpredictable. Nowadays in Italy during a major national emergency a Committee of the Italian Civil Defense ensures unified management and coordination of emergency activities. Inside it the telecom companies are committed to give support to the crisis management improving the standards in their communication networks. - Power consumption: it is at least of the order of that of the seismic station and, being related to data flow and signal quality is largely unpredictable. While the most secure option consists in adding a second independent solar power supply to the seismic station, this is not always a very convenient solution since it doubles the cost and doubles the equipment on site. We found that an acceptable trade-off is to add an

  15. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  16. Rapid determination of long-lived artificial alpha radionuclides using time interval analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezu, Yasuhiro; Koarashi, Jun; Sanada, Yukihisa; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    It is important to monitor long lived alpha radionuclides as plutonium ( 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu) in the field of working area and environment of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, because it is well known that potential risks of cancer-causing from alpha radiation is higher than gamma radiations. Thus, these monitoring are required high sensitivity, high resolution and rapid determination in order to measure a very low-level concentration of plutonium isotopes. In such high sensitive monitoring, natural radionuclides, including radon ( 222 Rn or 220 Rn) and their progenies, should be eliminated as low as possible. In this situation, a sophisticated discrimination method between Pu and progenies of 222 Rn or 220 Rn using time interval analysis (TIA), which was able to subtract short-lived radionuclides using the time interval distributions calculation of successive alpha and beta decay events within millisecond or microsecond orders, was designed and developed. In this system, alpha rays from 214 Po, 216 Po and 212 Po are extractable. TIA measuring system composes of Silicon Surface Barrier Detector (SSD), an amplifier, an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), a Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA), a high-resolution timer (TIMER), a multi-parameter collector and a personal computer. In ADC, incidental alpha and beta pulses are sent to the MCA and the TIMER simultaneously. Pulses from them are synthesized by the multi-parameter collector. After measurement, natural radionuclides are subtracted. Airborne particles were collected on membrane filter for 60 minutes at 100 L/min. Small Pu particles were added on the surface of it. Alpha and beta rays were measured and natural radionuclides were subtracted within 5 times of 145 msec. by TIA. As a result of it, the hidden Pu in natural background could be recognized clearly. The lower limit of determination of 239 Pu is calculated as 6x10 -9 Bq/cm 3 . This level is satisfied with the derived air concentration (DAC) of 239 Pu (8x10 -9 Bq/cm 3

  17. A short executive function training program improves preschoolers’ working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eBlakey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years – a time when executive functions undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session executive function training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent three months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning three months later, indicating that training executive functions during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  18. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  19. Development of a high-speed real-time PCR system for rapid and precise nucleotide recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method used to create copies of a specific target region of a DNA sequence and to produce large quantities of DNA. A few DNA molecules, which act as templates, are rapidly amplified by PCR into many billions of copies. PCR is a key technology in genome-based biological analysis, revolutionizing many life science fields such as medical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and countermeasures against bioterrorism. Thus, many applications have been developed with the thermal cycling. For these PCR applications, one of the most important key factors is reduction in the data acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, it is necessary to decrease the temperature transition time between the high and low ends as much as possible. We have developed a novel rapid real-time PCR system based on rapid exchange of media maintained at different temperatures. This system consists of two thermal reservoirs and a reaction chamber for PCR observation. The temperature transition was achieved within 0.3 sec, and good thermal stability was achieved during thermal cycling with rapid exchange of circulating media. This system allows rigorous optimization of the temperatures required for each stage of the PCR processes. Resulting amplicons were confirmed by electrophoresis. Using the system, rapid DNA amplification was accomplished within 3.5 min, including initial heating and complete 50 PCR cycles. It clearly shows that the device could allow us faster temperature switching than the conventional conduction-based heating systems based on Peltier heating/cooling.

  20. Rapid Forgetting Results from Competition over Time between Items in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertzov, Yoni; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is now established as a fundamental cognitive process across a range of species. Loss of information held in working memory has the potential to disrupt many aspects of cognitive function. However, despite its significance, the mechanisms underlying rapid forgetting remain unclear, with intense recent debate as to whether it is…

  1. Learning Over Time: Using Rapid Prototyping Generative Analysis Experts and Reduction of Scope to Operationalize Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    during the Vietnam Conflict. 67 David A. Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. (Upper Saddle River, NJ...Essentials for Military Applications. Newport Paper #10. Newport: Newport War College Press. 1996. Kolb , David A. Experiential Learning : Experience... learning over analysis. A broad review of design theory suggests that four techniques - rapid prototyping, generative analysis, use of experts, and

  2. Rapid detection of human parechoviruses in clinical samples by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley; Molenkamp, Richard; van der Ham, Alwin; Wolthers, Katja; Beld, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) have been associated with severe conditions such as neonatal sepsis and meningitis in young children. Rapid identification of an infectious agent in such serious conditions in these patients is essential for adequate decision making regarding treatment and

  3. It is Time to Ban Rapid Weight Loss from Combat Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Saunders, Bryan; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-11-01

    Most competitions in combat sports are divided into weight classes, theoretically allowing for fairer and more evenly contested disputes between athletes of similar body size, strength and agility. It has been well documented that most athletes, regardless of the combat sports discipline, reduce significant amounts of body weight in the days prior to competition to qualify for lighter weight classes. Rapid weight loss is characterised by the reduction of a significant amount of body weight (typically 2-10 %, although larger reductions are often seen) in a few days prior to weigh-in (mostly in the last 2-3 days) achieved by a combination of methods that include starvation, severe restriction of fluid intake and intentional sweating. In doing so, athletes try to gain a competitive advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker opponents. Such a drastic and rapid weight reduction is only achievable via a combination of aggressive strategies that lead to hypohydration and starvation. The negative impact of these procedures on health is well described in the literature. Although the impact of rapid weight loss on performance is debated, there remains robust evidence showing that rapid weight loss may not impair performance, and translates into an actual competitive advantage. In addition to the health and performance implications, rapid weight loss clearly breaches fair play and stands against the spirit of the sport because an athlete unwilling to compete having rapidly reduced weight would face unfair contests against opponents who are 'artificially' bigger and stronger. The World Anti-Doping Agency Code states that a prohibited method must meet at least two of the following criteria: (1) enhances performance; (2) endangers an athlete's health; and (3) violates the spirit of the sport. We herein argue that rapid weight loss clearly meets all three criteria and, therefore, should be banned from the sport. To quote the World Anti-Doping Agency Code, this would "protect

  4. The Healthcare Improvement Scotland evidence note rapid review process: providing timely, reliable evidence to inform imperative decisions on healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Heather M; Calvert, Julie; Macpherson, Karen J; Thompson, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    Rapid review has become widely adopted by health technology assessment agencies in response to demand for evidence-based information to support imperative decisions. Concern about the credibility of rapid reviews and the reliability of their findings has prompted a call for wider publication of their methods. In publishing this overview of the accredited rapid review process developed by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, we aim to raise awareness of our methods and advance the discourse on best practice. Healthcare Improvement Scotland produces rapid reviews called evidence notes using a process that has achieved external accreditation through the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Key components include a structured approach to topic selection, initial scoping, considered stakeholder involvement, streamlined systematic review, internal quality assurance, external peer review and updating. The process was introduced in 2010 and continues to be refined over time in response to user feedback and operational experience. Decision-makers value the responsiveness of the process and perceive it as being a credible source of unbiased evidence-based information supporting advice for NHSScotland. Many agencies undertaking rapid reviews are striving to balance efficiency with methodological rigour. We agree that there is a need for methodological guidance and that it should be informed by better understanding of current approaches and the consequences of different approaches to streamlining systematic review methods. Greater transparency in the reporting of rapid review methods is essential to enable that to happen.

  5. Time-resolved temperature measurements in a rapid compression machine using quantum cascade laser absorption in the intrapulse mode

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    A temperature sensor based on the intrapulse absorption spectroscopy technique has been developed to measure in situ temperature time-histories in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Two quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting near 4.55μm and 4.89μm

  6. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an 'executive summary' of work undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transportation within the repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; and costs. The paper contains a section on general conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  7. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  8. Rapid supersensitive laser-semiconductor monitoring system. Time period covered: Dec. 15, 1993 - Dec. 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of the rapid and sensitive system for the determination of the Alpha-radioactivity in the Environmental samples has been determined as the main goal of the Research Contract No. 7200RO/RB. As a result of the first stage of the research accomplished in the year 1993, the prototype of the system based on the combination of the laser photoionization mass spectrometry and many-channel alpha-spectrometer has been built and tested. To improve the sensitivity it was proposed to add one more stage to the laser photoionization mass-spectrometer. To develop the high position sensitivity of the system it was proposed to include into the alpha-radiometer SI strip-detector with submicron position sensitivity. Hardware and software for the laser-semiconductor monitoring system of alpha-radionuclides in the environment have been further developed and tested in frames of the IAEA Research Contract No. 7200/R1/RB. Optimization of the sample evaporation with one more stage of photoionization has been successfully performed in the laser photoionization mass-spectrometer. The automatization of the measurement procedure is under way by means of the IBM PC-386 and specially designed electronic units. The evaluated sensitivity of the new set-up is in the range of 1.0 Bq/kg. A bulk measurement of the alpha-radioactivity concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl region (100 km) have been performed by means of thick samples method and built under this contract alpha-radiometer with large area SI semiconductor detectors. The lowest detectable level was in the range 100 Bq/kg without any radiochemical separation. Comparison with the data obtained for the same probes by means of the thin sample (with radiochemical separation) has shown higher Pu-concentration values obtained by means of the thick samples. For the first time the Sl-strip-detector with 128 channels has been applied for the alpha-radiometry purposes. Different read-out electronics (including the most

  9. Drifting from Slow to “D’oh!” Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive-Control Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Süß, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects’ WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates during a sustained-attention task; subjects completed either a go/no-go version requiring executive control over habit, or a vigilance version that did not. We further combined the data with those from McVay and Kane (2009) to: (1) gauge the contributions of WMC and attentional lapses to the worst-performance rule and the tail, or τ parameter, of response time (RT) distributions; (2) assess which parameters from a quantitative evidence-accumulation RT model were predicted by WMC and mind-wandering reports, and (3) consider intra-subject RT patterns – particularly, speeding – as potential objective markers of mind wandering. We found that WMC predicted action and thought control in only some conditions, that attentional lapses (indicated by TUT reports and drift-rate variability in evidence accumulation) contributed to τ, performance accuracy, and WMC’s association with them, and that mind-wandering experiences were not predicted by trial-to-trial RT changes, and so they cannot always be inferred from objective performance measures. PMID:22004270

  10. Rapid lung MRI in children with pulmonary infections: Time to change our diagnostic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Bhatia, Anmol; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic utility of a new rapid MRI protocol, as compared with computed tomography (CT) for the detection of various pulmonary and mediastinal abnormalities in children with suspected pulmonary infections. Seventy-five children (age range of 5 to 15 years) with clinically suspected pulmonary infections were enrolled in this prospective study, which was approved by the institutional ethics committee. All patients underwent thoracic MRI (1.5T) and CT (64 detector) scan within 48 h of each other. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MRI were evaluated with CT as a standard of reference. Inter-observer agreement was measured with the kappa coefficient. MRI with a new rapid MRI protocol demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 100% for detecting pulmonary consolidation, nodules (>3 mm), cyst/cavity, hyperinflation, pleural effusion, and lymph nodes. The kappa-test showed almost perfect agreement between MRI and multidetector CT (MDCT) in detecting thoracic abnormalities (k = 0.9). No statistically significant difference was observed between MRI and MDCT for detecting thoracic abnormalities by the McNemar test (P = 0.125). Rapid lung MRI was found to be comparable to MDCT for detecting thoracic abnormalities in pediatric patients with clinically suspected pulmonary infections. It has a great potential as the first line cross-sectional imaging modality of choice in this patient population. However, further studies will be helpful for confirmation of our findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Time domain phenomena of wave propagation in rapidly created plasma of periodic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P

    2007-01-01

    Theories, experiments and numerical simulations on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly created unmagnetized plasmas are presented. In the case that plasma is created uniformly, the frequency of a propagating electromagnetic wave is upshifted. An opposite propagation wave of the same frequency is also generated. In addition, a static current supporting a wiggler magnetic field is also produced in the plasma. When a spatially periodic structure is introduced to the rapidly created plasma, the theory and numerical simulation results show that both frequency-upshifted and downshifted waves are generated. If the plasma has a large but finite dimension in the incident wave propagation direction and is created rapidly rather than instantaneously, the frequency downshifted waves are found to be trapped by the plasma when the plasma frequency is larger than the wave frequency. The wave trapping results in accumulating the frequency-downshifted waves during the finite transient period of plasma creation. Indeed, in the experimental observations the frequency downshifted signals were detected repetitively with considerably enhanced spectral intensities, confirming the results of the numerical simulations. The missing of frequency upshifted signals in the experimental observations is explained by the modal field distributions in the periodic structure, indicating that the frequency upshifted modes experience heavier collisional damping of the plasma than the frequency downshifted modes

  12. Effects of oncoming target velocities on rapid force production and accuracy of force production intensity and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of oncoming target velocities on the ability of rapid force production and accuracy and variability of simultaneous control of both force production intensity and timing. Twenty male participants (age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rapid gripping with a handgrip dynamometer to coincide with the arrival of an oncoming target by using a horizontal electronic trackway. The oncoming target velocities were 4, 8, and 12 m · s -1 , which were randomly produced. The grip force required was 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Although the peak force (Pf) and rate of force development (RFD) increased with increasing target velocity, the value of the RFD to Pf ratio was constant across the 3 target velocities. The accuracy of both force production intensity and timing decreased at higher target velocities. Moreover, the intrapersonal variability in temporal parameters was lower in the fast target velocity condition, but constant variability in 3 target velocities was observed in force intensity parameters. These results suggest that oncoming target velocity does not intrinsically affect the ability for rapid force production. However, the oncoming target velocity affects accuracy and variability of force production intensity and timing during rapid force production.

  13. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  14. X-LUNA: Extending Free/Open Source Real Time Executive for On-Board Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, P.; Henriques, L.; Zulianello, M.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we present xLuna, a system based on the RTEMS [1] Real-Time Operating System that is able to run on demand a GNU/Linux Operating System [2] as RTEMS' lowest priority task. Linux runs in user-mode and in a different memory partition. This allows running Hard Real-Time tasks and Linux applications on the same system sharing the Hardware resources while keeping a safe isolation and the Real-Time characteristics of RTEMS. Communication between both Systems is possible through a loose coupled mechanism based on message queues. Currently only SPARC LEON2 processor with Memory Management Unit (MMU) is supported. The advantage in having two isolated systems is that non critical components are quickly developed or simply ported reducing time-to-market and budget.

  15. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......-to-result, enabling same-day targeted antimicrobial therapy, facilitating antibiotic stewardship and better patient management. A full-scale validation of the oCelloScope system including more isolates is necessary to assess the impact of using it for AST....

  16. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, within the municipality of Eurajoki. The Municipality Council and the government has made positive decisions earlier, at the end of 2000, and in compliance with the Nuclear Energy Act, Parliament's ratification was then required. The decision is valid for the spent fuel generated by the existing Finnish nuclear power plants and means that the construction of the final disposal facility is considered to be in line with the overall good of society. Earlier steps included, amongst others, the approval of the technical project by the Safety Authority. Future steps include construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO (2003-2004), and application for separate construction and operating licences for the final disposal facility (from about 2010). How did this political and societal decision come about? The FSC Workshop provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the Decision in Principle (DiP), and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective. (authors)

  17. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2011-01-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000–2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000–2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100 000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact. PMID:21994881

  18. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact.

  19. A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Shigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, P S; Teh, C S J; Lau, Y L; Thong, K L

    2014-12-01

    Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.

  20. Speech Planning Happens before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief…

  1. Rapid screening of β-Globin gene mutations by Real-Time PCR in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction of the real time PCR has made a revolution in the time taken for the PCR reactions. We present a method for the diagnosis of the common mutations of the B-thalassemia in Egyptian children & families. The procedure depends on the real-time PCR using specific fluorescently labeled hybridization probes.

  2. Impacts of Earth rotation parameters on GNSS ultra-rapid orbit prediction: Derivation and real-time correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxin; Hu, Chao; Xu, Tianhe; Chang, Guobin; Hernández Moraleda, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Analysis centers (ACs) for global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) cannot accurately obtain real-time Earth rotation parameters (ERPs). Thus, the prediction of ultra-rapid orbits in the international terrestrial reference system (ITRS) has to utilize the predicted ERPs issued by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) or the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this study, the accuracy of ERPs predicted by IERS and IGS is analyzed. The error of the ERPs predicted for one day can reach 0.15 mas and 0.053 ms in polar motion and UT1-UTC direction, respectively. Then, the impact of ERP errors on ultra-rapid orbit prediction by GNSS is studied. The methods for orbit integration and frame transformation in orbit prediction with introduced ERP errors dominate the accuracy of the predicted orbit. Experimental results show that the transformation from the geocentric celestial references system (GCRS) to ITRS exerts the strongest effect on the accuracy of the predicted ultra-rapid orbit. To obtain the most accurate predicted ultra-rapid orbit, a corresponding real-time orbit correction method is developed. First, orbits without ERP-related errors are predicted on the basis of ITRS observed part of ultra-rapid orbit for use as reference. Then, the corresponding predicted orbit is transformed from GCRS to ITRS to adjust for the predicted ERPs. Finally, the corrected ERPs with error slopes are re-introduced to correct the predicted orbit in ITRS. To validate the proposed method, three experimental schemes are designed: function extrapolation, simulation experiments, and experiments with predicted ultra-rapid orbits and international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) products. Experimental results show that using the proposed correction method with IERS products considerably improved the accuracy of ultra-rapid orbit prediction (except the geosynchronous BeiDou orbits). The accuracy of orbit prediction is enhanced by at least 50

  3. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-07-14

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3-10.0 µg·kg(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg(-1) and recoveries of 87.2%-114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R² > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg(-1). The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis.

  4. Comprehensive and Rapid Real-Time PCR Analysis of 21 Foodborne Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukushima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of four duplex SYBR Green I PCR (SG-PCR assay combined with DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini kit was evaluated for the detection of foodborne bacteria from 21 foodborne outbreaks. The causative pathogens were detected in almost all cases in 2 hours or less. The first run was for the detection of 8 main foodborne pathogens in 5 stool specimens within 2 hours and the second run was for the detection of other unusual suspect pathogens within a further 45 minutes. After 2 to 4 days, the causative agents were isolated and identified. The results proved that for comprehensive and rapid molecular diagnosis in foodborne outbreaks, Duplex SG-PCR assay is not only very useful, but is also economically viable for one-step differentiation of causative pathogens in fecal specimens obtained from symptomatic patients. This then allows for effective diagnosis and management of foodborne outbreaks.

  5. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Candida auris from Surveillance Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, L; Zhu, Y; Chaturvedi, S

    2018-02-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast causing invasive health care-associated infection with high mortality worldwide. Rapid identification of C. auris is of primary importance for the implementation of public health measures to control the spread of infection. To achieve these goals, we developed and validated a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 ( ITS 2) region of the ribosomal gene. The assay was highly specific, reproducible, and sensitive, with the detection limit of 1 C. auris CFU/PCR. The performance of the C. auris real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using 623 surveillance samples, including 365 patient swabs and 258 environmental sponges. Real-time PCR yielded positive results from 49 swab and 58 sponge samples, with 89% and 100% clinical sensitivity with regard to their respective culture-positive results. The real-time PCR also detected C. auris DNA from 1% and 12% of swab and sponge samples with culture-negative results, indicating the presence of dead or culture-impaired C. auris The real-time PCR yielded results within 4 h of sample processing, compared to 4 to 14 days for culture, reducing turnaround time significantly. The new real-time PCR assay allows for accurate and rapid screening of C. auris and can increase effective control and prevention of this emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen in health care facilities. Copyright © 2018 Leach et al.

  6. The relative timing between eye and hand rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deconinck, F.; van Polanen, V.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Bennett, S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were

  7. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini Using Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA...

  8. The use of newly developed real-time PCR for the rapid identification of bacteria in culture-negative osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Sakai, Hiroshige; Togawa, Daisuke; Lieberman, Isador H; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of a culture-negative osteomyelitis in which our newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from Staphylococcus epidermidis. This is the first report that described the application of this novel assay to an orthopedics clinical sample. This assay may be useful for other clinical culture-negative cases in a combination with a broad-spectrum assay as a rapid microorganism identification method.

  9. On-site identification of meat species in processed foods by a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Shunsuke; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Nagai, Hidenori

    2017-09-01

    Correct labeling of foods is critical for consumers who wish to avoid a specific meat species for religious or cultural reasons. Therefore, gene-based point-of-care food analysis by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is expected to contribute to the quality control in the food industry. In this study, we perform rapid identification of meat species by our portable rapid real-time PCR system, following a very simple DNA extraction method. Applying these techniques, we correctly identified beef, pork, chicken, rabbit, horse, and mutton in processed foods in 20min. Our system was sensitive enough to detect the interfusion of about 0.1% chicken egg-derived DNA in a processed food sample. Our rapid real-time PCR system is expected to contribute to the quality control in food industries because it can be applied for the identification of meat species, and future applications can expand its functionality to the detection of genetically modified organisms or mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Great Transformations of Tibet and Xinjiang: a comparative analysis of rapid labour transitions in times of rapid growth in two contested minority regions of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth since the mid-1990s in the Tibetan and Uyghur areas in Western China has been associated with the rapid transition of the local (mostly Tibetan and Uyghur) labour forces out of the primary sector (mostly farming and herding) and into the tertiary sector (services). The TAR,

  11. Computer-mediated communication and time pressure induce higher cardiovascular responses in the preparatory and execution phases of cooperative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferrer, Raquel; Serrano Rosa, Miguel Ángel; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Salvador Fernández-Montejo, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The cardiovascular (CV) response to social challenge and stress is associated with the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. New ways of communication, time pressure and different types of information are common in our society. In this study, the cardiovascular response to two different tasks (open vs. closed information) was examined employing different communication channels (computer-mediated vs. face-to-face) and with different pace control (self vs. external). Our results indicate that there was a higher CV response in the computer-mediated condition, on the closed information task and in the externally paced condition. These role of these factors should be considered when studying the consequences of social stress and their underlying mechanisms.

  12. The rapid use of gender information: evidence of the time course of pronoun resolution from eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J E; Eisenband, J G; Brown-Schmidt, S; Trueswell, J C

    2000-07-14

    Eye movements of listeners were monitored to investigate how gender information and accessibility influence the initial processes of pronoun interpretation. Previous studies on this issue have produced mixed results, and several studies have concluded that gender cues are not automatically used during the early processes of pronoun interpretation (e.g. Garnham, A., Oakhill, J. & Cruttenden, H. (1992). The role of implicit causality and gender cue in the interpretation of pronouns. Language and Cognitive Processes, 73 (4), 231-255; Greene, S. B., McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1992). Pronoun resolution and discourse models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 182, 266-283). In the two experiments presented here, participants viewed a picture with two familiar cartoon characters of either same or different gender. They listened to a text describing the picture, in which a pronoun referred to either the first, more accessible, character, or the second. (For example, Donald is bringing some mail to ¿Mickey/Minnie¿ while a violent storm is beginning. He's carrying an umbrellaellipsis.) The results of both experiments show rapid use of both gender and accessibility at approximately 200 ms after the pronoun offset.

  13. Micropower Impulse Radar: A Novel Technology for Rapid, Real-Time Detection of Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip D. Levy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax detection in emergency situations must be rapid and at the point of care. Current standards for detection of a pneumothorax are supine chest X-rays, ultrasound, and CT scans. Unfortunately these tools and the personnel necessary for their facile utilization may not be readily available in acute circumstances, particularly those which occur in the pre-hospital setting. The decision to treat therefore, is often made without adequate information. In this report, we describe a novel hand-held device that utilizes Micropower Impulse Radar to reliably detect the presence of a pneumothorax. The technology employs ultra wide band pulses over a frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz and a proprietary algorithm analyzes return echoes to determine if a pneumothorax is present with no user interpretation required. The device has been evaluated in both trauma and surgical environments with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 85%. It is has the CE Mark and is available for sale in Europe. Post market studies are planned starting in May of 2011. Clinical studies to support the FDA submission will be completed in the first quarter of 2012.

  14. Cognitively-Impaired-Not-Demented Status Moderates the Time-Varying Association between Finger Tapping Inconsistency and Executive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2017-02-01

    Response time inconsistency (RTI) in cognitive performance predicts deleterious health outcomes in late-life; however, RTI estimates are often confounded by additional influences (e.g., individual differences in learning). Finger tapping is a basic sensorimotor measure largely independent of higher-order cognition that may circumvent such confounds of RTI estimates. We examined the within-person coupling of finger-tapping mean and RTI on working memory, and the moderation of these associations by cognitive status. A total of 262 older adults were recruited and classified as controls, cognitively-impaired-not-demented (CIND) unstable or CIND stable. Participants completed finger-tapping and working-memory tasks during multiple weekly assessments, repeated annually for 4 years. Within-person coupling estimates from multilevel models indicated that on occasions when RTI was greater, working-memory response latency was slower for the CIND-stable, but not for the CIND-unstable or control individuals. The finger-tapping task shows potential for minimizing confounds on RTI estimates, and for yielding RTI estimates sensitive to central nervous system function and cognitive status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Time-Frequency Analysis of Terahertz Radar Signals for Rapid Heart and Breath Rate Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massar, Melody L

    2008-01-01

    We develop new time-frequency analytic techniques which facilitate the detection of a person's heart and breath rates from the Doppler shift the movement of their body induces in a terahertz radar signal...

  16. Integration of Simulink, MARTe and MDSplus for rapid development of real-time applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy); Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy); Neto, A.; Sartori, F. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); De Tommasi, G. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Consorzio CREATE/DIETI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The integration of two frameworks for real-time control and data acquisition is described. • The integration may significantly fasten the development of system components. • The system includes also a code generator for the integration of code written in Simulink. • A real-time control systemcan be implemented without the need of writing any line of code. - Abstract: Simulink is a graphical data flow programming tool for modeling and simulating dynamic systems. A component of Simulink, called Simulink Coder, generates C code from Simulink diagrams. MARTe is a framework for the implementation of real-time systems, currently in use in several fusion experiments. MDSplus is a framework widely used in the fusion community for the management of data. The three systems provide a solution to different facets of the same process, that is, real-time plasma control development. Simulink diagrams will describe the algorithms used in control, which will be implemented as MARTe GAMs and which will use parameters read from and produce results written to MDSplus pulse files. The three systems have been integrated in order to provide a tool suitable to speed up the development of real-time control applications. In particular, it will be shown how from a Simulink diagram describing a given algorithm to be used in a control system, it is possible to generate in an automated way the corresponding MARTe and MDSplus components that can be assembled to implement the target system.

  17. Integration of Simulink, MARTe and MDSplus for rapid development of real-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C.; Neto, A.; Sartori, F.; De Tommasi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The integration of two frameworks for real-time control and data acquisition is described. • The integration may significantly fasten the development of system components. • The system includes also a code generator for the integration of code written in Simulink. • A real-time control systemcan be implemented without the need of writing any line of code. - Abstract: Simulink is a graphical data flow programming tool for modeling and simulating dynamic systems. A component of Simulink, called Simulink Coder, generates C code from Simulink diagrams. MARTe is a framework for the implementation of real-time systems, currently in use in several fusion experiments. MDSplus is a framework widely used in the fusion community for the management of data. The three systems provide a solution to different facets of the same process, that is, real-time plasma control development. Simulink diagrams will describe the algorithms used in control, which will be implemented as MARTe GAMs and which will use parameters read from and produce results written to MDSplus pulse files. The three systems have been integrated in order to provide a tool suitable to speed up the development of real-time control applications. In particular, it will be shown how from a Simulink diagram describing a given algorithm to be used in a control system, it is possible to generate in an automated way the corresponding MARTe and MDSplus components that can be assembled to implement the target system.

  18. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of bivalves as rapid, real-time indicators of aquatic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of bivalves to filter large volumes of water on a daily basis, combined with the relatively high permeability of their cell membranes, make them valuable organisms to use in the contemporary detection of pollution. Bivalves are well known to respond to chemical contaminants by isolating their soft tissues from the aquatic medium by valve closure. The sensory acuity (via specialized sensory regions including the osphradium) and associated repertoire of this behavioral response can be employed to assess subtle effects exerted by chemical contaminants, such as complex effluents, that may ultimately influence the survival of these organisms. As hazard assessment tools, behavioral studies reflect sublethal toxicity and often yield a highly sensitive estimate of the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC). Moreover, valve movement behavior has been identified as one of the more sensitive biological early warning measures to a variety of aquatic contaminants, in comparison with those used in other aquatic animal phyla. Therefore, the valve movement behavior of both freshwater (Hyridella depressa, Velesunio angasi and V. ambiguus) and marine (Mytilus edulis) bivalves was continuously monitored, using an on-line computer based data acquisition system, during exposure to either trace metals (e.g. Cu, Cd, Mn and U) or complex effluents (ie treated sewage effluent and acid leachate derived from contaminated Sydney Harbour sediments), in the context of using the valve movement behavior of the bivalve species to indicate the biological significance of exposure to the above-mentioned pollutants. The results indicate that several components of the valve movement behavior of each bivalve provide quantifiable and ecologically interpretable sub-lethal endpoints for the rapid and sensitive evaluation of waters containing either complex effluents or elevated levels of trace metals

  20. Influence of time presetting procedure for rapid local heat;.ng on brazing temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezhnin, G.P.; Tul'skikh, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation of known and suggested presetting procedures for heating period during induction brazing was conducted. It is shown that brazing time must be established considering heat propagation during heating in order to obtain the assigned joint temperature regardless of heating rate change. Methods for temperature calculation in assigned zones of the joint are suggested. The suggested presetting procedure for heating time was applied for induction vacuum brazing of a tube of 12Kh18N10T steel to a pipe connection of VT20 alloy

  1. Rapid quantification of semen hepatitis B virus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Ping; Tan, Yue-Qiu; Chen, Ying; Peng, Ying; Li, Zhi; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Lin, Marie C.; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Ling; Shing, Li-Ka

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the sensitivity and accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in semen. METHODS: Hepatitis B viral DNA was isolated from HBV carriers’ semen and sera using phenol extraction method and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). HBV DNA was detected by conventional PCR and quantified by TaqMan technology-based real-time PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)). The detection threshold was 200 copies of HBV DNA for conventional PCR and 10 copies of HBV DNA for real time PCR per reaction. RESULTS: Both methods of phenol extraction and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit were suitable for isolating HBV DNA from semen. The value of the detection thresholds was 500 copies of HBV DNA per mL in the semen. The viral loads were 7.5 × 107 and 1.67 × 107 copies of HBV DNA per mL in two HBV infected patients’ sera, while 2.14 × 105 and 3.02 × 105 copies of HBV DNA per mL in the semen. CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR is a more sensitive and accurate method to detect and quantify HBV DNA in the semen. PMID:16149152

  2. Software for rapid time dependent ChIP-sequencing analysis (TDCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myschyshyn, Mike; Farren-Dai, Marco; Chuang, Tien-Jui; Vocadlo, David

    2017-11-25

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and associated methods are widely used to define the genome wide distribution of chromatin associated proteins, post-translational epigenetic marks, and modifications found on DNA bases. An area of emerging interest is to study time dependent changes in the distribution of such proteins and marks by using serial ChIP-seq experiments performed in a time resolved manner. Despite such time resolved studies becoming increasingly common, software to facilitate analysis of such data in a robust automated manner is limited. We have designed software called Time-Dependent ChIP-Sequencing Analyser (TDCA), which is the first program to automate analysis of time-dependent ChIP-seq data by fitting to sigmoidal curves. We provide users with guidance for experimental design of TDCA for modeling of time course (TC) ChIP-seq data using two simulated data sets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this fitting strategy is widely applicable by showing that automated analysis of three previously published TC data sets accurately recapitulates key findings reported in these studies. Using each of these data sets, we highlight how biologically relevant findings can be readily obtained by exploiting TDCA to yield intuitive parameters that describe behavior at either a single locus or sets of loci. TDCA enables customizable analysis of user input aligned DNA sequencing data, coupled with graphical outputs in the form of publication-ready figures that describe behavior at either individual loci or sets of loci sharing common traits defined by the user. TDCA accepts sequencing data as standard binary alignment map (BAM) files and loci of interest in browser extensible data (BED) file format. TDCA accurately models the number of sequencing reads, or coverage, at loci from TC ChIP-seq studies or conceptually related TC sequencing experiments. TC experiments are reduced to intuitive parametric values that facilitate biologically

  3. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  4. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1. In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  5. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  6. Rapid Adjustment of Circadian Clocks to Simulated Travel to Time Zones across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth M; Gorman, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Daily rhythms in mammalian physiology and behavior are generated by a central pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the timing of which is set by light from the environment. When the ambient light-dark cycle is shifted, as occurs with travel across time zones, the SCN and its output rhythms must reset or re-entrain their phases to match the new schedule-a sluggish process requiring about 1 day per hour shift. Using a global assay of circadian resetting to 6 equidistant time-zone meridians, we document this characteristically slow and distance-dependent resetting of Syrian hamsters under typical laboratory lighting conditions, which mimic summer day lengths. The circadian pacemaker, however, is additionally entrainable with respect to its waveform (i.e., the shape of the 24-h oscillation) allowing for tracking of seasonally varying day lengths. We here demonstrate an unprecedented, light exposure-based acceleration in phase resetting following 2 manipulations of circadian waveform. Adaptation of circadian waveforms to long winter nights (8 h light, 16 h dark) doubled the shift response in the first 3 days after the shift. Moreover, a bifurcated waveform induced by exposure to a novel 24-h light-dark-light-dark cycle permitted nearly instant resetting to phase shifts from 4 to 12 h in magnitude, representing a 71% reduction in the mismatch between the activity rhythm and the new photocycle. Thus, a marked enhancement of phase shifting can be induced via nonpharmacological, noninvasive manipulation of the circadian pacemaker waveform in a model species for mammalian circadian rhythmicity. Given the evidence of conserved flexibility in the human pacemaker waveform, these findings raise the promise of flexible resetting applicable to circadian disruption in shift workers, frequent time-zone travelers, and any individual forced to adjust to challenging schedules. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to measure earthquake magnitude M using the time difference (Top) between the body‐wave onset and the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude in an accelerogram. Measured in this manner, we find that Mw is proportional to 2logTop for earthquakes 5≤Mw≤7, which is the theoretical proportionality if Top is proportional to source dimension and stress drop is scale invariant. Using high‐frequency (>2  Hz) data, the root mean square (rms) residual between Mw and MTop(M estimated from Top) is approximately 0.5 magnitude units. The rms residuals of the high‐frequency data in passbands between 2 and 16 Hz are uniformly smaller than those obtained from the lower‐frequency data. Top depends weakly on epicentral distance, and this dependence can be ignored for distances earthquake produces a final magnitude estimate of M 9.0 at 120 s after the origin time. We conclude that Top of high‐frequency (>2  Hz) accelerograms has value in the context of earthquake early warning for extremely large events.

  8. A one-step, real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of rhinovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc H; Laus, Stella; Leber, Amy; Marcon, Mario J; Jordan, Jeanne A; Martin, Judith M; Wadowsky, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    One-step, real-time PCR assays for rhinovirus have been developed for a limited number of PCR amplification platforms and chemistries, and some exhibit cross-reactivity with genetically similar enteroviruses. We developed a one-step, real-time PCR assay for rhinovirus by using a sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems; Foster City, CA). The primers were designed to amplify a 120-base target in the noncoding region of picornavirus RNA, and a TaqMan (Applied Biosystems) degenerate probe was designed for the specific detection of rhinovirus amplicons. The PCR assay had no cross-reactivity with a panel of 76 nontarget nucleic acids, which included RNAs from 43 enterovirus strains. Excellent lower limits of detection relative to viral culture were observed for the PCR assay by using 38 of 40 rhinovirus reference strains representing different serotypes, which could reproducibly detect rhinovirus serotype 2 in viral transport medium containing 10 to 10,000 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infectious dose endpoint) units/ml of the virus. However, for rhinovirus serotypes 59 and 69, the PCR assay was less sensitive than culture. Testing of 48 clinical specimens from children with cold-like illnesses for rhinovirus by the PCR and culture assays yielded detection rates of 16.7% and 6.3%, respectively. For a batch of 10 specimens, the entire assay was completed in 4.5 hours. This real-time PCR assay enables detection of many rhinovirus serotypes with the Applied Biosystems reagent-instrument platform.

  9. Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating

  10. Standardization and application of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection of bluetongue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karthika Lakshmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting the bluetongue virus from blood samples of sheep collected during outbreaks of bluetongue disease in the year 2014 in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states of India. Materials and Methods: A 10-fold serial dilution of Plasmid PUC59 with bluetongue virus (BTV NS3 insert was used to plot the standard curve. BHK-21 and KC cells were used for in vitro propagation of virus BTV-9 at a TCID50/ml of 105 ml and RNA was isolated by the Trizol method. Both reverse transcription -PCR and real-time PCR using TaqMan probe were carried out with RNA extracted from virus-spiked culture medium and blood to compare the sensitivity by means of finding out the limit of detection (LoD. The results were verified by inoculating the detected and undetected dilutions onto cell cultures with further cytological (cytopathic effect and molecular confirmation (by BTV-NS1 group-specific PCR. The standardized technique was then applied to field samples (blood for detecting BTV. Results: The slope of the standard curve obtained was -3.23, and the efficiency was 103%. The LoD with RT-PCR was 8.269Ex103 number of copies of plasmid, whereas it was 13 with real-time PCR for plasmid dilutions. Similarly, LoD was determined for virus-spiked culture medium, and blood with both the types of PCR and the values were 103 TCID 50/ml and 104 TCID 50/ml with RT-PCR and 10° TCID 50/ml and 102 TCID 50/ml with real-time PCR, respectively. The standardized technique was applied to blood samples collected from BTV suspected animals; 10 among 20 samples were found positive with Cq values ranging from 27 to 39. The Cq value exhibiting samples were further processed in cell cultures and were confirmed to be BT positive. Likewise, Cq undetected samples on processing in cell cultures turned out to be BTV negative. Conclusion: Real-time PCR was found to be a very sensitive as well as reliable method

  11. Rapid detection of Van genes in rectal swabs by real time PCR in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Cantarelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory-based surveillance is an important component in the control of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE. METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR (genes vanA-vanB for VRE detection on 115 swabs from patients included in a surveillance program. RESULTS: Sensitivity of RT-PCR was similar to primary culture (75% and 79.5%, respectively when compared to broth enriched culture, whereas specificity was 83.1%. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR provides same day results, however it showed low sensitivity for VRE detection.

  12. Rapid screening of fatty acid alkyl esters in olive oils by time domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Ragni, Luigi; Bendini, Alessandra; Valli, Enrico; Conte, Lanfranco; Guarnieri, Adriano; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-11-20

    The main aim of the present research is to assess the possibility of quickly screening fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) in olive oils using time domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen virgin olive oil samples with fatty acid alkyl ester contents and fatty acid ethyl ester/methyl ester ratios (FAEE/FAME) ranging from 3 to 100 mg kg(-1) and from 0.3 to 2.6, respectively, were submitted to tests with time domain resolution of 1 ps. The results obtained in test set validation demonstrated that this new and fast analytical approach is able to predict FAME, FAEE, and FAME + FAEE contents with R(2) values of 0.905, 0.923, and 0.927, respectively. Further measurements on mixtures between olive oil and FAAE standards confirmed that the prediction is based on a direct influence of fatty acid alkyl esters on the TDR signal. The suggested technique appeared potentially suitable for monitoring one of the most important quality attribute of the olive oil in the extraction process.

  13. A rapid detection method for policy-sensitive amines real-time supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixu; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Pengkun

    2018-02-01

    Many organic amines that comprise a benzene ring are policy-sensitive because of their toxicity and links to social harm. However, to date, detection of such compounds mainly relies on offline methods. This study proposes an online pptv (parts per trillion by volume) level of detection method for amines, using the recently-built vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) combined with a new doping technique. Thus, the dichloromethane doping-assisted photoionization mass spectra of aniline, benzylamine, phenethylamine, amphetamine, and their structural isomers were recorded. The dominant characteristic mass peaks for all amines are those afforded by protonated amines and the amino radical-loss. The signal intensities of the amines were enhanced by 60-130 times compared to those recorded without doping assistance. Under 10s detection time, the sensitivities of aniline and benzylamine in the gas phase were determined as 4.0 and 2.7 countspptv -1 , with limits of detection (LODs) of 36 and 22 pptv, respectively. Notably, the detection efficiency of this method can be tenfold better in future applications since the ion transmission efficiency of the mass spectrometer was intentionally reduced to ~ 10% in this study. Therefore, dichloromethane doping-assisted photoionization mass spectrometry has proven to be a highly promising on-line approach to amine detection in environmental and judicial supervision and shows great potential for application in the biological field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Analysis in Real-time Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicines with Coumarins as Primary Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Tao, Hongxun; Liao, Liping; Li, Ye; Zhang, Zijia

    2017-05-01

    The increasing popularity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) necessitates rapid and reliable methods for controlling their quality. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) represents a novel approach to analysing TCMs. To develop a quick and reliable method of identifying TCMs with coumarins as primary characteristics. DART-MS coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry was employed to rapidly identify TCMs with coumarins as primary characteristics and to explore the ionisation mechanisms of simple coumarins, furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins in detail. With minimal sample pretreatment, mass spectra of Fraxini Cortex, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Peucedani Radix and Psoraleae Fructus samples were obtained within seconds. The operating parameters of the DART ion source (e.g. grid electrode voltage and ionisation gas temperature) were carefully investigated to obtain high-quality mass spectra. The mass spectra of samples and DART-MS/MS spectra of marker compounds were used to identify sample materials. Successful authentication was achieved by analysing the same materials of different origins. Some simple coumarins, furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins can be directly detected by DART-MS as marker compounds. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS can provide a rapid and reliable method for the identification of TCMs containing different configurations of coumarins; the method may also be applicable to other plants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Executing Liveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2018-01-01

    With today’s prevalence of technology enormous quantities of data are generated and disseminated in real-time through a highly networked, programmable and distributed environment. Networks of machines and the circulation of data mediate our sense of time. The sensation of ‘liveness’ is deeply rec...

  16. RAMSES - Rapid Measurement and Special Environment time-of-flight Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, H.; Koza, M.; Mutka, H.; Zbiri, M.; Andersen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight spectrometers are ideally suited to study the dynamics of complex materials as encountered in all domains of current scientific interest ranging from health care, biology, earth and environmental sciences, cultural heritage to energy storage and preservation. Complex materials are often available in samples of small amount, or the scientific questions to study require environments limiting the sample size (e.g., Paris-Edinburgh cells and levitation furnaces). The proposed instrument would be optimized for these conditions offering a very high neutron flux over a small beam cross-section in combination with good resolution and extended dynamical range. The later asks for a wavelength band extending slightly into the thermal region. This is achieved on a cold guide with super-mirror coating. (authors)

  17. Real-time control of focused ultrasound heating based on rapid MR thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimeux, F C; De Zwart, J A; Palussiére, J; Fawaz, R; Delalande, C; Canioni, P; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    1999-03-01

    Real-time control of the heating procedure is essential for hyperthermia applications of focused ultrasound (FUS). The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI-controlled FUS. An automatic control system was developed using a dedicated interface between the MR system control computer and the FUS wave generator. Two algorithms were used to regulate FUS power to maintain the focal point temperature at a desired level. Automatic control of FUS power level was demonstrated ex vivo at three target temperature levels (increase of 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 30 degrees C above room temperature) during 30-minute hyperthermic periods. Preliminary in vivo results on rat leg muscle confirm that necrosis estimate, calculated on-line during FUS sonication, allows prediction of tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS. The feasibility of fully automatic FUS control based on MRI thermometry has been demonstrated.

  18. Real-time PCR-based method for rapid detection of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae isolated from coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertwig, Aline Morgan; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Sartori, Daniele; da Silva, Josué José; Nascimento, Maristela S; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi

    2018-05-01

    Some species from Aspergillus section Nigri are morphologically very similar and altogether have been called A. niger aggregate. Although the species included in this group are morphologically very similar, they differ in their ability to produce mycotoxins and other metabolites and their taxonomical status has evolved continuously. Among them, A. niger and A. welwitschiae are ochratoxin A and fumonisin B 2 producers and their detection and/or identification is of crucial importance for food safety. The aim of this study was the development of a real-time PCR-based method for simultaneous discrimination of A. niger and A. welwitschiae from other species of the A. niger aggregate isolated from coffee beans. One primer pair and a hybridization probe specific for detection of A. niger and A. welwitschiae strains were designed based on the BenA gene sequences, and used in a Real-time PCR assay for the rapid discrimination between both these species from all others of the A. niger aggregate. The Real-time PCR assay was shown to be 100% efficient in discriminating the 73 isolates of A. niger/A. welwitschiae from the other A. niger aggregate species analyzed as a negative control. This result testifies to the use of this technique as a good tool in the rapid detection of these important toxigenic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid detection and typing of pathogenic nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates using a multiplex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Alvaro J; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-04-01

    We developed a single tube multiplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the rapid detection and typing of 9 nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates that are clinically relevant. The multiplex assay is capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. longbeachae, L. feeleii, L. anisa, L. parisiensis, L. tucsonensis serogroup (sg) 1 and 3, and L. sainthelensis sg 1 and 2 isolates. Evaluation of the assay with nucleic acid from each of these species derived from both clinical and environmental isolates and typing strains demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity when tested against 43 other Legionella spp. Typing of L. anisa, L. parisiensis, and L. tucsonensis sg 1 and 3 isolates was accomplished by developing a real-time PCR assay followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis targeting the ssrA gene. Further typing of L. bozemanii, L. longbeachae, and L. feeleii isolates to the serogroup level was accomplished by developing a real-time PCR assay followed by HRM analysis targeting the mip gene. When used in conjunction with other currently available diagnostic tests, these assays may aid in rapidly identifying specific etiologies associated with Legionella outbreaks, clusters, sporadic cases, and potential environmental sources. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Time-resolved temperature measurements in a rapid compression machine using quantum cascade laser absorption in the intrapulse mode

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad

    2016-07-16

    A temperature sensor based on the intrapulse absorption spectroscopy technique has been developed to measure in situ temperature time-histories in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Two quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting near 4.55μm and 4.89μm were operated in pulsed mode, causing a frequency "down-chirp" across two ro-vibrational transitions of carbon monoxide. The down-chirp phenomenon resulted in large spectral tuning (δν ∼2.8cm-1) within a single pulse of each laser at a high pulse repetition frequency (100kHz). The wide tuning range allowed the application of the two-line thermometry technique, thus making the sensor quantitative and calibration-free. The sensor was first tested in non-reactive CO-N2 gas mixtures in the RCM and then applied to cases of n-pentane oxidation. Experiments were carried out for end of compression (EOC) pressures and temperatures ranging 9.21-15.32bar and 745-827K, respectively. Measured EOC temperatures agreed with isentropic calculations within 5%. Temperature rise measured during the first-stage ignition of n-pentane is over-predicted by zero-dimensional kinetic simulations. This work presents, for the first time, highly time-resolved temperature measurements in reactive and non-reactive rapid compression machine experiments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma with rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lim, Chwee Ming; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We assess the clinical utility of a unique simultaneous fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm−1) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal cancer at endoscopy. A total of 2124 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal = 1321; cancer = 581) were acquired from 101 tissue sites (normal = 71; cancer = 30) of 60 patients (normal = 44; cancer = 16) undergoing routine endoscopic examination. FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal and cancerous laryngeal tissue that could be attributed to changes of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content in the larynx. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation were employed on the in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra acquired, yielding a diagnostic accuracy of 91.1% (sensitivity: 93.3% (28/30); specificity: 90.1% (64/71)) for laryngeal cancer identification, which is superior to using either FP (accuracy: 86.1%; sensitivity: 86.7% (26/30); specificity: 85.9% (61/71)) or HW (accuracy: 84.2%; sensitivity: 76.7% (23/30); specificity: 87.3% (62/71)) Raman technique alone. Further receiver operating characteristic analysis reconfirms the best performance of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique for laryngeal cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique can be used for improving real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma during endoscopic examination. PMID:27699131

  2. Development and validation of real-time PCR for rapid detection of Mecistocirrus digitatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Subhadra

    Full Text Available Hematophagous activity of Mecistocirrus digitatus, which causes substantial blood and weight loss in large ruminants, is an emerging challenge due to the economic loss it brings to the livestock industry. Infected animals are treated with anthelmintic drugs, based on the identification of helminth species and the severity of infection; however, traditional methods such as microscopic identification and the counting of eggs for diagnosis and determination of level of infection are laborious, cumbersome and unreliable. To facilitate the detection of this parasite, a SYBR green-based real-time PCR was standardized and validated for the detection of M. digitatus infection in cattle and buffaloes. Oligonucleotides were designed to amplify partial Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-1 sequence of M. digitatus. The specificity of the primers was confirmed by non-amplification of DNA extracted from other commonly occurring gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Plasmids were ligated with partial ITS-1 sequence of M. digitatus, serially diluted (hundred fold and used as standards in the real-time PCR assay. The quantification cycle (Cq values were plotted against the standard DNA concentration to produce a standard curve. The assay was sensitive enough to detect one plasmid containing the M. digitatus DNA. Clinical application of this assay was validated by testing the DNA extracted from the faeces of naturally infected cattle (n = 40 and buffaloes (n = 25. The results were compared with our standard curve to calculate the quantity of M. digitatus in each faecal sample. The Cq value of the assay depicted a strong linear relationship with faecal DNA content, with a regression coefficient of 0.984 and efficiency of 99%. This assay has noteworthy advantages over the conventional methods of diagnosis because it is more specific, sensitive and reliable.

  3. Rapid qualitative urinary tract infection pathogen identification by SeptiFast real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz E Lehmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent in outpatients. Fast pathogen identification is mandatory for shortening the time of discomfort and preventing serious complications. Urine culture needs up to 48 hours until pathogen identification. Consequently, the initial antibiotic regimen is empirical.To evaluate the feasibility of qualitative urine pathogen identification by a commercially available real-time PCR blood pathogen test (SeptiFast® and to compare the results with dipslide and microbiological culture.Pilot study with prospectively collected urine samples.University hospital.82 prospectively collected urine samples from 81 patients with suspected UTI were included. Dipslide urine culture was followed by microbiological pathogen identification in dipslide positive samples. In parallel, qualitative DNA based pathogen identification (SeptiFast® was performed in all samples.61 samples were SeptiFast® positive, whereas 67 samples were dipslide culture positive. The inter-methodological concordance of positive and negative findings in the gram+, gram- and fungi sector was 371/410 (90%, 477/492 (97% and 238/246 (97%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the SeptiFast® test for the detection of an infection was 0.82 and 0.60, respectively. SeptiFast® pathogen identifications were available at least 43 hours prior to culture results.The SeptiFast® platform identified bacterial DNA in urine specimens considerably faster compared to conventional culture. For UTI diagnosis sensitivity and specificity is limited by its present qualitative setup which does not allow pathogen quantification. Future quantitative assays may hold promise for PCR based UTI pathogen identification as a supplementation of conventional culture methods.

  4. Thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics (TIMED). The TIMED mission and science program report of the science definition team. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A Science Definition Team was established in December 1990 by the Space Physics Division, NASA, to develop a satellite program to conduct research on the energetics, dynamics, and chemistry of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere/ionosphere. This two-volume publication describes the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics) mission and associated science program. The report outlines the scientific objectives of the mission, the program requirements, and the approach towards meeting these requirements.

  5. Rapid detection of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in kefir grain and kefir milk using newly developed real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is an indicator microorganism for kefir and a key factor in kefir grain formation and kefiran production. We designed a novel real-time PCR primer and probe set, LKF_KU504, for the rapid detection of L. kefiranofaciens. In inclusivity and exclusivity tests, only 14 L. kefiranofaciens strains were positive among 61 microorganisms, indicating 100 % sensitivity and specificity. The LKF_KU504 set also differentiated kefir milk from 30 commercial nonkefir yogurts. The levels of L. kefiranofaciens in kefir grain and kefir milk were significantly different, indicating L. kefiranofaciens was more concentrated in kefir grain than in kefir milk.

  6. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

  7. Not just a sum of its parts: How tasks of the theory of mind scale relate to executive function across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doenyas, Ceymi; Yavuz, H Melis; Selcuk, Bilge

    2018-02-01

    There is a well-established relationship between theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) during the preschool years. However, less is known about the concurrent and longitudinal relations between EF and specific tasks tapping different aspects of ToM. The current study investigated the ToM-EF relationship across 1 year in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish children using the ToM battery of Wellman and Liu (2004), which measures understanding of diverse desires (DD), diverse beliefs (DB), knowledge access (KA), contents false belief (CFB), explicit false belief (EFB), and hidden emotion (HE). This battery has not yet been used in its entirety to test the predictive relations between ToM and EF. We used peg-tapping and day-night tasks to measure EF. Our sample comprised 150 Turkish preschool children (69 girls) aged 36-60 months at Time 1 (T1) and 49-73 months at Time 2 (T2). Using the ToM composite with all six tasks, when child's age, receptive language, and T1 ability level (EF or ToM) were controlled, T1 EF significantly predicted T2 ToM, whereas T1 ToM did not predict T2 EF. Among DD, DB, KA, false belief understanding (FBU: the composite score of CFB and EFB), and HE, only KA and FBU were significantly associated with EF at T1 and T2. Further regression analyses showed that KA did not have a predictive relationship with EF. Instead, FBU drove the predictive EF-ToM relationship across time. Thus, in Turkish children, earlier EF predicts later ToM, but especially the FBU component, in this well-validated battery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Rapid and sensitive detection of Yersinia pestis using amplification of plague diagnostic bacteriophages monitored by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V Sergueev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, has caused many millions of human deaths and still poses a serious threat to global public health. Timely and reliable detection of such a dangerous pathogen is of critical importance. Lysis by specific bacteriophages remains an essential method of Y. pestis detection and plague diagnostics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this work was to develop an alternative to conventional phage lysis tests--a rapid and highly sensitive method of indirect detection of live Y. pestis cells based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR monitoring of amplification of reporter Y. pestis-specific bacteriophages. Plague diagnostic phages phiA1122 and L-413C were shown to be highly effective diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of Y. pestis by using qPCR with primers specific for phage DNA. The template DNA extraction step that usually precedes qPCR was omitted. phiA1122-specific qPCR enabled the detection of an initial bacterial concentration of 10(3 CFU/ml (equivalent to as few as one Y. pestis cell per 1-microl sample in four hours. L-413C-mediated detection of Y. pestis was less sensitive (up to 100 bacteria per sample but more specific, and thus we propose parallel qPCR for the two phages as a rapid and reliable method of Y. pestis identification. Importantly, phiA1122 propagated in simulated clinical blood specimens containing EDTA and its titer rise was detected by both a standard plating test and qPCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, we developed a novel assay for detection and identification of Y. pestis using amplification of specific phages monitored by qPCR. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific and allows the detection of only live bacteria.

  10. Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrod Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a volcano erupts, a lake may form in the cooled crater and become an isolated aquatic ecosystem. This makes fishes in crater lakes informative for understanding sympatric evolution and ecological diversification in barren environments. From a geological and limnological perspective, such research offers insight about the process of crater lake ecosystem establishment and speciation. In the present study we use genetic and coalescence approaches to infer the colonization history of Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus that inhabit a very young crater lake in Nicaragua-the ca. 1800 year-old Lake Apoyeque. This lake holds two sympatric, endemic morphs of Midas cichlid: one with large, hypertrophied lips (~20% of the total population and another with thin lips. Here we test the associated ecological, morphological and genetic diversification of these two morphs and their potential to represent incipient speciation. Results Gene coalescence analyses [11 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences] suggest that crater lake Apoyeque was colonized in a single event from the large neighbouring great lake Managua only about 100 years ago. This founding in historic times is also reflected in the extremely low nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity in Apoyeque. We found that sympatric adult thin- and thick-lipped fishes occupy distinct ecological trophic niches. Diet, body shape, head width, pharyngeal jaw size and shape and stable isotope values all differ significantly between the two lip-morphs. The eco-morphological features pharyngeal jaw shape, body shape, stomach contents and stable isotopes (δ15N all show a bimodal distribution of traits, which is compatible with the expectations of an initial stage of ecological speciation under disruptive selection. Genetic differentiation between the thin- and thick-lipped population is weak at mtDNA sequence (FST = 0.018 and absent at nuclear

  11. TaqMan MGB probe fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Chinese Sacbrood virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Mingxiao

    Full Text Available Sacbrood virus (SBV is a picorna-like virus that affects honey bees (Apis mellifera and results in the death of the larvae. Several procedures are available to detect Chinese SBV (CSBV in clinical samples, but not to estimate the level of CSBV infection. The aim of this study was develop an assay for rapid detection and quantification of this virus. Primers and probes were designed that were specific for CSBV structural protein genes. A TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB probe-based, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR was established. The specificity, sensitivity and stability of the assay were assessed; specificity was high and there were no cross-reactivity with healthy larvae or other bee viruses. The assay was applied to detect CSBV in 37 clinical samples and its efficiency was compared with clinical diagnosis, electron microscopy observation, and conventional RT-PCR. The TaqMan MGB-based probe fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR for CSBV was more sensitive than other methods tested. This assay was a reliable, fast, and sensitive method that was used successfully to detect CSBV in clinical samples. The technology can provide a useful tool for rapid detection of CSBV. This study has established a useful protocol for CSBV testing, epidemiological investigation, and development of animal models.

  12. Rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Xu, Yueting; Huang, Yilei; Liu, Charles; Jiang, Kezhi; Wang, Lili

    2017-12-01

    A novel method based on direct analysis in real time integrated with mass spectrometry was established and applied into rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves. Instrument parameter settings were optimized to obtain the sensitive and accurate determination of ginkgolic acids. At the sample introduction speed of 0.2 mm/s, high intensity of [M-H] - ions for ginkgolic acids were observed in the negative ion mode by utilization of high-purity helium gas at 450°C. Two microliters of methanol extract of G. biloba kernels or leaves dropped on the surface of Quick-Strip module was analyzed after solvent evaporated to dryness. A series of standard solutions of ginkgolic acid 13:0 in the range of 2-50 mg/L were analyzed with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9981 and relative standard deviation (n = 5) from 12.5 to 13.7%. The limit of detection was 0.5 mg/L. The results of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry were in agreement with those observed by thermochemolysis gas chromatography. The proposed method demonstrated significant potential in the application of the high-throughput screening and rapid analysis for ginkgolic acids in dietary supplements. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy applied to the rapid discrimination of the botanical origin of honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Yang, Si; Han, Donghai

    2018-05-01

    A new technique to identify the floral resources of honeys is demanded. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was applied to discriminate different categorizes (Medlar honey, Vitex honey, and Acacia honey). Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been used to find information of the botanical origins of honeys. Spectral range also was discussed to increase the precision of PLS-DA model. The accuracy of 88.46% for validation set was obtained, using PLS-DA model in 0.5-1.5 THz. This work indicated terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy was an available approach to evaluate the quality of honey rapidly.

  14. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. What executives should remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    In more than 30 essays for Harvard Business Review, Peter Drucker (1909-2005) urged readers to take on the hard work of thinking--always combined, he insisted, with decisive action. He closely analyzed the phenomenon of knowledge work--the growing call for employees who use their minds rather than their hands--and explained how it challenged the conventional wisdom about the way organizations should be run. He was intrigued by employees who knew more about certain subjects than their bosses or colleagues but who still had to cooperate with others in a large organization. As the business world matured in the second half of the twentieth century, executives came to think that they knew how to run companies--and Drucker took it upon himself to poke holes in their assumptions, lest organizations become stale. But he did so sympathetically, operating from the premise that his readers were intelligent, hardworking people of goodwill. Well suited to HBR's format of practical, idea-based essays for executives, his clear-eyed, humanistic writing enriched the magazine time and again. This article is a compilation of the savviest management advice Drucker offered HBR readers over the years--in short, his greatest hits. It revisits the following insightful, influential contributions: "The Theory of the Business" (September-October 1994), "Managing for Business Effectiveness" (May-June 1963), "What Business Can Learn from Nonprofits" (July-August 1989), "The New Society of Organizations" (September-October 1992), "The Information Executives Truly Need" (January-February 1995), "Managing Oneself" (March-April 1999 republished January 2005), "They're Not Employees, They're People" (February 2002), "What Makes an Effective Executive" (June 2004).

  16. Strategic management: a new dimension of the nurse executive's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L J

    1990-09-01

    The growth of corporate orientation for health care structures, with a focus on bottom-line management, has radically altered the role of nurse executives. With the organization's emphasis on performance, productivity, and results, successful nurse executives are now integrating the management of the delivery of nursing care with the management of complex corporate structures and relationships. The editor of Executive Development discusses the rapidly changing expectations and demands of the contemporary nurse executive's work. The nurse executive's role can be viewed from many perspectives: its scope, its value, its structure, its content. Content--"What does the nurse executive do that makes a real difference?"--is the focus here.

  17. Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2014-01-01

    and women with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, muscle mass and bone mineral density increases in a number of participant groups, including 65-75-year-old men. The functional capacity is elevated with increases in VO2 max of 10-15%, and 50-100% improvements in the capacity to perform intermittent work within...... structure and improves its function. Blood pressure is markedly reduced with the mean arterial blood pressure being lowered by ~10 mmHg for hypertensive men and women training 2-3 times/week for 12-26 weeks. Triglycerides and cholesterol are lowered and body fat declines, especially in middle-aged men...

  18. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Rapid, Onsite, Ultrasensitive Melamine Quantitation Method for Protein Beverages Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Detection Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghua; Wang, Du; Zhou, Aijun; Sun, Yimin; Zhang, Qi; Poapolathep, Amnart; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-02

    To ensure protein beverage safety and prevent illegal melamine use to artificially increase protein content, a rapid, onsite, ultrasensitive detection method for melamine must be developed because melamine is detrimental to human health and life. Herein, an ultrasensitive time-resolved fluorescence detection paper (TFDP) was developed to detect melamine in protein beverages within 15 min using a one-step sample preparation. The lower limits of detection were 0.89, 0.94, and 1.05 ng/mL, and the linear ranges were 2.67-150, 2.82-150, and 3.15-150 ng/mL (R2>0.982) for peanut, walnut, and coconut beverages, respectively. The recovery rates were 85.86-110.60% with a coefficient of variation beverage samples, the TFDP and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) results were consistent. This method is a promising alternative for rapid, onsite detection of melamine in beverages.

  20. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini using real-time PCR and high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA extracted from the two flukes yielded specific amplification and their identity was confirmed by sequencing, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit below 1 pg of purified genomic DNA, 5 EPG, or 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis. Moreover, C. sinensis and O. viverrini were able to be differentiated by their HRM profiles. The method can reduce labor of microscopic examination and the contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Moreover, it can differentiate these two flukes which are difficult to be distinguished using other methods. The established method provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and duplex detection of C. sinensis and O. viverrini.

  1. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini Using Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Quan Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA extracted from the two flukes yielded specific amplification and their identity was confirmed by sequencing, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit below 1 pg of purified genomic DNA, 5 EPG, or 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis. Moreover, C. sinensis and O. viverrini were able to be differentiated by their HRM profiles. The method can reduce labor of microscopic examination and the contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Moreover, it can differentiate these two flukes which are difficult to be distinguished using other methods. The established method provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and duplex detection of C. sinensis and O. viverrini.

  2. Rapid detection of sugar alcohol precursors and corresponding nitrate ester explosives using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Forbes, Thomas P

    2015-04-21

    This work highlights the rapid detection of nitrate ester explosives and their sugar alcohol precursors by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) using an off-axis geometry. Demonstration of the effect of various parameters, such as ion polarity and in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) on the detection of these compounds is presented. Sensitivity of sugar alcohols and nitrate ester explosives was found to be greatest in negative ion mode with sensitivities ranging from hundreds of picograms to hundreds of nanograms, depending on the characteristics of the particular molecule. Altering the in-source CID potential allowed for acquisition of characteristic molecular ion spectra as well as fragmentation spectra. Additional studies were completed to identify the role of different experimental parameters on the sensitivity for these compounds. Variables that were examined included the DART gas stream temperature, the presence of a related compound (i.e., the effect of a precursor on the detection of a nitrate ester explosive), incorporation of dopant species and the role of the analysis surface. It was determined that each variable affected the response and detection of both sugar alcohols and the corresponding nitrate ester explosives. From this work, a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of individual sugar alcohols and corresponding nitrate ester explosives, or mixtures of the two, has been developed, providing a useful tool in the real-world identification of homemade explosives.

  3. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  4. Non-Invasive Rapid Harvest Time Determination of Oil-Producing Microalgae Cultivations for Biodiesel Production by Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Yaqin [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Rong, Junfeng [SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Beijing (China); Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-05

    For the large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, one of the key problems is the determination of the optimum time for algal harvest when algae cells are saturated with neutral lipids. In this study, a method to determine the optimum harvest time in oil-producing microalgal cultivations by measuring the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, also called Fv/Fm, was established. When oil-producing Chlorella strains were cultivated and then treated with nitrogen starvation, it not only stimulated neutral lipid accumulation, but also affected the photosynthesis system, with the neutral lipid contents in all four algae strains – Chlorella sorokiniana C1, Chlorella sp. C2, C. sorokiniana C3, and C. sorokiniana C7 – correlating negatively with the Fv/Fm values. Thus, for the given oil-producing algae, in which a significant relationship between the neutral lipid content and Fv/Fm value under nutrient stress can be established, the optimum harvest time can be determined by measuring the value of Fv/Fm. It is hoped that this method can provide an efficient way to determine the harvest time rapidly and expediently in large-scale oil-producing microalgae cultivations for biodiesel production.

  5. Two-dimensional time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of dual phase rapid solidification in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Osuki, Takahiro; Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yuichi; Sato, Masugu; Toyokawa, Hidenori; Nozaki, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    The high intensity heat source used for fusion welding creates steep thermal gradients of 100 °C/s from 1800 °C. Further, the influence of preferred orientation is important for the observation of a directional solidification that follows the dendrite growth along the ⟨100⟩ direction toward the moving heat source. In the present study, we observed the rapid solidification of weld metal at a time resolution of 0.01-0.1 s by a two-dimensional time-resolved x-ray diffraction (2DTRXRD) system for real welding. The diffraction rings were dynamically observed by 2DTRXRD with synchrotron energy of 18 keV while the arc passes over the irradiation area of the x-rays. The arc power output was 10 V-150 A, and the scan speed of the arc was 1.0 mm/s. The temperature rise in instruments was suppressed by a water-cooled copper plate under the specimen. Further, the temperature distribution of the weld metal was measured by a thermocouple and correlated with the diffraction patterns. Consequently, solidification and solid phase transformation of low carbon steels and stainless steels were observed during rapid cooling by 2DTRXRD. In the low carbon steel, the microstructure is formed in a two step process, (i) formation of crystallites and (ii) increase of crystallinity. In stainless steel, the irregular interface layer of δ/γ in the quenched metal after solidification is expected to show the easy movement of dendrites at a lower temperature. In carbide precipitation stainless steel, it is easy for NbC to grow on δ phase with a little undercooling. Further, a mistlike pattern, which differs from the halo pattern, in the fusion zone gave some indication of the possibilities to observe the nucleation and the early solidification by 2DTRXRD.

  6. Control of force during rapid visuomotor force-matching tasks can be described by discrete time PID control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob Lund; Feeney, Daniel F; Almuklass, Awad M; Enoka, Roger M

    2017-08-01

    Force trajectories during isometric force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions vary substantially across individuals. In this study, we investigated if this variability can be explained by discrete time proportional, integral, derivative (PID) control algorithms with varying model parameters. To this end, we analyzed the pinch force trajectories of 24 subjects performing two rapid force-matching tasks with visual feedback. Both tasks involved isometric contractions to a target force of 10% maximal voluntary contraction. One task involved a single action (pinch) and the other required a double action (concurrent pinch and wrist extension). 50,000 force trajectories were simulated with a computational neuromuscular model whose input was determined by a PID controller with different PID gains and frequencies at which the controller adjusted muscle commands. The goal was to find the best match between each experimental force trajectory and all simulated trajectories. It was possible to identify one realization of the PID controller that matched the experimental force produced during each task for most subjects (average index of similarity: 0.87 ± 0.12; 1 = perfect similarity). The similarities for both tasks were significantly greater than that would be expected by chance (single action: p = 0.01; double action: p = 0.04). Furthermore, the identified control frequencies in the simulated PID controller with the greatest similarities decreased as task difficulty increased (single action: 4.0 ± 1.8 Hz; double action: 3.1 ± 1.3 Hz). Overall, the results indicate that discrete time PID controllers are realistic models for the neural control of force in rapid force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions.

  7. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Ruiwen; Liu, Libing; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-15

    Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an isothermal gene amplification technique, has been explored for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens. A real-time reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) using primers and exo probe targeting the CDV nucleocapsid protein gene was developed. A series of other viruses were tested by the RT-RPA.Thirty-two field samples were further tested by RT-RPA, and the resuts were compared with those obtained by the real-time RT-PCR. The RT-RPA assay was performed successfully at 40 °C, and the results were obtained within 3 min-12 min. The assay could detect CDV, but did not show cross-detection of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), demonstrating high specificity. The analytical sensitivity of RT-RPA was 31.8 copies in vitro transcribed CDV RNA, which is 10 times lower than the real-time RT-PCR. The assay performance was validated by testing 32 field samples and compared to real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated an excellent correlation between RT-RPA and a reference real-time RT-PCR method. Both assays provided the same results, and R 2 value of the positive results was 0.947. The results demonstrated that the RT-RPA assay offers an alternative tool for simple, rapid, and reliable detection of CDV both in the laboratory and point-of-care facility, especially in the resource-limited settings.

  8. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A new generation of reactor designs is being developed that is intended to meet the requirements of the 21. century. In the short term, the most important requirement is to overcome the relative non-competitiveness of current reactor designs in the de-regulated market. For this purpose, evolutionary light water reactor (LWR) designs have been maturing and are being actively promoted. These are specifically designed to be less expensive to build and operate than the previous generation of LWRs, genuinely competitive with alternative forms of generation and at the same time establish higher levels of safety. A new generation of modular, small-to-medium (100-300 MWe/module), integral design water-cooled reactors are under development. These are designed to be competitive with nuclear and non-nuclear power plants, to have significantly enhanced safety, to be proliferation-resistant and to reduce the amount of radioactive waste produced. A different approach to improve competitiveness is the re-emergence of high-temperature reactors (HTRs) using gas turbine technology to obtain higher thermal efficiencies, low construction and operating costs, inherent safety characteristics and low proliferation risk. In the longer term, assuming that the current stagnation in the market is successfully overcome, other requirements related to long-term sustainability will emerge. Important amongst these will be the need to minimise the environmental burden passed on to future generations (or at least to ensure that the cost to future generations is in balance with the benefits to the current generation), the need to establish sustainability of fuel and the need to minimise stocks of separated plutonium at the minimum possible working level and to minimise accessibility to plutonium. In this context, topics of interest to the workshop were: reactors consuming excess plutonium, advanced LWRs, HTRs, fast spectrum reactors, subcritical systems, minor-actinide systems and radical innovative

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Andrographis paniculata by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fei Qin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9995 within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantification (LOQs were 0.02 μg/mL to 0.06 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL to 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption.

  10. Rapid detection of Salmonella in pet food: design and evaluation of integrated methods based on real-time PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Priya; Friberg, Maria; Vanlandingham, V; Kozak, K; Manolis, Amanda; Brevnov, Maxim; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Goins, David; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Tebbs, Robert S; Charbonneau, Duane

    2012-02-01

    Reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination in pet food is critical for both companion animals and humans, and its importance is reflected by the substantial increase in the demand for pathogen testing. Accurate and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens improves food safety, protects the public health, and benefits food producers by assuring product quality while facilitating product release in a timely manner. Traditional culture-based methods for Salmonella screening are laborious and can take 5 to 7 days to obtain definitive results. In this study, we developed two methods for the detection of low levels of Salmonella in pet food using real-time PCR: (i) detection of Salmonella in 25 g of dried pet food in less than 14 h with an automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction method and (ii) detection of Salmonella in 375 g of composite dry pet food matrix in less than 24 h with a manual centrifugation-based nucleic acid preparation method. Both methods included a preclarification step using a novel protocol that removes food matrix-associated debris and PCR inhibitors and improves the sensitivity of detection. Validation studies revealed no significant differences between the two real-time PCR methods and the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (chapter 5) culture confirmation method.

  11. Matching time and spatial scales of rapid solidification: dynamic TEM experiments coupled to CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu-Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid-liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu-Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ˜0.1 to ˜0.6 m s-1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid-liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid-liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).

  12. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) organised a workshop to assess current understanding on the use of cementitious materials in radioactive waste disposal. The workshop was hosted by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (Ondraf/Niras), in Brussels, Belgium on 17-19 November 2009. The workshop brought together a wide range of people involved in supporting safety case development and having an interest in cementitious materials: namely, cement and concrete experts, repository designers, scientists, safety assessors, disposal programme managers and regulators. The workshop was designed primarily to consider issues relevant to the post-closure safety of radioactive waste disposal, but also addressed some related operational issues, such as cementitious barrier emplacement. Where relevant, information on cementitious materials from analogous natural and anthropogenic systems was also considered. The workshop agenda is included as Appendix A. The workshop focused on: - The uses of different cementitious materials in various repository designs. - The evolution of cementitious materials over long time scales (1000s to 100000s of years). - The interaction of cementitious materials with surrounding components of the repository (e.g. waste, container, buffer, backfill, host rock). - The workshop comprised: - Plenary sessions in which the state-of-the-art on repository design and understanding the phenomenology of cementitious materials and their interactions were presented and discussed. - Dedicated working group sessions, which were used to discuss key safety assessment and safety case questions in more detail. For example: How strong is the scientific basis for incorporating the various aspects of the behaviour and interactions of cementitious materials in safety assessments and safety cases? How can the behaviour and interactions of cementitious materials best be incorporated within the

  13. Drifting from Slow to "D'oh!": Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering Predict Extreme Reaction Times and Executive Control Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A combined experimental, individual-differences, and thought-sampling study tested the predictions of executive attention (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004) and coordinative binding (e.g., Oberauer, Suss, Wilhelm, & Sander, 2007) theories of working memory capacity (WMC). We assessed 288 subjects' WMC and their performance and mind-wandering rates…

  14. Building Student Momentum from High School into College. Ready or Not: It's Time to Rethink the 12th Grade. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This executive summary describes a paper that is part of a series intended to encourage the nation's secondary and postsecondary systems to take joint responsibility for substantially increasing the number of young people who are prepared for college and career success. In this report, author Elisabeth Barnett of the Community College Research…

  15. Rapid diagnostic tests as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR. Methods First, the best method to recover DNA from RDTs was investigated and then the applicability of this DNA extraction method was assessed on 12 different RDT brands. Finally, two RDT brands (OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test and SDFK60 malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum/Pan test were comprehensively evaluated on a panel of clinical samples submitted for routine malaria diagnosis at ITM. DNA amplification was done with the 18S rRNA real-time PCR targeting the four Plasmodium species. Results of PCR on RDT were compared to those obtained by PCR on whole blood samples. Results Best results were obtained by isolating DNA from the proximal part of the nitrocellulose component of the RDT strip with a simple DNA elution method. The PCR on RDT showed a detection limit of 0.02 asexual parasites/μl, which was identical to the same PCR on whole blood. For all 12 RDT brands tested, DNA was detected except for one brand when a low parasite density sample was applied. In RDTs with a plastic seal covering the nitrocellulose strip, DNA extraction was hampered. PCR analysis on clinical RDT samples demonstrated correct identification for single species infections for all RDT samples with asexual parasites of P. falciparum (n = 60, Plasmodium vivax (n = 10, Plasmodium ovale (n = 10 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 10. Samples with only gametocytes were detected in all OptiMAL and in 10 of the 11 SDFK60 tests. None of the negative samples (n = 20 gave a signal by PCR on RDT. With PCR on RDT, higher Ct-values were observed than with PCR on whole blood, with a mean difference of 2.68 for OptiMAL and 3.53 for SDFK60. Mixed infections were correctly identified with PCR on RDT in 4/5 OptiMAL tests and 2/5 SDFK60 tests. Conclusions RDTs are a reliable source of DNA for Plasmodium real-time PCR. This study demonstrates the

  16. Rapid Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Quantifies Oxygen-Rich Lignin Compound in Complex Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Kelsey S.; Roberts, Michael S.; Vinueza, Nelson R.

    2018-03-01

    Complex mixture analysis is a costly and time-consuming task facing researchers with foci as varied as food science and fuel analysis. When faced with the task of quantifying oxygen-rich bio-oil molecules in a complex diesel mixture, we asked whether complex mixtures could be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a single mass spectrometer with mid-range resolving power without the use of lengthy separations. To answer this question, we developed and evaluated a quantitation method that eliminated chromatography steps and expanded the use of quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry from primarily qualitative to quantitative as well. To account for mixture complexity, the method employed an ionization dopant, targeted tandem mass spectrometry, and an internal standard. This combination of three techniques achieved reliable quantitation of oxygen-rich eugenol in diesel from 300 to 2500 ng/mL with sufficient linearity (R2 = 0.97 ± 0.01) and excellent accuracy (percent error = 0% ± 5). To understand the limitations of the method, it was compared to quantitation attained on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the gold standard for quantitation. The triple quadrupole quantified eugenol from 50 to 2500 ng/mL with stronger linearity (R2 = 0.996 ± 0.003) than the quadrupole-time-of-flight and comparable accuracy (percent error = 4% ± 5). This demonstrates that a quadrupole-time-of-flight can be used for not only qualitative analysis but also targeted quantitation of oxygen-rich lignin molecules in complex mixtures without extensive sample preparation. The rapid and cost-effective method presented here offers new possibilities for bio-oil research, including: (1) allowing for bio-oil studies that demand repetitive analysis as process parameters are changed and (2) making this research accessible to more laboratories. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE): a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A; Nouraei, S A R

    2015-03-01

    Emergency and difficult tracheal intubations are hazardous undertakings where successive laryngoscopy-hypoxaemia-re-oxygenation cycles can escalate to airway loss and the 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. Between 2013 and 2014, we extended the apnoea times of 25 patients with difficult airways who were undergoing general anaesthesia for hypopharyngeal or laryngotracheal surgery. This was achieved through continuous delivery of transnasal high-flow humidified oxygen, initially to provide pre-oxygenation, and continuing as post-oxygenation during intravenous induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade until a definitive airway was secured. Apnoea time commenced at administration of neuromuscular blockade and ended with commencement of jet ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation or recommencement of spontaneous ventilation. During this time, upper airway patency was maintained with jaw-thrust. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) was used in 15 males and 10 females. Mean (SD [range]) age at treatment was 49 (15 [25-81]) years. The median (IQR [range]) Mallampati grade was 3 (2-3 [2-4]) and direct laryngoscopy grade was 3 (3-3 [2-4]). There were 12 obese patients and nine patients were stridulous. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 14 (9-19 [5-65]) min. No patient experienced arterial desaturation gaseous exchange through flow-dependent deadspace flushing. It has the potential to transform the practice of anaesthesia by changing the nature of securing a definitive airway in emergency and difficult intubations from a pressured stop-start process to a smooth and unhurried undertaking. © 2014 The Authors Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Real-Time PCR Typing of Escherichia coli Based on Multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms--a Convenient and Rapid Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Malin; Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Söderman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections caused by Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production constitute a threat against patient safety. To identify, track, and control outbreaks and to detect emerging virulent clones, typing tools of sufficient discriminatory power that generate reproducible and unambiguous data are needed. A probe based real-time PCR method targeting multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) was developed. The method was based on the multi locus sequence typing scheme of Institute Pasteur and by adaptation of previously described typing assays. An 8 SNP-panel that reached a Simpson's diversity index of 0.95 was established, based on analysis of sporadic E. coli cases (ESBL n = 27 and non-ESBL n = 53). This multi-SNP assay was used to identify the sequence type 131 (ST131) complex according to the Achtman's multi locus sequence typing scheme. However, it did not fully discriminate within the complex but provided a diagnostic signature that outperformed a previously described detection assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of isolates from a presumed outbreak (n = 22) identified two outbreaks (ST127 and ST131) and three different non-outbreak-related isolates. Multi-SNP typing generated congruent data except for one non-outbreak-related ST131 isolate. We consider multi-SNP real-time PCR typing an accessible primary generic E. coli typing tool for rapid and uniform type identification.

  19. Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty F. Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  20. Rapid and accurate identification by real-time PCR of biotoxin-producing dinoflagellates from the family gymnodiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsty F; de Salas, Miguel; Adamson, Janet; Rhodes, Lesley L

    2014-03-07

    The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  1. Soil Baiting, Rapid PCR Assay and Quantitative Real Time PCR to Diagnose Late Blight of Potato in Quarantine Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touseef Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (mont de Bary is a pathogen of great concern across the globe, and accurate detection is an important component in responding to the outbreaks of potential disease. Although the molecular diagnostic protocol used in regulatory programs has been evaluated but till date methods implying direct comparison has rarely used. In this study, a known area soil samples from potato fields where light blight appear every year (both A1 and A2 mating type was assayed by soil bait method, PCR assay detection and quantification of the inoculums. Suspected disease symptoms appeared on bait tubers were further confirmed by rapid PCR, inoculums were quantified through Real Time PCR, which confirms presence of P. infestans. These diagnostic methods can be highly correlated with one another. Potato tuber baiting increased the sensitivity of the assay compared with direct extraction of DNA from tuber and soil samples. Our study determines diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assays to determine the performance of each method. Overall, molecular techniques based on different types of PCR amplification and Real-time PCR can lead to high throughput, faster and more accurate detection method which can be used in quarantine programmes in potato industry and diagnostic laboratory.

  2. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  3. Impact of rapid molecular diagnostic tests on time to treatment initiation and outcomes in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Dina; Navneethapandian, Pooranaganga D; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D; Klinton, Joel S; Watson, Basilea; Sivaramakrishnan, Gomathi N; Reddy, Devarajulu S; Murali, Lakshmi; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-09-01

    India is replacing culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) with rapid molecular tests for diagnosing MDR-TB. We assessed the impact of rapid tests on time to initiation of treatment and outcomes in patients with MDR-TB compared with CDST. A retrospective cohort study involving MDR-TB patients from six districts in Tamil Nadu state, who underwent CDST (2010-2011) and rapid tests (2012-2013). There were 135 patients in the CDST group and 389 in the rapid diagnostic test group. Median time from sputum receipt at the laboratory to initiation of MDR-TB treatment was 130 days (IQR 75-213) in the CDST group and 22 days (IQR 14-38) in the rapid diagnostic test group (p30% in both groups and missing data were higher in CDST (13%) compared with rapid tests (3%). There were significantly higher risks of unfavourable treatment outcomes in males (aRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5) and those with treatment initiation delays >30 days (aRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Rapid molecular diagnostic tests shortened the time to initiate treatment which was associated with reduced unfavourable outcomes in MDR-TB patients. This supports the policy to scale up these tests in India. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B0 field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachowicz, K.; De Zanche, N.; Yip, E.; Volotovskyy, V.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B 0 . This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B 0 that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B 0 -dependant relaxation for various tumor and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B 0 field (specifically the T 1 time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B 0 fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T 1 contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B 0 reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.

  5. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. PRO-QUEST: a rapid assessment method based on progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times in CEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Eleni; Tachrount, Mohamed; Zaiss, Moritz; Shmueli, Karin; Golay, Xavier

    2018-03-05

    To develop a new MRI technique to rapidly measure exchange rates in CEST MRI. A novel pulse sequence for measuring chemical exchange rates through a progressive saturation recovery process, called PRO-QUEST (progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times), has been developed. Using this method, the water magnetization is sampled under non-steady-state conditions, and off-resonance saturation is interleaved with the acquisition of images obtained through a Look-Locker type of acquisition. A complete theoretical framework has been set up, and simple equations to obtain the exchange rates have been derived. A reduction of scan time from 58 to 16 minutes has been obtained using PRO-QUEST versus the standard QUEST. Maps of both T 1 of water and B 1 can simply be obtained by repetition of the sequence without off-resonance saturation pulses. Simulations and calculated exchange rates from experimental data using amino acids such as glutamate, glutamine, taurine, and alanine were compared and found to be in good agreement. The PRO-QUEST sequence was also applied on healthy and infarcted rats after 24 hours, and revealed that imaging specificity to ischemic acidification during stroke was substantially increased relative to standard amide proton transfer-weighted imaging. Because of the reduced scan time and insensitivity to nonchemical exchange factors such as direct water saturation, PRO-QUEST can serve as an excellent alternative for researchers and clinicians interested to map pH changes in vivo. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Rapid Identification of Intact Staphylococcal Bacteriophages Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Štveráková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of infections associated with hospital environments, where antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged as a significant threat. Phage therapy could offer a safe and effective alternative to antibiotics. Phage preparations should comply with quality and safety requirements; therefore, it is important to develop efficient production control technologies. This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable method for identifying staphylococcal bacteriophages, based on detecting their specific proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS profiling that is among the suggested methods for meeting the regulations of pharmaceutical authorities. Five different phage purification techniques were tested in combination with two MALDI-TOF MS matrices. Phages, either purified by CsCl density gradient centrifugation or as resuspended phage pellets, yielded mass spectra with the highest information value if ferulic acid was used as the MALDI matrix. Phage tail and capsid proteins yielded the strongest signals whereas the culture conditions had no effect on mass spectral quality. Thirty-seven phages from Myoviridae, Siphoviridae or Podoviridae families were analysed, including 23 siphophages belonging to the International Typing Set for human strains of S. aureus, as well as phages in preparations produced by Microgen, Bohemia Pharmaceuticals and MB Pharma. The data obtained demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to effectively distinguish between Staphylococcus-specific bacteriophages.

  8. Standardisation and evaluation of a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Ahmed Ganaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae can play a significant role in decreasing morbidity and mortality of infection. The accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease is hampered by the difficulties in growing the isolates from clinical specimens and also by misidentification. Molecular methods have gained popularity as they offer improvement in the detection of causative pathogens with speed and ease. The present study aims at validating and standardising the use of 4 oligonucleotide primer-probe sets (pneumolysin [ply], autolysin [lytA], pneumococcal surface adhesion A [psaA] and Spn9802 [DNA fragment] in a single-reaction mixture for the detection and discrimination of S. pneumoniae. Here, we validate a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR assay with a panel consisting of 43 S. pneumoniae and 29 non-pneumococcal isolates, 20 culture positive, 26 culture negative and 30 spiked serum samples. A standard curve was obtained using S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene was used as an endogenous internal control. The experiment showed high sensitivity with lower limit of detection equivalent to 4 genome copies/µl. The efficiency of the reaction was 100% for ply, lytA, Spn9802 and 97% for psaA. The test showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% with culture isolates and serum specimens. This study demonstrates that qmPCR analysis of sera using 4 oligonucleotide primers appears to be an appropriate method for the genotypic identification of S. pneumoniae infection.

  9. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  10. Rapid prototyping of SoC-based real-time vision system: application to image preprocessing and face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-05-01

    By this paper, the major goal is to investigate the Multi-CPU/FPGA SoC (System on Chip) design flow and to transfer a know-how and skills to rapidly design embedded real-time vision system. Our aim is to show how the use of these devices can be benefit for system level integration since they make possible simultaneous hardware and software development. We take the facial detection and pretreatments as case study since they have a great potential to be used in several applications such as video surveillance, building access control and criminal identification. The designed system use the Xilinx Zedboard platform. The last is the central element of the developed vision system. The video acquisition is performed using either standard webcam connected to the Zedboard via USB interface or several camera IP devices. The visualization of video content and intermediate results are possible with HDMI interface connected to HD display. The treatments embedded in the system are as follow: (i) pre-processing such as edge detection implemented in the ARM and in the reconfigurable logic, (ii) software implementation of motion detection and face detection using either ViolaJones or LBP (Local Binary Pattern), and (iii) application layer to select processing application and to display results in a web page. One uniquely interesting feature of the proposed system is that two functions have been developed to transmit data from and to the VDMA port. With the proposed optimization, the hardware implementation of the Sobel filter takes 27 ms and 76 ms for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively. Hence, with the FPGA implementation, an acceleration of 5 times is obtained which allow the processing of 37 fps and 13 fps for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively.

  11. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfei; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Mingxin; Zhu, Min; Wang, Mei; Sun, Yufeng; Gu, Haitong; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Xue; Zhang, Shaoya; Lu, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of FRS fungi is less clear. A total of 153 FRS isolates obtained from patients were analysed at the Clinical Laboratory at the Beijing Tongren Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical University, between January 2014 and December 2015. They were identified by traditional phenotypic methods and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biotyper version 3.1), respectively. Discrepancies between the two methods were further validated by sequencing. Among the 153 isolates, 151 had correct species identification using MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biot 3.1, score ≥2.0 or 2.3). MALDI-TOF MS enabled identification of some very closely related species that were indistinguishable by conventional phenotypic methods, including 1/10 Aspergillus versicolor, 3/20 Aspergillus flavus, 2/30 Aspergillus fumigatus and 1/20 Aspergillus terreus, which were misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods as Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively. In addition, 2/2 Rhizopus oryzae and 1/1 Rhizopus stolonifer that were identified only to the genus level by the phenotypic method were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate technique, and could replace the conventional phenotypic method for routine identification of FRS fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  12. Flood Foresight: A near-real time flood monitoring and forecasting tool for rapid and predictive flood impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Shelton, Kay; Wood, Elizabeth; Berry, Robert; Bevington, John; Hankin, Barry; Lewis, Gavin; Gubbin, Andrew; Griffiths, Samuel; Barnard, Paul; Pinnell, Marc; Huyck, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The hours and days immediately after a major flood event are often chaotic and confusing, with first responders rushing to mobilise emergency responders, provide alleviation assistance and assess loss to assets of interest (e.g., population, buildings or utilities). Preparations in advance of a forthcoming event are becoming increasingly important; early warning systems have been demonstrated to be useful tools for decision markers. The extent of damage, human casualties and economic loss estimates can vary greatly during an event, and the timely availability of an accurate flood extent allows emergency response and resources to be optimised, reduces impacts, and helps prioritise recovery. In the insurance sector, for example, insurers are under pressure to respond in a proactive manner to claims rather than waiting for policyholders to report losses. Even though there is a great demand for flood inundation extents and severity information in different sectors, generating flood footprints for large areas from hydraulic models in real time remains a challenge. While such footprints can be produced in real time using remote sensing, weather conditions and sensor availability limit their ability to capture every single flood event across the globe. In this session, we will present Flood Foresight (www.floodforesight.com), an operational tool developed to meet the universal requirement for rapid geographic information, before, during and after major riverine flood events. The tool provides spatial data with which users can measure their current or predicted impact from an event - at building, basin, national or continental scales. Within Flood Foresight, the Screening component uses global rainfall predictions to provide a regional- to continental-scale view of heavy rainfall events up to a week in advance, alerting the user to potentially hazardous situations relevant to them. The Forecasting component enhances the predictive suite of tools by providing a local

  13. A novel photoinduced electron transfer (PET) primer technique for rapid real-time PCR detection of Cryptosporidium spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jothikumar, N.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Uses a single-labeled fluorescent primer for real-time PCR. •The detection sensitivity of PET PCR was comparable to TaqMan PCR. •Melt curve analysis can be performed to confirm target amplicon production. •Conventional PCR primers can be converted to PET PCR primers. -- Abstract: We report the development of a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide primer that can be used to monitor real-time PCR. The primer has two parts, the 3′-end of the primer is complimentary to the target and a universal 17-mer stem loop at the 5′-end forms a hairpin structure. A fluorescent dye is attached to 5′-end of either the forward or reverse primer. The presence of guanosine residues at the first and second position of the 3′ dangling end effectively quenches the fluorescence due to the photo electron transfer (PET) mechanism. During the synthesis of nucleic acid, the hairpin structure is linearized and the fluorescence of the incorporated primer increases several-fold due to release of the fluorescently labeled tail and the absence of guanosine quenching. As amplicons are synthesized during nucleic acid amplification, the fluorescence increase in the reaction mixture can be measured with commercially available real-time PCR instruments. In addition, a melting procedure can be performed to denature the double-stranded amplicons, thereby generating fluorescence peaks that can differentiate primer dimers and other non-specific amplicons if formed during the reaction. We demonstrated the application of PET-PCR for the rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA. Comparison with a previously published TaqMan® assay demonstrated that the two real-time PCR assays exhibited similar sensitivity for a dynamic range of detection of 6000–0.6 oocysts per reaction. PET PCR primers are simple to design and less-expensive than dual-labeled probe PCR methods, and should be of interest for use by laboratories operating in resource

  14. A novel photoinduced electron transfer (PET) primer technique for rapid real-time PCR detection of Cryptosporidium spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothikumar, N., E-mail: jin2@cdc.gov; Hill, Vincent R.

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Uses a single-labeled fluorescent primer for real-time PCR. •The detection sensitivity of PET PCR was comparable to TaqMan PCR. •Melt curve analysis can be performed to confirm target amplicon production. •Conventional PCR primers can be converted to PET PCR primers. -- Abstract: We report the development of a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide primer that can be used to monitor real-time PCR. The primer has two parts, the 3′-end of the primer is complimentary to the target and a universal 17-mer stem loop at the 5′-end forms a hairpin structure. A fluorescent dye is attached to 5′-end of either the forward or reverse primer. The presence of guanosine residues at the first and second position of the 3′ dangling end effectively quenches the fluorescence due to the photo electron transfer (PET) mechanism. During the synthesis of nucleic acid, the hairpin structure is linearized and the fluorescence of the incorporated primer increases several-fold due to release of the fluorescently labeled tail and the absence of guanosine quenching. As amplicons are synthesized during nucleic acid amplification, the fluorescence increase in the reaction mixture can be measured with commercially available real-time PCR instruments. In addition, a melting procedure can be performed to denature the double-stranded amplicons, thereby generating fluorescence peaks that can differentiate primer dimers and other non-specific amplicons if formed during the reaction. We demonstrated the application of PET-PCR for the rapid detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA. Comparison with a previously published TaqMan® assay demonstrated that the two real-time PCR assays exhibited similar sensitivity for a dynamic range of detection of 6000–0.6 oocysts per reaction. PET PCR primers are simple to design and less-expensive than dual-labeled probe PCR methods, and should be of interest for use by laboratories operating in resource

  15. Rapid, Real-time Methane Detection in Ground Water Using a New Gas-Water Equilibrator Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruybal, C. J.; DiGiulio, D. C.; Wilkin, R. T.; Hargrove, K. D.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent increases in unconventional gas development have been accompanied by public concern for methane contamination in drinking water wells near production areas. Although not a regulated pollutant, methane may be a marker contaminant for others that are less mobile in groundwater and thus may be detected later, or at a location closer to the source. In addition, methane poses an explosion hazard if exsolved concentrations reach 5 - 15% volume in air. Methods for determining dissolved gases, such as methane, have evolved over 60 years. However, the response time of these methods is insufficient to monitor trends in methane concentration in real-time. To enable rapid, real-time monitoring of aqueous methane concentrations during ground water purging, a new gas-water equilibrator (GWE) was designed that increases gas-water mass exchange rates of methane for measurement. Monitoring of concentration trends allows a comparison of temporal trends between sampling events and comparison of baseline conditions with potential post-impact conditions. These trends may be a result of removal of stored casing water, pre-purge ambient borehole flow, formation physical and chemical heterogeneity, or flow outside of well casing due to inadequate seals. Real-time information in the field can help focus an investigation, aid in determining when to collect a sample, save money by limiting costs (e.g. analytical, sample transport and storage), and provide an immediate assessment of local methane concentrations. Four domestic water wells, one municipal water well, and one agricultural water well were sampled for traditional laboratory analysis and compared to the field GWE results. Aqueous concentrations measured on the GWE ranged from non-detect to 1,470 μg/L methane. Some trends in aqueous methane concentrations measured on the GWE were observed during purging. Applying a paired t-test comparing the new GWE method and traditional laboratory analysis yielded a p-value 0

  16. ADAMS executive and operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The ADAMS Executive and Operating System, a multitasking environment under which a variety of data reduction, display and utility programs are executed, a system which provides a high level of isolation between programs allowing them to be developed and modified independently, is described. The Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS) was developed to provide a real time data monitoring and analysis capability onboard Boeing commercial airplanes during flight testing. It inputs sensor data from an airplane performance data by applying transforms to the collected sensor data, and presents this data to test personnel via various display media. Current utilization and future development are addressed.

  17. Cannabinoid modulation of executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Wiskerke, J.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Executive functions are higher-order cognitive processes such as attention, behavioural flexibility, decision-making, inhibitory control, planning, time estimation and working memory that exert top-down control over behaviour. In addition to the role of cannabinoid signaling in other cognitive

  18. Real-time DNA barcoding in a rainforest using nanopore sequencing: opportunities for rapid biodiversity assessments and local capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Arteaga, Alejandro; Bustamante, Lucas; Pichardo, Frank; Coloma, Luis A; Barrio-Amorós, César L; Salazar-Valenzuela, David; Prost, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Advancements in portable scientific instruments provide promising avenues to expedite field work in order to understand the diverse array of organisms that inhabit our planet. Here, we tested the feasibility for in situ molecular analyses of endemic fauna using a portable laboratory fitting within a single backpack in one of the world's most imperiled biodiversity hotspots, the Ecuadorian Chocó rainforest. We used portable equipment, including the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the miniPCR (miniPCR), to perform DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and real-time DNA barcoding of reptile specimens in the field. We demonstrate that nanopore sequencing can be implemented in a remote tropical forest to quickly and accurately identify species using DNA barcoding, as we generated consensus sequences for species resolution with an accuracy of >99% in less than 24 hours after collecting specimens. The flexibility of our mobile laboratory further allowed us to generate sequence information at the Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica in Quito for rare, endangered, and undescribed species. This includes the recently rediscovered Jambato toad, which was thought to be extinct for 28 years. Sequences generated on the MinION required as few as 30 reads to achieve high accuracy relative to Sanger sequencing, and with further multiplexing of samples, nanopore sequencing can become a cost-effective approach for rapid and portable DNA barcoding. Overall, we establish how mobile laboratories and nanopore sequencing can help to accelerate species identification in remote areas to aid in conservation efforts and be applied to research facilities in developing countries. This opens up possibilities for biodiversity studies by promoting local research capacity building, teaching nonspecialists and students about the environment, tackling wildlife crime, and promoting conservation via research-focused ecotourism.

  19. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  20. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-21

    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  1. Editor, Executive and Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor; Wilberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To survive in today’s increasingly complex business environments, firms must embrace strategic paradoxes: contradictory yet interrelated objectives that persist over time. This can be one of toughest of all leadership challenges, as managers must accept inconsistency and contradictions....... In this article, we develop and empirically test a set of hypotheses related to ambidexterity, a key example of a paradoxical strategy. Through our analysis of data from a survey of executive leaders, we find a link between organizational ambidexterity and strategic planning, suggesting that the complexities...... of navigating in explorative ventures require more explicit strategy work than the old certainties of a legacy business. We identify and discuss inherent paradoxes and their implications for firm performance in 22 industry-specific strategies, where empirical industry data shows a pattern of conflict between...

  2. Conceptualization and Operationalization of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetta, Peter; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function is comprised of different behavioral and cognitive elements and is considered to play a significant role in learning and academic achievement. Educational researchers frequently study the construct. However, because of its complexity functionally, the research on executive function can at times be both confusing and…

  3. Ten Years of Change in Executive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, James F.

    1993-01-01

    As recently as the 1980s, most companies did not pay much attention to executive education. In the 1990s, many see executive education as a must for revamping competitive strategies, increasing productivity, improving quality, reducing cycle time, and revitalizing corporate culture. (Author/JOW)

  4. Tutoring executives online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programmes have largely neglected programmes catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA programme through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviours already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  5. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  6. Diversification of Angraecum (Orchidaceae, Vandeae) in Madagascar: Revised Phylogeny Reveals Species Accumulation through Time Rather than Rapid Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriananjamanantsoa, Herinandrianina N; Engberg, Shannon; Louis, Edward E; Brouillet, Luc

    Angraecum. The macroevolutionary model-based phylogeny failed to detect shifts in diversification that could be associated directly with morphological diversification. Diversification in Angraecum resulted from gradual species accumulation through time rather than from rapid radiation, a diversification pattern often encountered in tropical rain forests.

  7. Two executives, one career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cynthia R; Murray, Shelley S

    2005-02-01

    For six years, Cynthia Cunningham and Shelley Murray shared an executive job at Fleet Bank. One desk, one chair, one computer, one telephone, and one voice-mail account. To their clients and colleagues, they were effectively one person, though one person with the strengths and ideas of two, seamlessly handing projects back and forth. Although their department was dissolved after the bank merged with Bank of America, the two continue to consider themselves a package-they have one resume, and they are seeking their next opportunity together. Their choice to share a job was not only a quality-of-life decision but one intended to keep their careers on course: "Taking two separate part-time jobs would have thrown us completely off track" they write in this first-person account."We're both ambitious people, and neither of us wanted just a job. We wanted careers" In this article, the two highly motivated women reveal their determination to manage the demands of both family and career. Flextime,telecommuting, and compressed workweeks are just some of the options open to executives seeking greater work/ life balance, and the job share, as described by Cunningham and Murray, could well be the next solution for those wishing to avoid major trade-offs between their personal and professional lives. Cunningham and Murray describe in vivid detail how they structured their unusual arrangement, how they sold themselves to management, and the hurdles they faced along the way. Theirs is a win-win story, for the company and for them.

  8. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  9. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  10. Real-time PCR-based method for the rapid detection of extended RAS mutations using bridged nucleic acids in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takao; Mizuno, Yukie; Kaizaki, Yasuharu

    2017-10-27

    Mutations in RAS and BRAF are predictors of the efficacy of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Therefore, simple, rapid, cost-effective methods to detect these mutations in the clinical setting are greatly needed. In the present study, we evaluated BNA Real-time PCR Mutation Detection Kit Extended RAS (BNA Real-time PCR), a real-time PCR method that uses bridged nucleic acid clamping technology to rapidly detect mutations in RAS exons 2-4 and BRAF exon 15. Genomic DNA was extracted from 54 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples obtained from mCRC patients. Among the 54 FFPE samples, BNA Real-time PCR detected 21 RAS mutations (38.9%) and 5 BRAF mutations (9.3%), and the reference assay (KRAS Mutation Detection Kit and MEBGEN™ RASKET KIT) detected 22 RAS mutations (40.7%). The concordance rate of detected RAS mutations between the BNA Real-time PCR assay and the reference assays was 98.2% (53/54). The BNA Real-time PCR assay proved to be a more simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for detecting KRAS and RAS mutations compared with existing assays. These findings suggest that BNA Real-time PCR is a valuable tool for predicting the efficacy of early anti-EGFR therapy in mCRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal Amplification Methods and High-Speed Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (R...

  12. A technique to detect periodic and non-periodic ultra-rapid flux time variations with standard radio-astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ermanno F.; Romney, Jonathan D.; Trottier, Eric

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate that extremely rapid and weak periodic and non-periodic signals can easily be detected by using the autocorrelation of intensity as a function of time. We use standard radio-astronomical observations that have artificial periodic and non-periodic signals generated by the electronics of terrestrial origin. The autocorrelation detects weak signals that have small amplitudes because it averages over long integration times. Another advantage is that it allows a direct visualization of the shape of the signals, while it is difficult to see the shape with a Fourier transform. Although Fourier transforms can also detect periodic signals, a novelty of this work is that we demonstrate another major advantage of the autocorrelation, that it can detect non-periodic signals while the Fourier transform cannot. Another major novelty of our work is that we use electric fields taken in a standard format with standard instrumentation at a radio observatory and therefore no specialized instrumentation is needed. Because the electric fields are sampled every 15.625 ns, they therefore allow detection of very rapid time variations. Notwithstanding the long integration times, the autocorrelation detects very rapid intensity variations as a function of time. The autocorrelation could also detect messages from Extraterrestrial Intelligence as non-periodic signals.

  13. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  14. The Executive as Integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Hans M.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that although the executive has many tasks, he or she must view internal organizational integration as a primary task, making use of organizational charts, job descriptions, statements of goals and objectives, evaluations, and feedback devices. (RH)

  15. A Rapid and Simple Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Human Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabara, Yutaro; Ueda, Yutaka

    2016-11-22

    A rapid, simple method for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces is greatly needed. Here, we examined the efficacy of a method that employs a combination of a commercial PCR master mix, which is insensitive to PCR inhibitors, and a DNA extraction method which used sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), and Tween 20 to counteract the inhibitory effects of SDBS on the PCR assay. This method could detect the target genes (stx1 and stx2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, invA of Salmonella Enteritidis, tdh of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, gyrA of Campylobacter jejuni, ceuE of Campylobacter coli, SEA of Staphylococcus aureus, ces of Bacillus cereus, and cpe of Clostridium perfringens) in a fecal suspension containing 1.0 × 10 1 to 1.0 × 10 3 CFU/ml. Furthermore, the assay was neither inhibited nor influenced by individual differences among the fecal samples of 10 subjects or fecal concentration (40-160 mg/ml in the fecal suspension). When we attempted to detect the genes of pathogenic bacteria in 4 actual clinical cases, we found that this method was more sensitive than standard culture method. These results showed that this assay is a rapid, simple detection method for foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces.

  16. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; Kovacs, Joseph A; Stock, Frida

    2002-01-01

    A method for reliable quantification of Pneumocystis carinii in research models of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) that is more convenient and reproducible than microscopic enumeration of organisms would greatly facilitate investigations of this organism. We developed a rapid quantitative touchdown (QTD......) PCR assay for detecting P. carinii f. sp. carinii, the subspecies of P. carinii commonly used in research models of PCP. The assay was based on the single-copy dihydrofolate reductase gene and was able to detect ... 6 log values for standards containing > or =5 copies/tube. Application of the assay to a series of 10-fold dilutions of P. carinii organisms isolated from rat lung demonstrated that it was reproducibly quantitative over 5 log values (r = 0.99). The assay was applied to a recently reported in vitro...

  17. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; Kovacs, Joseph A; Stock, Frida

    2002-01-01

    6 log values for standards containing > or =5 copies/tube. Application of the assay to a series of 10-fold dilutions of P. carinii organisms isolated from rat lung demonstrated that it was reproducibly quantitative over 5 log values (r = 0.99). The assay was applied to a recently reported in vitro...... axenic cultivation system for P. carinii and confirmed our microscopy findings that no organism multiplication had occurred during culture. For all cultures analyzed, QTD PCR assays showed a decrease in P. carinii DNA that exceeded the expected decrease due to dilution of the inoculum upon transfer......A method for reliable quantification of Pneumocystis carinii in research models of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) that is more convenient and reproducible than microscopic enumeration of organisms would greatly facilitate investigations of this organism. We developed a rapid quantitative touchdown (QTD...

  18. The importance of the sampling frequency in determining short-time-averaged irradiance and illuminance for rapidly changing cloud cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, J.J.; Rommel, M.; Geisler, J.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling interval is an important parameter which must be chosen carefully, if measurements of the direct, global, and diffuse irradiance or illuminance are carried out to determine their averages over a given period. Using measurements from a day with rapidly moving clouds, we investigated the influence of the sampling interval on the uncertainly of the calculated 15-min averages. We conclude, for this averaging period, that the sampling interval should not exceed 60 s and 10 s for measurement of the diffuse and global components respectively, to reduce the influence of the sampling interval below 2%. For the direct component, even a 5 s sampling interval is too long to reach this influence level for days with extremely quickly changing insolation conditions. (author)

  19. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; Kovacs, Joseph A; Stock, Frida

    2002-01-01

    ) PCR assay for detecting P. carinii f. sp. carinii, the subspecies of P. carinii commonly used in research models of PCP. The assay was based on the single-copy dihydrofolate reductase gene and was able to detect r = 0.99) over...... 6 log values for standards containing > or =5 copies/tube. Application of the assay to a series of 10-fold dilutions of P. carinii organisms isolated from rat lung demonstrated that it was reproducibly quantitative over 5 log values (r = 0.99). The assay was applied to a recently reported in vitro....... In conclusion, a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible quantitative PCR assay for P. carinii f. sp. carinii has been developed and is applicable to in vivo as well as in vitro systems. The assay should prove useful for conducting studies in which quantification of organism burden or growth assessment is critical...

  20. Single tube multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankuntaw, Nipaporn; Sukprasert, Saovaluk; Engchanil, Chulapan; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Chantratita, Wasun; Pairoj, Vantanit; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus infection of immunocompromised hosts may lead to central nervous system (CNS) infection and diseases. In this study, a single tube multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the detection of five herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV and CMV) in clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Two primer pairs specific for the herpesvirus polymerase gene and five hybridization probe pairs for the specific identification of the herpesvirus types were used in a LightCycler multiplex real-time PCR. A singleplex real-time PCR was first optimized and then applied to the multiplex real-time PCR. The singleplex and multiplex real-time PCRs showed no cross-reactivity. The sensitivity of the singleplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for each herpesvirus, while that of the multiplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for HSV-1 and VZV and 10 copies per reaction for HSV-2, EBV and CMV. Intra and inter-assay variations of the single tube multiplex assay were in the range of 0.02%-3.67% and 0.79%-4.35%, respectively. The assay was evaluated by testing 62 clinical CSF samples and was found to have equivalent sensitivity, specificity and agreement as the routine real-time PCR, but reducing time, cost and amount of used sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature dependent fluorescence......We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  2. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    2013-01-01

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence......We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  3. A Novel Reverse-Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Method for Quantification of Viable Vibrio Parahemolyticus in Raw Shrimp Based on a Rapid Construction of Standard Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mengtong Jin; Haiquan Liu; Wenshuo Sun; Qin Li; Zhaohuan Zhang; Jibing Li; Yingjie Pan; Yong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is an important pathogen that leads to food illness associated seafood. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods to detect and quantify the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in seafood are needed. In this assay, a RNA-based real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) without an enrichment step has been developed for detection and quantification of the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. RNA standards with the target segments were synthesized in vitro with T7 RNA p...

  4. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Hypothalamic MicroRNAs as Novel Partners Involved in Timing the Rapid Development of Chicken (Gallus gallus) Gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Zou, Jianmin; Wang, Kehua; Su, Yijun; Zhu, Yunfen; Song, Chi; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Liu, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Onset of the rapid gonad growth is a milestone in sexual development that comprises many genes and regulatory factors. The observations in model organisms and mammals including humans have shown a potential link between miRNAs and development timing. To determine whether miRNAs play roles in this process in the chicken (Gallus gallus), the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the profiles of miRNA expression in the hypothalamus of hens from two different pubertal stages, before onset of the rapid gonad development (BO) and after onset of the rapid gonad development (AO). 374 conserved and 46 novel miRNAs were identified as hypothalamus-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. 144 conserved miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method. 2013 putative genes were predicted as the targets of the 15 most differentially expressed miRNAs (fold-change > 4.0, P times by the miRNAs. qRT-PCR revealed the basic transcription levels of these clock genes were much higher (P development of chicken gonads. Considering the characteristics of miRNA functional conservation, the results will contribute to the research on puberty onset in humans.

  5. Clinical evaluation of β-tubulin real-time PCR for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis, a comparison with mycological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Marjan; Mirhendi, Hossein; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kharazi, Mahboobeh; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Makimura, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    Following our previous report on evaluation of the beta tubulin real-time PCR for detection of dermatophytosis, this study aimed to compare the real-time PCR assay with conventional methods for the clinical assessment of its diagnostic performance. Samples from a total of 853 patients with suspected dermatophyte lesions were subjected to direct examination (all samples), culture (499 samples) and real-time PCR (all samples). Fungal DNA was extracted directly from clinical samples using a conical steel bullet, followed by purification with a commercial kit and subjected to the Taq-Man probe-based real-time PCR. The study showed that among the 499 specimens for which all three methods were used, 156 (31.2%), 128 (25.6%) and 205 (41.0%) were found to be positive by direct microscopy, culture and real-time PCR respectively. Real-time PCR significantly increased the detection rate of dermatophytes compared with microscopy (288 vs 229) with 87% concordance between the two methods. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the real-time PCR was 87.5%, 85%, 66.5% and 95.2% respectively. Although real-time PCR performed better on skin than on nail samples, it should not yet fully replace conventional diagnosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Engineering aspects and time effects of rapid deterioration of sandstone in the tropical environment of Sabah, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tating, F.F.; Hack, H.R.G.K.; Jetten, V.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cut slopes in rock masses start to deteriorate directly after excavation due to stress relief and weathering. The deterioration is a time dependent process that depends on the local climate and the rock mass including its history, and the environment. The amount of deterioration per time unit (‘the

  7. Rapid detection of porins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eHU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and cost-efficient determination of carbapenem resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to detect porins in the current study. A loss of the components of porin alone such as OmpK35/OmpK36 or together with the production of carbapenemases will augment the carbapenem resistance. Ten strains of E. coli and eight strains of K. pneumoniae were conducted for both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis was then performed to verify the corrospondence of proteins between SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. The results indicated that the mass spectrum of ca. 35,000-m/z, 37,000-m/z and 38,000-m/z peaks of E. coli ATCC 25922 corresponded to OmpA, OmpC and OmpF with molecular weight of approximately ca. 38 kDa, 40 kDa and 41 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. The band of OmpC and OmpF porins were unable to be distinguished by SDS-PAGE, whereas it was easy to be differentiated by MALDI-TOF MS. As for K. pneumoniae isolates, the mass spectrum of ca. 36,000-m/z and 38,600-m/z peaks was observed corresponding to OmpA and OmpK36 with molecular weight of approximately ca. 40 kDa and 42 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. Porin OmpK35 was not observed in the current SDS-PAGE, while a 37,000-m/z peak was found in K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and carbapenem-susceptible strains by MALDI-TOF MS which was presumed to be the characteristic peak of the OmpK35 porin. Compared with SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS is able to rapidly identify the porin-deficient strains within half an hour with better sensitivity, less cost, and is easier to operate and has less interference.

  8. Hardware-Assisted System for Program Execution Security of SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of embedded systems, the systems’ security has become more and more important. Most embedded systems are at the risk of series of software attacks, such as buffer overflow attack, Trojan virus. In addition, with the rapid growth in the number of embedded systems and wide application, followed embedded hardware attacks are also increasing. This paper presents a new hardware assisted security mechanism to protect the program’s code and data, monitoring its normal execution. The mechanism mainly monitors three types of information: the start/end address of the program of basic blocks; the lightweight hash value in basic blocks and address of the next basic block. These parameters are extracted through additional tools running on PC. The information will be stored in the security module. During normal program execution, the security module is designed to compare the real-time state of program with the information in the security module. If abnormal, it will trigger the appropriate security response, suspend the program and jump to the specified location. The module has been tested and validated on the SOPC with OR1200 processor. The experimental analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can defence a wide range of common software and physical attacks with low performance penalties and minimal overheads.

  9. Educating Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one’s life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children’s everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. PMID:27906522

  10. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A.E.; Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt; Ferreira, José M.F.; Pullar, Robert C., E-mail: rpullar@ua.pt

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90 °C), drying temperature (60 and 80 °C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700 °C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH 7.5 and calcined at 400 °C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, TCP) were produced at pH 5.5 and (pH 7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1 h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. - Highlights: • Fast, novel sol-gel synthesis of HAp nanopowders, requiring just 1 h for drying • A much shortened process, 200 times faster than the usual slow drying/ageing times • Compares rapidly produced HAp with that from a typical 216 h drying/ageing process • Both methods produce very similar products, but rapid HAp had a larger surface area. • Both methods produced pure HAp at 400 °C, and a HAp/TCP mix at 700 °C.

  11. Analysis of bluetooth and wi-fi technology to measure wait times of personal vehicles at Arizona-Mexico ports of entry : [executive summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT), Office of P3 Initiatives and International : Affairs selected Lee Engineering to analyze the penetration rate of Anonymous Re-Identification : (ARID) technology to measure wait time of U.S. and Mexico ...

  12. Heat transfer analytical models for the rapid determination of cooling time in crystalline thermoplastic injection molding and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Delaunay; Baptiste, Pignon; Nicolas, Boyard; Vincent, Sobotka

    2018-05-01

    Heat transfer during the cooling of a thermoplastic injected part directly affects the solidification of the polymer and consequently the quality of the part in term of mechanical properties, geometric tolerance and surface aspect. This paper proposes to mold designers a methodology based on analytical models to provide quickly the time to reach the ejection temperature depending of the temperature and the position of cooling channels. The obtained cooling time is the first step of the thermal conception of the mold. The presented methodology is dedicated to the determination of solidification time of a semi-crystalline polymer slab. It allows the calculation of the crystallization time of the part and is based on the analytical solution of the Stefan problem in a semi-infinite medium. The crystallization is then considered as a phase change with an effective crystallization temperature, which is obtained from Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC) results. The crystallization time is then corrected to take the finite thickness of the part into account. To check the accuracy of such approach, the solidification time is calculated by solving the heat conduction equation coupled to the crystallization kinetics of the polymer. The impact of the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold is evaluated. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) appears as significant parameter that needs to be taken into account in the cooling time calculation. The results of the simplified model including or not TCR are compared in the case of a polypropylene (PP) with experiments carried out with an instrumented mold. Then, the methodology is applied for a part made with PolyEtherEtherKetone (PEEK).

  13. Online extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for rapid flavonoid profiling of Fructus aurantii immaturus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Runna; Peng, Mijun; Tong, Chaoying; Guo, Keke; Shi, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    Chemical profiling of natural products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was critical for understanding of their clinical bioactivities, and sample pretreatment steps have been considered as a bottleneck for analysis. Currently, concerted efforts have been made to develop sample pretreatment methods with high efficiency, low solvent and time consumptions. Here, a simple and efficient online extraction (OLE) strategy coupled with HPLC-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was developed for rapid chemical profiling. For OLE strategy, guard column inserted with ground sample (2 mg) instead of sample loop was connected with manual injection valve, in which components were directly extracted and transferred to HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system only by mobile phase without any extra time, solvent, instrument and operation. By comparison with offline heat-reflux extraction for Fructus aurantii immaturus (Zhishi), OLE strategy presented higher extraction efficiency perhaps because of the high pressure and gradient elution mode. A total of eighteen flavonoids were detected according to their retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and compound 9, natsudaidain-3-O-glucoside, was discovered in Zhishi for the first time. It is concluded that the developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection and characterization of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in returned travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Gabriella A; Soeller, Rainer; Zhong, Kathleen; Zahirieh, Alireza; Kain, Kevin C

    2006-03-01

    Imported drug-resistant malaria is a growing problem in industrialized countries. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent malaria-associated mortality in returned travelers. However, outside of a limited number of specialized centers, the microscopic diagnosis of malaria is slow, unreliable, and provides little information about drug resistance. Molecular diagnostics have the potential to overcome these limitations. We developed and evaluated a rapid, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Plasmodium falciparum malaria and chloroquine (CQ)-resistance determinants in returned travelers who are febrile. A real-time PCR assay based on detection of the K76T mutation in PfCRT (K76T) of P. falciparum was developed on a LightCycler platform (Roche). The performance characteristics of the real-time assay were compared with those of the nested PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) and the sequence analyses of samples obtained from 200 febrile returned travelers, who included 125 infected with P. falciparum (48 of whom were infected CQ-susceptible [K76] and 77 of whom were CQ-resistant [T76] P. falciparum), 22 infected with Plasmodium vivax, 10 infected with Plasmodium ovale, 3 infected with Plasmodium malariae malaria, and 40 infected with other febrile syndromes. All patient samples were coded, and all analyses were performed blindly. The real-time PCR assay detected multiple pfcrt haplotypes associated with CQ resistance in geographically diverse malaria isolates acquired by travelers. Compared with nested-PCR RFLP (the reference standard), the real-time assay was 100% sensitive and 96.2% specific for detection of the P. falciparum K76T mutation. This assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific for the detection and characterization of CQ-resistant P. falciparum malaria in returned travelers. This assay is automated, standardized, and suitable for routine use in clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  15. Optical sensor system for time-resolved quantification of methane concentrations: Validation measurements in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Stephan; Golibrzuch, Kai; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Fendt, Peter; Zigan, Lars; Seefeldt, Stefan; Thiele, Olaf; Berg, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Lowering greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most challenging demands of today's society. Especially, the automotive industry struggles with the development of more efficient internal combustion (IC) engines. As an alternative to conventional fuels, methane has the potential for a significant emission reduction. In methane fuelled engines, the process of mixture formation, which determines the properties of combustion after ignition, differs significantly from gasoline and diesel engines and needs to be understood and controlled in order to develop engines with high efficiency. This work demonstrates the development of a gas sensing system that can serve as a diagnostic tool for measuring crank-angle resolved relative air-fuel ratios in methane-fuelled near-production IC engines. By application of non-dispersive infrared absorption spectroscopy at two distinct spectral regions in the ν3 absorption band of methane around 3.3 μm, the system is able to determine fuel density and temperature simultaneously. A modified spark plug probe allows for straightforward application at engine test stations. Here, the application of the detection system in a rapid compression machine is presented, which enables validation and characterization of the system on well-defined gas mixtures under engine-like dynamic conditions. In extension to a recent proof-of-principle study, a refined data analysis procedure is introduced that allows the correction of artefacts originating from mechanical distortions of the sensor probe. In addition, the measured temperatures are compared to data obtained with a commercially available system based on the spectrally resolved detection of water absorption in the near infrared.

  16. A new real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of the S. aureus/MRSA strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with the livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA are of great interest to scientists and general public. The aim of our study was to present a new more rapid and reliable diagnostic method working on the RT-PCR platform applicable for monitoring of MRSA/S. aureus. The parallel testing of the S. aureus specific nuc gene sequence and the mecA gene sequence was utilised for this purpose. A collection of ten S. aureus/MRSA reference strains, fifteen genetically related non S. aureus reference strains and fifty-six environmental samples was employed for estimation of the assay performance and parameters. The environmental samples acquired in the Czech livestock farms were represented with the livestock and human nasal mucosae or skin swabs, the slaughter meat swabs and were chosen preferentially from individuals with previously confi rmed or suspected positive MRSA/S. aureus cases. The classic selective cultivation approach with the biochemical test and agar disk diffusion test was accepted as reference diagnostic method. As there were no culture positive samples that were negative using RT-PCR, our method featured with 100% sensitivity in comparison to reference method. The limit of detection allowed to identify from tens to hundreds copies of S. aureus/MRSA genome. Further, the RT-PCR assay featured with 100% inclusivity and 95% exclusivity at Cq value below 30. These parameters suggested on powerful and reliable diagnostic method with real potential of practical utilisation. We consider our method as ideal for testing of individual suspected colonies, when the results can be acquired in less than 1.5 hour.

  17. A rapid learning and dynamic stepwise updating algorithm for flat neural networks and the application to time-series prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C P; Wan, J Z

    1999-01-01

    A fast learning algorithm is proposed to find an optimal weights of the flat neural networks (especially, the functional-link network). Although the flat networks are used for nonlinear function approximation, they can be formulated as linear systems. Thus, the weights of the networks can be solved easily using a linear least-square method. This formulation makes it easier to update the weights instantly for both a new added pattern and a new added enhancement node. A dynamic stepwise updating algorithm is proposed to update the weights of the system on-the-fly. The model is tested on several time-series data including an infrared laser data set, a chaotic time-series, a monthly flour price data set, and a nonlinear system identification problem. The simulation results are compared to existing models in which more complex architectures and more costly training are needed. The results indicate that the proposed model is very attractive to real-time processes.

  18. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  19. [Rapid screening the alkaloids of poppy shell in hot pot condiment, beef noodle soup and seasoning by direct analysis in real time-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lihong; Xie, Yingshuang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Chunni; Zhang, Huan

    2017-07-08

    A direct analysis in real time tandem mass spectrometry (DART-MS/MS) method was established for quickly screening five illegally added alkaloids of poppy shell from the hot pot condiment, beef noodle soup and seasoning. The samples were extracted and purified by acetonitrile, and then injected under the conditions of ionization temperature of 300℃, grid electrode voltage of 150 V and sampling rate of 0.8 mm/s using DART in the positive ion mode. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method is simple and rapid, and can meet the requirement of rapid screening and analysis of large quantities of samples.

  20. The coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography and field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Diehl, John W; Dechert, Gary J; DiSanzo, Frank P

    2004-01-01

    We report the first coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with field ionization time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (FI-ToF HRMS), in parallel with ultraviolet (UV) detection and flame ionization detection (FID), for rapid and quantitative analysis of petroleum middle distillates. SFC separates petroleum middle distillates into saturates and 1- to 3-ring aromatics. FI generates molecular ions for hydrocarbon species eluted from the SFC. The high resolution and exact mass measurements by ToF mass spectrometry provide elemental compositions of the molecules in the petroleum product. The amounts of saturates and aromatic ring types were quantified using the parallel SFC-FID assisted by SFC-UV. With a proper carbon-number calibration, the detailed composition of the petroleum middle distillate was rapidly determined.

  1. MIV Project: Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Neefs, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report gives an executive summary of the achievements and results from the project....

  2. A study of response time of pitot pressure probes designed for rapid response and protection of transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    An eight orifice probe, designed to protect the transducer without the use of a baffle, was compared to a standard orifice-baffle probe in the small shock tube and in the expansion tube under normal run conditions. In both facilities, the response time of eight orifice probe was considerable better than the standard probe design.

  3. EVALUATION OF A RAPID, QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR METHOD FOR ENUMERATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDA CELLS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan?) chemistry, was developed for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C....

  4. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da, E-mail: deciobr@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: cdsilva@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Departamento DDD.O - Física de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  5. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  6. The Study of the Differences of Attention Bias, Executive Functioning, and Reaction Time of Amphetamine Consumers in Comparison of Non Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaldin Ghasemi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Addiction to opium can be resulted to different effects. Current research designed in order to comprise if neuro-psychological functions among Amphetamine consumers and normal people. Method: Research design was causal-comparative design which performed in consumers and normal people. Research population was all opium consumers of Bahar city. Addict group included of 33 Amphetamine consumers who were referred to Baharestan addiction withdrawal center by snowball sampling. The comparison group included 39 normal people that matched with addict group with consideration of age, sex, education. All samples were studied by technical management of center and by using of perceptual diagnostic tests. Wisconsin cards, reaction time tests (simple, diagnostic, and selective and attention bias (Stroop was used. Results: the results of the research indicated that Amphetamine consumers were significantly different with normal people in consideration of error number, but there wasn’t significant difference on error in Wisconsin test. In reaction time Amphetamine consumers had least reaction time and highest number of errors, in three states. In simple trial there weren’t significant difference, but two groups were significant different in selective and diagnostic trial on time and number of errors. Also, there wasn’t significant difference on attention bias with consideration of error, but there was significant difference with consideration of time. Conclusion: on the basis of results it can be claimed Amphetamine consumption can be affected on neuro-cognitive functions. Identifying and understanding of these factors can be useful in better understanding of problem, and can be led to different therapeutic treatment.

  7. Renewal and change for health care executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, G C; Bice, M O

    1991-01-01

    Health care executives must consider renewal and change within their own lives if they are to breathe life into their own institutions. Yet numerous barriers to executive renewal exist, including time pressures, fatigue, cultural factors, and trustee attitudes. This essay discusses such barriers and suggests approaches that health care executives may consider for programming renewal into their careers. These include self-assessment for professional and personal goals, career or job change, process vs. outcome considerations, solitude, networking, lifelong education, surrounding oneself with change agents, business travel and sabbaticals, reading outside the field, physical exercise, mentoring, learning from failures, a sense of humor, spiritual reflection, and family and friends. Renewal is a continuous, lifelong process requiring constant learning. Individual executives would do well to develop a framework for renewal in their careers and organizations.

  8. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk and soft cheese by a redox potential measurement based method combined with real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdősi, Orsolya; Szakmár, Katalin; Reichart, Olivér; Szili, Zsuzsanna; László, Noémi; Székely Körmöczy, Péter; Laczay, Péter

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis has indicated the need for a reliable and rapid detection of the microbe in different foodstuffs. A method combining redox potential measurement and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated raw milk and soft cheese. Food samples of 25 g or 25 ml were homogenised in 225 ml of Listeria Enrichment Broth (LEB) with Oxford supplement, and the redox potential measurement technique was applied. For Listeria species the measuring time was maximum 34 h. The absence of L. monocytogenes could reliably be proven by the redox potential measurement method, but Listeria innocua and Bacillus subtilis could not be differentiated from L. monocytogenes on the basis of the redox curves. The presence of L. monocytogenes had to be confirmed by real-time PCR. The combination of these two methods proved to detect < 10 cfu/g of L. monocytogenes in a cost- and time-effective manner. This method can potentially be used as an alternative to the standard nutrient method for the rapid detection of L. monocytogenes in food.

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION Time-resolved measurements with a vortex flowmeter in a pulsating turbulent flow using wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurantzon, F.; Örlü, R.; Segalini, A.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Vortex flowmeters are commonly employed in technical applications and are obtainable in a variety of commercially available types. However their robustness and accuracy can easily be impaired by environmental conditions, such as inflow disturbances and/or pulsating conditions. Various post-processing techniques of the vortex signal have been used, but all of these methods are so far targeted on obtaining an improved estimate of the time-averaged bulk velocity. Here, on the other hand, we propose, based on wavelet analysis, a straightforward way to utilize the signal from a vortex shedder to extract the time-resolved and thereby the phase-averaged velocity under pulsatile flow conditions. The method was verified with hot-wire and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements.

  10. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for flowering time in broccoli × cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2018-04-01

    A major QTL controlling early flowering in broccoli × cabbage was identified by marker analysis and next-generation sequencing, corresponding to GRF6 gene conditioning flowering time in Arabidopsis. Flowering is an important agronomic trait for hybrid production in broccoli and cabbage, but the genetic mechanism underlying this process is unknown. In this study, segregation analysis with BC 1 P1, BC 1 P2, F 2 , and F 2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines "195" (late-flowering) and "93219" (early flowering) suggested that flowering time is a quantitative trait. Next, employing a next-generation sequencing-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy, we identified a major genomic region harboring a robust flowering time QTL using an F 2 mapping population, designated Ef2.1 on cabbage chromosome 2 for early flowering. Ef2.1 was further validated by indel (insertion or deletion) marker-based classical QTL mapping, explaining 51.5% (LOD = 37.67) and 54.0% (LOD = 40.5) of the phenotypic variation in F 2 and F 2:3 populations, respectively. Combined QTL-seq and classical QTL analysis narrowed down Ef1.1 to a 228-kb genomic region containing 29 genes. A cabbage gene, Bol024659, was identified in this region, which is a homolog of GRF6, a major gene regulating flowering in Arabidopsis, and was designated BolGRF6. qRT-PCR study of the expression level of BolGRF6 revealed significantly higher expression in the early flowering genotypes. Taken together, our results provide support for BolGRF6 as a possible candidate gene for early flowering in the broccoli line 93219. The identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding to improve broccoli and cabbage flowering times.

  11. Rapid Diversification and Time Explain Amphibian Richness at Different Scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth's Most Biodiverse Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Wiens, John J

    2017-12-01

    The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales. At larger scales (among regions and families), we find that faster diversification rates in Andean clades most likely explain high Andean richness. In contrast, at smaller temporal and spatial scales (within family-level clades within the Andes), diversification rates rarely explain richness patterns. Instead, we show that colonization times are important for shaping elevational richness patterns within the Andes, with more species found in habitats colonized earlier. We suggest that these scale-dependent patterns might apply to many other richness gradients. Recognition of this scale dependence may help to reconcile conflicting results among studies of richness patterns across habitats, regions, and organisms.

  12. Differential Relationships between RAN Performance, Behaviour Ratings, and Executive Function Measures: Searching for a Double Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between rapid naming of letters, digits and colours, and reading ability and executive function. We gave fifty-six grade three and four children rapid automatised naming tasks using letters and digits as stimuli, executive function measures including the Stroop task, a working memory task and the…

  13. An accurate and rapid continuous wavelet dynamic time warping algorithm for unbalanced global mapping in nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-12-24

    Long-reads, point-of-care, and PCR-free are the promises brought by nanopore sequencing. Among various steps in nanopore data analysis, the global mapping between the raw electrical current signal sequence and the expected signal sequence from the pore model serves as the key building block to base calling, reads mapping, variant identification, and methylation detection. However, the ultra-long reads of nanopore sequencing and an order of magnitude difference in the sampling speeds of the two sequences make the classical dynamic time warping (DTW) and its variants infeasible to solve the problem. Here, we propose a novel multi-level DTW algorithm, cwDTW, based on continuous wavelet transforms with different scales of the two signal sequences. Our algorithm starts from low-resolution wavelet transforms of the two sequences, such that the transformed sequences are short and have similar sampling rates. Then the peaks and nadirs of the transformed sequences are extracted to form feature sequences with similar lengths, which can be easily mapped by the original DTW. Our algorithm then recursively projects the warping path from a lower-resolution level to a higher-resolution one by building a context-dependent boundary and enabling a constrained search for the warping path in the latter. Comprehensive experiments on two real nanopore datasets on human and on Pandoraea pnomenusa, as well as two benchmark datasets from previous studies, demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In particular, cwDTW can almost always generate warping paths that are very close to the original DTW, which are remarkably more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods including FastDTW and PrunedDTW. Meanwhile, on the real nanopore datasets, cwDTW is about 440 times faster than FastDTW and 3000 times faster than the original DTW. Our program is available at https://github.com/realbigws/cwDTW.

  14. Rapid analysis of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Pennings, Ed J M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2014-04-15

    Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R(2)  = 0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse. Copyright

  15. Executions in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofquist, William Steele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The stories of those who have been executed in the Bahamas are heretofore untold. In telling these stories and in linking them to the changing course of Bahamian history, the present research adds an important dimension to our understanding of Bahamian history and politics. The major theme of this effort is that the changing practice of the death penalty is much more than a consequence of changes in crime. The use of the death penalty parallels the changing interests of colonial rulers, the changing practice of slavery, and the changing role of the Bahamas in colonial and regional affairs. Four distinctive eras of death penalty practice can be identified: (1 the slave era, where executions and commutations were used liberally and with a clear racial patterning; (2 a long era of stable colonialism, a period of marginalization and few executions; (3 an era of unstable colonialism characterized by intensive and efficient use of the death penalty; and (4 the current independence era of high murder rates and equally high impediments to the use of executions.

  16. School Executive Website Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The School Executive Website will be a one-stop, online site for officials who are looking for educational data, best practices, product reviews, school documents, professional opinions, and/or job-related networking. The format of the website is designed in certain sections similar to other current and popular websites, such as Angie's List.com,…

  17. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  18. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  19. Acute Postexercise Time Course Responses of Hypertrophic vs. Power-Endurance Squat Exercise Protocols on Maximal and Rapid Torque of the Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchola, Eric C; Thiele, Ryan M; Palmer, Ty B; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a medium-intensity high-volume vs. explosive squat protocol on the postexercise time course responses of maximal and rapid strength of the knee extensors. Seventeen resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 2.6 years) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors before and after performing a squat workout using either a low-intensity fast velocity (LIFV) (5 × 16 at 40% 1 repetition maximum) or a traditional high-intensity slow velocity (TISV) (5 × 8 at 80% 1RM) exercise protocol. For each MVC, peak torque (PT), peak rate of torque development (RTDpeak), absolute (RTDabs), and relative RTD (RTDnorm) at early (0-50 milliseconds) and late (100-200 milliseconds) phases of muscle contraction were examined at pre- (Pre) and post-exercise at 0, 7, 15, and 30 (Post0...30) minutes. There were no intensity × time interactions for any variables (p = 0.098-0.832). Peak torque was greater at Pre than Post0 and Post7 (p = 0.001-0.016) but was not greater than Post15 and Post30 (p = 0.010-0.189). RTDpeak and early absolute RTD (RTD50abs) were greater at Pre than all postexercise time phases (p = 0.001-0.050); however, later absolute RTD (RTD100-200abs) was only greater at Pre than Post0 and Post30 (p = 0.013-0.048). Early relative RTD (RTD50norm) was only higher at Pre compared with Post0 (p = 0.023), whereas no differences were observed for later relative RTD (RTD100-200norm) (p = 0.920-0.990). Low-intensity fast velocity and TISV squat protocols both yielded acute decreases in maximal and rapid strength capacities following free-weight squats, with rapid strength showing slower recovery characteristics than maximal strength.

  20. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A E; Salvado, Isabel M Miranda; Ferreira, José M F; Pullar, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90°C), drying temperature (60 and 80°C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700°C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH7.5 and calcined at 400°C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) were produced at pH5.5 and (pH7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Educating executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children's everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1403. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1403 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rapid "breath-print" of liver cirrhosis by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Morisco

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The aim of the present work was to test the potential of Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and the assessment of disease severity by direct analysis of exhaled breath. Twenty-six volunteers have been enrolled in this study: 12 patients (M/F 8/4, mean age 70.5 years, min-max 42-80 years with liver cirrhosis of different etiologies and at different severity of disease and 14 healthy subjects (M/F 5/9, mean age 52.3 years, min-max 35-77 years. Real time breath analysis was performed on fasting subjects using a buffered end-tidal on-line sampler directly coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS. Twelve volatile organic compounds (VOCs resulted significantly differently in cirrhotic patients (CP compared to healthy controls (CTRL: four ketones (2-butanone, 2- or 3- pentanone, C8-ketone, C9-ketone, two terpenes (monoterpene, monoterpene related, four sulphur or nitrogen compounds (sulfoxide-compound, S-compound, NS-compound, N-compound and two alcohols (heptadienol, methanol. Seven VOCs (2-butanone, C8-ketone, a monoterpene, 2,4-heptadienol and three compounds containing N, S or NS resulted significantly differently in compensate cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh A; CP-A and decompensated cirrhotic subjects (Child-Pugh B+C; CP-B+C. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed considering three contrast groups: CP vs CTRL, CP-A vs CTRL and CP-A vs CP-B+C. In these comparisons monoterpene and N-compound showed the best diagnostic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Breath analysis by PTR-ToF-MS was able to distinguish cirrhotic patients from healthy subjects and to discriminate those with well compensated liver disease from those at more advanced severity stage. A breath-print of liver cirrhosis was assessed for the first time.

  3. Time-resolved photoluminescence of Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum wells grown on Si substrate: Effects of rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woscholski, R., E-mail: ronja.woscholski@physik.uni-marburg.de; Shakfa, M.K.; Gies, S.; Wiemer, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Zimprich, M.; Reinhard, S.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Heimbrodt, W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.

    2016-08-31

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties and carrier dynamics in Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates. TR-PL measurements reveal an enhancement in the PL efficiency when the RTA temperature is increased up to 925 °C. Then, the PL intensity dramatically decreases with the annealing temperature. This behavior is explained by the variation of the disorder degree in the studied structures. The analysis of the low-temperature emission-energy-dependent PL decay time enables us to characterize the disorder in the Ga(NAsP) MQWHs. The theoretically extracted energy-scales of disorder confirm the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates • Impact of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties and carrier dynamics • Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied. • PL transients became continuously faster with increasing annealing temperature. • Enhancement in the PL efficiency with increasing annealing temperature up to 925 °C.

  4. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid phenolic profiling of red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunting; Seeram, Navindra P

    2018-03-07

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) species is economically important to North America because of its sap, which is used to produce maple syrup. In addition, various other red maple plant parts, including leaves, were used as a traditional medicine by the Native Americans. Currently, red maple leaves are being used for nutraceutical and cosmetic applications but there are no published analytical methods for comprehensive phytochemical characterization of this material. Herein, a rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the phenolics in a methanol extract of red maple leaves and a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract (Maplifa™). Time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry experiments led to the identification of 106 phenolic compounds in red maples leaves with the vast majority of these compounds also detected in Maplifa™. The compounds included 68 gallotannins, 25 flavonoids, gallic acid, quinic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and nine other gallic acid derivatives among which 11 are potentially new and 75 are being reported from red maple for the first time. The developed method to characterize red maple leaves phenolics is rapid and highly sensitive and could aid in future standardization and quality control of this botanical ingredient. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Time-resolved photoluminescence of Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum wells grown on Si substrate: Effects of rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woscholski, R.; Shakfa, M.K.; Gies, S.; Wiemer, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Zimprich, M.; Reinhard, S.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Heimbrodt, W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties and carrier dynamics in Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates. TR-PL measurements reveal an enhancement in the PL efficiency when the RTA temperature is increased up to 925 °C. Then, the PL intensity dramatically decreases with the annealing temperature. This behavior is explained by the variation of the disorder degree in the studied structures. The analysis of the low-temperature emission-energy-dependent PL decay time enables us to characterize the disorder in the Ga(NAsP) MQWHs. The theoretically extracted energy-scales of disorder confirm the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates • Impact of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties and carrier dynamics • Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied. • PL transients became continuously faster with increasing annealing temperature. • Enhancement in the PL efficiency with increasing annealing temperature up to 925 °C

  6. Changes in melatonin secretion in tourists after rapid movement to another lighting zone without transition of time zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Joanna; Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Morita, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research in the field of Chronobiology is focused on the problem of the circadian rhythms (CR) desynchronization. In travelers, it results mostly from the changes of surrounding: photoperiod, local climate conditions (radiation and thermal load) and behavior (e.g. type and place of tourism and activity level). Until now, it was not documented whether the changes in melatonin (MLT) secretion occur in effect of mid-distance transparallel travels (TpT), without complications arising due to time-zone transitions (e.g. jet-lag syndrome). To cope with this problem, a special field experiment was carried out. In the experiment, MLT characteristics were examined twice a year in real conditions through a group of young tourists (23-26 years old) at their place of habitual residence (Warsaw, Poland), and at their tourist destination (Tromso, Norway). Transition to circumpolar zone in summer has resulted in insignificant reduction in melatonin peak value (MPV) compared to preflight control (2 days before travel) and the melatonin peak time (MPT) was delayed. However, after traveling southward on the returning flight, MPV was lower compared to control and MPT was advanced. In winter, MPV was insignificantly higher in comparison to preflight control and MPT was almost unchanged. While changes in MPV do not depend on season, flight direction and day of stay after flight than MPT was differentiated seasonally and due to direction of flight. MPV and MPT were significantly modified by characteristics of individual light exposure during daytime and evening. The experiment showed also that in real conditions activity level is an important factor affected melatonin peak in tourists. In winter, greater daytime activity significantly influenced earlier MPT occurrence, both after northward and southward flights.

  7. Rapid detection of Enterovirus and Coxsackievirus A10 by a TaqMan based duplex one-step real time RT-PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Zhang, Rusheng; Ou, Xinhua; Yao, Dong; Huang, Zheng; Li, Linzhi; Sun, Biancheng

    2017-06-01

    A TaqMan based duplex one-step real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid detection of Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) and other enterovirus (EVs) in clinical samples. The assay was fully evaluated and found to be specific and sensitive. When applied in 115 clinical samples, a 100% diagnostic sensitivity in CV-A10 detection and 97.4% diagnostic sensitivity in other EVs were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related differences in lower-limb force-time relation during the push-off in rapid voluntary stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, I; Krasovsky, T; Oddsson, L I E; Liebermann, D G

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the force-time relationship during the push-off stage of a rapid voluntary step in young and older healthy adults, to study the assumption that when balance is lost a quick step may preserve stability. The ability to achieve peak propulsive force within a short time is critical for the performance of such a quick powerful step. We hypothesized that older adults would achieve peak force and power in significantly longer times compared to young people, particularly during the push-off preparatory phase. Fifteen young and 15 older volunteers performed rapid forward steps while standing on a force platform. Absolute anteroposterior and body weight normalized vertical forces during the push-off in the preparation and swing phases were used to determine time to peak and peak force, and step power. Two-way analyses of variance ('Group' [young-older] by 'Phase' [preparation-swing]) were used to assess our hypothesis (P ≤ 0.05). Older people exerted lower peak forces (anteroposterior and vertical) than young adults, but not necessarily lower peak power. More significantly, they showed a longer time to peak force, particularly in the vertical direction during the preparation phase. Older adults generate propulsive forces slowly and reach lower magnitudes, mainly during step preparation. The time to achieve a peak force and power, rather than its actual magnitude, may account for failures in quickly performing a preventive action. Such delay may be associated with the inability to react and recruit muscles quickly. Thus, training elderly to step fast in response to relevant cues may be beneficial in the prevention of falls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography via a multiecho radial trajectory and GraDeS reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory R; Seiberlich, Nicole; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Carroll, Timothy J; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is challenging due to the need for both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multishot trajectory composed of pseudo-random rotations of a single multiecho radial readout was developed. The trajectory is designed to give incoherent aliasing artifacts and a relatively uniform distribution of projections over all time scales. A field map (computed from the same data set) is used to avoid signal dropout in regions of substantial field inhomogeneity. A compressed sensing reconstruction using the GraDeS algorithm was used. Whole brain angiograms were reconstructed at 1-mm isotropic resolution and a 1.1-s frame rate (corresponding to an acceleration factor > 100). The only parameter which must be chosen is the number of iterations of the GraDeS algorithm. A larger number of iterations improves the temporal behavior at cost of decreased image signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting images provide a good depiction of the cerebral vasculature and have excellent arterial/venous separation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A rapid real-time PCR method to differentiate between mottled skate (Beringraja pulchra) and other skate and ray species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ra; Kwon, Kisung; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2018-07-30

    Skates and rays are commercially important fish in South Korea, and among them, Beringraja pulchra has the highest economic value. However, the similar morphological traits among skates and rays are often exploited for seafood fraud. Here, we designed both Beringraja pulchra-specific and skate-universal primer sets, capable of detecting short sequences in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, and developed highly sensitive and reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to differentiate between Beringraja pulchra and other skate and ray species. AΔCq method based on differences in the amplification efficiency was developed, validated, and then used to confirm the presence of Beringraja pulchra in twenty-six commercial skate products. The averageΔCq value obtained for other skate species (18.94 ± 3.46) was significantly higher than that of Beringraja pulchra (1.18 ± 0.15). For on-site applications, we developed an ultra-fast qPCR assay, allowing for completion of the entire analytical procedure within 30 min. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time RPA assay for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies and gE-deleted vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Pang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2018-02-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a dual real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay using exo probes for the detection and differentiation of pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific RPA primers and probes were designed for gB and gE genes of PRV within the conserved region of viral genome. The reaction process can be completed in 20 min at 39 °C. The dual real-time RPA assay performed in the single tube was capable of specific detecting and differentiating of the wild-type PRV and gE-deleted vaccine strains, without cross-reactions with other non-targeted pig viruses. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 2 copies for gB and gE genes. The dual real-time RPA demonstrated a 100% diagnostic agreement with the real-time PCR on 4 PRV strains and 37 clinical samples. Through the linear regression analysis, the R 2 value of the real-time RPA and the real-time PCR for gB and gE was 0.983 and 0.992, respectively. The dual real-time RPA assay provides an alternative useful tool for rapid, simple, and reliable detection and differentiation of PRV, especially in remote and rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality circles: the nurse executive as mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarey, D L

    1991-12-01

    Changes within and around the health care environment are forcing health care executives to reexamine their managerial and leadership styles to confront the resulting turbulence. The nurse executive is charged with the profound responsibility of directing the delivery of nursing care throughout the organization. Care delivered today must be of high quality. Declining financial resources as well as personnel shortages cause the executive to be an effective innovator in meeting the increasing demands. Quality circles offer the nurse executive an avenue of recourse. Circles have been effectively implemented in the health care setting, as has been consistently documented over time. By way of a participative management approach, quality circles may lead to increased employee morale and productivity, cost savings, and decreased employee turnover rates, as well as realization of socialization and self-actualization needs. A most effective approach to their introduction would be implementation at the first-line manager level. This promotes an acceptance of the concept at the management level as well as a training course for managers to implement the process at the unit level. The nurse executive facilitates the process at the first-line manager level. This facilitation will cause a positive outcome to diffuse throughout the entire organization. Quality circles offer the nurse executive the opportunity to challenge the existing environmental turmoil and effect a positive and lasting change.

  13. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  14. CLASP/SJ Observations of Rapid Time Variations in the Ly α Emission in a Solar Active Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252–5210 (Japan); Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Bando, Takamasa [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Trujillo Bueno, Javier [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Auchère, Frédéric, E-mail: s.ishikawa@solar.isas.jaxa.jp [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bätiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-09-10

    The Chromospheric Ly α SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket experiment launched on 2015 September 3 to investigate the solar chromosphere and transition region. The slit-jaw (SJ) optical system captured Ly α images with a high time cadence of 0.6 s. From the CLASP/SJ observations, many variations in the solar chromosphere and transition region emission with a timescale of <1 minute were discovered. In this paper, we focus on the active region within the SJ field of view and investigate the relationship between short (<30 s) temporal variations in the Ly α emission and the coronal structures observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We compare the Ly α temporal variations at the coronal loop footpoints observed in the AIA 211 Å (≈2 MK) and AIA 171 Å (≈0.6 MK) channels with those in the regions with bright Ly α features without a clear association with the coronal loop footpoints. We find more short (<30 s) temporal variations in the Ly α intensity in the footpoint regions. Those variations did not depend on the temperature of the coronal loops. Therefore, the temporal variations in the Ly α intensity at this timescale range could be related to the heating of the coronal structures up to temperatures around the sensitivity peak of 171 Å. No signature was found to support the scenario that these Ly α intensity variations were related to the nanoflares. Waves or jets from the lower layers (lower chromosphere or photosphere) are possible causes for this phenomenon.

  15. A simple method for rapid microbial identification from positive monomicrobial blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Ge, Mao-Cheng; Liu, Tsui-Ping; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2017-06-30

    Rapid identification of microbes in the bloodstream is crucial in managing septicemia because of its high disease severity, and direct identification from positive blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can shorten the turnaround time. Therefore, we developed a simple method for rapid microbiological identification from positive blood cultures by using MALDI-TOF MS. We modified previously developed methods to propose a faster, simpler and more economical method, which includes centrifugation and hemolysis. Specifically, our method comprises two-stage centrifugation with gravitational acceleration (g) at 600g and 3000g, followed by the addition of a lysis buffer and another 3000g centrifugation. In total, 324 monomicrobial bacterial cultures were identified. The success rate of species identification was 81.8%, which is comparable with other complex methods. The identification success rate was the highest for Gram-negative aerobes (85%), followed by Gram-positive aerobes (78.2%) and anaerobes (67%). The proposed method requires less than 10 min, costs less than US$0.2 per usage, and facilitates batch processing. We conclude that this method is feasible for clinical use in microbiology laboratories, and can serve as a reference for treatments or further complementary diagnostic testing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Rapid spectral and flux time variations in a solar burst observed at various dm-mm wavelengths and at hard x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zodivaz, A.M.; Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J.E.R.; Takakura, T.; Cliver, E.W.; Tapping, K.F.; Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA; National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario)

    1986-01-01

    A solar burst was observed with high sensitivity and time resolution at cm-mm wavelengths by two different radio observatories (Itapetinga and Algonquin), with high spectral time resolution at dm-mm wavelengths by patrol instruments (Sagamore Hill), and at hard x rays (HXM Hinotori). At the onset of the major burst time structure there was a rapid rise in the spectral turnover frequency (from 5 to 15 GHz), in about 10s, coincident to a reduction of the spectral index in the optically thin part of the spectrum. The burst maxima were not time coincident at the optically thin radio frequencies and at the different hard x ray energy ranges. The profiles at higher radio frequencies exhibited better time coincidence to the high energy x rays. The hardest x ray spectrum (-3) coincided with peak radio emission at the higher frequency (44 GHz). The event appeared to be built up by a first major injection of softer particles followed by other injections of harder particles. Ultrafast time structures were identified as superimposed on the burst emission at the cm-mm high sensitivity data at x rays, with predominant repetition rates ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 Hz

  17. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  19. WCET Analysis of Java Bytecode Featuring Common Execution Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Bent; Frost, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel tool for statically determining the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) of Java Bytecode-based programs called Tool for Execution Time Analysis of Java bytecode (TetaJ). This tool differentiates itself from existing tools by separating the individual constituents of the execution...... environment into independent components. The prime benefit is that it can be used for execution environments featuring common embedded processors and software implementations of the JVM. TetaJ employs a model checking approach for statically determining WCET where the Java program, the JVM, and the hardware...

  20. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  1. Skull reconstruction after resection of bone tumors in a single surgical time by the association of the techniques of rapid prototyping and surgical navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchieta, M V M; Salles, F A; Cassaro, B D; Quaresma, M M; Santos, B F O

    2016-10-01

    Presentation of a new cranioplasty technique employing a combination of two technologies: rapid prototyping and surgical navigation. This technique allows the reconstruction of the skull cap after the resection of a bone tumor in a single surgical time. The neurosurgeon plans the craniotomy previously on the EximiusMed software, compatible with the Eximius Surgical Navigator, both from the company Artis Tecnologia (Brazil). The navigator imports the planning and guides the surgeon during the craniotomy. The simulation of the bone fault allows the virtual reconstruction of the skull cap and the production of a personalized modelling mold using the Magics-Materialise (Belgium)-software. The mold and a replica of the bone fault are made by rapid prototyping by the company Artis Tecnologia (Brazil) and shipped under sterile conditions to the surgical center. The PMMA prosthesis is produced during the surgical act with the help of a hand press. The total time necessary for the planning and production of the modelling mold is four days. The precision of the mold is submillimetric and accurately reproduces the virtual reconstruction of the prosthesis. The production of the prosthesis during surgery takes until twenty minutes depending on the type of PMMA used. The modelling mold avoids contraction and dissipates the heat generated by the material's exothermic reaction in the polymerization phase. The craniectomy is performed with precision over the drawing made with the help of the Eximius Surgical Navigator, according to the planned measurements. The replica of the bone fault serves to evaluate the adaptation of the prosthesis as a support for the perforations and the placement of screws and fixation plates, as per the surgeon's discretion. This technique allows the adequate oncologic treatment associated with a satisfactory aesthetic result, with precision, in a single surgical time, reducing time and costs.

  2. ROUTING FINANCIAL FLOWS AT THE EXECUTION OF THE MUNICIPALITY BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Fedotova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of each administrative-territorial unit is an important factor in the economic development of the Russian Federation. In its turn, the effective execution of the budget at each level of the budget system is invariably topical, influencing the development of a system of both centralized and decentralized finance. The paramount characteristic of the organization of the budget execution of the municipality is an ability to ensure the timely and full execution of their commitments. There is a direct correlation of the budget process on both the revenue and expenditure sides. Cash gap in the local budget execution is actually quite common and, usually, inevitable, because revenues are coming unevenly during the financial year, budgetary expenditures are seasonal, and this threatens the execution of planned budgets; there is a need to raise funds. The article deals with the execution of the cash balance plan, cash flow at the single account of budget, debt and source of financing deficits. The analysis of financial flows in the execution of municipalities’ budget shows problems of execution of budget revenues and allows assessing the scale of emerging cash gaps. An outcome of the review consists in the recognition of an objective need to develop approaches to assessing the effectiveness of budget execution at all its stages and to implement the monitoring of the effectiveness of budget execution and timely effective measures for ensuring its high-quality.

  3. Executive Energy Leadership Academy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Energy Leadership Academy Executive Energy Leadership Academy NREL's Executive Energy Leadership Academy is a nationally renowned program that provides non-technical business, governmental, and foreground. Leadership Program The Leadership Program is designed for community and industry leaders with an

  4. Optimizing Hybrid Occlusion in Face-Jaw-Teeth Transplantation: A Preliminary Assessment of Real-Time Cephalometry as Part of the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution Workstation for Craniomaxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan J; Basafa, Ehsan; Hashemi, Sepehr; Grant, Gerald T; Liacouras, Peter; Susarla, Srinivas M; Otake, Yoshito; Santiago, Gabriel; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R

    2015-08-01

    The aesthetic and functional outcomes surrounding Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplantation have been suboptimal, often leading to posttransplant class II/III skeletal profiles, palatal defects, and "hybrid malocclusion." Therefore, a novel technology-real-time cephalometry-was developed to provide the surgical team instantaneous, intraoperative knowledge of three-dimensional dentoskeletal parameters. Mock face-jaw-teeth transplantation operations were performed on plastic and cadaveric human donor/recipient pairs (n = 2). Preoperatively, cephalometric landmarks were identified on donor/recipient skeletons using segmented computed tomographic scans. The computer-assisted planning and execution workstation tracked the position of the donor face-jaw-teeth segment in real time during the placement/inset onto recipient, reporting pertinent hybrid cephalometric parameters from any movement of donor tissue. The intraoperative data measured through real-time cephalometry were compared to posttransplant measurements for accuracy assessment. In addition, posttransplant cephalometric relationships were compared to planned outcomes to determine face-jaw-teeth transplantation success. Compared with postoperative data, the real-time cephalometry-calculated intraoperative measurement errors were 1.37 ± 1.11 mm and 0.45 ± 0.28 degrees for the plastic skull and 2.99 ± 2.24 mm and 2.63 ± 1.33 degrees for the human cadaver experiments. These results were comparable to the posttransplant relations to planned outcome (human cadaver experiment, 1.39 ± 1.81 mm and 2.18 ± 1.88 degrees; plastic skull experiment, 1.06 ± 0.63 mm and 0.53 ± 0.39 degrees). Based on this preliminary testing, real-time cephalometry may be a valuable adjunct for adjusting and measuring "hybrid occlusion" in face-jaw-teeth transplantation and other orthognathic surgical procedures.

  5. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the Controlled Semantic Cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers, Patterson, Jefferies, & Lambon Ralph, 2015), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task- appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive...

  6. Rapid screening and quantification of residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in red wine by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianyang; Fang, Pingping; Jiang, Juanjuan; Zhang, Feng; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-11-04

    A rapid method to screen and quantify multi-class analytic targets in red wine has been developed by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS). A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was used for increasing analytical speed and reducing matrix effect, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in DART-MS/MS ensured accurate analysis. One bottle of wine containing 50 pesticides and 12 adulterants, i.e., preservatives, antioxidant, sweeteners, and azo dyes, could be totally determined less than 12min. This method exhibited proper linearity (R 2 ≥0.99) in the range of 1-1000ng/mL for pesticides and 10-5000ng/mL for adulterants. The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in a 0.5-50ng/mL range for pesticides and 5-50ng/mL range for adulterants, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in a 1-100ng/mL range for pesticides and 10-250ng/mL range for adulterants. Three spiked levels for each analyte in wine were evaluated, and the recoveries were in a scope of 75-120%. The results demonstrated DART-MS/MS was a rapid and simple method, and could be applied to rapid analyze residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in a large quantities of red wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  8. Development of a rapid and simplified protocol for direct bacterial identification from positive blood cultures by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljev, Aleksandra; Bergh, Kåre

    2015-11-06

    Bloodstream infections represent serious conditions carrying a high mortality and morbidity rate. Rapid identification of microorganisms and prompt institution of adequate antimicrobial therapy is of utmost importance for a successful outcome. Aiming at the development of a rapid, simplified and efficient protocol, we developed and compared two in-house preparatory methods for the direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture flasks (BD BACTEC FX system) by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). Both methods employed saponin and distilled water for erythrocyte lysis. In method A the cellular pellet was overlaid with formic acid on the MALDI TOF target plate for protein extraction, whereas in method B the pellet was exposed to formic acid followed by acetonitrile prior to placing on the target plate. Best results were obtained by method A. Direct identification was achieved for 81.9 % and 65.8 % (50.3 % and 26.2 % with scores >2.0) of organisms by method A and method B, respectively. Overall concordance with final identification was 100 % to genus and 97.9 % to species level. By applying a lower cut-off score value, the levels of identification obtained by method A and method B increased to 89.3 % and 77.8 % of organisms (81.9 % and 65.8 % identified with scores >1.7), respectively. Using the lowered score criteria, concordance with final results was obtained for 99.3 % of genus and 96.6 % of species identifications. The reliability of results, rapid performance (approximately 25 min) and applicability of in-house method A have contributed to implementation of this robust and cost-effective method in our laboratory.

  9. A locked nucleic acid (LNA-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid detection of multiple bacterial antibiotic resistance genes directly from positive blood culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains resistant to various antibiotic drugs are frequently encountered in clinical infections, and the rapid identification of drug-resistant strains is highly essential for clinical treatment. We developed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (LNA-qPCR method for the rapid detection of 13 antibiotic resistance genes and successfully used it to distinguish drug-resistant bacterial strains from positive blood culture samples. A sequence-specific primer-probe set was designed, and the specificity of the assays was assessed using 27 ATCC bacterial strains and 77 negative blood culture samples. No cross-reaction was identified among bacterial strains and in negative samples, indicating 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the assays was determined by spiking each bacterial strain into negative blood samples, and the detection limit was 1-10 colony forming units (CFU per reaction. The LNA-qPCR assays were first applied to 72 clinical bacterial isolates for the identification of known drug resistance genes, and the results were verified by the direct sequencing of PCR products. Finally, the LNA-qPCR assays were used for the detection in 47 positive blood culture samples, 19 of which (40.4% were positive for antibiotic resistance genes, showing 91.5% consistency with phenotypic susceptibility results. In conclusion, LNA-qPCR is a reliable method for the rapid detection of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and can be used as a supplement to phenotypic susceptibility testing for the early detection of antimicrobial resistance to allow the selection of appropriate antimicrobial treatment and to prevent the spread of resistant isolates.

  10. A rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Young

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient high throughput screening systems of useful mutants are prerequisite for study of plant functional genomics and lots of application fields. Advance in such screening tools, thanks to the development of analytic instruments. Direct analysis in real-time (DART-mass spectrometry (MS by ionization of complex materials at atmospheric pressure is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical technique. Here we describe a rapid, simple method for the genetic discrimination of intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds using metabolic profiling by DART-MS. Results To determine whether this DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis can perform genetic discrimination based on global metabolic profiling, intact Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds were subjected to DART-MS without any sample preparation. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA of DART-MS spectral data from intact seeds classified 14 different lines of seeds into two distinct groups: Columbia (Col-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype backgrounds. A hierarchical dendrogram based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA subdivided the Col-0 ecotype into two groups: mutant lines harboring defects in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants without these defects. These results indicated that metabolic profiling with DART-MS could discriminate intact Arabidopsis seeds at least ecotype level and metabolic pathway level within same ecotype. Conclusion The described DART-MS combined by multivariate analysis allows for rapid screening and metabolic characterization of lots of Arabidopsis mutant seeds without complex metabolic preparation steps. Moreover, potential novel metabolic markers can be detected and used to clarify the genetic relationship between Arabidopsis cultivars. Furthermore this technique can be applied to predict the novel gene function of metabolic mutants regardless of morphological phenotypes.

  11. Real-Time Continuous Response Spectra Exceedance Calculation Displayed in a Web-Browser Enables Rapid and Robust Damage Evaluation by First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.; Skolnik, D. A.; Harvey, D.; Lindquist, K.

    2014-12-01

    A novel and robust approach is presented that provides near real-time earthquake alarms for critical structures at distributed locations and large facilities using real-time estimation of response spectra obtained from near free-field motions. Influential studies dating back to the 1980s identified spectral response acceleration as a key ground motion characteristic that correlates well with observed damage in structures. Thus, monitoring and reporting on exceedance of spectra-based thresholds are useful tools for assessing the potential for damage to facilities or multi-structure campuses based on input ground motions only. With as little as one strong-motion station per site, this scalable approach can provide rapid alarms on the damage status of remote towns, critical infrastructure (e.g., hospitals, schools) and points of interests (e.g., bridges) for a very large number of locations enabling better rapid decision making during critical and difficult immediate post-earthquake response actions. Details on the novel approach are presented along with an example implementation for a large energy company. Real-time calculation of PSA exceedance and alarm dissemination are enabled with Bighorn, an extension module based on the Antelope software package that combines real-time spectral monitoring and alarm capabilities with a robust built-in web display server. Antelope is an environmental data collection software package from Boulder Real Time Technologies (BRTT) typically used for very large seismic networks and real-time seismic data analyses. The primary processing engine produces continuous time-dependent response spectra for incoming acceleration streams. It utilizes expanded floating-point data representations within object ring-buffer packets and waveform files in a relational database. This leads to a very fast method for computing response spectra for a large number of channels. A Python script evaluates these response spectra for exceedance of one or more

  12. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis: a novel approach to rapid identification of analytical markers for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Wang, Yuefei; Mo, Huanbiao; Qu, Haibin

    2012-07-06

    The paper presents a novel strategy to identify analytical markers of traditional Chinese medicine preparation (TCMP) rapidly via direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). A commonly used TCMP, Danshen injection, was employed as a model. The optimal analysis conditions were achieved by measuring the contribution of various experimental parameters to the mass spectra. Salvianolic acids and saccharides were simultaneously determined within a single 1-min DART-MS run. Furthermore, spectra of Danshen injections supplied by five manufacturers were processed with principal component analysis (PCA). Obvious clustering was observed in the PCA score plot, and candidate markers were recognized from the contribution plots of PCA. The suitability of potential markers was then confirmed by contrasting with the results of traditional analysis methods. Using this strategy, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid A were rapidly identified as the markers of Danshen injections. The combination of DART-MS with PCA provides a reliable approach to the identification of analytical markers for quality control of TCMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Flaudrops, Christophe; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2010-11-12

    Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.

  14. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  15. Rapid identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Lindsay G; Drake, Steven K; Murray, Patrick R

    2010-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a rapid, accurate method for identifying bacteria and fungi recovered on agar culture media. We report herein a method for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 212 positive cultures were examined, representing 32 genera and 60 species or groups. The identification of bacterial isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was compared with biochemical testing, and discrepancies were resolved by gene sequencing. No identification (spectral score of blood culture broth. Of the bacteria with a spectral score of > or = 1.7, 162 (95.3%) of 170 isolates were correctly identified. All 8 isolates of Streptococcus mitis were misidentified as being Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. This method provides a rapid, accurate, definitive identification of bacteria within 1 h of detection in positive blood cultures with the caveat that the identification of S. pneumoniae would have to be confirmed by an alternative test.

  16. Rapid real-time PCR assay for culture and tissue identification of Geomyces destructans: the etiologic agent of bat geomycosis (white nose syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sudha; Rudd, Robert J; Davis, April; Victor, Tanya R; Li, Xiaojiang; Appler, Kim A; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2011-10-01

    Geomyces destructans is the etiologic agent of bat geomycosis, commonly referred to as white nose syndrome (WNS). This infection has caused severe morbidity and mortality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and has also spread to other bat species with significant decline in the populations. Currently, G. destructans infection is identified by culture, ITS-PCR, and histopathology. We hypothesized that a real-time PCR assay would considerably improve detection of G. destructans in bats. The 100 bp sequence of the Alpha-L-Rhamnosidase gene was validated as a target for real-time PCR. The assay sensitivity was determined from serial dilution of DNA extracted from G. destructans conidia (5 × 10(-1)-5 × 10(7)), and the specificity was tested using DNA from 30 closely and distantly related fungi and 5 common bacterial pathogens. The real-time PCR assay was highly sensitive with detection limit of two G. destructans conidia per reaction at 40 PCR cycles. The assay was also highly specific as none of the other fungal or bacterial DNA cross-reacted in the real-time PCR assay. One hundred and forty-seven bat tissue samples, suspected of infection with G. destructans, were used to compare the real-time PCR assay to other methods employed for the detection of G. destructans. Real-time PCR was highly sensitive with 80 of 147 (55%) samples testing positive for G. destructans DNA. In comparison, histopathology examination revealed 64/147 (44%) positive samples. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR yielded positive amplicon for G. destructans from 37 tissue samples (25%). The least sensitive assay was the fungal culture with only 17 tissue samples (12%) yielding G. destructans in culture. The data suggested that the real-time PCR assay is highly promising for rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of G. destructans. Further trials and inter-laboratory comparisons of this novel assay are recommended to improve the diagnosis of bat geomycosis.

  17. Générateur de timing local pour l'acquisition des transformateurs rapides (LEIR, LINAC 3, LINAC 2, Ligne d'injection PSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, J D

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre des acquisitions des transformateurs rapides des deux LINACS, de la ligne d'injection PSB et de la machine LEIR, un nouveau hardware a été mis en opération [1]. Celui-ci assure la digitalisation des signaux analogiques et aussi de certains signaux de timing devant cadrer la mesure. Pour ce faire des ADC SIS3300 (SIS3320) et des DPRAM 80408 sont mis en service. Ces unités nécéssitent pour leur fonctionnement des horloges et des timings qui normalement sont intégralement fournis par l'équipement standard CO, notamment des CTRV et autres TG8. Suite à des problèmes d'approvisionnement, il existe des cas où l'on ne dispose pas (du moins pour le court terme) de suffisemment de ressources standard pour pourvoir au timing mentionné plus haut. Le tiroir qui fait l'objet de la présente description assure, avec certaines limitations, la génération des timings et autres horloges utilisées par les DPRAM 80408 et les ADC SIS3300.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the MIT-SNL period-generated minimum time control laws for the rapid adjustment of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Kwok, K.S.; Menadier, P.T.; Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid adjustment of reactor neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. Designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws,' these relations are closed-form expressions of general applicability. In particular, if there is no limitation on the available rate of change of reactivity, these laws can be used to achieve virtually any desired power profile including time optimal ones. The innovative aspect of these laws is that the rate of change of reactivity rather than the reactivity itself is used as the control signal. For example, relative to a time-optimal response, these laws function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The response is time-optimal because the power adjustment is continuously made at the maximum allowed rate

  19. Non-invasive rapid harvest time determination of oil-producing microalgae cultivations for bio-diesel production by using Chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin eQiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, one of the key problems is the determination of the optimum time for algal harvest when algae cells are saturated with neutral lipids. In this study, a method to determine the optimum harvest time in oil-producing microalgal cultivations by measuring the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, also called Fv/Fm, was established. When oil-producing Chlorella strains were cultivated and then treated with nitrogen starvation, it not only stimulated neutral lipid accumulation, but also affected the photosynthesis system, with the neutral lipid contents in all four algae strains – Chlorella sorokiniana C1, Chlorella sp. C2, C. sorokiniana C3, C. sorokiniana C7 – correlating negatively with the Fv/Fm values. Thus, for the given oil-producing algae, in which a significant relationship between the neutral lipid content and Fv/Fm value under nutrient stress can be established, the optimum harvest time can be determined by measuring the value of Fv/Fm. It is hoped that this method can provide an efficient way to determine the harvest time rapidly and expediently in large-scale oil-producing microalgae cultivations for biodiesel production.

  20. Timing of deformation and rapid subsidence in the northern Altiplano, Peru: Insights from detrital zircon geochronology of the Ayaviri hinterland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Perez, N. D.; Saylor, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Although age constraints on crustal deformation and sediment accumulation prove critical to testing hypotheses of orogenic plateau construction, a common lack of marine facies, volcanic tuffs, and suitable fossils hinders many attempts at chronological reconstructions. A series of elevated retroarc basins along the axis of the Andean orogenic belt provide opportunities to define the timing of deformation and transformation from foreland to hinterland basin configurations. In this study, we present new U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in the Ayaviri intermontane basin of southern Peru (~4 km elevation) in the northern part of the central Andean (Altiplano) plateau. Nearly all sandstone samples show strong unimodal U-Pb age peaks (generally defined by > 5-50 zircons), suggesting these age peaks represent syndepositional volcanism and can be regarded as accurate estimates of true depositional (stratigraphic) age. Integration of these ages with structural and stratigraphic relationships demonstrate the utility of zircon U-Pb geochronology in defining both (1) the timing of basin partitioning and (2) the pace of sediment accumulation. (1) U-Pb ages for several sandstone samples from growth-strata packages associated with two basin-bounding faults reveal structural partitioning of the Ayaviri basin from late Oligocene to Miocene time. In the north, displacement along the southwest-directed Ayaviri thrust fault commenced in late Oligocene time (~28-24 Ma), inducing initial structural partitioning of an upper Eocene-Oligocene, > 5 km thick succession potentially representing an early Andean retroarc foreland basin. In the south, the Ayaviri basin was further disrupted by initial displacement along the northeast-directed Pasani thrust fault in early to middle Miocene time (~18-15 Ma). (2) Additional U-Pb analyses from the Ayaviri basin fill help delimit the long-term rates of sedimentation, suggesting relatively short-lived (< 5 Myr) pulses of accelerated accumulation. Rapid

  1. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective

  2. Repetitive thinking, executive functioning, and depressive mood in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Pierre; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Previous findings and the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis suggest that the established association between executive functioning and depression is accounted for by repetitive thinking. Investigating the association between executive functioning, repetitive thinking, and depressive mood, the present study empirically tested this mediational model in a sample of older adults, while focusing on both concrete and abstract repetitive thinking. This latter distinction is important given the potential protective role of concrete repetitive thinking, in contrast to the depletive effect of abstract repetitive thinking. A sample of 43 elderly volunteers, between 75 and 95 years of age, completed tests of executive functioning (the Stroop test, the Trail Making test, and the Fluency test), and questionnaires of repetitive thinking and depression. Positive correlations were observed between abstract repetitive thinking and depressive mood, and between concrete repetitive thinking and executive functioning; a negative correlation was observed between depressive mood and executive functioning. Further, mediational analysis evidenced that the relation between executive functioning and depressive mood was mediated by abstract repetitive thinking. The present data provide, for the first time, empirical support to the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis: the lack of executive resources would favor a mode of abstract repetitive thinking, which in turn would deplete mood. It suggests that clinical intervention targeting depression in the elderly should take into consideration repetitive thinking modes and the executive resources needed to disengage from rumination.

  3. Rapid determination of trace nitrophenolic organics in water by combining solid-phase extraction with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Shiea, J; Sunner, J

    2000-01-01

    A rapid technique for the screening of trace compounds in water by combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) with activated carbon surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry is demonstrated. Activated carbon is used both as the sorbent in SPE and as the solid in the SALDI matrix system. This eliminates the need for an SPE elution process. After the analytes have been adsorbed on the surfaces of the activated carbon during SPE extraction, the activated carbon is directly mixed with the SALDI liquid and mass spectrometric analysis is performed. Trace phenolic compounds in water were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The detection limit for these compounds is in the ppb to ppt range. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Rapid detection of most frequent Slovenian germ-line mutations in BRCA1 gene using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.; Stegel, V.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Detection of inherited mutations in cancer susceptibility genes is of great importance in some types of cancers including the colorectal cancer (mutations of APC gene in familial adenomatous polyposis - FAP, mutations in mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - HNPCC), malignant melanoma (mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 genes) and breast cancer (mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes). Methods. This article presents the technical data for the detection of five mutations in BRCA1 gene in breast cancer patients and their relatives. The mutations - 1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 310G>A, 5382insC - were determined by the real-time PCR and the melting curve analysis. Results and conclusion. In comparison to direct sequencing, this method proved to be sensitive and rapid enough for the routine daily determination of mutations in DNA isolated from the peripheral blood. (author)

  5. China's SOE Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Hubbard, Paul; Cai, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a database tracking the career of 1,250 top Chinese executives from 1,084 publicly-listed state-owned enterprises (SOEs), this article analyzes differences in career incentives for subsidiaries controlled by the central government compared to those controlled by local governments. It a...... of promotion. However, in the case of central SOE subsidiaries, leaders are more likely to be promoted based on financial performance. For both central and local 'direct' SOE groups age is a significant negative factor for promotion, whereas tenure is a significant positive factor....

  6. Creating high-resolution time series land-cover classifications in rapidly changing forested areas with BULC-U in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, J. A.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    With the opening of the Landsat archive, there is a dramatically increased potential for creating high-quality time series of land use/land-cover (LULC) classifications derived from remote sensing. Although LULC time series are appealing, their creation is typically challenging in two fundamental ways. First, there is a need to create maximally correct LULC maps for consideration at each time step; and second, there is a need to have the elements of the time series be consistent with each other, without pixels that flip improbably between covers due only to unavoidable, stray classification errors. We have developed the Bayesian Updating of Land Cover - Unsupervised (BULC-U) algorithm to address these challenges simultaneously, and introduce and apply it here for two related but distinct purposes. First, with minimal human intervention, we produced an internally consistent, high-accuracy LULC time series in rapidly changing Mato Grosso, Brazil for a time interval (1986-2000) in which cropland area more than doubled. The spatial and temporal resolution of the 59 LULC snapshots allows users to witness the establishment of towns and farms at the expense of forest. The new time series could be used by policy-makers and analysts to unravel important considerations for conservation and management, including the timing and location of past development, the rate and nature of changes in forest connectivity, the connection with road infrastructure, and more. The second application of BULC-U is to sharpen the well-known GlobCover 2009 classification from 300m to 30m, while improving accuracy measures for every class. The greatly improved resolution and accuracy permits a better representation of the true LULC proportions, the use of this map in models, and quantification of the potential impacts of changes. Given that there may easily be thousands and potentially millions of images available to harvest for an LULC time series, it is imperative to build useful algorithms

  7. Rapid and Specific Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Amplification of the YD-Repeat Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Duck Hwan; Ahn, Tae-Young; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, which causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious disease of cucurbit plants. The molecular and serological methods currently available for the detection of this pathogen are insufficiently sensitive and specific. Thus, a novel SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the YD-repeat protein gene of A. avenae subsp. citrulli was developed. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using DNA purified from 6 isolates of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 7 other Acidovorax species, and 22 of non-targeted strains, including pathogens and non-pathogens. The AC158F/R primer set amplified a single band of the expected size from genomic DNA obtained from the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains but not from the genomic DNA of other Acidovorax species, including that of other bacterial genera. Using this assay, it was possible to detect at least one genomeequivalents of the cloned amplified target DNA using 5 × 10(0) fg/μl of purified genomic DNA per reaction or using a calibrated cell suspension, with 6.5 colony-forming units per reaction being employed. In addition, this assay is a highly sensitive and reliable method for identifying and quantifying the target pathogen in infected samples that does not require DNA extraction. Therefore, we suggest that this approach is suitable for the rapid and efficient diagnosis of A. avenae subsp. citrulli contaminations of seed lots and plants.

  8. Hospital process intervals, not EMS time intervals, are the most important predictors of rapid reperfusion in EMS Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Carol Lynn; Berman, Aaron D; McHugh, Ann; Roe, Edward Jedd; Boura, Judith; Swor, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship of emergency medical services (EMS) intervals and internal hospital intervals to the rapid reperfusion of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We performed a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected database of STEMI patients transported to a large academic community hospital between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. EMS and hospital data intervals included EMS scene time, transport time, hospital arrival to myocardial infarction (MI) team activation (D2Page), page to catheterization laboratory arrival (P2Lab), and catheterization laboratory arrival to reperfusion (L2B). We used two outcomes: EMS scene arrival to reperfusion (S2B) ≤90 minutes and hospital arrival to reperfusion (D2B) ≤90 minutes. Means and proportions are reported. Pearson chi-square and multivariate regression were used for analysis. During the study period, we included 313 EMS-transported STEMI patients with 298 (95.2%) MI team activations. Of these STEMI patients, 295 (94.2%) were taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory and 244 (78.0%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). For the patients who underwent PCI, 127 (52.5%) had prehospital EMS activation, 202 (82.8%) had D2B ≤90 minutes, and 72 (39%) had S2B ≤90 minutes. In a multivariate analysis, hospital processes EMS activation (OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.7, 18.4], Page to Lab [6.7, 95% CI 2.3, 19.2] and Lab arrival to Reperfusion [18.5, 95% CI 6.1, 55.6]) were the most important predictors of Scene to Balloon ≤ 90 minutes. EMS scene and transport intervals also had a modest association with rapid reperfusion (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78, 0.93 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83, 0.95, respectively). In a secondary analysis, Hospital processes (Door to Page [OR 44.8, 95% CI 8.6, 234.4], Page 2 Lab [OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.9, 15.3], and Lab arrival to Reperfusion [OR 14.6 95% CI 2.5, 84.3]), but not EMS scene and transport intervals were the most important predictors D2B ≤90

  9. Embedding Temporal Constraints For Coordinated Execution in Habitat Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Schwabacher, Mark; Dalal, Michael; Fry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA plans call for long-duration deep space missions with human crews. Because of light-time delay and other considerations, increased autonomy will be needed. This will necessitate integration of tools in such areas as anomaly detection, diagnosis, planning, and execution. In this paper we investigate an approach that integrates planning and execution by embedding planner-derived temporal constraints in an execution procedure. To avoid the need for propagation, we convert the temporal constraints to dispatchable form. We handle some uncertainty in the durations without it affecting the execution; larger variations may cause activities to be skipped.

  10. Anti-deception: reliable EEG-based biometrics with real-time capability from the neural response of face rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qunjian; Yan, Bin; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li

    2018-05-03

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation. In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost. Channel selection was applied to select specific channels for each user to enhance system portability and improve discriminability between users and imposters. Two different imposter scenarios were designed to test system security, which demonstrate the capability of anti-deception. Fifteen users and thirty imposters participated in the experiment. The mean authentication accuracy values for the two scenarios were 91.31 and 91.61%, with 6 s time cost, which illustrated the precision and real-time capability of the system. Furthermore, in order to estimate the repeatability and stability of our paradigm, another data acquisition session is conducted for each user. Using the classification models generated from the previous sessions, a mean false rejected rate of 7.27% has been achieved, which demonstrates the robustness of our paradigm. Experimental results reveal that the proposed paradigm and methods are effective for EEG-based identity authentication.

  11. Multiplex, Rapid, and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence by Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Lijuan; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Liu, Kai; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    We have devised a novel isothermal amplification technology, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification (ET-MCDA), which facilitated multiplex, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of nucleic-acid sequences at a constant temperature. The ET-MCDA integrated multiple cross displacement amplification strategy, restriction endonuclease cleavage and real-time fluorescence detection technique. In the ET-MCDA system, the functional cross primer E-CP1 or E-CP2 was constructed by adding a short sequence at the 5' end of CP1 or CP2, respectively, and the new E-CP1 or E-CP2 primer was labeled at the 5' end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. The restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI specifically recognized the short sequence and digested the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end short sequences and their complementary sequences), which released the quenching, resulting on a gain of fluorescence signal. Thus, the ET-MCDA allowed real-time detection of single or multiple targets in only a single reaction, and the positive results were observed in as short as 12 min, detecting down to 3.125 fg of genomic DNA per tube. Moreover, the analytical specificity and the practical application of the ET-MCDA were also successfully evaluated in this study. Here, we provided the details on the novel ET-MCDA technique and expounded the basic ET-MCDA amplification mechanism.

  12. Rapid Identification of Steroidal Saponins in Trillium tschonoskii Maxim by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrospray Ionisation Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sun, Wenjun; Fu, Qiang; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal saponins in Trillium tschonoskii Maxim have many biological activities, including immunological regulation and anti-tumour. Comprehensive ingredient identification is critical for understanding its pharmacological mechanism and establishing quality control protocols. However, it is a challenging problem because of the complexity of steroidal saponins. To develop a UPLC-MS method for identifying and characterising steroidal saponins in the root and rhizome of T. tschonoskii. Methanolic extracts of T. tschonoskii were analysed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS). The UPLC experiments were performed by means of a reversed-phase C18 -column and a binary mobile phase system consisting of water and acetonitrile with formic acid under gradient elution conditions. For the UPLC-MS measurements, positive and negative ion modes were used in order to obtain better tandem mass spectra and high-resolution mass spectra. Based on retention times, accurate mass and mass spectrometric fragmentation, a total of 31 saponins distributed over eight steroidal aglycone skeletons were identified or tentatively elucidated from T. tschonoskii. The UPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS method has proven to be a powerful tool for rapid identification of steroidal saponins in T. tschonoskii without tedious and time-consuming isolation of pure constituents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  14. Career Patterns of Supply Chain Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph; Hoberg, Kai

    2017-01-01

    career patterns for SCEs. They differ in terms of the individuals' previous professional experience, educational background, and the time they needed to arrive in an executive position. By characterizing the backgrounds and career paths of SCEs, we show that supply chain management (SCM) is truly a cross......This exploratory study analyzes the careers of 307 supply chain executives (SCEs). Motivated by career theory, our findings create new knowledge about the educational backgrounds and career paths that lead to SCE positions. Based on an optimal matching analysis, we are able to distinguish among six......-functional profession. Our findings suggest that previous staff responsibility appears to be a more important hiring criterion than extensive SCM experience. While 56% of the executives had prior staff responsibility, only 12% of the cumulated careers were actually spent inside the SCM function....

  15. Rapid and sensitive detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chlorinated water and aerosols targeting gyrB gene using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C S; Wetzel, K; Buckley, T; Wozniak, D; Lee, J

    2011-10-01

    For the rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from chlorinated water and aerosols, gyrB gene-based real-time PCR assay was developed and investigated. Two novel primer sets (pa722F/746MGB/899R and pa722F/746MGB/788R) were designed using the most updated 611 Pseudomonas and 748 other bacterial gyrB genes for achieving high specificity. Their specificity showed 100% accuracy when tested with various strains including clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. The assay was tested with Ps. aeruginosa-containing chlorinated water and aerosols to simulate the waterborne and airborne transmission routes (detection limit 3·3 × 10² CFU per PCR-2·3 × 10³ CFU per PCR). No chlorine interference in real-time PCR was observed at drinking water level (c. 1 mg l⁻¹), but high level of chorine (12 mg l⁻¹) interfered the assay, and thus neutralization was needed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in aerosol was successfully detected after capturing with gelatin filters with minimum 2 min of sampling time when the initial concentration of 10⁴ CFU ml⁻¹ bacteria existed in the nebulizer. A highly specific and rapid assay (2-3 h) was developed by targeting gyrB gene for the detection of Ps. aeruginosa in chlorinated water and aerosols, combined with optimized sample collection methods and sample processing, so the direct DNA extraction from either water or aerosol was possible while achieving the desired sensitivity of the method.   The new assay can provide timely and accurate risk assessment to prevent Ps. aeruginosa exposure from water and aerosol, resulting in reduced disease burden, especially among immune-compromised and susceptible individuals. This approach can be easily utilized as a platform technology for the detection of other types of micro-organisms, especially for those that are transmitted via water and aerosol routes, such as Legionella pneumophila. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  17. Executive corruption in Nigeria: a critical overview of its socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent times, the issue of executive corruption has taken a front burner. Simply defined as corruptive practices involving politicians, policy makers, bureaucrats, top members of business community, the paper argued that the phenomenon is very rampant in Nigeria. Tracing the evolution of executive corruption in the ...

  18. Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Riediger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge.Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors.The PCR assay had a limit of detection of 280 Leptospira genomic equivalents/mL. Sensitivity for confirmed cases was 61% for whole blood and 29% for serum samples. Sensitivity was higher (86% for samples collected within the first 6 days after onset of illness compared to those collected after 7 days (34%. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect leptospiral DNA in blood from 56% of serological non-confirmed cases. The overall specificity of the assay was 99%.These findings indicate that real-time PCR may be a reliable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis, which is decisive for clinical management of severe and life-threatening cases and for public health decision making.

  19. Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Stoddard, Robyn A; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Nakatani, Sueli M; Moreira, Suzana D R; Skraba, Irene; Biondo, Alexander W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Vinetz, Joseph M; Ko, Albert I; Wunder, Elsio A

    2017-09-01

    With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge. Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors. The PCR assay had a limit of detection of 280 Leptospira genomic equivalents/mL. Sensitivity for confirmed cases was 61% for whole blood and 29% for serum samples. Sensitivity was higher (86%) for samples collected within the first 6 days after onset of illness compared to those collected after 7 days (34%). The real-time PCR assay was able to detect leptospiral DNA in blood from 56% of serological non-confirmed cases. The overall specificity of the assay was 99%. These findings indicate that real-time PCR may be a reliable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis, which is decisive for clinical management of severe and life-threatening cases and for public health decision making.

  20. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2011-12-01

    Human opisthorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is an endemic disease in Southeast Asian countries including the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Infection with the soil-transmitted roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis is an important problem worldwide. In some areas, both parasitic infections are reported as co-infections. A duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis was developed for the rapid detection of O. viverrini and S. stercoralis in human fecal samples. Duplex real-time FRET PCR is based on fluorescence melting curve analysis of a hybrid of amplicons generated from two genera of DNA elements: the 162 bp pOV-A6 DNA sequence specific to O. viverrini and the 244 bp 18S rRNA sequence specific to S. stercoralis, and two pairs of specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Both O. viverrini and S. stercoralis can be differentially detected in infected human fecal samples by this process through their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures. Detection limit of the method was as little as two O. viverrini eggs and four S. stercoralis larvae in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasite materials, as well as from the DNA of human leukocytes and other control parasites. The technique showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The introduced duplex real-time FRET PCR can reduce labor time and reagent costs and is not prone to carry over contamination. The method is important for simultaneous detection especially in areas where both parasites overlap incidence and is useful as the screening tool in the returning travelers and immigrants to industrialized countries where number of samples in the diagnostic units will become increasing.

  1. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  2. Development of a 'chronotron' for time of flight fast neutron spectrometer; Realisation d'un chronotron pour spectrometre a neutrons rapides par temps de vol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-10-15

    A chronotron using storage circuits of a 100 channels amplitude analyser has been developed in order to measure the time of flight of fast neutrons. A time dilatation is obtained by a distribution of 20 6BN6 tubes. The width at half maximum of prompt coincidences curve is 1,6.10{sup -9} s for {beta}-{gamma} coincidences from An{sup 198} and 2.10{sup -9} s for n-{alpha} coincidences from (d, t) reaction. (author) [French] En vue de realiser un spectrometre a neutrons rapides par temps de vol, un chronotron utilisant les circuits d'enregistrement d'un selecteur d'amplitude de 100 canaux a ete construit. Une dilatation du temps est obtenue a l'aide d'une distribution de 20 lampes 6BN6. La largeur a mi-hauteur de la courbe de resolution est 1,6.10{sup -9} s pour les coincidences {beta}-{gamma} de Au{sup 198} et 2.10{sup -9} s pour les coincidences n-{alpha} de la reaction (d, t). (auteur)

  3. Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Wolters, Manuel; Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Early and adequate antimicrobial therapy has been shown to improve the clinical outcome in bloodstream infections (BSI). To provide rapid pathogen identification for targeted treatment, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting to bacteria directly recovered from blood culture bottles. A total of 304 aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, reported positive by a Bactec 9240 system, were subjected in parallel to differential centrifugation with subsequent mass spectrometry fingerprinting and reference identification using established microbiological methods. A representative spectrum of bloodstream pathogens was recovered from 277 samples that grew a single bacterial isolate. Species identification by direct mass spectrometry fingerprinting matched reference identification in 95% of these samples and worked equally well for aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Application of commonly used score cutoffs to classify the fingerprinting results led to an identification rate of 87%. Mismatching mostly resulted from insufficient bacterial numbers and preferentially occurred with Gram-positive samples. The respective spectra showed low concordance to database references and were effectively rejected by score thresholds. Spiking experiments and examination of the respective study samples even suggested applicability of the method to mixed cultures. With turnaround times around 100 min, the approach allowed for reliable pathogen identification at the day of blood culture positivity, providing treatment-relevant information within the critical phase of septic illness.

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry rapid detection of carbapenamase activity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abouseada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbapenamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are an increasing threat in hospitals and Intensive Care Units. Accurate and rapid detection of carbapenamase producers has a great impact on patient improvement and aids in implementation of infection control measures. Aim: In this study, we describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS to identify carbapenamase-producing A. baumannii isolates in up to 3 h. Isolates and Methods: A total of 50 A. baumannii isolates (of which 39 were carabapenamase producers were tested using MALDI TOF MS. Isolates were incubated for 3 h with 0.25 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml of imipenem (IMP at 37°C. Supernatants were analysed by MALDI TOF to analyse peaks corresponding to IMP (300 Da and an IMP metabolite (254 Da using UltrafleXtreme (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany. Results: All carbapenamase-producing isolates were evidenced by the disappearance or reduction in intensity of the 300 Da peak of IPM and the appearance of a 254 Da peak of the IPM metabolite. In isolates that did not produce carbapenamase, the IPM 300 Da peak remained intact. Conclusion: MALDI TOF is a promising tool in the field of diagnostic microbiology that has the ability to transfer identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing time from days to hours.

  5. Guidelines for Automation Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Takkinen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to create instructions for executing an automation project. Sarlin Oy Ab needed directions on how to execute an automation project. Sarlin is starting up a new business area offering total project solutions for customers. Sarlin focuses on small and minor automation projects on domestic markets. The thesis represents issues related to project execution starting from the theory of the project to its kick-off and termination. Site work is one importan...

  6. Executable Use Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Bossen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    and into the work processes they're to support. However, prototypes typically provide an explicit representation only of the system itself. Executable use cases, on the other hand, can also describe the environment. EUCs are designed to: narrow the gap between informal ideas about requirements and the formalization...... modeling. This article describes a case study in which developers used EUCs to prototype an electronic patient record system for hospitals in Aarhus, Denmark.......Many software experts argue that when we design a new system, we should create an explicit description of the environment in which the proposed system is to be used. The argument becomes crucial for pervasive computing, which aims to tightly integrate systems into their environments...

  7. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  8. Monitoring Inter- and Intra-Seasonal Dynamics of Rapidly Degrading Ice-Rich Permafrost Riverbanks in the Lena Delta with TerraSAR-X Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Stettner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arctic warming is leading to substantial changes to permafrost including rapid degradation of ice and ice-rich coasts and riverbanks. In this study, we present and evaluate a high spatiotemporal resolution three-year time series of X-Band microwave satellite data from the TerraSAR-X (TSX satellite to quantify cliff-top erosion (CTE of an ice-rich permafrost riverbank in the central Lena Delta. We apply a threshold on TSX backscatter images and automatically extract cliff-top lines to derive intra- and inter-annual CTE. In order to examine the drivers of erosion we statistically compare CTE with climatic baseline data using linear mixed models and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Our evaluation of TSX-derived CTE against annual optical-derived CTE and seasonal in situ measurements showed good agreement between all three datasets. We observed continuous erosion from June to September in 2014 and 2015 with no significant seasonality across the thawing season. We found the highest net annual cliff-top erosion of 6.9 m in 2014, in accordance with above-average mean temperatures and thawing degree days as well as low precipitation. We found high net annual erosion and erosion variability in 2015 associated with moderate mean temperatures but above average precipitation. According to linear mixed models, climate parameters alone could not explain intra-seasonal erosional patterns and additional factors such as ground ice content likely drive the observed erosion. Finally, mean backscatter intensity on the cliff surface decreased from −5.29 to −6.69 dB from 2013 to 2015, respectively, likely resulting from changes in surface geometry and properties that could be connected to partial slope stabilization. Overall, we conclude that X-Band backscatter time series can successfully be used to complement optical remote sensing and in situ monitoring of rapid tundra permafrost erosion at riverbanks and coasts by reliably providing information about intra

  9. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new

  10. Multiplex, rapid and sensitive isothermal detection of nucleic-acid sequence by endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have devised a novel isothermal amplification technology, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification (ET-MCDA, which facilitated multiplex, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of nucleic-acid sequences at a constant temperature. The ET-MCDA integrated multiple cross displacement amplification strategy, restriction endonuclease cleavage and real-time fluorescence detection technique. In the ET-MCDA system, the functional cross primer E-CP1 or E-CP2 was constructed by adding a short sequence at the 5’ end of CP1 or CP2, respectively, and the new E-CP1 or E-CP2 primer was labelled at the 5’ end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. The restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI specifically recognized the short sequence and digested the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5’ end short sequences and their complementary sequences, which released the quenching, resulting on a gain of fluorescence signal. Thus, the ET-MCDA allowed real-time detection of single or multiple targets in only a single reaction, and the positive results were observed in as short as 12 minutes, detecting down to 3.125 fg of genomic DNA per tube. Moreover, the analytical specificity and the practical application of the ET-MCDA were also successfully evaluated in this study. Here we provided the details on the novel ET-MCDA technique and expounded the basic ET-MCDA amplification mechanism.

  11. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. OLAP: A Fast, Easy, Affordable Executive Information System--Finally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Henry M.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Rochester's experience with online analytical processing (OLAP), part of its executive information system, is reported. The server, a multiuser, local area network (LAN)-based database loaded from legacy systems or a data warehouse, can rapidly manipulate and display data, and allows quick creation and changing of analytical…

  13. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  14. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate......, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...... distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third...

  15. The early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eMoriguchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on executive function should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence executive function skills in young children. However, the development of executive function may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of executive function and social interaction.

  16. Development of a Taqman real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio tapetis in extrapallial fluids of clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Bidault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio tapetis is known as the causative agent of Brown Ring Disease (BRD in the Manila clam Venerupis (=Ruditapes philippinarum. This bivalve is the second most important species produced in aquaculture and has a high commercial value. In spite of the development of several molecular methods, no survey has been yet achieved to rapidly quantify the bacterium in the clam. In this study, we developed a Taqman real-time PCR assay targeting virB4 gene for accurate and quantitative identification of V. tapetis strains pathogenic to clams. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were assessed using either filtered sea water or extrapallial fluids of clam injected with the CECT4600T V. tapetis strain. Quantification curves of V. tapetis strain seeded in filtered seawater (FSW or extrapallial fluids (EF samples were equivalent showing reliable qPCR efficacies. With this protocol, we were able to specifically detect V. tapetis strains down to 1.125 101 bacteria per mL of EF or FSW, taking into account the dilution factor used for appropriate template DNA preparation. This qPCR assay allowed us to monitor V. tapetis load both experimentally or naturally infected Manila clams. This technique will be particularly useful for monitoring the kinetics of massive infections by V. tapetis and for designing appropriate control measures for aquaculture purposes.

  17. Comparison of the novel Partec rapid malaria test to the conventional Giemsa stain and the gold standard real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E K; May, Jürgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS.

  18. Comparison of the Novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test to the Conventional Giemsa Stain and the Gold Standard Real-Time PCR ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E. K.; May, Jürgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS. PMID:20554822

  19. Exploitation of rapid acidification phenomena of food waste in reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of high rate anaerobic digester without conceding on biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Begum, Sameena; Ahuja, Shruti; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Juntupally, Sudharshan; Gandu, Bharath; Ahuja, Devender Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and infer a full scale experience on co-digestion of 1000kg of FW (400kg cooked food waste and 600kg uncooked food waste) and 2000L of rice gruel (RG) on daily basis based on a high rate biomethanation technology called "Anaerobic gas lift reactor" (AGR). The pH of raw substrate was low (5.2-5.5) that resulted in rapid acidification phenomena with in 12h in the feed preparation tank that facilitated to obtain a lower hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 10days. At full load, AGR was fed with 245kg of total solids, 205kg of volatile solids (167kg of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand) which resulted in the generation of biogas and bio manure of 140m 3 /day and 110kg/day respectively. The produced biogas replaced 60-70kg of LPG per day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of nicardipine or esmolol on the onset time of rocuronium and intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction: a randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Heui; Kim, Yunkwang; Lee, Kye Hyeok; Rim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong

    2015-06-01

    The main aims of rapid sequence induction (RSI) are prompt and adequate muscle relaxation for tracheal intubation and hemodynamic stability during and after intubation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of nicardipine and esmolol on the action of rocuronium and intubation conditions during RSI. Adult patients (n = 82) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. One minute prior to the induction of sevoflurane-based general anesthesia, patients received 20 μg/kg of nicardipine (N group; n = 27) or 0.5 mg/kg of esmolol (E group; n = 27), or 5 ml of saline (C group; n = 28). Patients were assessed according to intubation conditions, the onset time of rocuronium, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) during RSI. The intubation conditions and score were significantly better in the C and N groups than in the E group (P rocuronium was shortened in the N group and prolonged in the E group when compared to the C group (P rocuronium and attenuated changes in MAP after intubation. Esmolol may disturb intubation conditions and the onset of action of rocuronium, despite being effective in alleviating responses of HR after RSI.

  1. Rapid identification of bacteria in positive blood culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V; Jarosch, A; März, P; Sander, C; Vacata, V; Kalka-Moll, W

    2012-03-01

    Blood culture is probably the most significant specimen used for the diagnosis of bacterial infections, especially for bloodstream infections. In the present study, we compared the resin-containing BD BACTEC™ Plus-Aerobic (Becton Dickinson), non-charcoal-containing BacT/Alert(®) SA (bioMérieux), and charcoal-containing BacT/Alert(®) FA (bioMérieux) blood culture bottles with direct identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 103 bacterial isolates, from clinical blood cultures, representing the most frequent 13 genera and 24 species were examined. Bacteria were extracted from positive blood culture broth by density centrifugation and then subjected to identification by MALDI-TOF MS using two different volumes and chemical treatments. Overall, correct identification by MALDI-TOF MS was obtained for the BD BACTEC™ Plus-Aerobic, BacT/Alert(®) SA, and BacT/Alert(®) FA blood culture bottles in 72%, 45.6%, and 23%, respectively, for gram-negative bacteria in 86.6%, 69.2%, and 47.1%, respectively, and for gram-positive bacteria in 60.0%, 28.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. The lack of identification was observed mainly with viridans streptococci. Depending on the blood culture bottles used in routine diagnostic procedures and the protocol for bacterial preparation, the applied MALDI-TOF MS represents an efficient and rapid method for direct bacterial identification.

  2. Disciplining and Screening Top Executives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto); B. Visser (Bauke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBoards of directors face the twin task of disciplining and screening executives. To perform these tasks directors do not have detailed information about executives' behaviour, and only infrequently have information about the success or failure of initiated strategies, reorganizations,

  3. Developmental Changes in Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Bull, Rebecca; Ho, Ringo M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Although early studies of executive functioning in children supported Miyake et al.'s (2000) three-factor model, more recent findings supported a variety of undifferentiated or two-factor structures. Using a cohort-sequential design, this study examined whether there were age-related differences in the structure of executive functioning among…

  4. The Dog that Stopped Barking: Mass Legal Executions in 21st Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Blackman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the first two centuries of European colonization of what is now the United States, executions for a variety of offenses relatively frequently involved mass executions, that is, the execution for the same criminal incident of four or more persons. By the time of American independence, some of those crimes had largely ceased to exist or to elicit such punishment, like witchcraft and piracy. However, the punishment of slaves and Indians kept the percentage of executed persons involved in mass executions significant, if not large. During the last quarter of the 19th and first six decades of the 20th century, mass legal executions diminished as a percentage and were largely limited to punishing robbery-related homicides, including felony-homicides of conspirators. Throughout that period, the end of mass executions for a particular crime presaged the end of all executions for that offense, and the last mass legal execution occurred in 1960.

  5. Rapid modeling of complex multi-fault ruptures with simplistic models from real-time GPS: Perspectives from the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B.; Melgar, D.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake is one of the most complex earthquakes in recent history, rupturing across at least 10 disparate faults with varying faulting styles, and exhibiting intricate surface deformation patterns. The complexity of this event has motivated the need for multidisciplinary geophysical studies to get at the underlying source physics to better inform earthquake hazards models in the future. However, events like Kaikoura beg the question of how well (or how poorly) such earthquakes can be modeled automatically in real-time and still satisfy the general public and emergency managers. To investigate this question, we perform a retrospective real-time GPS analysis of the Kaikoura earthquake with the G-FAST early warning module. We first perform simple point source models of the earthquake using peak ground displacement scaling and a coseismic offset based centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion. We predict ground motions based on these point sources as well as simple finite faults determined from source scaling studies, and validate against true recordings of peak ground acceleration and velocity. Secondly, we perform a slip inversion based upon the CMT fault orientations and forward model near-field tsunami maximum expected wave heights to compare against available tide gauge records. We find remarkably good agreement between recorded and predicted ground motions when using a simple fault plane, with the majority of disagreement in ground motions being attributable to local site effects, not earthquake source complexity. Similarly, the near-field tsunami maximum amplitude predictions match tide gauge records well. We conclude that even though our models for the Kaikoura earthquake are devoid of rich source complexities, the CMT driven finite fault is a good enough "average" source and provides useful constraints for rapid forecasting of ground motion and near-field tsunami amplitudes.

  6. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  7. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A; Barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-03

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context. Semantic aphasia (SA) patients have executive-semantic deficits, and these are correlated with general executive impairment. If the CSC proposal is correct, patients with executive impairment should not only exhibit impaired semantic cognition, but should also show characteristics that align with those observed in SA. This possibility remains largely untested, as patients selected on the basis that they show executive impairment (i.e., with 'dysexecutive syndrome') have not been extensively tested on tasks tapping semantic control and have not been previously compared with SA cases. We explored conceptual processing in 12 patients showing symptoms consistent with dysexecutive syndrome (DYS) and 24 SA patients, using a range of multimodal semantic assessments which manipulated control demands. Patients with executive impairments, despite not being selected to show semantic impairments, nevertheless showed parallel patterns to SA cases. They showed strong effects of distractor strength, cues and miscues, and probe-target distance, plus minimal effects of word frequency on comprehension (unlike semantic dementia patients with degradation of conceptual knowledge). This supports a component process account of semantic cognition in which retrieval is shaped by control processes, and confirms that deficits in SA patients reflect

  8. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B{sub 0} field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachowicz, K., E-mail: keith.wachowicz@albertahealthservices.ca; De Zanche, N.; Yip, E. [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Volotovskyy, V. [Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B{sub 0}. This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B{sub 0} that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B{sub 0}-dependant relaxation for various tumor and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B{sub 0} field (specifically the T{sub 1} time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B{sub 0} fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T{sub 1} contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B{sub 0} reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.

  9. Data-driven execution of fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem; Yokota, Rio

    2013-01-01

    time-consuming stages of the FMMs into smaller tasks. The algorithm can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph where nodes represent tasks and edges represent dependencies among them. The execution of the algorithm is performed

  10. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter contaminated poultry focus on post-slaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach for enumeration...... method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter, but recognises the infectious potential of the VBNC state, and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies, and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment....

  11. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mohammat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China. There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  12. Reliable and reproducible method for rapid identification of Nocardia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Keigo; Nishi, Isao; Sunada, Atsuko; Ueda, Akiko; Sakata, Tomomi; Asari, Seishi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been challenged for the identification of Nocardia species. However, the standard ethanol-formic acid extraction alone is insufficient in allowing the membrane proteins of Nocardia species to be ionized by the matrix. We therefore aimed to establish our new extraction method for the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of Nocardia species isolates. Our modified extraction procedure is through dissociation in 0.5% Tween-20 followed by bacterial heat-inactivation, mechanical breaking of the cell wall by acid-washed glass beads and protein extraction with formic acid and acetonitrile. As reference methods for species identification, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and some phenotypical tests were used. In a first step, we made our own Nocardia database by analyzing 13 strains (13 different species including N. elegans, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. asiatica, N. abscessus, N. brasiliensis, N. thailandica, N. farcinica, N. nova, N. mikamii, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroids, Nocardiopsis alba, and Micromonospora sp.) and registered to the MALDI BioTyper database. Then we established our database. The analysis of 12 challenge strains using the our database gave a 100% correct identification, including 8 strains identified to the species level and 4 strains to the genus level (N. elegans, N. nova, N. farcinica, Micromonospora sp.) according to the manufacture's log score specifications. In the estimation of reproducibility of our method intended for 4 strains, both within-run and between-run reproducibility were excellent. These data indicates that our method for rapid identification of Nocardia species is with reliability, reproducibility and cost effective.

  13. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to study the effects of jieduquyuziyin prescription on systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinghong; Hu, Jinbo; Wen, Chengping; Ding, Zhishan; Yao, Li; Fan, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Jieduquyuziyin prescription (JP), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used for the clinical treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the complex chemical constituents of JP and the multifactorial pathogenesis of SLE make research on the therapeutic mechanism of JP in SLE challenging. In this paper, a serum metabolomics approach based on rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF/MS) was employed to acquire the metabolic characteristics of serum samples obtained from mice in the SLE model group, JP-treated group, prednisone acetate (PA)-treated group and control group. The orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) was applied to recognize metabolic patterns, and an obvious separation of groups was obtained. Thirteen metabolites, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE 20:3), hepoxilin B3, lyso- phosphatidylethanolamine (lyso-PE 22:6), 12S-hydroxypentaenoic acid (12S-HEPE), traumatic acid, serotonin, platelet-activating factor (PAF), phosphatidylcholine (PC 20:5),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 12(S)-hydroxyei- cosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), 14-hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid (14-HDOHE), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC 20:4), and indole acetaldehyde, were identified and characterized as differential metabolites involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. After treatment with JP, the relative content of 12(S)-HETE, PAF, 12(S)-HEPE, EPA, PE (20:3), Lyso-PE(22:6), and 14-HDOHE were effectively regulated, which suggested that the therapeutic effects of JP on SLE may involve regulating disturbances to the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acid, tryptophan and phospholipid. This research also demonstrated that metabolomics is a powerful tool for researching complex disease mechanisms and evaluating the mechanism of action of TCM.

  14. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Simone, James N; Kowalkowlski, James B; Dubey, Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  15. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Wagner, Clara A; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12-13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Commentary: Mentoring the mentor: executive coaching for clinical departmental executive officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Lois J; Cohen, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Departmental executive officers (DEOs), department chairs, and department heads in medical schools are often hired on the basis of their accomplishments in research as well as their skills in administration, management, and leadership. These individuals are also expected to be expert in multiple areas, including negotiation, finance and budgeting, mentoring, and personnel management. At the same time, they are expected to maintain and perhaps even enhance their personal academic standing for the purposes of raising the level of departmental and institutional prestige and for recruiting the next generation of physicians and scientists. In the corporate world, employers understand the importance of training new leaders in requisite skill enhancement that will lead to success in their new positions. These individuals are often provided with extensive executive training to develop the necessary competencies to make them successful leaders. Among the tools employed for this purpose are the use of personal coaches or executive training courses. The authors propose that the use of executive coaching in academic medicine may be of benefit for new DEOs. Experience using an executive coach suggests that this was a valuable growth experience for new leaders in the institution.

  17. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  18. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Verburgh

    Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  19. Executive Orders from 1994-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The President of the United States manages the operations of the Executive branch of Government through Executive orders. After the President signs an Executive...

  20. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 940305W1. 11335 TLD Systems, Ltd. TLD Comanche VAX/i960 Ada Compiler System, Version 4.1.1 VAX Cluster under VMS 5.5 = Tronix JIAWG Execution Vehicle (i960MX) under TLD Real Time Executive, Version 4.1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-14

    Comanche VAX/i960 Ada Compiler System, Version 4.1.1 Host Computer System: Digital Local Area Network VAX Cluster executing on (2) MicroVAX 3100 Model 90...31 $MAX DIGITS 15 SmNx INT 2147483647 $MAX INT PLUS_1 2147483648 $MIN IN -2_147483648 A-3 MACR PARAMEERIS $NAME NO SUCH INTEGER TYPE $NAME LIST...nested generlcs are Supported and generics defined in libary units are pexitted. zt is not possible to pen ore a macro instantiation for a generic I

  1. CISN Display - Reliable Delivery of Real-time Earthquake Information, Including Rapid Notification and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Given, D.

    2002-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) Display is part of a Web-enabled earthquake notification system alerting users in near real-time of seismicity, and also valuable geophysical information following a large earthquake. It will replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering graphical earthquake information to users at emergency operations centers, and other organizations. Features distinguishing the CISN Display from other GUI tools are a state-full client/server relationship, a scalable message format supporting automated hyperlink creation, and a configurable platform-independent client with a GIS mapping tool; supporting the decision-making activities of critical users. The CISN Display is the front-end of a client/server architecture known as the QuakeWatch system. It is comprised of the CISN Display (and other potential clients), message queues, server, server "feeder" modules, and messaging middleware, schema and generators. It is written in Java, making it platform-independent, and offering the latest in Internet technologies. QuakeWatch's object-oriented design allows components to be easily upgraded through a well-defined set of application programming interfaces (APIs). Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to other earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-schema. The message model starts with the CUBE message format, but extends it by provisioning additional attributes for currently available products, and those yet to be considered. The supporting metadata in the XML-message provides the data necessary for the client to create a hyperlink and associate it with a unique event ID. Earthquake products deliverable to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, Ground Displacement, Focal Mechanisms, Rapid Notifications, OES Reports, and Earthquake Commentaries. Leveraging the power of the XML-format, the CISN Display provides prompt access to

  2. Executive Schedule C System (ESCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Used to store information on Federal employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES) and appointed employees in the Schedule C System. Every four years, just after...

  3. Innovative behavior in nurse executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C E

    1994-05-01

    This study addresses the problem-solving styles of hospital nurse executives and explores the relationship between problem-solving style and leader effectiveness. The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) and the Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description-Self (LEAD-S) were the instruments used to survey nurse executives from 66 medium-sized urban California hospitals. The majority of respondents used innovative approaches, but no correlation was found between problem-solving style and leader effectiveness.

  4. Executive functions in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unclear. With respect to the neuropsychological functioning, the executive functions have been reported to be altered, especially cognitive flexibility and decision-making processes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the current state of the neuropsychological studies focused on anorexia nervosa, especially those highlighting the executive functions. Met...

  5. Supervision of execution of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.

    2015-01-01

    Enresa create and organizational structure that covers various areas involved in effective control of Decommissioning Project. One area is the Technical Supervision of Works Decommissioning Project, as Execution Department dependent Technical Management. In the structure, Execution Department acts as liaison between the project, disciplines involved in developing and specialized companies contracted work to achieve your intended target. Equally important is to ensure that such activities are carried out correctly, according to the project documentation. (Author)

  6. A competence executive coaching model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2010-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the training and development needs of these consulting psychologists by presenting a competence executive coaching model for the planning, implementation and evaluation of executive coaching interventions. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted while one of the authors was involved in teaching doctoral students in consulting psychology and executive coaching, specifically in the USA. The approach involved a literature review of executive coaching models and a qualitative study using focus groups to develop and evaluate the competence executive coaching model. Main findings: The literature review provided scant evidence of competence executive coaching models and there seems to be a specific need for this in the training of coaches in South Africa. Hence the model that was developed is an attempt to provide trainers with a structured model for the training of coaches. Contribution/value-add: The uniqueness of this competence model is not only described in terms of the six distinct coaching intervention phases, but also the competencies required in each.

  7. Rapid detection of health-care-associated bloodstream infection in critical care using multipathogen real-time polymerase chain reaction technology: a diagnostic accuracy study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Geoffrey; Dunn, Graham; Chadwick, Paul; Blackwood, Bronagh; McAuley, Daniel; Perkins, Gavin D; McMullan, Ronan; Gates, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Young, Duncan; Carlson, Gordon L; Dark, Paul

    2015-05-01

    antibiotic exposure. SeptiFast real-time PCR, when compared with culture-proven bloodstream infection at species/genus level, had better specificity (85.8%, 95% CI 83.3% to 88.1%) than sensitivity (50%, 95% CI 39.1% to 60.8%). When compared with pooled diagnostic metrics derived from our systematic review, our clinical study revealed lower test accuracy of SeptiFast real-time PCR, mainly as a result of low diagnostic sensitivity. There was a low prevalence of BC-proven pathogens in these patients (9.2%, 95% CI 7.4% to 11.2%) such that the post-test probabilities of both a positive (26.3%, 95% CI 19.8% to 33.7%) and a negative SeptiFast test (5.6%, 95% CI 4.1% to 7.4%) indicate the potential limitations of this technology in the diagnosis of bloodstream infection. However, latent class analysis indicates that BC has a low sensitivity, questioning its relevance as a reference test in this setting. Using this analysis approach, the sensitivity of the SeptiFast test was low but also appeared significantly better than BC. Blood samples identified as positive by either culture or SeptiFast real-time PCR were associated with a high probability (> 95%) of infection, indicating higher diagnostic rule-in utility than was apparent using conventional analyses of diagnostic accuracy. SeptiFast real-time PCR on blood samples may have rapid rule-in utility for the diagnosis of health-care-associated bloodstream infection but the lack of sensitivity is a significant limiting factor. Innovations aimed at improved diagnostic sensitivity of real-time PCR in this setting are urgently required. Future work recommendations include technology developments to improve the efficiency of pathogen DNA extraction and the capacity to detect a much broader range of pathogens and drug resistance genes and the application of new statistical approaches able to more reliably assess test performance in situation where the reference standard (e.g. blood culture in the setting of high antimicrobial use) is

  8. Gram-stain plus MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for a rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Burillo

    Full Text Available Microbiological confirmation of a urinary tract infection (UTI takes 24-48 h. In the meantime, patients are usually given empirical antibiotics, sometimes inappropriately. We assessed the feasibility of sequentially performing a Gram stain and MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry (MS on urine samples to anticipate clinically useful information. In May-June 2012, we randomly selected 1000 urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. All were Gram stained and those yielding bacteria of a single morphotype were processed for MALDI-TOF MS. Our sequential algorithm was correlated with the standard semiquantitative urine culture result as follows: Match, the information provided was anticipative of culture result; Minor error, the information provided was partially anticipative of culture result; Major error, the information provided was incorrect, potentially leading to inappropriate changes in antimicrobial therapy. A positive culture was obtained in 242/1000 samples. The Gram stain revealed a single morphotype in 207 samples, which were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS. The diagnostic performance of the Gram stain was: sensitivity (Se 81.3%, specificity (Sp 93.2%, positive predictive value (PPV 81.3%, negative predictive value (NPV 93.2%, positive likelihood ratio (+LR 11.91, negative likelihood ratio (-LR 0.20 and accuracy 90.0% while that of MALDI-TOF MS was: Se 79.2%, Sp 73.5, +LR 2.99, -LR 0.28 and accuracy 78.3%. The use of both techniques provided information anticipative of the culture result in 82.7% of cases, information with minor errors in 13.4% and information with major errors in 3.9%. Results were available within 1 h. Our serial algorithm provided information that was consistent or showed minor errors for 96.1% of urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. The clinical impacts of this rapid UTI diagnosis strategy need to be assessed through indicators of adequacy of treatment such as a reduced time to appropriate empirical treatment or

  9. Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralevski Filip

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate laboratory diagnosis of malaria species in returning travelers is paramount in the treatment of this potentially fatal infectious disease. Materials and methods A total of 466 blood specimens from returning travelers to Africa, Asia, and South/Central America with suspected malaria infection were collected between 2007 and 2009 at the reference public health laboratory. These specimens were assessed by reference microscopy, multipex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR, and two rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests (ICT in a blinded manner. Key clinical laboratory parameters such as limit of detection (LOD analysis on clinical specimens by parasite stage, inter-reader variability of ICTs, staffing implications, quality assurance and cost analysis were evaluated. Results QPCR is the most analytically sensitive method (sensitivity 99.41%, followed by CARESTART (sensitivity 88.24%, and BINAXNOW (sensitivity 86.47% for the diagnosis of malaria in returning travelers when compared to reference microscopy. However, microscopy was unable to specifically identify Plasmodia spp. in 18 out of 170 positive samples by QPCR. Moreover, the 17 samples that were negative by microscopy and positive by QPCR were also positive by ICTs. Quality assurance was achieved for QPCR by exchanging a blinded proficiency panel with another reference laboratory. The Kappa value of inter-reader variability among three readers for BINAXNOW and CARESTART was calculated to be 0.872 and 0.898 respectively. Serial dilution studies demonstrated that the QPCR cycle threshold correlates linearly with parasitemia (R2 = 0.9746 in a clinically relevant dynamic range and retains a LOD of 11 rDNA copies/μl for P. falciparum, which was several log lower than reference microscopy and ICTs. LOD for QPCR is affected not only by parasitemia but the parasite stage distribution of each clinical specimen. QPCR was approximately 6-fold more

  10. A novel high performance stopped-flow apparatus equipped with a special constructed mixing chamber containing a plunger under inert condition with a very short dead-time to investigate very rapid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mostafa Habibi Khorassani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work set out to establish a novel stopped-flow instrument equipped with a special constructed mixing chamber containing a plunger to enable a kinetic study of the very rapid reactions under a dry inert atmosphere glove bag, in particular, for the reactions are sensitive to moisture or air. A stopped-flow spectrophotometer is essentially a conventional spectrophotometer with the addition of a system for rapid mixing of solutions. The purpose of this work is to describe the fabrication and evaluation of specially constructed and in-expensive stopped-flow system. The evaluation includes determination of the dead-time, relative mixing efficiency, and the measurement of known rate constants. Herein, a dead-time of about 3.4 ms was determined in the final modified construction of the stopped-flow apparatus in order to investigate the rapid initial during which some form of reaction intermediate is presented to be formed.

  11. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  12. Shifts in hatch dates do not provide pied flycatchers with a rapid ontogenetic route to adjust offspring time schedules to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Burger, Claudia; Both, Christiaan

    1. Environments change rapidly, and it is unclear whether organisms with complex life-styles, such as avian migrants, are able to adjust sufficiently. For understanding human impacts on ecosystem functioning, it is crucial to understand how well, and by which mechanisms species are able to adapt. 2.

  13. Use of a Real-Time PCR TaqMan Assay for Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei

    OpenAIRE

    U'Ren, Jana M.; Van Ert, Matthew N.; Schupp, James M.; Easterday, W. Ryan; Simonson, Tatum S.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Pearson, Talima; Keim, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A TaqMan allelic-discrimination assay designed around a synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism was used to genotype Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei isolates. The assay rapidly identifies and discriminates between these two highly pathogenic bacteria and does not cross-react with genetic near neighbors, such as Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia cepacia.

  14. Decoupled Access-Execute on ARM big.LITTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Decoupled Access-Execute (DAE) presents a novel approach to improve power efficiency with a combination of compile-time transformations and Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS). DAE splits regions of the program into two distinct phases: a memory-bound access phase and a compute-bound execute phase. DVFS is used to run the phases at different frequencies, thus conserving energy while caching data from main memory and performing computations at maximum performance. This project analyses th...

  15. Physician executives straddle the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coile, R C

    2001-01-01

    e-Health is here to stay and experts predict that the Internet will become the hub of health care. Rapid advancements in biotechnology and medical research, increasingly curious patients who surf the Internet for medical information, and pressures from managed care companies to contain costs and speed treatments are the central components driving e-health. Despite physician reluctance to embrace the e-revolution, many hospitals and medical groups are employing the Internet and information technology to improve their customer interface, as well as to reduce business costs. This article offers seven e-strategies for health care performance improvement: (1) Supply chain management; (2) e-transactions; (3) care management; (4) improving quality; (5) boosting revenues; (6) outsourcing; and (7) provider networks (Intranets). By helping to incorporate these key e-solutions, physician executives can position their organizations for success in the new millennium.

  16. The Rapid Field Initiative Business Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goerger, Simon R; Crino, Scott T; McCarthy, Daniel J; Griffin, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    .... It is a process that costs the Army time money and a great deal of effort to execute. This case study examines the RFI supply chain and makes recommendations to improve the current inventory management system (IMS...

  17. Executive deficits, not processing speed relates to abnormalities in distinct prefrontal tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lewis D; Bastin, Mark E; Smith, Colin; Bak, Thomas H; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterized by deficits on tests of executive function; however, the contribution of abnormal processing speed is unknown. Methods are confounded by tasks that depend on motor speed in patients with physical disability. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed multi-system cerebral involvement, with evidence of reduced white matter volume and integrity in predominant frontotemporal regions. The current study has two aims. First, to investigate whether cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are due to executive dysfunction or slowed processing speed using methodology that accommodates motor disability. This is achieved using a dual-task paradigm and tasks that manipulate stimulus presentation times and do not rely on response motor speed. Second, to identify relationships between specific cognitive impairments and the integrity of distinct white matter tracts. Thirty patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 30 age- and education-matched control subjects were administered an experimental dual-task procedure that combined a visual inspection time task and digit recall. In addition, measures of executive function (including letter fluency) and processing speed (visual inspection time and rapid serial letter identification) were administered. Integrity of white matter tracts was determined using region of interest analyses of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis did not show impairments on tests of processing speed, but executive deficits were revealed once visual inspection time was combined with digit recall (dual-task) and in letter fluency. In addition to the corticospinal tracts, significant differences in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were found between groups in a number of prefrontal and temporal white matter tracts including the anterior cingulate, anterior thalamic radiation

  18. Diffusion is capable of translating anisotropic apoptosis initiation into a homogeneous execution of cell death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huber, Heinrich J

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is an essential cell death process throughout the entire life span of all metazoans and its deregulation in humans has been implicated in many proliferative and degenerative diseases. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation (MOMP) and activation of effector caspases are key processes during apoptosis signalling. MOMP can be subject to spatial coordination in human cancer cells, resulting in intracellular waves of cytochrome-c release. To investigate the consequences of these spatial anisotropies in mitochondrial permeabilisation on subsequent effector caspase activation, we devised a mathematical reaction-diffusion model building on a set of partial differential equations. RESULTS: Reaction-diffusion modelling suggested that even if strong spatial anisotropies existed during mitochondrial cytochrome c release, these would be eliminated by free diffusion of the cytosolic proteins that instantiate the apoptosis execution network. Experimentally, rapid sampling of mitochondrial permeabilisation and effector caspase activity in individual HeLa cervical cancer cells confirmed predictions of the reaction-diffusion model and demonstrated that the signalling network of apoptosis execution could efficiently translate spatial anisotropies in mitochondrial permeabilisation into a homogeneous effector caspase response throughout the cytosol. Further systems modelling suggested that a more than 10,000-fold impaired diffusivity would be required to maintain spatial anisotropies as observed during mitochondrial permeabilisation until the time effector caspases become activated. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-protein diffusion efficiently contributes to eliminating spatial asynchronies which are present during the initiation of apoptosis execution and thereby ensures homogeneous apoptosis execution throughout the entire cell body. For previously reported biological scenarios in which effector caspase activity was shown to be targeted selectively to

  19. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  20. Cognitive programs: Software for attention's executive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Tsotsos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available What are the computational tasks that an executive controller for visual attention must solve? This question is posed in the context of the Selective Tuning model of attention. The range of required computations go beyond top-down bias signals or region-of-interest determinations, and must deal with overt and covert fixations, process timing and synchronization, information routing, memory, matching control to task, spatial localization, priming, and coordination of bottom-up with top-down information. During task execution, results must be monitored to ensure the expected results. This description includes the kinds of elements that are common in the control of any kind of complex machine or system. We seek a mechanistic integration of the above, in other words, algorithms that accomplish control. Such algorithms operate on representations, transforming a representation of one kind into another, which then forms the input to yet another algorithm. Cognitive Programs (CPs are hypothesized to capture exactly such representational transformations via stepwise sequences of operations. CPs, an updated and modernized offspring of Ullman's Visual Routines, impose an algorithmic structure to the set of attentional functions and play a role in the overall shaping of attentional modulation of the visual system so that it provides its best performance. This requires that we consider the visual system as a dynamic, yet general-purpose processor tuned to the task and input of the moment. This differs dramatically from the almost universal cognitive and computational views, which regard vision as a passively observing module to which simple questions about percepts can be posed, regardless of task. Differing from Visual Routines, CPs explicitly involve the critical elements of Visual Task Executive, Visual Attention Executive, and Visual Working Memory. Cognitive Programs provide the software that directs the actions of the Selective Tuning model of visual

  1. Executive Headteachers: What's in a Name? Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Katy; Lord, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    Executive headteachers (EHTs) are becoming increasingly prevalent as the self-improving school system matures; there are over 620 EHTs in the school workforce today; and the number recorded in the School Workforce Census (SWC) has increased by 240 per cent between 2010 and 2014. The role is still evolving locally and nationally and, as EHTs take…

  2. Editor, Executive and Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe-Lillegraven, Tor; Wilberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To survive in today’s increasingly complex business environments, firms must embrace strategic paradoxes: contradictory yet interrelated objectives that persist over time. This can be one of toughest of all leadership challenges, as managers must accept inconsistency and contradictions...... of navigating in explorative ventures require more explicit strategy work than the old certainties of a legacy business. We identify and discuss inherent paradoxes and their implications for firm performance in 22 industry-specific strategies, where empirical industry data shows a pattern of conflict between...

  3. Executive and Perceptual Distraction in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. PMID:28414499

  4. Executive and perceptual distraction in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2017-09-01

    The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors. These findings are in line with recent evidence using delay-based interference, and suggest that different forms of attentional selection operate relatively independently in visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Reduction of the use of antimicrobial drugs following the rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in the vagina at delivery by real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet-Jasserand, E; Forges, F; Varlet, M-N; Chauleur, C; Seffert, P; Siani, C; Pozzetto, B; Ros, A

    2013-08-01

    To assess whether the determination of the presence of group B streptococci (GBS) in the vagina using a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay at delivery was able to spare useless antimicrobial treatments, as compared with conventional culture at 34-38 weeks of gestation. Practical evaluation and prospective cost-effectiveness analysis. A university hospital in France. A cohort of 225 women in labour at the University-Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Each woman had a conventional culture performed at 34-38 weeks of gestation. At the beginning of labour, two vaginal swabs were sampled for rapid PCR testing and culture. The decision to prescribe a prophylactic antimicrobial treatment or not was taken according to the result of the PCR test. A comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of the two diagnostic strategies was carried out. Number of women receiving inadequate prophylactic antimicrobial drugs following each testing strategy, costs of PCR testing and culture, frequency of vaginal GBS, and diagnostic performance of the PCR test at delivery. The percentage of unnecessarily treated women was significantly reduced using the rapid test versus conventional culture (4.5 and 13.6%, respectively; P < 0.001). The rate of vaginal GBS at delivery was 12.5%. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for each inadequate management avoided was €36 and €173 from the point of view of the healthcare system and hospital, respectively. The PCR assay reduced the number of inadequate antimicrobial treatments aimed to prevent the early onset of GBS disease. However, this strategy generates extra costs that must be put into balance with its clinical benefits. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  6. Paradigm shift for golden times. Change on energy requires a rapid grid expansion; Paradigmenwechsel fuer goldene Zeiten. Energiewende erfordert raschen Netzausbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphues, Stephan [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the recently published report, the International Energy Agency (Paris, France) resumes that the global gas consumption can increase by more than 50 % up to 2035. The reasons for this rapid increase include: flexible use, best CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and long-term availability. The final report of the Ethics Commission 'Energy security' comes to the conclusion that natural gas energy will have a supporting function in Germany. Nationally and internationally, it is assumed that gas is an essential part of the energy supply of the next decades.

  7. Naps Enhance Executive Attention in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-09-01

    Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Evaluation of the Implementation of a Rapid Response Treatment Protocol for Patients with Acute Onset Stroke: Can We Increase the Number of Patients Treated and Shorten the Time Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Advani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a rapid response treatment protocol for patients presenting with acute onset ischemic stroke. Improvements of routines surrounding the admission and treatment of patients with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT, such as door-to-needle (DTN times, and increasing the numbers of patients treated are discussed. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 320 treated with IVT for acute onset ischemic stroke at the Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, between 2003 and 2012. In 2009, a succession of changes to pre- and intra-hospital routines were made as well as an improvement in the education of primary health care physicians, nurses and paramedics involved in the treatment of acute onset stroke patients (rapid response treatment protocol. Analyses of DTN times, onset-to-needle times and the number of patients treated per year were carried out to ascertain the effect of the changes made. The primary aim was to analyze DTN times to look for any changes, and the secondary aim was to analyze changes in the number of patients treated per year. Results: In the years after the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol, we saw an improvement in the median DTN time with a decrease from 73 to 50 min in the first year (p = 0.03, a decrease of 45 min in the second year (p = 0.01 and a decrease of 31 min in the third year (p Conclusions: The implementation of the rapid treatment protocol for acute onset ischemic stroke patients led to a significant decrease in the DTN time at our center. These improvements also produced an increase in the number of patients treated per year. The extension of the therapeutic window from 3 to 4.5 h for the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator also played a role in the increased treatment numbers.

  9. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  10. Development and implementation of real-time nucleic acid amplification for the detection of enterovirus infections in comparison to rapid culture of various clinical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornum, G J J; Schutten, Martin; Voermans, J; Guldemeester, G J J; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    Several real-time PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) primer pairs and a modified real-time PCR primer pair for the detection of enteroviruses were compared. The modified real-time PCR primer pair was evaluated on clinical samples in comparison with cell culture using the

  11. The contribution of executive control to semantic cognition: Convergent evidence from semantic aphasia and executive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hannah; Almaghyuli, Azizah; Noonan, Krist A.; barak, Ohr; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., 2015, Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal ‘hub’ in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive–semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions ...

  12. The influence of wavelength-dependent radiation in simulation of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Computational Mechanics Dept.

    1994-08-01

    Understanding the thermal response of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing (RTP) systems requires understanding relatively complex radiation exchange among opaque and partially transmitting surfaces and materials. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of wavelength-dependent radiative properties. The examples used for the analysis consider axisymmetric systems of the kind that were developed by Texas Instruments (TI) for the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology (MMST) Program and illustrate a number of wavelength-dependent (spectral) effects. The models execute quickly on workstation class computing flatforms, and thus permit rapid comparison of alternative reactor designs and physical models. The fast execution may also permit the incorporation of these models into real-time model-based process control algorithms.

  13. Executive summary 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Blue Energy Canada is a company that focuses on ocean energy technology. Considered the world's most advanced such technology, it involves high-density seawater passing through advanced vertical axis hydro turbines that are used to convert the kinetic energy in ocean currents, tides and rivers to low-cost electric power. A ten-year collaboration effort with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) led to the development of the successful prototypes. A privately funded prototype was successfully implemented which generated power from the Florida Gulf Stream. The NRC, as well as independent engineering assessments have proven that the technology is sound and ready for the next phase: commercialization. This low-cost technology compares favorably with hydro, thermal nuclear, and wind energy. Once fuel and maintenance costs are included, micro units will be cost competitive with diesel generators. The high density of the system is approximately 180 times greater than that of wind and solar technologies. Its environmental impact is minimal, generating no pollution or emitting no greenhouse gases, and does not affect the flow of silt, fish and aquatic life. Marine fences will be erected to protect marine mammals from the turbines, coupled with a backup auto-braking system controlled by sonar sensors. It is possible to reliably predict the energy output based on the cyclical tidal patterns. The design is modular, allowing for the production of power as soon as the first turbine is installed. The addition of turbines will provide incremental capacity. The multiple infrastructure design allows the structure to be used to carry water mains, fiber optics, power lines and phone lines, thereby sharing construction costs. The technology ensures a low maintenance since generator and gearbox are both located above water level, eliminating the requirement for seals and the associated risks. The commercialization plan was detailed, with phase I projected for the

  14. Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Created in 1989 to address over 50 years of environmental liabilities arising out of nuclear weapons production and testing in the United States since World War II, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Programs decade-long effort to reduce the costs of those environmental liabilities, collectively known as DOE's ''environmental mortgage,'' includes past as well as future cleanup costs associated with environmental contamination, hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes, contaminated buildings and facilities, and their associated risks. Tasked with the bulk of these cleanup efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's), Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) is attempting to complete applicable corrective actions at inactive contaminated sites and facilities managed by DOE/NV, while at the same time protecting human health and the environment. Regulated under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the objectives of the NV ERP are to identify the nature and extent of the contamination, determine its potential risk to the public and the environment, and to perform the necessary corrective actions in compliance with this and other state and federal regulations, guidelines, and requirements. Associated with this vast effort are approximately 2,000 sites both on and off of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that were used primarily for nuclear testing and are addressed in the NV ERP. This includes sites that were underground areas where tests were actually conducted, contaminated surface soils resulting from aboveground testing activities, and sites that supported other related testing hardware paraphenalia and/or NTS real estate properties (e.g., underground storage tanks, leachfields, landfills, contaminated waste areas, injection wells, muckpiles, and ponds). To assist in this effort, a NV ERP Team was assembled which is composed of organizations from both the public and private

  15. Executable UML Modeling For Automotive Embedded Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Engineers are more and more faced to the hard problem of sophisticated real-time System whereas time to market becomes always smaller. Object oriented modeling supported by UML standard brings effective solutions to such problems. However the possibility to specify real-time aspects of an application are not yet fully satisfactory Indeed, existing industrial proposals supply good answers to concurrency specification problem but they are yet limited regarding to real-time quantitative properties specification of an application. This work aims to construct a complete and consistent UML methodology based on a profile dedicated to automotive embedded Systems modeling and prototyping. This profile contains ail needed extensions to express easily the real-time quantitative properties of an application. Moreover, thanks to the formalization of UML protocol state machines, real-time concepts have been well-integrated in the object oriented paradigm. The main result of this deep integration is that a user is now able to model real-time Systems through the classical object oriented view i.e. without needing any specific knowing in real-time area. In order to answer to an industrial requirement, Systems prototyping (key point for car industry) the ACCORD/UML approach allows also to build executable models of an application. For that purpose, the method supplies a set of rules allow.ng to remove UML ambiguous semantics points, to complete semantics variation points and then to obtain a complete and coherent global model of an application being executable. The work of UML extension and its using formalization realized all along this thesis supplied also a complete and non-ambiguous modeling framework for automotive electronics Systems development. This is also a base particularly well-suited to tackle other facets of the Systems development as automatic and optimized code generation, validation, simulation or tests. (author) [fr

  16. Execute-Only Attacks against Execute-Only Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    strongest implementations of execute-only defenses: it exploits novel hardware features to incorporate non-readable code to prevent direct information...build two proof-of- concept exploits that can achieve control flow hijacking on a system protected by full- featured Readactor. • We evaluate the...According to the CVE [31], 123 such arbitrary read vulnerabilities were reported between January and September of 2015, in Firefox (CVE-2015-4495

  17. Novel, Improved Sample Preparation for Rapid, Direct Identification from Positive Blood Cultures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a m...

  18. Development of a scale of executive functioning for the RBANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert J; Kitchen Andren, Katherine A; Tolle, Kathryn A

    2018-01-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, and healthy and clinical normative data are lacking on the frequency of these types of errors, making their significance difficult to interpret in isolation. The aim of this project was to create an RBANS executive errors scale (RBANS EE) with items comprised of qualitatively dysexecutive errors committed throughout the test. Participants included Veterans referred for outpatient neuropsychological testing. Items were initially selected based on theoretical literature and were retained based on item-total correlations. The RBANS EE (a percentage calculated by dividing the number of dysexecutive errors by the total number of responses) was moderately related to each of seven established measures of executive functioning and was strongly predictive of dichotomous classification of executive impairment. Thus, the scale had solid concurrent validity, justifying its use as a supplementary scale. The RBANS EE requires no additional administration time and can provide a quantified measure of otherwise unmeasured aspects of executive functioning.

  19. Real-time PCR assay using fine-needle aspirates and tissue biopsy specimens for rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E. S.; Lindeboom, J. A.; Prins, J. M.; Peeters, M. F.; Claas, E. C. J.; Kuijper, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed to diagnose and identify the causative agents of suspected mycobacterial lymphadenitis. Primers and probes for the real-time PCR were designed on the basis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence, enabling the recognition of the genus Mycobacterium and the

  20. Development of an improved rapid BACpro® protocol and a method for direct identification from blood-culture-positive bottles using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Takatoshi; Watari, Tomohisa; Ashizawa, Kazuho; Hanada, Daisuke; Yanagiya, Takako; Watanabe, Naoki; Terada, Takashi; Tomoda, Yutaka; Fujii, Satoshi

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been incorporated into pathogenic bacterial identification methods and has improved their rapidity. Various methods have been reported to directly identify bacteria with MALDI-TOF MS by pretreating culture medium in blood culture bottles. Rapid BACpro® (Nittobo Medical Co., Ltd.) is a pretreatment kit for effective collection of bacteria with cationic copolymers. However, the Rapid BACpro® pretreatment kit is adapted only for MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics K.K.), and there has been a desire to expand its use to VITEK MS (VMS; bioMerieux SA). We improved the protocol and made it possible to analyze with VMS. The culture medium bacteria collection method was changed to a method with centrifugation after hemolysis using saponin; the cationic copolymer concentration was changed to 30% of the original concentration; the sequence with which reagents were added was changed; and a change was made to an ethanol/formic acid extraction method. The improved protocol enhanced the identification performance. When VMS was used, the identification rate was 100% with control samples. With clinical samples, the identification agreement rate with the cell smear method was 96.3%. The improved protocol is effective in blood culture rapid identification, being both simpler and having an improved identification performance compared with the original. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A novel time frequency-based 3D Lissajous figure method and its application to the determination of oxygen saturation from the photoplethysmogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S.; Watson, James N.

    2004-11-01

    We present a novel time-frequency method for the measurement of oxygen saturation using the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals from a standard pulse oximeter machine. The method utilizes the time-frequency transformation of the red and infrared PPGs to derive a 3D Lissajous figure. By selecting the optimal Lissajous, the method provides an inherently robust basis for the determination of oxygen saturation as regions of the time-frequency plane where high- and low-frequency signal artefacts are to be found are automatically avoided.

  2. Vectorization vs. compilation in query execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sompolski (Juliusz); M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCompiling database queries into executable (sub-) programs provides substantial benefits comparing to traditional interpreted execution. Many of these benefits, such as reduced interpretation overhead, better instruction code locality, and providing opportunities to use SIMD

  3. ARC Code TI: IPG Execution Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Execution Service allows users to submit, monitor, and cancel complex jobs. Each job consists of a set of tasks that perform actions such as executing...

  4. Executive Information Systems' Multidimensional Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Information Systems are design to improve the quality of strategic level of management in organization through a new type of technology and several techniques for extracting, transforming, processing, integrating and presenting data in such a way that the organizational knowledge filters can easily associate with this data and turn it into information for the organization. These technologies are known as Business Intelligence Tools. But in order to build analytic reports for Executive Information Systems (EIS in an organization we need to design a multidimensional model based on the business model from the organization. This paper presents some multidimensional models that can be used in EIS development and propose a new model that is suitable for strategic business requests.

  5. Bacterial rapid identification with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: development of an 'in-house method' and comparison with Bruker Sepsityper(®) kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédéric Ric, S; Antoine, M; Bodson, A; Lissoir, B

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an in-house matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with time of flight (MALDI-TOF) method and a commercial MALDI-TOF kit (Sepsityper(®) kit) for direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures. We also evaluated the time saved and the cost associated with the rapid identification techniques. We used the BACTEC(®) automated system for detecting positive blood cultures. Direct identification using Sepsityper kit and the in-house method were compared with conventional identification by MALDI-TOF using pure bacterial culture on the solid phase. We also evaluated different cut-off scores for rapid bacterial identification. In total, 127 positive blood vials were selected. The rate of rapid identification with the MALDI Sepsityper kit was 25.2% with the standard cut-off and 33.9% with the enlarged cut-off, while the results for the in-house method were 44.1 and 61.4%, respectively. Error rates with the enlarged cut-off were 6.98 (n = 3) and 2.56% (n = 2) for Sepsityper and the in-house method, respectively. Identification rates were higher for gram-negative bacteria. Direct bacterial identification succeeded in supplying rapid identification of the causative organism in cases of sepsis. The time taken to obtain a result was nearly 24  hours shorter for the direct bacterial identification methods than for conventional MALDI-TOF on solid phase culture. Compared with the Sepsityper kit, the in-house method offered better results and fewer errors, was more cost-effective and easier to use.

  6. Executable Operational Semantics of Solidity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Jiao; Kan, Shuanglong; Lin, Shang-Wei; Sanan, David; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Bitcoin has attracted everyone's attention and interest recently. Ethereum (ETH), a second generation cryptocurrency, extends Bitcoin's design by offering a Turing-complete programming language called Solidity to develop smart contracts. Smart contracts allow creditable execution of contracts on EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) without third parties. Developing correct smart contracts is challenging due to its decentralized computation nature. Buggy smart contracts may lead to huge financial lo...

  7. Executive compensation: a calibration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivilina Popova; Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    We use a version of the Grossman and Hart principal-agent model with 10 actions and 10 states to produce quantitative predictions for executive compensation. Performance incentives derived from the model are compared with the performance incentives of 350 firms chosen from a survey by Michael Jensen and Kevin Murphy. The results suggest both that the model does a reasonable job of explaining the data and that actual incentives are close to the optimal incentives predicted by theory.

  8. 36th ATLANTA EXECUTIVE SEMINAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    assignments as an Army Division G-4, Divisional Support Battalion Commander, Divisional Material Readiness officer, and Support Battalion Executive...Battalion; Corps Material Management Officer, Corps Support Command; Fort Hood, Texas • Jul 1991 – Jun 1994: Research Analyst, Office of Economic and...LABBLEE Corp, Raytheon, Labat-Anderson Inc., KPMG , Huber Corp, The Boeing Company, and Philadelphia Electric Company. He has also served on a

  9. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  10. Executive pay and shareholder litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Ailsa Röell

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of executive compensation on private securities litigation. We find that incentive pay in the form of options increases the probability of securities class action litigation, holding constant a wide range of firm characteristics. We further document that there is abnormal upward earnings manipulation during litigation class periods and that insiders exercise more options and sell more shares during class periods, but that this activity is largely driven by pre-ex...

  11. Module-Based Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Droplet-Aware Operation Execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maftei, Elena; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    operations are executed by moving the droplets. So far, researchers have ignored the locations of droplets inside devices, considering that all the electrodes forming the device are occupied throughout the operation execution. In this article, we consider a droplet-aware execution of microfluidic operations......, which means that we know the exact position of droplets inside the modules at each time-step. We propose a Tabu Search-based metaheuristic for the synthesis of digital biochips with droplet-aware operation execution. Experimental results show that our approach can significantly reduce the application...... completion time, allowing us to use smaller area biochips and thus reduce costs....

  12. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented

  13. [Memory and the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, J; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed in the diencephalic structures and in the medial temporal lobe. Generally, we can state that many works find an association between frontal damage and specific memory shortages like working memory deficit, metamemory problems, source amnesia, or difficulties in the prospective memory. This paper is a critical review of the working memory concept and proposes a new term: the attentional operative system that works with memory contents. Concerning the metamemory, the frontal lobes are essential for monitoring processes in general and for 'the feeling of knowing' kind of judgements in particular. Patients suffering prefrontal damage show serious problems to remember the information source. Thus, the information is rightly remembered but the spatiotemporal context where that information was learned has been forgotten. Finally, the prospective memory deals with remembering to make something in a particular moment in the future and performing the plan previously drawn up.

  14. Executive functioning complaints and escitalopram treatment response in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kevin J; Alexopoulos, George S; Banerjee, Samprit; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Seirup, Joanna K; Klimstra, Sibel A; Yuen, Genevieve; Kanellopoulos, Theodora; Gunning-Dixon, Faith

    2015-05-01

    Executive dysfunction may play a key role in the pathophysiology of late-life depression. Executive dysfunction can be assessed with cognitive tests and subjective report of difficulties with executive skills. The present study investigated the association between subjective report of executive functioning complaints and time to escitalopram treatment response in older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). 100 older adults with MDD (58 with executive functioning complaints and 42 without executive functioning complaints) completed a 12-week trial of escitalopram. Treatment response over 12 weeks, as measured by repeated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, was compared for adults with and without executive complaints using mixed-effects modeling. Mixed effects analysis revealed a significant group × time interaction, F(1, 523.34) = 6.00, p = 0.01. Depressed older adults who reported executive functioning complaints at baseline demonstrated a slower response to escitalopram treatment than those without executive functioning complaints. Self-report of executive functioning difficulties may be a useful prognostic indicator for subsequent speed of response to antidepressant medication. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    quid pro quo type of Sexual harassment and Organizational, 4 sexual harassment (e.g., sexual coercion). This should drive organizational efforts to... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL...Executive Summary] No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue

  16. Assessing Executive Functioning: A Pragmatic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.; Patterson, Ashlea; Sukraw, Jocelyn; Sullivan, Brianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common usage of the term "executive functioning" in neuropsychology, several aspects of this concept remain unsettled. In this paper, we will address some of the issues surrounding the notion of executive functioning and how an understanding of executive functioning and its components might assist school-based practitioners…

  17. 40 CFR 68.155 - Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive summary. 68.155 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.155 Executive summary. The owner or operator shall provide in the RMP an executive summary that includes a brief description of the following...

  18. Rapid simultaneous high-resolution mapping of myelin water fraction and relaxation times in human brain using BMC-mcDESPOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhrara, Mustapha; Spencer, Richard G

    2017-02-15

    A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T 1 , and transverse, T 2 , relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T 1 and T 2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T 1 and T 2 , with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time. Unfortunately, previous studies have indicated the limited performance of mcDESPOT in the setting of the modest signal-to-noise range of high-resolution mapping, required for the depiction of small structures and to reduce partial volume effects. Recently, we showed that a new Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis substantially improved determination of MWF from mcDESPOT imaging data. However, our previous study was limited in that it did not discuss determination of relaxation times. Here, we extend the BMC analysis to the simultaneous determination of whole-brain MWF and relaxation times using the two-component mcDESPOT signal model. Simulation analyses and in-vivo human brain studies indicate the overall greater performance of this approach compared to the stochastic region contraction (SRC) algorithm, conventionally used to derive parameter estimates from mcDESPOT data. SRC estimates of the transverse relaxation time of the long T 2 fraction, T 2,l , and the longitudinal relaxation time of the short T 1 fraction, T 1,s , clustered towards the lower and upper parameter search space limits, respectively, indicating failure of the fitting procedure. We demonstrate that this effect is absent in the BMC analysis. Our results also showed improved parameter estimation for BMC as compared to SRC for high-resolution mapping. Overall we find that the combination of BMC analysis

  19. Exploiting Semantic Web Technologies to Develop OWL-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Execution Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios.

  20. Rapid change in the ciprofloxacin resistance pattern among Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Nuuk, Greenland: time to reconsider preventive and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolskov, Anne Skjerbæk; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Mulvad, Gert; Poulsen, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), are highly incident in Greenland. Since January 2011, GC testing has been performed on urine with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) by strand displacement amplification (Becton Dickinson ProbeTec). Monitoring of GC antibiotic susceptibility by culture was introduced in Nuuk in 2012. Until 2014, no cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC strains were reported. In this paper, we report the finding of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC and describe the most recent incidence of GC infections in Greenland. The number of urine NAATs and culture-positive swabs from January to October 2014 were obtained from the Central Laboratory at Queens Ingrid's Hospital in Nuuk and stratified on gender, place and period of testing. Incidence rates were estimated as number of urine NAAT * (12/10) per 100,000 inhabitants. Men in Nuuk with a positive NAAT for GC were encouraged to provide a urethral swab for culture and susceptibility testing. From January to October 2014, a total of 5,436 urine GC NAATs were performed on patients from Nuuk and 9,031 from the rest of Greenland. Of these, 422 (8%) and 820 (9%) were positive, respectively. From January to August, 6 (15%) cultures from Nuuk were ciprofloxacin resistant while in September and October, 26 (59%) were ciprofloxacin resistant (presistance. GC incidence in Nuuk was 3,017 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, compared to 2,491 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the rest of Greenland. Within a short period, a rapid and dramatic change in ciprofloxacin susceptibility among GC strains isolated in Nuuk was documented and recommendation for first line treatments has changed. Continued monitoring and rethinking of primary and secondary preventive initiatives is highly recommended in this high GC incidence setting.

  1. Observations on the health of infants at a time of rapid societal change: a longitudinal study from birth to fifteen months in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Hazel; Green, Katherine; Gardner, Andrew S; Geddes, Donna

    2018-02-07

    Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates has been accompanied by a rise in chronic disease. Early childhood is known to affect health outcomes in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the general health of Emirati infants born in a government maternity hospital in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in October 2002. One hundred twenty-five women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed as part of a larger study encompassing a wide range of cultural, social, and behavioural aspects of health. They were then re-interviewed at three (n = 94), six (n = 59) and 15 months postpartum (n = 52). Data are presented using univariate statistics. In this study seven infants (6%) were born prematurely and four infants (3%) were classified as small for gestational age, while 11 (9%) of the infants weighed less than 2500 g. Low birth weight infants (LBW) were significantly more likely to require treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR = 30.83, p = 0.00). Iron supplementation during pregnancy was associated with fewer underweight infants (OR = 3.92, p = 0.042). No associations were found between infant birth weight and maternal age, age at marriage, consanguinity, education level, current maternal employment, parity, pre-existing anaemia or anaemia in pregnancy, diabetes, folic acid intake, multivitamin intake or infant gender. Maternally-reported infant health issues, vaccination, medication, breast-feeding and infant nutrition, and use of secure car seats are also reported. The health of infants at birth in this UAE sample showed improvements compared to previous studies. The proportion of LBW infants is decreasing and continuing improvements in health care in the UAE are having a positive impact on infant health.

  2. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Method as a Tool To Quantify Viable Photobacterium phosphoreum Bacteria in Salmon (Salmo salar) Steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabrina; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka

    2013-01-01

    A specific real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide sample treatment step was developed to determine quantitatively the viable population of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group in raw modified-atmosphere-packed salmon. Primers were designed to amplify a 350......-bp fragment of the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) of P. phosphoreum. The specificity of the two primers was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 81 strains of 52 different bacterial species. When these primers were used for real-time PCR in pure culture, a good correlation (R2 of 0.99) was obtained...... between this method and conventional enumeration on marine agar (MA). Quantification was linear over 5 log units as confirmed by using inoculated salmon samples. On naturally contaminated fresh salmon, the new real-time PCR method performed successfully with a quantification limit of 3 log CFU...

  3. Evaluation of a centrifuge with rapid turnaround time for the preparation of plasma samples for measurement of common STAT markers on the ACS: 180 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K; Datta, P; Orswell, M; Tasaico, K; Alpert, A; Bluestein, B

    2000-01-01

    Reported is the evaluation of a new centrifugation method, Statspin, that addresses both time and sample separation integrity. The method can successfully separate the plasma fraction from the cellular material in 2 minutes as compared to 20 minutes for the conventional centrifuge method. The Statspin, combined with the ACS:180 system, can generate test results in less than 30 minutes, exclusive of transport to the laboratory. This study demonstrated that the combined technologies offer timing-saving improvements for clinical laboratories offering STAT immunoassays for cardiac markers, endocrine molecules, and therapeutic drugs.

  4. 5 CFR 842.211 - Senior Executive Service, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service, and Senior Cryptologic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior Executive Service, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service, and Senior Cryptologic Executive Service. 842.211 Section 842.211... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.211 Senior Executive Service, Defense...

  5. Development of a taqman-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid and specific detection of novel duck- origin goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Cui, Yuan; Nan, Huizhu; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for specific detection of novel duck-origin goose parvovirus (N-GPV), the etiological agent of duck beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). The detection limit of the assay was 10 2 copies. The assay was useful in the prevention and control of BADS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Real Time Workshop for rapid and reliable control implementation in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade Feedback Control System running under RTAI-GNU/Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Ledauphin, M.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Feedback Control System running at FTU has been recently ported from a commercial platform (based on LynxOS) to an open-source GNU/Linux-based RTAI-LXRT platform, thereby, obtaining significant performance and cost improvements. Based on the new open-source platform, it is now possible to experiment novel control strategies aimed at improving the robustness and accuracy of the feedback control. Nevertheless, the implementation of control ideas still requires a great deal of coding of the control algorithms that, if carried out manually, may be prone to coding errors, therefore time consuming both in the development phase and in the subsequent validation tests consisting of dedicated experiments carried out on FTU. In this paper, we report on recent developments based on Mathworks' Simulink and Real Time Workshop (RTW) packages to obtain a user-friendly environment where the real time code implementing novel control algorithms can be easily generated, tested and validated. Thanks to this new tool, the control designer only needs to specify the block diagram of the control task (namely, a high level and functional description of the new algorithm under consideration) and the corresponding real time code generation and testing is completely automated without any need of dedicated experiments. In the paper, the necessary work carried out to adapt the Real Time Workshop to our RTAI-LXRT context will be illustrated. A necessary re-organization of the previous real time software, aimed at incorporating the code coming from the adapted RTW, will also be discussed. Moreover, we will report on a performance comparison between the code obtained using the automated RTW-based procedure and the hand-written C code, appropriately optimised; at the moment, a preliminary performance comparison consisting of dummy algorithms has shown that the code automatically generated from RTW is faster (about 30% up) than the manually written one. This preliminary result combined with the

  7. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  8. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roschanski

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase resistant bacteria and especially ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. For this reason a major interest in efficient and reliable methods for rapid screening of high sample numbers is recognizable. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to detect the predominant class A beta-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and CIT-type AmpCs in a one-step reaction. A set of 114 Enterobacteriaceae containing previously identified resistance gene subtypes and in addition 20 undefined animal and environmental isolates were used for the validation of this assay. To confirm the accessibility in variable settings, the real-time runs were performed analogous in two different laboratories using different real-time cyclers. The obtained results showed complete accordance between the real-time data and the predetermined genotypes. Even if sequence analyses are further necessary for a comprehensive characterization, this method was proofed to be reliable for rapid screening of high sample numbers and therefore could be an important tool for e. g. epidemiological purposes or support infection control measures.

  9. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: protocol standardization and database expansion for rapid identification of clinically important molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Saikat; Singh, Pankaj; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2017-12-01

    To standardize the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry protocols and expansion of existing Bruker Biotyper database for mold identification. Four different sample preparation methods (protocol A, B, C and D) were evaluated. On analyzing each protein extraction method, reliable identification and best log scores were achieved through protocol D. The same protocol was used to identify 153 clinical isolates. Of these 153, 123 (80.3%) were accurately identified by using existing database and remaining 30 (19.7%) were not identified due to unavailability in database. On inclusion of missing main spectrum profile in existing database, all 153 isolates were identified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry can be used for routine identification of clinically important molds.

  10. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf......Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  11. Linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction and allied technologies. Real-time detection strategies for rapid, reliable diagnosis from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth E; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2007-01-01

    Accurate detection of gene sequences in single cells is the ultimate challenge to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sensitivity. Unfortunately, commonly used conventional and real-time PCR techniques are often too unreliable at that level to provide the accuracy needed for clinical diagnosis. Here we provide details of linear-after-the-exponential-PCR (LATE-PCR), a method similar to asymmetric PCR in the use of primers at different concentrations, but with novel design criteria to ensure high efficiency and specificity. Compared with conventional PCR, LATE-PCR increases the signal strength and allele discrimination capability of oligonucleotide probes such as molecular beacons and reduces variability among replicate samples. The analysis of real-time kinetics of LATE-PCR signals provides a means for improving the accuracy of single cell genetic diagnosis.

  12. Cross-platform evaluation of commercial real-time SYBR green RT-PCR kits for sensitive and rapid detection of European bat Lyssavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R (2) values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  13. Cross-Platform Evaluation of Commercial Real-Time SYBR Green RT-PCR Kits for Sensitive and Rapid Detection of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R2 values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  14. Rapid identification of pathogens directly from blood culture bottles by Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption laser ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry versus routine methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa; Saleem, Rola; Rotimi, Vincent O

    2013-08-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of microorganisms directly from blood culture is an exciting dimension to the microbiologists. We evaluated the performance of Bruker SepsiTyper kit™ (STK) for direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture. This was done in parallel with conventional methods. Nonrepetitive positive blood cultures from 160 consecutive patients were prospectively evaluated by both methods. Of 160 positive blood cultures, the STK identified 114 (75.6%) isolates and routine conventional method 150 (93%). Thirty-six isolates were misidentified or not identified by the kit. Of these, 5 had score of >2.000 and 31 had an unreliable low score of <1.7. Four of 8 yeasts were identified correctly. The average turnaround time using the STK was 35 min, including extraction steps and 30:12 to 36:12 h with routine method. The STK holds promise for timely management of bacteremic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of copolymer for rapid identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Kazuho; Murata, Syota; Terada, Takashi; Ito, Daisuke; Bunya, Masaru; Watanabe, Koji; Teruuchi, Yoko; Tsuchida, Sachio; Satoh, Mamoru; Nishimura, Motoi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Sugama, Yuji; Nomura, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used to identify pathogens in blood culture samples. However, sample pretreatment is needed for direct identification of microbes in blood culture bottles. Conventional protocols are complex and time-consuming. Therefore, in this study, we developed a method for collecting bacteria using polyallylamine-polystyrene copolymer for application in wastewater treatment technology. Using representative bacterial species Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus capitis, we found that polyallylamine-polystyrene can form visible aggregates with bacteria, which can be identified using MALDI-TOF MS. The processing time of our protocol was as short as 15min. Hemoglobin interference in MALDI spectra analysis was significantly decreased in our method compared with the conventional method. In a preliminary experiment, we evaluated the use of our protocol to identify clinical isolates from blood culture bottles. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of 17 strains from five bacterial species (E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus, and S. capitis) collected by our protocol was satisfactory. Prospective large-scale studies are needed to further evaluate the clinical application of this novel and simple method of collecting bacteria in blood culture bottles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  17. Effects of alcoholism severity and smoking on executive neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Adams, Kenneth M; Nigg, Joel T; Puttler, Leon I; Jester, Jennifer M; Zucker, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse of substances other than alcohol. Cigarette smoking occurs at higher rates in alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance, yet the effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism are often ignored. We examined whether chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking have effects on executive function. Alcoholism and smoking were examined in a community-recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (n = 240) using standard neuropsychological and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism was measured as the average level of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 years). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Both alcoholism and smoking were correlated negatively with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was correlated negatively with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was correlated negatively with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism were significant predictors of executive function composite. However, when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer significant. Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism was not independent of IQ, suggesting a generalized effect, perhaps affecting a wide rang