WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid energy dissipation

  1. Energy dissipators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vischer, D. L; Hager, Willi H; Hager, W. H

    1995-01-01

    .... the book comprises chapters in farious fields such as hydraulic jump, stilling basins, ski jumps and plunge pools but introduces also a general account on various methods of dissipation, as well...

  2. Dissipation of Tidal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The moon's gravity imparts tremendous energy to the Earth, raising tides throughout the global oceans. What happens to all this energy? This question has been pondered by scientists for over 200 years, and has consequences ranging from the history of the moon to the mixing of the oceans. Richard Ray at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Gary Egbert of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. studied six years of altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite to address this question. According to their report in the June 15 issue of Nature, about 1 terawatt, or 25 to 30 percent of the total tidal energy dissipation, occurs in the deep ocean. The remainder occurs in shallow seas, such as on the Patagonian Shelf. 'By measuring sea level with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, our knowledge of the tides in the global ocean has been remarkably improved,' said Richard Ray, a geophysicist at Goddard. The accuracies are now so high that this data can be used to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. (Red areas, above) The deep-water tidal dissipation occurs generally near rugged bottom topography (seamounts and mid-ocean ridges). 'The observed pattern of deep-ocean dissipation is consistent with topographic scattering of tidal energy into internal motions within the water column, resulting in localized turbulence and mixing', said Gary Egbert an associate professor at OSU. One important implication of this finding concerns the possible energy sources needed to maintain the ocean's large-scale 'conveyor-belt' circulation and to mix upper ocean heat into the abyssal depths. It is thought that 2 terawatts are required for this process. The winds supply about 1 terawatt, and there has been speculation that the tides, by pumping energy into vertical water motions, supply the remainder. However, all current general circulation models of the oceans ignore the tides. 'It is possible that properly

  3. Energy Dissipation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  4. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  5. Low Energy Dissipation Nano Device Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    The development of research on energy dissipation has been rapid in energy efficient area. Nano-material power FET is operated as an RF power amplifier, the transport is ballistic, noise is limited and power dissipation is minimized. The goal is Green-save energy by developing the Graphene and carbon nantube microwave and high performance devices. Higher performing RF amplifiers can have multiple impacts on broadly field, for example communication equipment, (such as mobile phone and RADAR); higher power density and lower power dissipation will improve spectral efficiency which translates into higher system level bandwidth and capacity for communications equipment. Thus, fundamental studies of power handling capabilities of new RF (nano)technologies can have broad, sweeping impact. Because it is critical to maximizing the power handling ability of grephene and carbon nanotube FET, the initial task focuses on measuring and understanding the mechanism of electrical breakdown. We aim specifically to determine how the breakdown voltage in graphene and nanotubes is related to the source-drain spacing, electrode material and thickness, and substrate, and thus develop reliable statistics on the breakdown mechanism and probability.

  6. Energy dissipation in biomolecular machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lervik, Anders

    2012-07-01

    thermodynamic efficiency is found to be low (< 13 %) in all cases for the experimental conditions considered, which means that a large amount of the energy released from the ATP-hydrolysis is dissipated as heat. A complementary molecular dynamics study targeted on a bilayer for which the protein shows a relatively large efficiency (compared to other bilayers) shows that membrane deformation and large efficiency are not mutually exclusive. Overall, this thesis highlights the usefulness of the mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic framework applied to molecular machines and energy transduction and dissipation in these. The main result is that the mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework is applicable to molecular pumps and can be extended to include heat effects. This framework is general and can be applied to other molecular machines as well. Further, the results also support the notion that the calcium pump may contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis in certain tissues.(Author)

  7. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  8. Fundamental limits of energy dissipation in computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Graham; Whitney, Jean; Lent, Craig; Orlov, Alexei; Snider, Greg

    2010-03-01

    The limiting factor for microprocessor development in recent years has been heat generation, which has led to a debate regarding the limits of energy dissipation required for computation. Landauer argued that energy is unavoidably lost only when data is erased---the so-called Landauer Principle. Quasi-adiabatic computation is a proposed solution which relies on recycling the energy used during computation. This has been challenged recently by the assertion that recovering the energy is impossible due to a fundamental minimum energy of kTln(2) that must be lost during the charging and discharging of an RC circuit. We experimentally measured the power dissipated in an RC circuit in the time and frequency domains. In both cases, we measure an energy dissipation less than kTln(2) in the resistor while many times kT is delivered to the capacitor. Our experiments demonstrate that there is no fundamental lower limit to the energy that must be dissipated in charging and discharging a capacitor, even for energy losses well below kT. This therefore provides experimental support for the Landauer Principle: there is no fundamental lower limit for energy dissipation required for computation.

  9. Energy dissipation mapping of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Diganta; Palmer, Xavier-Lewis; Kim, Jinhyun; Qian, Shizhi; Stacey, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to map the energy dissipation of Jurkat cells using a single 60 nanosecond pulse electric field (NsPEF), primarily through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The phase shift is generated by the sample elements that do not have a heterogeneous surface. Monitoring and manipulating the phase shift is a powerful way for determining the dissipated energy and plotting the topography. The dissipated energy is a relative value, so the silica wafer and cover slip are given a set reference while the transmission of energy between the tip of the cantilever and cell surfaces is measured. The most important finding is that the magnitude and the number of variations in the dissipated energy change with the strength of NsPEF applied. Utilizing a single low field strength NsPEF (15kV/cm), minor changes in dissipated energy were found. The application of a single high field strength NsPEF (60kV/cm) to Jurkat cells resulted in a higher dissipated energy change versus that of in the low field strength condition. Thus, the dissipated energy from the Jurkat cells changes with the strength of NsPEF. By analyzing the forces via investigation in the tapping mode of the AFM, the stabilization of the cytoskeleton and membrane of the cell are related to the strength of NsPEF applied. Furthermore, the strength of NsPEF indicates a meaningful relationship to the survival of the Jurkat cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy Dissipation Control of Hysteretic Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of a damper depends on the amount of energy dissipation during a typical cycle experienced by the damper. For viscous dampers this leads to substantial frequency dependence, and typically implies that optimal tuning of a passive viscous damper is valid only for a particular mode....... In contrast the energy dissipated by a hysteretic damper is independent of frequency, but depends on the amplitude and also contains a stiffness component. The present paper presents a procedure for predicting the magnitude of the closed hysteresis loops and thereby the energy dissipation, and a procedure...... for on-line tuning of the damper properties for random response. The approach is illustrated for the bilinear elasto-plastic damper, where the optimal relation between yield level and displacement amplitude is derived....

  11. Complex Fluids in Energy Dissipating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Galindo-Rosales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of engineered systems for energy dissipation (or absorption during impacts or vibrations is an increasing need in our society, mainly for human protection applications, but also for ensuring the right performance of different sort of devices, facilities or installations. In the last decade, new energy dissipating composites based on the use of certain complex fluids have flourished, due to their non-linear relationship between stress and strain rate depending on the flow/field configuration. This manuscript intends to review the different approaches reported in the literature, analyses the fundamental physics behind them and assess their pros and cons from the perspective of their practical applications.

  12. Balsa wood as an energy dissipator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to determine response of balsa wood in variety of environmental conditions. Response is dependent upon state of balsa wood as well as environment to which it is exposed, but certain combinations of conditions serve to increase significantly energy-dissipating capacity of wood relative to its normal capacity.

  13. Tidal Energy Dissipation from Topex/Poseidon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In a recent paper ({\\it Nature, 405,} 775, 2000) we concluded that 25 to 30\\% of the ocean's tidal energy dissipation, or about 1 terawatt, occurs in the deep ocean, with the remaining 2.6 TW in shallow seas. The physical mechanism for deep-ocean dissipation is apparently scattering of the surface tide into internal modes; Munk and Wunsch have suggested that this mechanism may provide half the power needed for mixing the deep-ocean. This paper builds further evidence for $1\\pm 0.2$ TW of deep-ocean dissipation. The evidence is extracted from tidal elevations deduced from seven years of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The dissipation rate Is formed as a balance between the rate of working by tidal forces and the energy flux divergence. While dynamical assumptions are required to compute fluxes, area integrals of the energy balance are, owing to the tight satellite constraints, remarkably insensitive to these assumptions. A large suite of tidal solutions based on a wide range of dynamical assumptions, on perturbations to bathymetric models, and on simulated elevation data are used to assess this sensitivity. These and Monte Carlo error fields from a generalized inverse model are used to establish error uncertainties.

  14. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  15. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  16. Wind Turbine Control with Active Damage Reduction through Energy Dissipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Wisniewski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an active damage reduction control strategy for wind turbines based on dissipated energy. To this end we rely on the equivalences relating both damage in the rainflow counting sense and dissipated energy to the variations of Preisach hysteresis operators. Since dissipation

  17. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system.

  18. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciabocco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.

    It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  19. Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2017-09-01

    Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (<10 ns) magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.

  20. Magnetic energy dissipation in force-free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Konigl, Arieh

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that a magnetic pressure-dominated, supersonic jet which expands or contracts in response to variations in the confining external pressure can dissipate magnetic energy through field-line reconnection as it relaxes to a minimum-energy configuration. In order for a continuous dissipation to occur, the effective reconnection time must be a fraction of the expansion time. The dissipation rate for the axisymmetric minimum-energy field configuration is analytically derived. The results indicate that the field relaxation process could be a viable mechanism for powering the synchrotron emission in extragalactic jets if the reconnection time is substantially shorter than the nominal resistive tearing time in the jet.

  1. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  2. Hydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngkyu Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Movable weirs have been developed to address the weaknesses of conventional fixed weirs. However, the structures for riverbed protection downstream of movable weirs are designed using the criteria of fixed weirs in most cases, and these applications cause problems, such as scour and deformation of structures, due to misunderstanding the difference between different types of structures. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was conducted to examine weir type-specific hydraulic phenomena, compare hydraulic jumps and downstream flow characteristics according to different weir types, and analyze hydraulic characteristics, such as changes in water levels, velocities and energy. Additionally, to control the flow generated by a sluice gate, energy dissipators were examined herein for their effectiveness in relation to different installation locations and heights. As a result, it was found that although sluice gates generated hydraulic jumps similar to those of fixed weirs, their downstream supercritical flow increased to eventually elongate the overall hydraulic jumps. In energy dissipator installation, installation heights were found to be sensitive to energy dissipation. The most effective energy dissipator height was 10% of the downstream free surface water depth in this experiment. Based on these findings, it seems desirable to use energy dissipators to reduce energy, as such dissipators were found to be effective in reducing hydraulic jumps and protecting the riverbed under sluice gates.

  3. Reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-06

    Reversible computing is considered to be a key technology to achieve an extremely high energy efficiency in future computers. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic. We analyzed the evolution of phase differences of Josephson junctions in the reversible quantum-flux-parametron (RQFP) gate and confirmed that the phase differences can change time reversibly, which indicates that the RQFP gate is physically, as well as logically, reversible. We calculated energy dissipation required for the RQFP gate to perform a logic operation and numerically demonstrated that the energy dissipation can fall below the thermal limit, or the Landauer bound, by lowering operation frequencies. We also investigated the 1-bit-erasure gate as a logically irreversible gate and the quasi-RQFP gate as a physically irreversible gate. We calculated the energy dissipation of these irreversible gates and showed that the energy dissipation of these gate is dominated by non-adiabatic state changes, which are induced by unwanted interactions between gates due to logical or physical irreversibility. Our results show that, in reversible computing using adiabatic superconductor logic, logical and physical reversibility are required to achieve energy dissipation smaller than the Landauer bound without non-adiabatic processes caused by gate interactions.

  4. A Note on Kinetic Energy, Dissipation and Enstrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ye; Fan, Meng

    1998-01-01

    The dissipation rate of a Newtonian fluid with constant shear viscosity can be shown to include three constituents: dilatation, vorticity, and surface strain. The last one is found to make no contributions to the change of kinetic energy. These dissipation constituents arc used to identify typical compact turbulent flow structures at high Reynolds numbers. The incompressible version of the simplified kinetic-energy equation is then cast to a novel form, which is free from the work rate done by surface stresses but in which the full dissipation re-enters.

  5. Modeling of the metabolic energy dissipation for restricted tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana; Milivojevic, Milan

    2017-10-01

    Energy dissipation mostly represents unwanted outcome but in the biochemical processes it may alter the biochemical pathways. However, it is rarely considered in the literature although energy dissipation and its alteration due to the changes in cell microenvironment may improve methods for guiding chemical and biochemical processes in the desired directions. Deeper insight into the changes of metabolic activity of tumor cells exposed to osmotic stress or irradiation may offer the possibility of tumor growth reduction. In this work effects of the osmotic stress and irradiation on the thermodynamical affinity of tumor cells and their damping effects on metabolic energy dissipation were investigated and modeled. Although many various models were applied to consider the tumor restrictive growth they have not considered the metabolic energy dissipation. In this work a pseudo rheological model in the form of "the metabolic spring-pot element" is formulated to describe theoretically the metabolic susceptibility of tumor spheroid. This analog model relates the thermodynamical affinity of cell growth with the volume expansion of tumor spheroid under isotropic loading conditions. Spheroid relaxation induces anomalous nature of the metabolic energy dissipation which causes the damping effects on cell growth. The proposed model can be used for determining the metabolic energy "structure" in the context of restrictive cell growth as well as for predicting optimal doses for cancer curing in order to tailor the clinical treatment for each person and each type of cancer.

  6. Fundamental limits of energy dissipation in charge-based computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechler, Graham P.; Whitney, Jean M.; Lent, Craig S.; Orlov, Alexei O.; Snider, Gregory L.

    2010-09-01

    According to Landauer's principle, dissipation of energy is only necessary when information is erased, suggesting that vastly more efficient logical switches than transistors are possible. However, an influential analysis of binary switching suggests that representing information with electric charge is the root of the problem, that Landauer's principle is fundamentally flawed, and that any movement of charge, such as charging a capacitor, must dissipate at least kBT ln(2). Here, using a RC circuit, an energy loss of much less than kBT ln(2) is demonstrated while delivering energy of 100 kBT ln(2) to the capacitor. This shows that there is no fundamental lower limit to energy dissipation in moving charge.

  7. Accuracy improvement in dissipated energy measurement by using phase information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, D.; Inagawa, T.; Washio, T.; Sakagami, T.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a technique for improving the accuracy of a dissipated energy measurement based on the phase information—called the phase 2f lock-in infrared method—is proposed. In the conventional 2f lock-in infrared method, the dissipated energy is obtained as the double frequency component of the measured temperature change. In this work, a phase analysis of the double frequency component has been conducted. It is found that the double frequency component includes the influence of the energy dissipation and harmonic vibration of the fatigue testing machine, and the phase difference between the thermoelastic temperature change and the double frequency component is a specific value. The phase 2f lock-in method utilizes a specific phase of the dissipated energy and is effective for removing the noise component such as the thermoelastic temperature change due to the harmonic vibration of fatigue testing machine. This method provides an improvement in the accuracy of the fatigue-limit estimate and the detection of future crack initiation points based on the dissipated energy.

  8. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  9. Energy-dissipation anomaly in systems of localized waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Basile

    2017-05-01

    We study the statistics of the power P dissipated by waves propagating in a one-dimensional disordered medium with damping coefficient ν . An operator imposes the wave amplitude at one end, therefore injecting a power P that balances dissipation. The typical realization of P vanishes for ν →0 : Disorder leads to localization and total reflection of the wave energy back to the emitter, with negligible losses. More surprisingly, the mean dissipated power averaged over the disorder reaches a finite limit for ν →0 . We show that this "anomalous dissipation" limν→0 is directly given by the integrated density of states of the undamped system. In some cases, this allows us to compute the anomalous dissipation exactly, using properties of the undamped system only. As an example, we compute the anomalous dissipation for weak correlated disorder and for Gaussian white noise of arbitrary strength. Although the focus is on the singular limit ν →0 , we finally show that this approach is easily extended to arbitrary ν .

  10. estimation of ionospheric energy dissipation for the year 2012 using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Corresponding Author:1rssaidu.phy@buk.edu.ng. ABSTRACT. The energy dissipation in the ionosphere resulting from the geomagnetic activity have caused an increasing number of major disruptions of important power and communication services, malfunctions and loss of expensive equipment. In this paper, data for the ...

  11. Thermoelastic waves without energy dissipation in an elastic plate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linear theory of thermoelasticity without energy dissipation for isotropic and homogeneous materials is employed to study waves in an elastic plate. The waves are assumed to arise out of a ramp-type stress on the plate's boundary which is maintained at constant temperature. Laplace transforms are used to solve the ...

  12. Mathematical Modeling for Energy Dissipation Behavior of Velocity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developed oil-pressure damper is installed with an additional Relief Valve parallel to the Throttle Valve. This is intended to obtain an adaptive control by changing the damping coefficient of this damper using changeable orifice size. In order to simulate its actual energy-dissipating behavior, a serial friction model and a ...

  13. Theoretical and numerical study of hydraulic characteristics of orifice energy dissipator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NingHE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors affecting the efficiency of the orifice energy dissipator were investigated based on a series of theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. The main factors investigated by dimension analysis were identified, including the Reynolds number (Re, the ratio of the orifice diameter to the inner diameter of the pipe ( , and the ratio of distances between orifices to the inner diameter of the pipe ( . Then, numerical simulations were conducted with a two-equation turbulence model. The calculation results show the following: Hydraulic characteristics change dramatically as flow passes through the orifice, with abruptly increasing velocity and turbulent energy, and decreasing pressure. The turbulent energy appears to be low in the middle and high near the pipe wall. For the energy dissipation setup with only one orifice, when Re is smaller than 105, the orifice energy dissipation coefficient K increases rapidly with the increase of Re. When Re is larger than 105, K gradually stabilizes. As increases, K and the length of the recirculation region L1 show similar variation patterns, which inversely vary with . The function curves can be approximated as straight lines. For the energy dissipation model with two orifices, because of different incoming flows at different orifices, the energy dissipation coefficient of the second orifice (K2 is smaller than that of the first. If is less than 5, the K value of the model, depending on the variation of K2, increases with the spacing between two orifices L , and an orifice cannot fulfill its energy dissipation function. If is greater than 5, K2 tends to be steady; thus, the K value of the model gradually stabilizes. Then, the flow fully develops, and L has almost no impact on the value of K.

  14. Interior Pathways to Dissipation of Mesoscale Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-27

    This talk at Goethe University asks What Powers Overturning Circulation? How does Ocean Circulation Equilibrate? There is a HUGE reservoir of energy sitting in the interior ocean. Can fluid dynamic instabilities contribute to the mixing required to drive global overturning circulation? Study designed to eliminate distinguished horizontal surfaces such as bottom BL and surface layer

  15. Intrinsic Energy Dissipation Limits in Nano and Micromechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Srikanth Subramanian

    Resonant microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have enabled miniaturization of high-performance inertial sensors, radio-frequency filters, timing references and mass-based chemical sensors. Despite the increasing prevalence of MEMS resonators for these applications, the energy dissipation in these structures is not well-understood. Accurate prediction of the energy loss and the resulting quality factor (Q) has significant design implications because it is directly related to device performance metrics including sensitivity for resonant sensors, bandwidth for radio-frequency filters and phase-noise for timing references. In order to assess the future potential for MEMS resonators it is critically important to evaluate the energy dissipation limits, which will dictate the ultimate performance resonant MEMS devices can achieve. This work focuses on the derivation and evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal nano and micromechanical resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction and polarization dependent mode-Gruneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. Evaluation of the quality factor limit reveals that Akhiezer damping, previously thought to depend only on material properties, has a strong dependence on crystal orientation and resonant mode shape. The robust model provides a dissipation limit for all resonant modes including shear-mode vibrations, which have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to volume-preserving phonon branches, indicating that Lame or wine-glass mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, the analytical dissipation model is integrated with commercial finite element software in order to

  16. Dissipation and energy balance in electronic dynamics of Na clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, Marc; Suraud, Eric; Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the impact of dissipation on the energy balance in the electron dynamics of metal clusters excited by strong electro-magnetic pulses. The dynamics is described theoretically by Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) at the level of Local Density Approximation (LDA) augmented by a self interaction correction term and a quantum collision term in Relaxation-Time Approximation (RTA). We evaluate the separate contributions to the total excitation energy, namely energy exported by electron emission, potential energy due to changing charge state, intrinsic kinetic and potential energy, and collective flow energy. The balance of these energies is studied as function of the laser parameters (frequency, intensity, pulse length) and as function of system size and charge. We also look at collisions with a highly charged ion and here at the dependence on the impact parameter (close versus distant collisions). Dissipation turns out to be small where direct electron emission prevails namely for laser frequencies above any ionization threshold and for slow electron extraction in distant collisions. Dissipation is large for fast collisions and at low laser frequencies, particularly at resonances. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Dynamics of Systems at the Nanoscale", edited by Andrey Solov'yov and Andrei Korol.

  17. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Aquino, D. [ERC Incorporated, Air Force Research Laboratory, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB, CA 93524 (United States); Rinaldi, C., E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given. - Highlights: • Rosensweig's model for SAR was extended to high fields. • The MRSh relaxation equation was used to predict SAR at high fields. • Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to predict SAR. • The results of these models were compared. • Predictions of effect of size and field conditions on SAR are presented.

  18. Energy Dissipation in the Tropical Ocean and ENSO Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    State-of-the art coupled models exhibit a wide range of behavior in the tropical Pacific, particularly when simulating ENSO. Here, we use the energetics of the tropical ocean to shed light on this issue. Previous studies have shown that winds act on the ocean by affecting the buoyancy forcing, modifying the slope of the isopycnals and changing the Available Potential Energy (APE) of the system, so that d(APE)/dt = WindWork - Dissipation. The present study focuses on the role of energy dissipation in this balance due to various factors including turbulent mixing and coastal Kelvin waves leaving the basin. Firstly we test the robustness of this equation by using a variety of ocean-only models and data-assimilation products, in order to establish a baseline for this relationship. With the baseline established, we apply our method to the IPCC coupled model simulations. We find that the net dissipation rates and the overall dissipative properties vary greatly from one model to the next. One of the striking differences between coupled models is in the way they partition energy between the seasonal cycle and interannual variability, which is investigated within the same framework. Further, we explore the differences in the ocean energetics that occur due to the emergence of a double ITCZ in coupled models and also investigate the relationship between the effective coupling strength of a given model and its dissipative characteristics. Ultimately, we propose this energy-based analysis as an effective diagnostic tool for assessing and improving model performance.

  19. Energy dissipation dataset for reversible logic gates in quantum dot-cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ali Newaz; Rahman, Mohammad Maksudur; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Hassan, Md Kamrul

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.

  20. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  1. Stable schemes for dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Gabriel, E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a new numerical scheme for the discretization of dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy. The key idea is to reduce elementary pairwise stochastic dynamics (either fluctuation/dissipation or thermal conduction) to effective single-variable dynamics, and to approximate the solution of these dynamics with one step of a Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. This ensures by construction that no negative internal energies are encountered during the simulation, and hence allows to increase the admissible timesteps to integrate the dynamics, even for systems with small heat capacities. Stability is only limited by the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which suggests resorting to multiple timestep strategies where the stochastic part is integrated less frequently than the Hamiltonian one.

  2. [Study on energy dissipation in modified airlift bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Zheng, Ping

    2005-09-01

    The effects of operational variables and reactor configurations (e.g. diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers) on energy loss in modified airlift bioreactor were investigated at the first time. The results showed that improving the structure of draft tube could reduce energy loss in the bioreactor. When the diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers were 4.0cm and 39, respectively, the total energy loss in the modified bioreactor was the least among all the configurations and 23.6% less than that of the conventional counterpart at the same air flowrate. The energy consumption for aeration was the smallest (43.9% less than that of the conventional counterpart) when the diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers were 5.5cm and 13, respectively. The highest energy dissipation (70% - 80%) occurred in the riser, the bottom zone (about 20%) took the second place and the separator (less than 10%) took the third place. The energy dissipation in the downcomer was neglectable under the conditions in the research. When the energy loss per unit volume was considered, bottom zone stood the first place. It was implied that the riser was the most important zone to cut down the energy loss of the bioreactor and some attention should also be paid to the bottom zone.

  3. Hybrid Recentering Energy Dissipative Device for Seismic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid recentering energy dissipative device that has both recentering and energy dissipation capabilities is proposed and studied in this paper. The proposed hybrid device, referred to as the hybrid shape memory alloy (SMA recentering viscous fluid (RCVF energy dissipation device, connects the apex of a chevron brace to an adjoining beam using two sets of SMA wires arranged in series on either side of the brace and a viscous fluid damper arranged in parallel with the SMA wires. The viscous damper is used because being a velocity-dependent device it does not exert any force that counteracts the recentering force from the SMA wires after the vibration of the frame ceases. In the numerical study, the Wilde’s SMA constitutive model is used to model the SMA wires, and the Maxwell model is used to simulate the viscous fluid damper. To demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid device, comparative studies are performed on several single-story shear frames and a series of four-story steel frames. The results show that the frames equipped with the hybrid device have noticeably smaller peak top story displacements and residual story drifts when subjected to ground motions at three different intensity levels.

  4. Damping and energy dissipation in soft tissue vibrations during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassetarash, Arash; Hassannejad, Reza; Enders, Hendrik; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad

    2015-01-21

    It has been well accepted that the vibrations of soft tissue cannot be simulated by a single sinusoidal function. In fact, these vibrations are a combination of several vibration modes. In this study, these modes are extracted applying a recently developed method namely, partly ensemble empirical mode decomposition (PEEMD). Then, a methodology for estimating the damping properties and energy dissipation caused by damping for each mode is used. Applying this methodology on simulated signals demonstrates high accuracy. This methodology is applied to the acceleration signals of the gastrocnemius muscle during sprinting and the differences between the damping properties of different vibration modes were identified. The results were 1) the damping property of high-frequency mode was higher than that for low-frequency modes. 2) All identified modes were in under damped condition, therefore, the vibrations had an oscillatory nature. 3) The damping ratios of lower modes are about 100% increased compared to higher modes. 4) The energy dissipation occurred in lower modes were much more than that for higher mode; According to the power spectrum of the ground reaction force (GRF), which is the input force into the body, the recent finding supports the muscle tuning paradigm. It is suggested that the damping properties and energy dissipation can be used to distinguish between different running conditions (surface, fatigue, etc.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interface Energy and Particle Size Effects on Effective Properties and Damage Energy Dissipation in Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Chung-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, since the materials science and technique have been further advanced to the characteristic size of solids in nano-size structures and nanocomposites, the interface/surface energy effect on mechanical and physical properties and damage energy dissipation of a nano-scale material or composite becomes significant and cannot be ignored. Therefore, the interface/surface energy and particle size effects on the effective properties and the damage dissipation in nanocomposites are investiga...

  6. Energy transformations and dissipation of nonlinear internal waves over New Jersey's continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shroyer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The energetics of large amplitude, high-frequency nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs observed over the New Jersey continental shelf are summarized from ship and mooring data acquired in August 2006. NLIW energy was typically on the order of 105 Jm−1, and the wave dissipative loss was near 50 W m−1. However, wave energies (dissipations were ~10 (~2 times greater than these values during a particular week-long period. In general, the leading waves in a packet grew in energy across the outer shelf, reached peak values near 40 km inshore of the shelf break, and then lost energy to turbulent mixing. Wave growth was attributed to the bore-like nature of the internal tide, as wave groups that exhibited larger long-term (lasting for a few hours displacements of the pycnocline offshore typically had greater energy inshore. For ship-observed NLIWs, the average dissipative loss over the region of decay scaled with the peak energy in waves; extending this scaling to mooring data produces estimates of NLIW dissipative loss consistent with those made using the flux divergence of wave energy. The decay time scale of the NLIWs was approximately 12 h corresponding to a length scale of 35 km (O(100 wavelengths. Imposed on these larger scale energetic trends, were short, rapid exchanges associated with wave interactions and shoaling on a localized topographic rise. Both of these events resulted in the onset of shear instabilities and large energy loss to turbulent mixing.

  7. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  8. Energy Dissipation in Monolayer MoS2 Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalon, Eilam; McClellan, Connor J; Smithe, Kirby K H; Muñoz Rojo, Miguel; Xu, Runjie Lily; Suryavanshi, Saurabh V; Gabourie, Alex J; Neumann, Christopher M; Xiong, Feng; Farimani, Amir Barati; Pop, Eric

    2017-06-14

    The advancement of nanoscale electronics has been limited by energy dissipation challenges for over a decade. Such limitations could be particularly severe for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors integrated with flexible substrates or multilayered processors, both being critical thermal bottlenecks. To shed light into fundamental aspects of this problem, here we report the first direct measurement of spatially resolved temperature in functioning 2D monolayer MoS2 transistors. Using Raman thermometry, we simultaneously obtain temperature maps of the device channel and its substrate. This differential measurement reveals the thermal boundary conductance of the MoS2 interface with SiO2 (14 ± 4 MW m-2 K-1) is an order magnitude larger than previously thought, yet near the low end of known solid-solid interfaces. Our study also reveals unexpected insight into nonuniformities of the MoS2 transistors (small bilayer regions) which do not cause significant self-heating, suggesting that such semiconductors are less sensitive to inhomogeneity than expected. These results provide key insights into energy dissipation of 2D semiconductors and pave the way for the future design of energy-efficient 2D electronics.

  9. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation using Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejun; Ren, Yi; Evans, Christopher; Moore, Jeffrey; Sottos, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids composed of alkyl-imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide anions exhibit intriguing shock wave energy absorption performance. In prior work, we observed a shock-induced disorder-to-order change in network forming ionic liquids. We hypothesize that this shock-induced ordering is strongly associated with the microstructure of the ionic liquids. Polymerized ionic liquids, which have similar microstructures but slower relaxation times compared to the ionic liquids, are prepared to demonstrate the ordering transition mechanism and to exploit relaxation processes for the energy dissipation. By employing size-tunable alkyl backbone spacers between cations, we explore the effect of the relative microstructural heterogeneity on the activation of shock-induced ordering. Relaxation time, which is adjustable by the alkyl spacer length, also plays an important role in the energy dissipation process. Absorption properties of a series of thin film (ca. 50 μm) polymerized ionic liquids are evaluated using a laser-induced shock wave testing protocol. Superior shock wave mitigating performance of polymerized ionic liquids was achieved compared to polyurea films.

  10. Modelling turbulent energy dissipation in the high-latitude mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. M.; Brekke, A.; Martynenko, O. V.; Namgaladze, A. A.

    1998-02-01

    The global numerical model of the Earth's thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere constructed at the Kaliningrad Observatory of IZMIRAN and Polar Geophysical Institute in Murmansk, (Namgaladze et al., 1991), hereafter referred to as PGI97, is being extended to encompass modelling of the mesosphere. Here we report the first predictions of turbulent intensities in the height regime 80 to 90 km. Recently, Hall (1997) reported estimates of the turbulent energy dissipation rate, ɛ, using the EISCAT VHF radar located in Northern Norway (69°N, 19°E), which has, in turn, been compared to in situ measurements. Thus initial testing of PGI97 has concentrated on the same region. The agreements between PGI97 and EISCAT results for summer and winter solstice mesospheres are good. The general seasonal variation has been investigated, again showing good agreement with the EISCAT results. However, when examining the average energy dissipation in the 80-90 km height regime, the model shows less variability than the observations.

  11. Energy dissipation dataset for reversible logic gates in quantum dot-cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Newaz Bahar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.

  12. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)]. E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl

    2007-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003].

  13. Identification of energy dissipation in structural joints by means of the energy flow analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, S.S.; Metrikine, A.; Carboni, B.; Lacarbonara, W.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, identification of energy dissipation in the joints of a lab-scale structure is accomplished. The identification is carried out by means of an energy flow analysis and experimental data. The devised procedure enables to formulate an energy balance in the vicinity of the joints to

  14. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation by Metal-Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Miao, Yurun; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Shaw, William; Strachan, Alejandro; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) such as ZIF-8 and UiO-66 show promising shock energy dissipation abilities through mechano-chemical reactions including bond breaking and pore collapse. In this work, we performed quantitative measurements on the shock wave energy attenuated by MOF films using a laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus. Aluminum flyer plates of 75-um thick were accelerated to speeds up to 2.0 km/s by a flat-top pulsed laser to impact the MOF film. The MOF layer was coated on a 200-nm thick gold mirror, which was deposited previously on glass substrate. Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) was used to track the motions of the gold mirror, which can be converted to the energy flux and fluence of the shock wave that transmitted through the MOF layer. We deduced the shock energy that was attenuated by the MOF film by comparing the transmitted energy flux/fluence obtained with and without the presence of the MOF layer. A two-wave-shaped flux-time curve was obtained with the MOF layer because of its nanoporous structure. Studies on the shock wave energy attenuation by ZIF-8 and UiO-66 were carried out under various flyer speeds and sample thicknesses. We used in situ emission spectroscopy to verify that pore collapse was accompanied by chemical bond breakage. Corresponding author:dlott@illinois.edu.

  15. A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.

  16. Energy Dissipation during Diffusion at Metal Surfaces: Disentangling the Role of Phonons versus Electron-Hole Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Simon P.; Ward, David J.; Gütlein, Patrick; Ellis, John; Allison, William; Reuter, Karsten

    2016-11-01

    Helium spin echo experiments combined with ab initio based Langevin molecular dynamics simulations are used to quantify the adsorbate-substrate coupling during the thermal diffusion of Na atoms on Cu(111). An analysis of trajectories within the local density friction approximation allows the contribution from electron-hole pair excitations to be separated from the total energy dissipation. Despite the minimal electronic friction coefficient of Na and the relatively small mass mismatch to Cu promoting efficient phononic dissipation, about (20 ±5 )% of the total energy loss is attributable to electronic friction. The results suggest a significant role of electronic nonadiabaticity in the rapid thermalization generally relied upon in adiabatic diffusion theories.

  17. AM05-12-001 Large-scale Fluctuation of Turbulence Energy Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    毛利, 英明; 高岡, 正憲; 堀, 晃浩; 川島, 儀英; H, MOURI; M., Takaoka; A., Hori; Y., Kawashima; 同志社大学工学部; 気象研究所; Doshisha University; Meteorological Research Institute

    2005-01-01

    Kolmogorov's theory for turbulence in 1941 is based on a hypothesis that small-scale statistics are uniquely determined by the kinematic viscosity and the mean rate of energy dissipation. Landau remarked that the local rate of energy dissipation should fluctuate in space over scales of large eddies and hence should affect small-scale statistics. Experimentally, we confirm the significance of this fluctuation, which is comparable to the mean rate of energy dissipation at the typical scale of l...

  18. On Landau's prediction for large-scale fluctuation of turbulence energy dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Mouri, H.; Takaoka, M.; Hori, A.; Kawashima, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Kolmogorov's theory for turbulence in 1941 is based on a hypothesis that small-scale statistics are uniquely determined by the kinematic viscosity and the mean rate of energy dissipation. Landau remarked that the local rate of energy dissipation should fluctuate in space over large scales and hence should affect small-scale statistics. Experimentally, we confirm the significance of this large-scale fluctuation, which is comparable to the mean rate of energy dissipation at the typical scale fo...

  19. Heat Exchange in a Liquid with Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, A. V.; Kudinov, I. V.; Dovgyallo, A. I.; Kudinov, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    A method of analytical solution of the problem on the heat exchange in a liquid moving in a tube with dissipation of its energy at the first-kind boundary conditions, i.e., under the conditions of heat shock at the walls of the tube, was developed on the basis of the integral method of heat balance. The approach proposed involves the introduction of an additional desired function and additional boundary conditions, which allows one to reduce the solution of the partial differential equation to the integral ordinary differential equation for the additional desired function determined by only the longitudinal space variable. In this method there is no need to perform integration of the differential equation with respect to the transverse coordinate, involving the use of the heat-balance integral, which enables it to be used for solving the problem on the heat exchange in a medium with variable physical properties as well as nonlinear boundary-value problems.

  20. Energy dissipation control of magneto-rheological damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of a damper depends on the amount of energy dissipation during a typical cycle experienced by the damper. For viscous dampers this leads to substantial frequency dependence. For dampers with hysteresis the tuning and efficiency also depends on the apparent amplitude of the damper...... response. For irregular damper response the amplitude is evaluated as the magnitude of closed hysteresis loops. These loops are identified in real time by the rainflow rules, stored in a Markov-type matrix and used to predict the magnitude of subsequent closed loops. From this prediction the properties...... of the semi-active damper are adjusted in real time to optimize performance and avoid clamping of the damper. The efficiency of this adaptive tuning procedure is illustrated for a magneto-rheological damper model....

  1. Dissipation of 'dark energy' by cortex in knowledge retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Antonio; Freeman, Walter J; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    We have devised a thermodynamic model of cortical neurodynamics expressed at the classical level by neural networks and at the quantum level by dissipative quantum field theory. Our model is based on features in the spatial images of cortical activity newly revealed by high-density electrode arrays. We have incorporated the mechanism and necessity for so-called dark energy in knowledge retrieval. We have extended the model first using the Carnot cycle to define our measures for energy, entropy and temperature, and then using the Rankine cycle to incorporate criticality and phase transitions. We describe the dynamics of two interactive fields of neural activity that express knowledge, one at high and the other at low energy density, and the two operators that create and annihilate the fields. We postulate that the extremely high density of energy sequestered briefly in cortical activity patterns can account for the vividness, richness of associations, and emotional intensity of memories recalled by stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and appropriate association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these challenges by relating the original scenario to an exaggerated version in which the dissipated thermal energy is associated with perceptible warmth. Using these exaggerations, teachers infer that thermal energy is present to a lesser degree in the original scenario. They use this exaggeration strategy to track and conserve energy in dissipative scenarios.

  3. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Daane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop. We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and appropriate association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these challenges by relating the original scenario to an exaggerated version in which the dissipated thermal energy is associated with perceptible warmth. Using these exaggerations, teachers infer that thermal energy is present to a lesser degree in the original scenario. They use this exaggeration strategy to track and conserve energy in dissipative scenarios.

  4. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...

  5. Effect of mean velocity shear on the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Akira; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1992-01-01

    The dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in incompressible turbulence is investigated using a two-scale DIA. The dissipation rate is shown to consist of two parts; one corresponds to the dissipation rate used in the current turbulence models of eddy-viscosity type, and another comes from the viscous effect that is closely connected with mean velocity shear. This result can elucidate the physical meaning of the dissipation rate used in the current turbulence models and explain part of the discrepancy in the near-wall dissipation rates between the current turbulence models and direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equation.

  6. Experimental Study of Hysteretic Steel Damper for Energy Dissipation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Teruna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate energy absorption capacity of hysteretic steel damper for earthquake protection of structures. These types of steel dampers are fabricated from mild steel plate with different geometrical shapes on the side part, namely, straight, concave, and convex shapes. The performance of the proposed device was verified experimentally by a series of tests under increasing in-plane cyclic load. The overall test results indicated that the proposed steel dampers have similar hysteretic curves, but the specimen with convex-shaped side not only showed stable hysteretic behavior but also showed excellent energy dissipation capabilities and ductility factor. Furthermore, the load-deformation relation of these steel dampers can be decomposed into three parts, namely, skeleton curve, Bauschinger part, and elastic unloading part. The skeleton curve is commonly used to obtain the main parameters, which describe the behavior of steel damper, namely, yield strength, elastic stiffness, and postyield stiffness ratio. Moreover, the effective stiffness, effective damping ratio, cumulative plastic strain energy, and cumulative ductility factor were also derived from the results. Finally, an approximation trilinear hysteretic model was developed based on skeleton curve obtained from experimental results.

  7. Energy Dissipation and Nonthermal Diffusion on Interstellar Ice Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredon, A.; Lamberts, T.; Cuppen, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    Interstellar dust grains are known to facilitate chemical reactions by acting as a meeting place and adsorbing energy. This process strongly depends on the ability of the reactive species to effectively diffuse over the surface. The cold temperatures around 10 K strongly hamper this for species other than H and H2. However, complex organic molecules have been observed in the gas phase at these cold conditions, indicating that their formation, as well as their return to the gas phase, should be effective. Here, we show how the energy released following surface reactions can be employed to solve both problems by inducing desorption or diffusion. To this purpose, we have performed thousands of Molecular Dynamics simulations to quantify the outcome of an energy dissipation process. Admolecules on top of a crystalline water surface have been given translational energy between 0.5 and 5 eV. Three different surface species are considered (CO2, H2O, and CH4), spanning a range in binding energies, number of internal degrees of freedom, and molecular weights. The admolecules are found to be able to travel up to several hundreds of angstroms before coming to a stand still, allowing for follow-up reactions en route. The probability of travel beyond any particular radius, as determined by our simulations, shows the same r dependence for all three admolecule species. Furthermore, we have been able to quantify the desorption probability, which depends on the binding energy of the species and the translational excitation. We provide expressions that can be incorporated in astrochemical models to predict grain surface formation and return into the gas phase of these products.

  8. Energy dissipation in graphene field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Marcus; Steiner, Mathias; Martin, Yves; Perebeinos, Vasili; Chen, Zhihong; Tsang, James C; Avouris, Phaedon

    2009-05-01

    We measure the temperature distribution in a biased single-layer graphene transistor using Raman scattering microscopy of the 2D-phonon band. Peak operating temperatures of 1050 K are reached in the middle of the graphene sheet at 210 kW cm(-2) of dissipated electric power. The metallic contacts act as heat sinks, but not in a dominant fashion. To explain the observed temperature profile and heating rate, we have to include heat flow from the graphene to the gate oxide underneath, especially at elevated temperatures, where the graphene thermal conductivity is lowered due to umklapp scattering. Velocity saturation due to phonons with about 50-60 meV energy is inferred from the measured charge density via shifts in the Raman G-phonon band, suggesting that remote scattering (through field coupling) by substrate polar surface phonons increases the energy transfer to the substrate and at the same time limits the high-bias electronic conduction of graphene.

  9. Estimates of M2 Tidal Energy Dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Gary D.; Ray, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the tidal energy dissipation in the ocean occurs in shallow seas, as has long been recognized. However, recent work has suggested that a significant fraction of the dissipation, perhaps 1 TW or more, occurs in the deep ocean. This paper builds further evidence for that conclusion. More than 6 years of data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter are used to map the tidal dissipation rate throughout the world ocean. The dissipation rate is estimated as a balance between the rate of working by tidal forces and the energy flux divergence, computed using currents derived by least squares fitting of the altimeter data and the shallow water equations. Such calculations require dynamical assumptions, in particular about the nature of dissipation. To assess sensitivity of dissipation estimates to input assumptions, a large suite of tidal inversions based on a wide range of drag parameterizations and employing both real and synthetic altimeter data are compared. These experiments and Monte Carlo error fields from a generalized inverse model are used to establish error uncertainties for the dissipation estimates. Owing to the tight constraints on tidal elevation fields provided by the altimeter, area integrals of the energy balance are remarkably insensitive to required dynamical assumptions. Tidal energy dissipation is estimated for all major shallow seas (excluding individual polar seas) and compared with previous model and data-based estimates. Dissipation in the open ocean is significantly tnhanced around major bathymetric features, in a manner consistent with simple theories the generation of baroclinic tides.

  10. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  11. Relative Entropy, Interaction Energy and the Nature of Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gaveau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many thermodynamic relations involve inequalities, with equality if a process does not involve dissipation. In this article we provide equalities in which the dissipative contribution is shown to involve the relative entropy (a.k.a. Kullback-Leibler divergence. The processes considered are general time evolutions both in classical and quantum mechanics, and the initial state is sometimes thermal, sometimes partially so. By calculating a transport coefficient we show that indeed—at least in this case—the source of dissipation in that coefficient is the relative entropy.

  12. Turbulent viscosity and Jupiter's tidal Q. [energy dissipation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldreich, P.; Nicholson, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent estimate of tidal dissipation by turbulent viscosity in Jupiter's convective interior predicts that the current value of the planet's tidal Q is roughly 5 million. We point out a fundamental error in this calculation, and show that turbulent dissipation alone implies that at present Q is about 50 trillion. Our reduced estimate for the rate of tidal dissipation shows conclusively that tidal torques have produced only negligible modifications of the orbits of the Galilean satellites over the age of the solar system.

  13. Standard guide for determining friction energy dissipation in reciprocating tribosystems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers and is intended for use in interpreting the friction forces recorded in reciprocating tribosystems. The guide applies to any reciprocating tribosystem, whether it is a wear or fretting test or an actual machine or device. 1.2 The energy dissipation guide was developed in analyzing friction results in the Test Method G133 reciprocating ball-on-flat test, but it applies to other ASTM or ISO reciprocating tests. This technique is frequently used to record the friction response in fretting tribosystems. 1.3 Specimen material may play some role in the results if the materials under test display viscoelastic behavior. This guide as written is for metals, plastics, and ceramics that do not display viscoelastic behavior. It also applies to lubricated and non-lubricated contacts. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, asso...

  14. Kinetic Energy Dissipation on Labyrinth Configuration Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar S. Maatooq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In present work a labyrinth (zigzag, in shape has been used to configure the steps of stepped spillway by using the physical model. This configuration does not introduce previously by investigators or in construction techniques of dams or cascades. It would be expected to improve the flow over chute. A magnifying the width path of each step to become, LT, instead of, W, will induce the interlocking between the mainstream and that spread laterally due to labyrinth path. This phenomenon leads to reduce the jet velocities near the surfaces, thus minimizing the ability of cavitation and with increasing a circulation regions the ability of air entrainment be maximized. The results were encouraging, (e.g., the reverse performance has recorded for spillway slope. From the evaluation of outcome, the average recorded of percentage profits of kinetic energy dissipation with a labyrinth shape compared with the results of traditional shape were ranged between (13- 44%. Different predictive formulas have been proposed based on iteration analysis, can be recommended for evaluation and design.

  15. Evaluation of leaf energy dissipation by the Photochemical Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, S.; Magnani, F.

    Starting from the early paper by Heber (1969), several studies have demonstrated a subtle shift in leaf spectroscopic characteristics (both absorbance and reflectance) in response to rapid changes in environmental conditions. More recent work, briefly reviewed here, has also demonstrated the existence of two components in the maked peak centered at 505-540 nm: an irreversible component, attributed to the interconversion of leaf xanthophylls, and a reversible component at slightly longer wavelengths, resulting from conformational changes induced by the buildup of a pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane associated with photosynthetic electron transport. Both processes (xanthophyll de-epoxidation and conformational changes) are known to contribute to the dissipation of excess energy in Photosystem II (PSII). Leaf spectroscopy could therefore provide a powerful non-invasive tool for the determination of leaf photosynthetic processes. This led to the development of the normalized spectral index PRI (Photochemical Reflectance Index; Gamon, Penuelas &Field 1992; Gamon, Serrano &Surfus 1997), which relates the functional signal at 531 nm to a reference signal at 570 nm. The index has been found to track diurnal changes in xanthophyll de-epoxidation state, radiation use efficiency and fluorescence in response to light, both at the leaf and more recently at the canopy level. A common relationship has also beenreported across species and functional types, although such a generality has not always been confirmed. Recent reports (Stylinski et al. 2000) have also hinted of a possible link between PRI and leaf photosynthetic potential, possibly through the correlation between xanthophyll content and electron transport machinery in the chloroplast. Such a link, if confirmed, could prove very useful for the remote sensing and modelling ofvegetation. Some of these open questions were addressed in the present study. The correlation between leaf function and reflectance was

  16. Leakage current and induced electrical energy dissipation in nonlinear oscillation of dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2017-09-01

    Subject to a high voltage, leakage current and induced electrical energy dissipation inevitably occur during the actuation of dielectric elastomers (DEs). In this article, a theoretical model is developed to investigate the dissipative performance of DEs in dynamic actuation. Effects of three different actuation conditions, including DE materials’ viscoelasticity intensity, amplitude of applied voltage, and mechanical tensile force, are considered. Numerical calculations are employed to detect the dynamic dissipative performance of DEs including leakage current, electrical power density, and electrical energy density in certain vibrational periods. Leakage current and induced electrical energy dissipation are enhanced with the enlargement of amplitude of applied voltage and mechanical force, and are suppressed as the intensity of DEs’ viscoelastic creep increases. The electrical energy for dissipation and actuation is also analyzed and compared.

  17. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in microchannel using energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelei Xie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissipative particle dynamics is a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method. Classic dissipative particle dynamics cannot be used to simulate heat transfer in fluids since the total energy of the system is not conserved. In this article, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction is first investigated using dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation. The energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics results are compared with the FLUENT simulation data, and it demonstrates that they are in good agreement with each other. Then, forced convection heat transfers in microchannel of the same wall temperature and different wall temperatures are simulated, respectively, by using periodic boundary condition of dimensionless temperature. The results show that the velocity, temperature, and dimensionless temperature distributions are consistent with theoretical results. Finally, we give a qualitative analysis about the applicability of the energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics approach in simulating flow and heat transfer in rough microchannel.

  18. Tidal circulation and energy dissipation in a shallow, sinuous estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Harvey; Blanton, Jackson; Elston, Susan

    2006-07-01

    The tidal dynamics in a pristine, mesotidal (>2 m range), marsh-dominated estuary are examined using moored and moving vessel field observations. Analysis focuses on the structure of the M 2 tide that accounts for approximately 80% of the observed tidal energy, and indicates a transition in character from a near standing wave on the continental shelf to a more progressive wave within the estuary. A slight maximum in water level (WL) occurs in the estuary 10-20 km from the mouth. M 2 WL amplitude decreases at 0.015 m/km landward of this point, implying head of tide approximately 75 km from the mouth. In contrast, tidal currents in the main channel 25 km inland are twice those at the estuary mouth. Analysis suggests the tidal character is consistent with a strongly convergent estuarine geometry controlling the tidal response in the estuary. First harmonic ( M 4) current amplitude follows the M 2 WL distribution, peaking at mid-estuary, whereas M 4 WL is greatest farther inland. The major axis current amplitude is strongly influenced by local bathymetry and topography. On most bends a momentum core shifts from the inside to outside of the bend moving seaward, similar to that seen in unidirectional river flow but with point bars shifted seaward of the bends. Dissipation rate estimates, based on changes in energy flux, are 0.18-1.65 W m-2 or 40-175 μW kg-1. A strong (0.1 m/s), depth-averaged residual flow is produced at the bends, which resembles flow around headlands, forming counter-rotating eddies that meet at the apex of the bends. A large sub-basin in the estuary exhibits remarkably different tidal characteristics and may be resonant at a harmonic of the M 2 tide.

  19. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Daane, Abigail R; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and productive association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these ch...

  20. Extrema principles of entrophy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1988-01-01

    A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appears to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.

  1. Extrema principles of entropy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1988-01-01

    A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appear to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.

  2. Effect of Two Temperatures on Reflection Coefficient in Micropolar Thermoelastic with and without Energy Dissipation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflection of plane waves at the free surface of thermally conducting micropolar elastic medium with two temperatures is studied. The theory of thermoelasticity with and without energy dissipation is used to investigate the problem. The expressions for amplitudes ratios of reflected waves at different angles of incident wave are obtained. Dissipation of energy and two-temperature effects on these amplitude ratios with angle of incidence are depicted graphically. Some special and particular cases are also deduced.

  3. Energy dissipation in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model with open boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate energy dissipation caused by traffic in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model with open boundary conditions (OBC). Boundary results in excess energy dissipation. The effects of the stochastic boundary conditions on energy dissipation are discussed. The behaviors of energy dissipation in different traffic phase are distinct. As an order parameter, energy dissipation rate E d characterizes the phase transition behaviors well. It is shown that there is no true free-flow state in nondeterministic NaSch model with OBC. We refer to this non-true free-flow state as quasi-free-flow (QFF) phase in which there are interactions between vehicles caused by stochastic braking but no backward moving jam exists. In the maximum current phase, E d is minimal thus the social payoff is maximal. Energy dissipation profiles in QFF, jammed and maximum current phase are presented. Theoretical analyses are in good agreement with numerical results for the case v max = 1.

  4. K-12 Teacher Understanding of Energy Conservation: Conceptual Metaphor, Dissipation, and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.

    In K-12 educational settings, conservation of energy is typically presented in two ways: the conservation of energy principle (energy is neither created nor destroyed) and the sociopolitical need to conserve energy (we guard against energy being used up). These two meanings of conservation typically remain disconnected from each other and can appear contradictory, even after instruction. In an effort to support teachers in building robust understandings of energy from their existing knowledge, I designed a study to investigate the productive ideas in K-12 teachers' conversations about energy. A micro-analysis of discourse, gestures, and artifacts of professional development courses revealed teachers' productive ideas about three aspects of energy: conceptual metaphor, dissipation and degradation. In learning about energy, K-12 teachers come to use conceptual metaphors in their own language and value attending to students' metaphorical language as a means of formative assessment. Teachers' conversations about dissipation suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong association between forms of energy (thermal) and their perceptible indicators (warmth). Teachers address this challenge by employing an exaggeration strategy to locate the dissipated thermal energy, making the energy indicator perceptible. Finally, teachers' unprompted statements about sociopolitical aspects of energy are related to both statements from the NGSS and aspects of energy degradation. I conclude that energy conservation can be better taught and learned in K-12 Education by: 1) understanding and applying conceptual metaphors about energy in K-12 settings, 2) using prior experiences to better understand dissipative energy processes involving imperceptible thermal energy, thereby understanding how energy conservation applies in all situations, and 3) connecting productive ideas about sociopolitical aspects of energy to canonical physics. Keywords

  5. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-03-08

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic-equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high-precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early-time T cell signaling. Using exact analytical calculations and numerical simulations, I show that limiting dissipation qualitatively changes the kinetics in single cells marked by emergence of slow kinetics, large cell-to-cell variations of copy numbers, temporally correlated stochastic events (dynamic facilitation), and ergodicity breaking. Thus, constraints in energy dissipation, in addition to negatively affecting ligand discrimination in T cells, can create a fundamental difficulty in determining single-cell kinetics from cell-population results. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-01-01

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early time T cell signaling. I show usin...

  7. Energy dissipation by submarine obstacles during landslide impact on reservoir - potentially avoiding catastrophic dam collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Jeevan; Kattel, Parameshwari; Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Tuladhar, Bhadra Man; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-04-01

    Dense geophysical mass flows such as landslides, debris flows and debris avalanches may generate super tsunami waves as they impact water bodies such as the sea, hydraulic reservoirs or mountain lakes. Here, we apply a comprehensive and general two-phase, physical-mathematical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) that consists of non-linear and hyperbolic-parabolic partial differential equations for mass and momentum balances, and present novel, high-resolution simulation results for two-phase flows, as a mixture of solid grains and viscous fluid, impacting fluid reservoirs with obstacles. The simulations demonstrate that due to the presence of different obstacles in the water body, the intense flow-obstacle-interaction dramatically reduces the flow momentum resulting in the rapid energy dissipation around the obstacles. With the increase of obstacle height overtopping decreases but, the deflection and capturing (holding) of solid mass increases. In addition, the submarine solid mass is captured by the multiple obstacles and the moving mass decreases both in amount and speed as each obstacle causes the flow to deflect into two streams and also captures a portion of it. This results in distinct tsunami and submarine flow dynamics with multiple surface water and submarine debris waves. This novel approach can be implemented in open source GIS modelling framework r.avaflow, and be applied in hazard mitigation, prevention and relevant engineering or environmental tasks. This might be in particular for process chains, such as debris impacts in lakes and subsequent overtopping. So, as the complex flow-obstacle-interactions strongly and simultaneously dissipate huge energy at impact such installations potentially avoid great threat against the integrity of the dam. References: Pudasaini, S. P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res. 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/ 2011JF002186.

  8. Sudden viscous dissipation of compressing turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovits, S.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  9. Sudden Viscous Dissipation of Compressing Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-03-11

    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  10. Relationship between dynamical entropy and energy dissipation far from thermodynamic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jason R.; Costa, Anthony B.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Szleifer, Igal

    2013-01-01

    Connections between microscopic dynamical observables and macroscopic nonequilibrium (NE) properties have been pursued in statistical physics since Boltzmann, Gibbs, and Maxwell. The simulations we describe here establish a relationship between the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy and the energy dissipated as heat from a NE system to its environment. First, we show that the Kolmogorov–Sinai or dynamical entropy can be separated into system and bath components and that the entropy of the system characterizes the dynamics of energy dissipation. Second, we find that the average change in the system dynamical entropy is linearly related to the average change in the energy dissipated to the bath. The constant energy and time scales of the bath fix the dynamical relationship between these two quantities. These results provide a link between microscopic dynamical variables and the macroscopic energetics of NE processes. PMID:24065832

  11. Seasonal Variation of turbulent Energy Dissipation Rates in the Polar Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Becker, E.

    Turbulent energy dissipation rates have been derived from the width of the observed signal spectra obtained with a narrow beam Doppler radar operated at 3 17 MHz in Andenes 69 r N using a computationally intensive correction method to remove contributions from non-turbulent processes Vertical and oblique beams with a minimum half-power full-beam width of 6 6 r are used The radar provides estimates of turbulent energy dissipation rates in an altitude range from 50 to about 90 km with a time resolution of 1 h and a range resolution of 1 km since September 2003 Turbulent energy dissipation rates based on radar observations vary in the order of 2-10 mW kg around 70 km and between about 10 and 200 mW kg around 85 km in dependence on season During the occurrence of strong polar mesosphere winter echoes in January 2005 energy dissipation rates between 30 and about 100 mW kg are observed at altitudes from 55 to 65 km The radar estimates of turbulent energy dissipation rates are in reasonable agreement with climatologically winter and summer data from previous rocket soundings at Andenes as well as with time-resolved results 1-h resolution from the Kuehlungsborn Mechanistic General Circulation Model KMCM model for summer and winter conditions

  12. How gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom skiing. 3D kinematical measurements were performed over two runs on the same slope in a WC slalom competition with two different gate setups: 1) open gates (OG) and 2) open gates with a delayed gate (DG). Using the arithmetic mean of the skis' turn radii (R(AMS)) the slalom turns were divided into 1) initiation phase (R(AMS) > 15 m) and steering phase (R(AMS) skiing (all p < .05). In both gate setups the highest F and the highest energy dissipation were present in the steering phase, whereas the correlation between R(AMS) and energy dissipation was low (OG: r = .364 and DG: r = .214, both p < .001). In summary, compared with plain open gates, an additional delayed gate prolonged the turn radii and decreased energy dissipation in the beginning of the initiation phase, despite the fact that the relative frequency of occurrence of the highest energy dissipation was higher in DG.

  13. Hemodynamic energy dissipation in the cardiovascular system: generalized theoretical analysis on disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi, Lakshmi P; Pekkan, Kerem; de Zelicourt, Diane; Sundareswaran, Kartik S; Krishnankutty, Resmi; Delnido, Pedro J; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2009-04-01

    We present a fundamental theoretical framework for analysis of energy dissipation in any component of the circulatory system and formulate the full energy budget for both venous and arterial circulations. New indices allowing disease-specific subject-to-subject comparisons and disease-to-disease hemodynamic evaluation (quantifying the hemodynamic severity of one vascular disease type to the other) are presented based on this formalism. Dimensional analysis of energy dissipation rate with respect to the human circulation shows that the rate of energy dissipation is inversely proportional to the square of the patient body surface area and directly proportional to the cube of cardiac output. This result verified the established formulae for energy loss in aortic stenosis that was solely derived through empirical clinical experience. Three new indices are introduced to evaluate more complex disease states: (1) circulation energy dissipation index (CEDI), (2) aortic valve energy dissipation index (AV-EDI), and (3) total cavopulmonary connection energy dissipation index (TCPC-EDI). CEDI is based on the full energy budget of the circulation and is the proper measure of the work performed by the ventricle relative to the net energy spent in overcoming frictional forces. It is shown to be 4.01+/-0.16 for healthy individuals and above 7.0 for patients with severe aortic stenosis. Application of CEDI index on single-ventricle venous physiology reveals that the surgically created Fontan circulation, which is indeed palliative, progressively degrades in hemodynamic efficiency with growth (pindex to gauge the hemodynamic severity of stenosed aortic valves as it accurately reflects energy loss. It is about 0.28+/-0.12 for healthy human valves. Moderate aortic stenosis has an AV-EDI one order of magnitude higher while clinically severe aortic stenosis cases always had magnitudes above 3.0. TCPC-EDI represents the efficiency of the TCPC connection and is shown to be negatively

  14. Effects of sterilization on the energy-dissipating properties of balsa wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, A. B.

    1969-01-01

    Technical report on the effects of sterilization on the energy-dissipating properties of balsa wood is given. Sterilization by ethylene oxide plus heat enhances the average specific energy of balsa while plastic impregnation followed by irradiation-induced polymerization does not.

  15. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  16. An estimate of energy dissipation due to soil-moisture hysteresis

    KAUST Repository

    McNamara, H.

    2014-01-01

    Processes of infiltration, transport, and outflow in unsaturated soil necessarily involve the dissipation of energy through various processes. Accounting for these energetic processes can contribute to modeling hydrological and ecological systems. The well-documented hysteretic relationship between matric potential and moisture content in soil suggests that one such mechanism of energy dissipation is associated with the cycling between wetting and drying processes, but it is challenging to estimate the magnitude of the effect in situ. The Preisach model, a generalization of the Independent Domain model, allows hysteresis effects to be incorporated into dynamical systems of differential equations. Building on earlier work using such systems with field data from the south-west of Ireland, this work estimates the average rate of hysteretic energy dissipation. Through some straightforward assumptions, the magnitude of this rate is found to be of O(10-5) W m-3. Key Points Hysteresis in soil-water dissipates energy The rate of dissipation can be estimated directly from saturation data The rate of heating caused is significant ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Energy dissipation in structured electrodynamic environments. [of high-latititude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelis, R. A.; Vickrey, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    It is usually assumed that the profile of the ion Pedersen conductivity determines the altitude dependence of the energy dissipation rate This paper points out the strong altitude dependence of the energy dissipation rate on the spatial scale size of the imposed electric field. To illustrate the importance of such considerations, examples of the ubiquity to electric field structure in the high-latitude ionosphere are shown; this is particularly prominent when the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component. It is then shown quantitatively how the existence of electric field structure with scale sizes of 10 km or less strongly impacts both the altitude extent over which the electromagnetic energy is dissipated and its partitioning between current systems perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field.

  18. A dissipated energy comparison to evaluate fatigue resistance using 2-point bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Maggiore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the main failure mode in pavement engineering. Typically, micro-cracks originate at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer due to horizontal tensile strains. Micro-cracks start to propagate towards the upper layers under repeated loading which can lead to pavement failure. Different methods are usually used to describe fatigue behavior in asphalt materials such as: phenomenological approach, fracture mechanics approach and dissipated energy approach. This paper presents a comparison of fatigue resistances calculated for different dissipated energy models using 2-point bending (2PB at IFSTTAR in Nantes. 2PB tests have been undertaken under different loading and environmental conditions in order to evaluate the properties of the mixtures (stiffness, dissipated energy, fatigue life and healing effect.

  19. Statistics of energy dissipation and stress relaxation in a crumpling network of randomly folded aluminum foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Susarrey Huerta, Orlando; Tapia, Viktor

    2013-09-01

    We study stress relaxation in hand folded aluminum foils subjected to the uniaxial compression force F(λ). We found that once the compression ratio is fixed (λ=const) the compression force decreases in time as F∝F0P(t), where P(t) is the survival probability time distribution belonging to the domain of attraction of max-stable distribution of the Fréchet type. This finding provides a general physical picture of energy dissipation in the crumpling network of a crushed elastoplastic foil. The difference between energy dissipation statistics in crushed viscoelastic papers and elastoplastic foils is outlined. Specifically, we argue that the dissipation of elastic energy in crushed aluminum foils is ruled by a multiplicative Poisson process governed by the maximum waiting time distribution. The mapping of this process into the problem of transient random walk on a fractal crumpling network is suggested.

  20. Energy Dissipation Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungnam; Park, Sun-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Cyclic loading tests were performed to investigate the energy dissipation capacities of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips. Four RC beams were manufactured and three-point loaded. Responses of the strengthened beams to the cyclic loadings were measured, including deflections at the center of their span and strains of the CFRP strips and reinforcing steel rebars. Based on test results, the energy dissipation capacity of the strengthened beams were evaluated in comparison with that of an unstrengthened control beam.

  1. Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.

    1990-01-01

    To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.

  2. Concept for a fast analysis method of the energy dissipation at mechanical joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexander; Brosius, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    When designing hybrid parts and structures one major challenge is the design, production and quality assessment of the joining points. While the polymeric composites themselves have excellent material properties, the necessary joints are often the weak link in assembled structures. This paper presents a method of measuring and analysing the energy dissipation at mechanical joining points of hybrid parts. A simplified model is applied based on the characteristic response to different excitation frequencies and amplitudes. The dissipation from damage is the result of relative moments between joining partners und damaged fibres within the composite, whereas the visco-elastic material behaviour causes the intrinsic dissipation. The ambition is to transfer these research findings to the characterisation of mechanical joints in order to quickly assess the general quality of the joint with this non-destructive testing method. The inherent challenge for realising this method is the correct interpretation of the measured energy dissipation and its attribution to either a bad joining point or intrinsic material properties. In this paper the authors present the concept for energy dissipation measurements at different joining points. By inverse analysis a simplified fast semi-analytical model will be developed that allows for a quick basic quality assessment of a given joining point.

  3. estimation of ionospheric energy dissipation for the year 2012 using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    from the magnetospheric tail. Plasma erupted from the Sun, carrying the interplanetary magnetic field, can penetrate the magnetic shielding of the Earth through a reconnection process. This merging of field lines and penetration of particles represent an energy transfer into the magnetosphere. The energy can then either be ...

  4. Seismic energy dissipation study of linear fluid viscous dampers in steel structure design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy dissipation systems in civil engineering structures are sought when it comes to removing unwanted energy such as earthquake and wind. Among these systems, there is combination of structural steel frames with passive energy dissipation provided by Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVD. This device is increasingly used to provide better seismic protection for existing as well as new buildings and bridges. A 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building moment frame with diagonal FVD that have linear force versus velocity behaviour. Nonlinear time history, which is being calculated by Fast nonlinear analysis (FNA, of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003 is considered for the analysis and carried out using the SAP2000 software and comparisons between unbraced, braced and damped structure are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various systems are studied to compare the structural response with and without this device of the energy dissipation thus obtained. The conclusions showed the formidable potential of the FVD to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity. It is contributing significantly to reduce the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.

  5. Dissipation of excess excitation energy of the needle leaves in Pinus trees during cold winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, AO; Cui, Zhen-Hai; Yu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Zi-Ling; Ding, Rui; Ren, Da-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Photooxidative damage to the needle leaves of evergreen trees results from the absorption of excess excitation energy. Efficient dissipation of this energy is essential to prevent photodamage. In this study, we determined the fluorescence transients, absorption spectra, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a/ b ratios, and relative membrane permeabilities of needle leaves of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Pinus armandi in both cold winter and summer. We observed a dramatic decrease in the maximum fluorescence ( F m) and substantial absorption of light energy in winter leaves of all three species. The F m decline was not correlated with a decrease in light absorption or with changes in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/ b ratio. The results suggested that the winter leaves dissipated a large amount of excess energy as heat. Because the cold winter leaves had lost normal physiological function, the heat dissipation depended solely on changes in the photosystem II supercomplex rather than the xanthophyll cycle. These findings imply that more attention should be paid to heat dissipation via changes in the photosystem complex structure during the growing season.

  6. Significant Dissipation of Tidal Energy in the Deep Ocean Inferred from Satellite Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, G. D.; Ray, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    How and where the ocean tides dissipate their energy are longstanding questions that have consequences ranging from the history of the Moon to the mixing of the oceans. Historically, the principal sink of tidal energy has been thought to be bottom friction in shallow seas. There has long been suggestive however, that tidal dissipation also occurs in the open ocean through the scattering by ocean-bottom topography of surface tides into internal waves, but estimates of the magnitude of this possible sink have varied widely. Here we use satellite altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. We show that approximately 10(exp 12) watts-that is, 1 TW, representing 25-30% of the total dissipation-occurs in the deep ocean, generally near areas of rough topography. Of the estimated 2 TW of mixing energy required to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean, one-half could therefore be provided by the tides, with the other half coming from action on the surface of the ocean.

  7. Sea spray aerosol and wave energy dissipation in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francius, M.J.; Piazzola, J.; Forget, P.; Calve, O. le; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a quantitative model for the prediction of the sea-salt mass flux produced in the surf zone are presented in this paper. The model relates the surf zone sea salt mass flux to the amount of wave energy dissipated in the surf zone. In order to apply this aerosol emission model, a wave

  8. Non-existence of global solutions to generalized dissipative Klein-Gordon equations with positive energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Olegovich Korpusov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial-boundary-value problem for generalized dissipative high-order equation of Klein-Gordon type is considered. We continue our study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems with arbitrary positive energy. The modified concavity method by Levine is used for proving blow-up of solutions.

  9. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  10. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  11. Phase imaging and nanoscale energy dissipation of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Borislav; Matković, Aleksandar; Gajić, Radoš

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the phase imaging of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM), the so-called tapping mode. The phase contrast between graphene and the neighboring substrate grows in hard tapping conditions and the contrast is enhanced compared to the topographic one. Therefore, phase measurements could enable the high-contrast imaging of graphene and related two-dimensional materials and heterostructures, which is not achievable with conventional AFM based topographic measurements. Obtained phase maps are then transformed into energy dissipation maps, which are important for graphene applications in various nano-mechanical systems. From a fundamental point of view, energy dissipation gives further insight into mechanical properties. Reliable measurements, obtained in the repulsive regime, show that the energy dissipation on a graphene-covered substrate is lower than that on a bare one, so graphene provides certain shielding in tip–substrate interaction. Based on the obtained phase curves and their derivatives, as well as on correlation measurements based on AFM nanoindentation and force modulation microscopy, we conclude that the main dissipation channels in graphene–substrate systems are short-range hysteresis and long-range interfacial forces.

  12. Energy Dissipation in Graphene Mechanical Resonators with and without Free Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takamura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS have high future potential to realize sensitive mass and force sensors owing to graphene’s low mass density and exceptional mechanical properties. One of the important remaining issues in this field is how to achieve mechanical resonators with a high quality factor (Q. Energy dissipation in resonators decreases Q, and suppressing it is the key to realizing sensitive sensors. In this article, we review our recent work on energy dissipation in doubly-clamped and circular drumhead graphene resonators. We examined the temperature (T dependence of the inverse of a quality factor ( Q - 1 to reveal what the dominant dissipation mechanism is. Our doubly-clamped trilayer resonators show a characteristic Q - 1 -T curve similar to that observed in monolayer resonators: Q - 1 ∝ T 2 above ∼100 K and ∝ T 0.3 below ∼100 K. By comparing our results with previous experimental and theoretical results, we determine that the T 2 and T 0.3 dependences can be attributed to tensile strain induced by clamping metals and vibrations at the free edges in doubly-clamped resonators, respectively. The Q - 1 -T curve in our circular drumhead resonators indicates that removing free edges and clamping metal suppresses energy dissipation in the resonators, resulting in a linear T dependence of Q - 1 in a wide temperature range.

  13. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in concentrated solid solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Bei, Hongbin; Sales, Brian C.; Wang, Lumin; Béland, Laurent K.; Stoller, Roger E.; Samolyuk, German D.; Caro, Magdalena; Caro, Alfredo; Weber, William J.

    2015-01-01

    A grand challenge in materials research is to understand complex electronic correlation and non-equilibrium atomic interactions, and how such intrinsic properties and dynamic processes affect energy transfer and defect evolution in irradiated materials. Here we report that chemical disorder, with an increasing number of principal elements and/or altered concentrations of specific elements, in single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys can lead to substantial reduction in electron mean free path and orders of magnitude decrease in electrical and thermal conductivity. The subsequently slow energy dissipation affects defect dynamics at the early stages, and consequentially may result in less deleterious defects. Suppressed damage accumulation with increasing chemical disorder from pure nickel to binary and to more complex quaternary solid solutions is observed. Understanding and controlling energy dissipation and defect dynamics by altering alloy complexity may pave the way for new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for energy applications. PMID:26507943

  14. Roles of Energy Dissipation in a Liquid-Solid Transition of Out-of-Equilibrium Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Komatsu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization of active matter as well as driven granular matter in nonequilibrium dynamical states has attracted considerable attention not only from the fundamental and application viewpoints but also as a model to understand the occurrence of such phenomena in nature. These systems share common features originating from their intrinsically out-of-equilibrium nature, and how energy dissipation affects the state selection in such nonequilibrium states remains elusive. As a simple model system, we consider a nonequilibrium stationary state maintained by continuous energy input, relevant to industrial processing of granular materials by vibration and/or flow. More specifically, we experimentally study roles of dissipation in self-organization of a driven granular particle monolayer. We find that the introduction of strong inelasticity entirely changes the nature of the liquid-solid transition from two-step (nearly continuous transitions (liquid-hexatic-solid to a strongly discontinuous first-order-like one (liquid-solid, where the two phases with different effective temperatures can coexist, unlike thermal systems, under a balance between energy input and dissipation. Our finding indicates a pivotal role of energy dissipation and suggests a novel principle in the self-organization of systems far from equilibrium. A similar principle may apply to active matter, which is another important class of out-of-equilibrium systems. On noting that interaction forces in active matter, and particularly in living systems, are often nonconservative and dissipative, our finding may also shed new light on the state selection in these systems.

  15. Mechanisms of Surface Wave Energy Dissipation over a Fluid Mud Sediment Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykovski, P.; Trowbridge, J. H.; Kineke, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Field observations from the spring of 2008 on the Louisiana shelf were used to elucidate the mechanisms of wave energy dissipation over a muddy seafloor. After a period of high discharge from the Atchafalaya River acoustic measurements showed the presence of 20 cm thick mobile fluid mud layers during and after wave events. While total wave energy dissipation (D) was greatest during the high energy periods, these periods had relatively low normalized attenuation rates (Κ = Dissipation/Energy Flux). During declining wave energy conditions, as the fluid mud layer settled, the attenuation process became more efficient with high Κ and low D. The transition from high D and low Κ to high Κ and low D was caused by a transition from turbulent to laminar flow in the fluid mud layer as measured by a Pulse-coherent Doppler profiler. Measurements of the oscillatory boundary layer velocity profile in the fluid mud layer during laminar flow reveal a very thick wave boundary layer with curvature filling the entire fluid mud layer, suggesting a kinematic viscosity two to three orders of magnitude greater than clear water. This high viscosity is also consistent with a high wave attenuation rates measured by across shelf energy flux differences. The transition to turbulence was forced by instabilities on the lutocline, with wavelengths consistent with the dispersion relation for this two layer system. The measurements also provide new insight into the dynamics of wave supported turbidity flows during the transition from a laminar to turbulent fluid mud layer.

  16. Energy method for multi-dimensional balance laws with non-local dissipation

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Renjun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of multi-dimensional balance laws with a non-local dissipative source which arise as simplified models for the hydrodynamics of radiating gases. At first we introduce the energy method in the setting of smooth perturbations and study the stability of constants states. Precisely, we use Fourier space analysis to quantify the energy dissipation rate and recover the optimal time-decay estimates for perturbed solutions via an interpolation inequality in Fourier space. As application, the developed energy method is used to prove stability of smooth planar waves in all dimensions n2, and also to show existence and stability of time-periodic solutions in the presence of the time-periodic source. Optimal rates of convergence of solutions towards the planar waves or time-periodic states are also shown provided initially L1-perturbations. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Dissipation of Electrical Energy in Submerged Arc Furnaces Producing Silicomanganese and High-Carbon Ferromanganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Joalet Dalene; Hockaday, Christopher James; Gous, Johan Petrus; Nzima, Thabo Witness

    2017-09-01

    Submerged-arc furnace technology is applied in the primary production of ferroalloys. Electrical energy is dissipated to the process via a combination of arcing and resistive heating. In processes where a crater forms between the charge zone and the reaction zone, electrical energy is dissipated mainly through arcing, e.g., in coke-bed based processes, through resistive heating. Plant-based measurements from a device called "Arcmon" indicated that in silicomanganese (SiMn) production, at times up to 15% of the electrical energy used is transferred by arcing, 30% in high-carbon ferromanganese (HCFeMn) production, compared with 5% in ferrochromium and 60% in ferrosilicon production. On average, the arcing is much less at 3% in SiMn and 5% in HCFeMn production.

  18. Fluctuating systems under cyclic perturbations: Relation between energy dissipation and intrinsic relaxation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerin, Fabrizio; Frezzato, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on fluctuating classical systems in contact with a thermal bath, and whose configurational energetics undergoes cyclic transformations due to interaction with external perturbing agents. Under the assumptions that the configurational dynamics is a stochastic Markov process in the overdamped regime and that the nonequilibrium configurational distribution remains close to the underlying equilibrium one, we derived an analytic approximation of the average dissipated energy per cycle in the asymptotic limit (i.e., after many cycles of perturbation). The energy dissipation is then readily translated into average entropy production, per cycle, in the environment. The accuracy of the approximation was tested by comparing the outcomes with the exact values obtained by stochastic simulations of a model case: a "particle on a ring" that fluctuates in a bistable potential perturbed in two different ways. As pointed out in previous studies on the stochastic resonance phenomenon, the dependence of the average dissipation on the perturbation period may unveil the inner spectrum of the system's fluctuation rates. In this respect, the analytical approximation presented here makes it possible to unveil the connection between average dissipation, intrinsic rates and modes of fluctuation of the system at the unperturbed equilibrium, and features of the perturbation itself (namely, the period of the cycle and the projections of the energy perturbation over the system's modes). The possibilities of employing the analytical results as a guide to devising and rationalizing a sort of "spectroscopic calorimetry" experiment, and of employing them in strategies aiming to optimize the system's features on the basis of a target average dissipation, are briefly discussed.

  19. Magnetization dynamics, Bennett clocking and associated energy dissipation in multiferroic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Fashami, Mohammad; Roy, Kuntal; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2011-04-01

    It has been recently shown that the magnetization of a multiferroic nanomagnet, consisting of a magnetostrictive layer elastically coupled to a piezoelectric layer, can be rotated by a large angle if a tiny voltage of a few tens of millivolts is applied to the piezoelectric layer. The potential generates stress in the magnetostrictive layer and rotates its magnetization by ~ 90° to implement Bennett clocking in nanomagnetic logic chains. Because of the small voltage needed, this clocking method is far more energy efficient than those that would employ spin transfer torque or magnetic fields to rotate the magnetization. In order to assess if such a clocking scheme can also be reasonably fast, we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a multiferroic logic chain with nearest-neighbor dipole coupling using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. We find that clock rates of 2.5 GHz are feasible while still maintaining the exceptionally high energy efficiency. For this clock rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip is ~ 52 000 kT at room temperature in the clocking circuit for properly designed nanomagnets. Had we used spin transfer torque to clock at the same rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip would have been ~ 4 × 108 kT, while with current transistor technology we would have expended ~ 106 kT. For slower clock rates of 1 GHz, stress-based clocking will dissipate only ~ 200 kT of energy per clock cycle per bit flip, while spin transfer torque would dissipate about 108 kT. This shows that multiferroic nanomagnetic logic, clocked with voltage-generated stress, can emerge as a very attractive technique for computing and signal processing since it can be several orders of magnitude more energy efficient than current technologies.

  20. Magnetization dynamics, Bennett clocking and associated energy dissipation in multiferroic logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fashami, Mohammad Salehi; Atulasimha, Jayasimha [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Roy, Kuntal; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo, E-mail: jatulasimha@vcu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    It has been recently shown that the magnetization of a multiferroic nanomagnet, consisting of a magnetostrictive layer elastically coupled to a piezoelectric layer, can be rotated by a large angle if a tiny voltage of a few tens of millivolts is applied to the piezoelectric layer. The potential generates stress in the magnetostrictive layer and rotates its magnetization by {approx} 90{sup 0} to implement Bennett clocking in nanomagnetic logic chains. Because of the small voltage needed, this clocking method is far more energy efficient than those that would employ spin transfer torque or magnetic fields to rotate the magnetization. In order to assess if such a clocking scheme can also be reasonably fast, we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a multiferroic logic chain with nearest-neighbor dipole coupling using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. We find that clock rates of 2.5 GHz are feasible while still maintaining the exceptionally high energy efficiency. For this clock rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip is {approx} 52 000 kT at room temperature in the clocking circuit for properly designed nanomagnets. Had we used spin transfer torque to clock at the same rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip would have been {approx} 4 x 10{sup 8} kT, while with current transistor technology we would have expended {approx} 10{sup 6} kT. For slower clock rates of 1 GHz, stress-based clocking will dissipate only {approx} 200 kT of energy per clock cycle per bit flip, while spin transfer torque would dissipate about 10{sup 8} kT. This shows that multiferroic nanomagnetic logic, clocked with voltage-generated stress, can emerge as a very attractive technique for computing and signal processing since it can be several orders of magnitude more energy efficient than current technologies.

  1. Singlet Energy Dissipation in the Photosystem II Light-Harvesting Complex Does Not Involve Energy Transfer to Carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Marc G.; Lambrev, Petar; Reus, Michael; Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta; Holzwarth, Alfred R.; Müller, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    The energy dissipation mechanism in oligomers of the major light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) from Arabidopsis thaliana mutants npq1 and npq2, zeaxanthin-deficient and zeaxanthin-enriched, respectively, has been studied by femtosecond transient absorption. The kinetics obtained at different

  2. Effect of landing height on frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energy dissipation at lower extremity joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2009-08-25

    Lack of the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation by lower extremity joint muscles may be implicated in elevated impact stresses present during landing from greater heights. These increased stresses are experienced by supporting tissues like cartilage, ligaments and bones, thus aggravating injury risk. This study sought to investigate frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energetics of lower extremity joints during landing from different heights. Eighteen male recreational athletes were instructed to perform drop-landing tasks from 0.3- to 0.6-m heights. Force plates and motion-capture system were used to capture ground reaction force and kinematics data, respectively. Joint moment was calculated using inverse dynamics. Joint power was computed as a product of joint moment and angular velocity. Work was defined as joint power integrated over time. Hip and knee joints delivered significantly greater joint power and eccentric work (p<0.05) than the ankle joint at both landing heights. Substantial increase (p<0.05) in eccentric work was noted at the hip joint in response to increasing landing height. Knee and hip joints acted as key contributors to total energy dissipation in the frontal plane with increase in peak ground reaction force (GRF). The hip joint was the top contributor to energy absorption, which indicated a hip-dominant strategy in the frontal plane in response to peak GRF during landing. Future studies should investigate joint motions that can maximize energy dissipation or reduce the need for energy dissipation in the frontal plane at the various joints, and to evaluate their effects on the attenuation of lower extremity injury risk during landing.

  3. Damping Characterization of Friction Energy Dissipation for Particle Systems Based on Powder Mechanics and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangqiang XIAO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We established a friction energy dissipation model for particle damping based on powder mechanics. We investigated the influence of geometric features of the damper on damping characteristics; and the geometric feature studied was the depth and length of the rectangular particle container. The work done by the frictional force between the particle layer and the effect of particle filling rate on the vibration damping characteristics was also explored. We analyzed the friction energy dissipation model, and the relationship between the particle filling rate and the vibration damping. The experimental results show good agreement with the friction energy dissipation model, which verifies the proposed simulation prediction. The results have shown that the particle damping technology can greatly consume the structure kinetic energy, and the vibration reduction effect of particle damping depends mainly on the interaction of the particles near the top. A proper filling rate of particle systems can result in an optimal effect on vibration reduction, which will provide the engineering applications with the theoretical guidance and design criteria.

  4. The energy dissipative mechanisms of the particle-fiber interface in a textile composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Quinn Patrick

    Impact resistant fabrics comprised of woven high performance fibers (e.g., Kevlar) have exhibited improved energy dissipative capability with the inclusion of nano- to micrometer sized particles. Upon impact, the particles embed and gouge adjacent fiber surfaces. While the particle-fiber interactions appear to be a primary mechanism for the increase in energy dissipation, the fundamentals of the nano- to micrometer sized gouging response of high performance fibers and the dissipation of energy due to particle gouging have not been studied previously. In this research, nanoindentation and nanoscratching techniques, which exploit probe sizes in the range of nano- to micrometers, were used to study the particle-fiber contact and develop nanoscale structure-property relationships of single Kevlar fibers. Atomic force microscopy based methods were used to create high resolution stiffness maps of fiber cross-sections, the results of which indicated that the stiffness of Kevlar 49 fibers is independent of radial position, while Kevlar KM2 fibers exhibit a reduced stiffness "shell" region (up to ˜300-350 nm thick). Instrumented indentation was used to evaluate the local response of Kevlar fibers with respect to orientation and contact size. For radial indentation, modifications to the traditional indentation analysis were developed to account for fiber curvature and finite size effects. A critical contact size was established above which the fiber response was independent of indenter size. This "homogeneous" response was used to estimate the local material properties of the Kevlar fibers through the application of an analytical model for indentation of a transversely isotropic material. The local properties of both fibers differed from their previously measured bulk properties, which was likely due, at least in part, to the deformation mechanisms of the fiber microstructure during indentation. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests were then conducted to study the

  5. Patterns of energy dissipation in three-dimensional face-centred cubic lattices after ion impact

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, P; Paithorpe, B A

    1997-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed of the energy dissipation of incident atoms after impact onto a 3D FCC lattice with energies in the range 2-3 keV. The interactions between atoms were described using the Lennard-Jones potential parameterized for copper. The impacting directions were and . The results for low energies, of a few electron volts, show that the energy of the impacting atom was dissipated via focused collision sequences (focusons). With increasing energy, cascading bow waves were generated by the focusons, in the close-packed (111) planes only, and carried away the energy of the focusons while, in the high-energy range of a few kiloelectron volts, most of the energy was confined to the lower-index (100) or (110) planes. The structure of these planes was disrupted by secondary focusons generated in these planes, and sputtering occurred when these focusons reach the surface of the substrate. Backward focusons were observed in the low-energy impact case and appeared to be the main reason...

  6. Energy dissipation mechanism of a non-obstructive particle damper based on DEM simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD has been widely used as an effective passive damping technique. However, the understanding of energy dissipation mechanism and meso-scale behaviors of granular system in NOPD is not in-depth enough. In this paper, the damping effectiveness of NOPD was analyzed combining with the motion modes of granular system and the energy dissipation mechanism was illustrated at the meso-scale. The results shows that the different motion states and meso-structure leading to the variations of the damping effectiveness. Generally, the NOPD has the optimal damping effectiveness in the buoyancy convection state. The purpose of this paper is to provide better understanding and theory support for the design and application of NOPD.

  7. Analysis of the Thermo-Viscous Effect on Friction and Energy Dissipation in Oil Lubricated Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    on an asymptotic approximation of the laminar lubrication thermal field at low reduced Peclet and Brinkman number, where viscosity is included as a function of temperature. The asymptotic series is truncated at first order and used to derive an expression of the viscous friction on a sliding surface. This reveal...... an influence from the surface temperature gradient on the viscous friction, which id not revealed when applying classical isothermal analysis. The significance of the thermo-viscous effect on friction and energy dissipation is analyzed analytically in order to provide a qualitative insight to the relation...... investigations, due to computational effort, whereby analytical research in loss mechanisms still have certain advantages. In this paper, the thermo-viscous effect of a lubricant is included in an analytical study of the friction and energy dissipation of oil hydraulic thin-films. This analytical study is based...

  8. Statistics of energy dissipation in a quantum dot operating in the cotunneling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinaii, Yehuda; Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval

    2014-11-01

    At Coulomb blockade valleys inelastic cotunneling processes generate particle-hole excitations in quantum dots (QDs), and lead to energy dissipation. We have analyzed the probability distribution function (PDF) of energy dissipated in a QD due to such processes during a given time interval. We obtained analytically the cumulant generating function, and extracted the average, variance, and Fano factor. The latter diverges as T3/(eV ) 2 at bias e V smaller than the temperature T , and reaches the value 3 e V /5 in the opposite limit. The PDF is further studied numerically. As expected, the Crooks fluctuation relation is not fulfilled by the PDF. Our results can be verified experimentally utilizing transport measurements of charge.

  9. New parallelizable schemes for integrating the Dissipative Particle Dynamics with Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homman, Ahmed-Amine; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Roussel, Julien; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2016-01-14

    This work presents new parallelizable numerical schemes for the integration of dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation. So far, no numerical scheme introduced in the literature is able to correctly preserve the energy over long times and give rise to small errors on average properties for moderately small time steps, while being straightforwardly parallelizable. We present in this article two new methods, both straightforwardly parallelizable, allowing to correctly preserve the total energy of the system. We illustrate the accuracy and performance of these new schemes both on equilibrium and nonequilibrium parallel simulations.

  10. Influence of energy dissipation on plane harmonic waves through a piezo-thermo-elastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Sarhan Y.; Nazeer, M.; Adnan, J.; Rehman, Nadia

    2017-07-01

    The concept of thermo-elasticity proposed by Green and Naghdi is employed to study the plane harmonic waves through a piezo-electric thermo-elastic medium. An analytical technique of normal modes is adopted to find the exact solution of the problem. The theoretical results obtained are represented graphically for the particular material. It is found that energy dissipation reduces the amplitude of waves propagating through the medium. The results fully agree with physical interpretation of the problem.

  11. Research on the Calculation Method of Internal Force of Combined Energy Dissipation Shed-tunnel Roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fiao; Meng, Deyu; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, He; Wu, Ranjie

    2017-12-01

    The paper studied on the internal force calculation process of roof of the combined energy dissipation shed-tunnel through using the theory of thin plates, the theory of structural dynamics and coordinated deformation theory, the paper taked the top slab as one-way slab, used the heavy series theory to study the equation, and got the internal force analytical solution under the action of a rockfall impact. The research results can provide reference for shed-tunnel structure design.

  12. Conservation and dissipation of light energy in desiccation-tolerant photoautotrophs, two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Conservation of light energy in photosynthesis is possible only in hydrated photoautotrophs. It requires complex biochemistry and is limited in capacity. Charge separation in reaction centres of photosystem II initiates energy conservation but opens also the path to photooxidative damage. A main mechanism of photoprotection active in hydrated photoautotrophs is controlled by light. This is achieved by coupling light flux to the protonation of a special thylakoid protein which activates thermal energy dissipation. This mechanism facilitates the simultaneous occurrence of energy conservation and energy dissipation but cannot completely prevent damage by light. Continuous metabolic repair is required to compensate damage. More efficient photoprotection is needed by desiccation-tolerant photoautotrophs. Loss of water during desiccation activates ultra-fast energy dissipation in mosses and lichens. Desiccation-induced energy dissipation neither requires a protonation reaction nor light but photoprotection often increases when light is present during desiccation. Two different mechanisms contribute to photoprotection of desiccated photoautotrophs. One facilitates energy dissipation in the antenna of photosystem II which is faster than energy capture by functional reaction centres. When this is insufficient for full photoprotection, the other one permits energy dissipation in the reaction centres themselves.

  13. A dynamic visco-hyperelastic model of dielectric elastomers and their energy dissipation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongquan; Xue, Huanhuan; Chen, Hualing; Qiang, Junhua

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present a model describing the nonlinear dynamic visco-hyperelastic behaviors of dielectric elastomers (DE), with the purpose to explain the material's dynamic energy dissipation mechanism, and provide convenience for actual design of DE devices. On the basic mechanical properties of the material, a visco-hyperelastic constitutive relationship, derived from Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and expressed as complex modulus, is created at first. Then, from the approximate relationship between harmonic motion frequency and the stretch rate (as well as the amplitude of stretch ratio) of the film, a new model-fitting approach is put forward to obtain the three intrinsic parameters, based on the uniaxial tensile tests for VHB 4910 DE film at different stretch rates (from 0.029 to 0.71 s-1). Applying the proposed parameters, the hysteresis and energy dissipation behaviors of the DE film are subsequently predicted, showing good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, the influences of the kinematic variable pair on energy dissipation properties are quantitatively investigated.

  14. An Estimation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Energy Dissipation Rate Based on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Similarity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  15. Mechanisms of surface wave energy dissipation over a high-concentration sediment suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykovski, Peter; Trowbridge, John; Kineke, Gail

    2015-03-01

    Field observations from the spring of 2008 on the Louisiana shelf were used to elucidate the mechanisms of wave energy dissipation over a muddy seafloor. After a period of high discharge from the Atchafalaya River, acoustic measurements showed the presence of 20 cm thick mobile fluid-mud layers during and after wave events. While total wave energy dissipation (D) was greatest during the high energy periods, these periods had relatively low normalized attenuation rates (κ = Dissipation/Energy Flux). During declining wave-energy conditions, as the fluid-mud layer settled, the attenuation process became more efficient with high κ and low D. The transition from high D and low κ to high κ and low D was caused by a transition from turbulent to laminar flow in the fluid-mud layer as measured by a Pulse-coherent Doppler profiler. Measurements of the oscillatory boundary layer velocity profile in the fluid-mud layer during laminar flow reveal a very thick wave boundary layer with curvature filling the entire fluid-mud layer, suggesting a kinematic viscosity 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that of clear water. This high viscosity is also consistent with a high wave-attenuation rates measured by across-shelf energy flux differences. The transition to turbulence was forced by instabilities on the lutocline, with wavelengths consistent with the dispersion relation for this two-layer system. The measurements also provide new insight into the dynamics of wave-supported turbidity flows during the transition from a laminar to turbulent fluid-mud layer.

  16. A new water energy dissipater for efficient energy dissipation and enriching the flow with dissolved oxygen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashour Mohamed A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems Egypt is facing nowadays is saving and controlling the limited available quantity of water and its quality for irrigation and other purposes. Such goals may be achieved through different types of diversion head structures across the river and in the entrance of other carrying canals. The construction of diversion head structures, which usually causes many technical problems, should have the objective of solving and overcoming to protect the structure from failure. The main problem occurs downstream. Such structures have the harmful effect of converting the potential energy gained in the upstream side to a kinetic energy in the downstream side. This energy must be dissipated shortly and safely as near as possible to the head structure to avoid its destructive effect. The hydraulic jump is the most effective tool for the dissipation of water energy, accelerating the forming of the hydraulic jump downstream such structures became essential for achieving our main goal. Using energy dissipaters on the soled apron in the downstream side of the structures was the main technique for accelerating the hydraulic jump formation and dissipating great amount of the residual harmful kinetic energy occurring downstream head structures. So early, many researchers investigated different types, shapes, and arrangements of such dissipaters to evaluate its efficiency in dissipating the water energy and accelerating the forming of the hydraulic jump. In fact, in our present study we will try to investigate some other shapes of energy dissipaters, which have not been studied enough, by evaluating its positive technical impact on: (i percentage value of dissipating kinetic water energy; (ii percentage value of increasing the dissolved oxygen (DO content in the irrigation water, and improving its quality. The study is proposed to be held in the irrigation and hydraulic laboratory of the Civil department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut

  17. Wave Energy Dissipation of Waves Breaking on a Reef with a Steep Front Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.S.; Burcharth, Hans F.; Brorsen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Transformation of waves propagating over a steep bottom slope is of great importance regarding the coastal processes in the near-shore area.This study will contribute with tools to predict the dissipated wave energy for irregular waves passing a steep submerged slope. An extensive number...... of test with regular and irregular waves breaking over a steep bottom slope have been performed in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. Based on these experimental data formulae have been developed capable of predicting he transmitted wave energy over steep slopes....

  18. Optimisation of dynamic vibration absorbers to minimise kinetic energy and maximise internal power dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Zilletti, Michele; Elliott, Stephen J.; Rustighi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The tuning of a dynamic vibration absorber is considered such that either the kinetic energy of the host structure is minimised or the power dissipation within the absorber is maximised. If the host structure is approximated as a damped single degree of freedom, the optimal values for the ratio of the absorber's natural frequency to the host structure and the optimal damping ratio of the absorber are shown to be the same whether the kinetic energy of the host structure is minimised or the pow...

  19. Dissipation of excess excitation energy by drought-induced nonphotochemical quenching in two species of drought-tolerant moss: desiccation-induced acceleration of photosystem II fluorescence decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Hisanori; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-07-02

    Drought-tolerant mosses survive with their green color intact even after long periods of dehydration that would kill ordinary plants. The mechanism of dissipation of excitation energy under drought stress was studied in two species of drought-tolerant moss, Rhytidium rugosum and Ceratodon purpureus. They showed severe quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence (PSII) after being dehydrated in the dark. Quenching was induced by the acceleration of the fluorescence decay rate. This drought-induced nonphotochemical quenching (designated d-NPQ) was fully reversed by rehydration. Global analysis of fluorescence decay at 77 K indicated rapid 46 ps transfer of excitation energy from the 680-690 nm PSII bands to a 710 nm band, and to 740-760 nm bands. The latter bands decayed to the ground state with the same time constant showing the rapid dissipation of excitation energy into heat. The quenching by d-NPQ in dry moss was stronger than that by PSII charge separation or nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), which operates under hydrating conditions. Drought-tolerant mosses, thus, dissipate excess excitation energy into heat. The d-NPQ mechanism in moss resembles that reported in lichens, suggesting their common origin.

  20. Testing Procedures for High Output Fluid Viscous Dampers Used in Building and Bridge Structures to Dissipate Seismic Energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas P. Taylor; Michael C. Constantinou

    1995-01-01

    .... Toward this goal, a successful defense conversion has occurred recently with the application of high capacity fluid damping devices from the defense community for use as seismic energy dissipation...

  1. Impact Vibration Attenuation for a Flexible Robotic Manipulator through Transfer and Dissipation of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.

  2. David Adler Lectureship Award Talk: Friction and energy dissipation mechanisms in adsorbed molecules and molecularly thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jacqueline

    2015-03-01

    Studies of the fundamental origins of friction have undergone rapid progress in recent years, with the development of new experimental and computational techniques for measuring and simulating friction at atomic length and time scales. The increased interest has sparked a variety of discussions and debates concerning the nature of the atomic-scale and quantum mechanisms that dominate the dissipative process by which mechanical energy is transformed into heat. Measurements of the sliding friction of physisorbed monolayers and bilayers can provide information on the relative contributions of these various dissipative mechanisms. Adsorbed films, whether intentionally applied or present as trace levels of physisorbed contaminants, moreover are ubiquitous at virtually all surfaces. As such, they impact a wide range of applications whose progress depends on precise control and/or knowledge of surface diffusion processes. Examples include nanoscale assembly, directed transport of Brownian particles, material flow through restricted geometries such as graphene membranes and molecular sieves, passivation and edge effects in carbon-based lubricants, and the stability of granular materials associated with frictional and frictionless contacts. Work supported by NSFDMR1310456.

  3. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  4. Improved Multibody Dynamics for Investigating Energy Dissipation in Train Collisions Based on Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate energy dissipation in train collisions. A 1/8 scaled train model, about one-dimensional in longitudinal direction, was used to carry out a scaled train collision test. Corresponding multibody dynamic simulations were conducted using traditional and improved method model (IMM in ADAMS. In IMM, the connection between two adjacent cars was expressed by a nonlinear spring and energy absorbing structures were equivalently represented by separate forces, instead of one force. IMM was able to simulate the motion of each car and displayed the deformation of structures at both ends of the cars. IMM showed larger deformations and energy absorption of structures in moving cars than those in stationary cars. Moreover, the asymmetry in deformation proportion in main energy absorbing structures decreased with increasing collision speed. The asymmetry decreased from 11.69% to 3.60% when the collision speed increased from 10 km/h to 36 km/h.

  5. Energy dissipation differs between females with and without chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, R S; Terada, M; Kosik, K B; Gribble, P A

    2017-11-07

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with altered energy dissipation patterns, but comparisons to lateral ankle sprain (LAS) copers have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in relative sagittal plane energy dissipation during a single-leg landing between female CAI and LAS coper participants. We separated 33 females (23.6 ± 4.6 years, 164.3 ± 6.2 cm, 69.4 ± 13.7 kg) into CAI (n = 17) and LAS coper (n = 16) groups. Participants completed 5 single-leg landings followed by a 5-second stabilization. We collected sagittal plane kinematics and joint moments at the ankle, knee, hip, and proximal joints (knee and hip) combined then calculated each joint's energy dissipation at 50, 100, 150, and 200 ms post-landing. We compared the percentage of total energy dissipated by the ankle, knee, hip, and proximal joints during each interval utilizing independent t tests and Cohen's d effect sizes. Statistical significance was set a priori at P < .05. The CAI group had lower relative energy dissipation from the ankle at 50 (24.7 ± 11.5% vs 39.2 ± 11.8%, P < .01, d = 1.25 [0.47, 1.95]), 100 (66.9 ± 19.4% vs 77.7 ± 6.5%, P = .04, d = 0.74 [0.01, 1.42]), and 150 ms (70.7 ± 17.8% vs 81.0 ± 5.7%, P = .03, d = 0.77 [0.04, 1.46]) compared to LAS copers. The CAI group had a greater hip contribution through 150 ms (17.9 ± 10.7% vs 11.7 ± 4.4%, P = .04, d =-0.75 [-1.44, -0.03]) and the proximal joints at 50 (75.3 ± 11.5% vs 60.8 ± 11.8%, P < .01, d = -1.25 [-1.96, -0.47]), 100 (33.1 ± 19.4% vs 22.3 ± 6.5%, P = .04, d = -0.74 [-1.42, -0.01]), and 150 ms (29.3 ± 17.8 vs 19.0 ± 5.7%, P = .03, d =-0.77 [-1.46, -0.04]) compared to LAS copers. Females with CAI may benefit from therapeutic exercises designed to correct a single-leg energy dissipation strategy that relies less on the ankle joint. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Rapid Energy Estimation for Hardware-Software Codesign Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna ViktorK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available By allowing parts of the applications to be executed either on soft processors (as software programs or on customized hardware peripherals attached to the processors, FPGAs have made traditional energy estimation techniques inefficient for evaluating various design tradeoffs. In this paper, we propose a high-level simulation-based two-step rapid energy estimation technique for hardware-software codesign using FPGAs. In the first step, a high-level hardware-software cosimulation technique is applied to simulate both the hardware and software components of the target application. High-level simulation results of both software programs running on the processors and the customized hardware peripherals are gathered during the cosimulation process. In the second step, the high-level simulation results of the customized hardware peripherals are used to estimate the switching activities of their corresponding register-transfer/gate level ("low-level" implementations. We use this information to employ an instruction-level energy estimation technique and a domain-specific energy performance modeling technique to estimate the energy dissipation of the complete application. A Matlab/Simulink-based implementation of our approach and two numerical computation applications show that the proposed energy estimation technique can achieve more than 6000x speedup over low-level simulation-based techniques while sacrificing less than 10% estimation accuracy. Compared with the measured results, our experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves an average estimation error of less than 12%.

  7. Modulation of muscle-tendon interaction in the human triceps surae during an energy dissipation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkhausen, Amelie; Albracht, Kirsten; Cronin, Neil J; Meier, Rahel; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Seynnes, Olivier R

    2017-11-15

    The compliance of elastic elements allows muscles to dissipate energy safely during eccentric contractions. This buffering function is well documented in animal models but our understanding of its mechanism in humans is confined to non-specific tasks, requiring a subsequent acceleration of the body. The present study aimed to examine the behaviour of the human triceps surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) during a pure energy dissipation task, under two loading conditions. Thirty-nine subjects performed a single-leg landing task, with and without added mass. Ultrasound measurements were combined with three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics to determine instantaneous length changes of MTUs, muscle fascicles, Achilles tendon and combined elastic elements. Gastrocnemius and soleus MTUs lengthened during landing. After a small concentric action, fascicles contracted eccentrically during most of the task, whereas plantar flexor muscles were activated. Combined elastic elements lengthened until peak ankle moment and recoiled thereafter, whereas no recoil was observed for the Achilles tendon. Adding mass resulted in greater negative work and MTU lengthening, which were accompanied by a greater stretch of tendon and elastic elements and a greater recruitment of the soleus muscle, without any further fascicle strain. Hence, the buffering action of elastic elements delimits the maximal strain and lengthening velocity of active muscle fascicles and is commensurate with loading constraints. In the present task, energy dissipation was modulated via greater MTU excursion and more forceful eccentric contractions. The distinct strain pattern of the Achilles tendon supports the notion that different elastic elements may not systematically fulfil the same function. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Energy dissipation within the wave run-up at stepped revetments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpen, Nils B.; Bung, Daniel B.; Valero, Daniel; Schlurmann, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    To understand the processes and energy dissipation performance caused by turbulence during the wave run-up over a stepped revetment, hydraulic model tests with steady flow conditions are conducted and correlated with unsteady flow conditions of the wave run-up within a short time frame. Under irregular waves, the run-up reduction over a stepped revetment is dependent on the Iribarren number and decreases for decreasing Iribarren numbers. Velocity gradients are found to be similar in a steady and unsteady flow regime near the pseudo-bottom.

  9. Temperature rise due to mechanical energy dissipation in undirectional thermoplastic composites(AS4/PEEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgious, I. T.; Sun, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The history of temperature rise due to internal dissipation of mechanical energy in insulated off-axis uniaxial specimens of the unidirectional thermoplastic composite (AS4/PEEK) has been measured. The experiment reveals that the rate of temperature rise is a polynomial function of stress amplitude: It consists of a quadratic term and a sixth power term. This fact implies that the specific heat of the composite depends on the stretching its microstructure undergoes during deformation. The Einstein theory for specific heat is used to explain the dependence of the specific heat on the stretching of the microstructure.

  10. Geometrical Dependence of Electrical Energy dissipated for Intra-Cloud Flashes using LMA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, V.; Bruning, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data were used to estimate total electrical energy dissipation for 73 intra-cloud flashes from a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) that occurred near Lubbock, TX on June 6th, 2013. Charge volumes and spacing were estimated from the convex hull of VHF sources emitted by positive and negative breakdown. Energy was obtained by solving for the electric field and potential in two ways. For reference, a three-dimensional Poisson solver was used with the observed convex hull geometry. Analytical estimates were then made by applying the same charge volumes to simplified geometries: charged spheres, cylinders, and plane parallel discs. Charge density was retrieved by applying constraints of charge conservation and the presence of a breakeven electric field. The analytic geometries were compared to the convex hull method in order to quantify and evaluate the geometric dependence of the total energy dissipated. Preliminary results showed the cylindrical geometry produced values within the range of other values reported in the literature, and in close agreement with solutions for the convex-hull geometry.

  11. Investigating oceanic tidal energy dissipation on deep time scales using short tidal deposit sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, C.

    2012-12-01

    One of the enduring problems in physical oceanography has been that of tidal dynamics and the effective tidal torque that serves to slow Earth's axial rotation. In the late 20th century, with the aid of satellite altimetry and other technologies, a suite of reliable estimates was finally placed on the magnitude of this torque and other, related parameters in the current epoch. Tidal drag accounts for a 20 microsecond/year increase in mean day length, a 3.5 terawatt dissipation of energy in the oceans (Kantha et al., 1998), and a lunar retreat rate of 3.82 cm/yr (Dickey et al., 1994). Despite these significant advances, however, the problem of tidal dissipation in the geologic past remains largely unresolved. This is due, in part, to difficulties in numerical modeling of past tidal regimes that stem from uncertainties in ocean basin configurations and lunar distances. Tidal deposits can record, to high resolution, the primary astronomical periodicities responsible for the generation of the tidal currents under which transport and deposition occur. With reliable lunar orbital period data obtained from tidal deposits, the past Earth-Moon distance and length of day can be calculated. This task requires careful spectral analysis and consideration of sedimentological factors that may add noise and/or discontinuities to the signal. For deposits representing less than one year of deposition, the necessary assumptions are that Earth's moment of inertia has not changed significantly over the time interval of interest and that the solar component of tidal dissipation can be well-approximated. With consideration of the total angular momentum of the Earth-Moon couplet, we derive a method to calculate lunar distance and length of day. The efficacy of this method and its assumptions is tested via the multi-year sequence of data obtained from the late Precambrian Elatina Formation of Australia and comparing results obtained from the full suite of data by Williams (2000). We go on

  12. Wave energy dissipation by intertidal sand waves on a mixed-sediment Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the surf zone, the energy expended by wave breaking is strongly influenced by nearshore bathymetry, which is often linked to the character and abundance of local sediments. Based upon a continuous, two year record of Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) data on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in southcentral Alaska, we model the enhancement of wave energy dissipation by the presence of intertidal sand waves. Comparison of model results from simulations in the presence and absence of sand waves illustrates that these ephemeral morphological features can offer significant protection to the backing beach and sea cliff through two mechanisms: (1) by moving the locus of wave breaking seaward and (2) by increasing energy expenditure associated with the turbulence of wave breaking. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  13. Dissipation of the excess energy of the adsorbate- thermalization via electron transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Strak, Paweł; Krukowski, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    A new scenario of thermalization process of the adsorbate attached at solid surfaces is proposed. The scenario is based on existence of electric dipole layer in which the electron wavefunctions extend over the positive ions. Thus the strong local electric field exists which drags electron into the solids and repels the positive ions. The electrons are tunneling conveying the energy into the solid interior. The positive ions are retarded in the field, which allows them to loose excess kinetic energy and to be located smoothly into the adsorption sites. In this way the excess energy is not dissipated locally avoiding melting or creation of defects, in accordance with the experiments. The scenario is supported by the ab intio calculation results including density function theory of the slabs representing AlN surface and the Schrodinger equation for time evolution of hydrogen-like atom at the solid surface.

  14. Influence of movement direction on levitation performance and energy dissipation in a superconducting maglev system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Guang Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the regular operation of a maglev system, the superconducting levitation body may move away from the working position due to the external disturbance and the curved part of the guideway. Based on the A − V formulation of magnetoquasistatic Maxwell’s equations, in this paper, a two-dimensional numerical model is applied to study the influence of movement direction on a typical maglev system consisting of an infinitely long high-temperature superconductor and a guideway of two infinitely long parallel permanent magnets with opposite horizontal magnetization. After the highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the superconductor is taken into account, the levitation performance change and the energy dissipation induced by the relative movement of the superconductor and the guideway are discussed. The results show that the levitation force, guidance force and power loss are strongly dependent on the movement direction and speed of the superconductor when it moves away from the working position. If the superconductor moves periodically through the working position, these three physical quantities will change periodically with time. Interestingly, the power loss drastically increases during the first cycle, and after the first cycle it starts to decrease and finally tends to a dynamic steady state. Moreover, an increase in the tilt angle of movement direction will improve the maximum levitation force and, simultaneously, enhance the energy dissipation of the maglev system.

  15. Influence of movement direction on levitation performance and energy dissipation in a superconducting maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-11-01

    During the regular operation of a maglev system, the superconducting levitation body may move away from the working position due to the external disturbance and the curved part of the guideway. Based on the A - V formulation of magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations, in this paper, a two-dimensional numerical model is applied to study the influence of movement direction on a typical maglev system consisting of an infinitely long high-temperature superconductor and a guideway of two infinitely long parallel permanent magnets with opposite horizontal magnetization. After the highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the superconductor is taken into account, the levitation performance change and the energy dissipation induced by the relative movement of the superconductor and the guideway are discussed. The results show that the levitation force, guidance force and power loss are strongly dependent on the movement direction and speed of the superconductor when it moves away from the working position. If the superconductor moves periodically through the working position, these three physical quantities will change periodically with time. Interestingly, the power loss drastically increases during the first cycle, and after the first cycle it starts to decrease and finally tends to a dynamic steady state. Moreover, an increase in the tilt angle of movement direction will improve the maximum levitation force and, simultaneously, enhance the energy dissipation of the maglev system.

  16. Stochastic Response Characteristic and Equivalent Damping of Weak Nonlinear Energy Dissipation System under Biaxial Earthquake Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The random response characteristic of weak nonlinear structure under biaxial earthquake excitation is investigated. The structure has a SDOF (single degree of freedom with supporting braces and viscoelastic dampers. First, it adopts integral constitutive relation and establishes a differential and integral equations of motion. Then, according to the principle of energy balance, the equation is linearized. Finally, based on the stochastic averaging method, the general analytical solution of the variance of the displacement and velocity response and the equivalent damping is deduced and derived. At the same time, the joint probability density function of the amplitude and phase and displacement and velocity of the energy dissipation structure are also given. The dynamic characteristics of a structure with viscoelastic dampers are determined as a solution to the variance of displacement response, so the equivalent damping is taken into consideration as a solution to replace the original nonlinear damping. It means it has established a unified analytical solution of stochastic response analysis and equivalent damping of a SDOF nonlinear dissipation structure with the brace under biaxial earthquake action in this paper.

  17. Fluctuations of energy flux in a simple dissipative out-of-equilibrium system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Claudio; Falcon, Eric

    2009-04-01

    We report the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the energy flux in an electronic RC circuit driven with a stochastic voltage. The fluctuations of the power injected in the circuit are measured as a function of the damping rate and the forcing parameters. We show that its distribution exhibits a cusp close to zero and two asymmetric exponential tails, with the asymmetry being driven by the mean dissipation. This simple experiment allows one to capture the qualitative features of the energy flux distribution observed in more complex dissipative systems. We also show that the large fluctuations of injected power averaged on a time lag do not verify the fluctuation theorem even for long averaging time. This is in contrast to the findings of previous experiments due to their small range of explored fluctuation amplitude. The injected power in a system of N components either correlated or not is also studied to mimic systems with large number of particles, such as in a dilute granular gas.

  18. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  19. Measurement of kinetic energy dissipation with gelatine fissure formation with special reference to gelatine validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Jorma

    2005-05-28

    Various methods for calculating the amount of kinetic energy dissipated by a bullet into ballistic gelatine have been suggested in literature. These methods were compared using the results of thirteen 9 mmx19 mm pistol and five 7.62 mmx 39 mm rifle bullets shot into 10% ballistic gelatine. The Wound Profile Method gave the highest correlation, 0.89, with the measured amounts of dissipated kinetic energy. The Fissure surface area and total crack length method gained 0.51 and 0.52, respectively. The experimental results were also compared with those from pig tests with the same bullet types. Using the z-test at 95% level of confidence no difference between impact velocity normalized bullet decelerations could be determined for the 9 mm bullet used. The same test showed significant difference for 7.62 mm bullets. That, however, can be considered to be the result of the bullet's tendency to tumble in non-homogenous living tissue causing significant dispersion of observed deceleration values. The results add further evidence supporting the validity of 10% gelatine at +4 degrees C as wound ballistic tissue simulant. The study also introduces the use of an elastic "shroud" to hold the gelatine in place, to some extent reduce the effects of asymmetric expansion of the gelatine and to simulate the expansion suppression effect of surrounding tissues.

  20. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  2. Energy input and dissipation in a temperate lake during the spring transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Simpson, John H.

    2017-08-01

    ADCP and temperature chain measurements have been used to estimate the rate of energy input by wind stress to the water surface in the south basin of Windermere. The energy input from the atmosphere was found to increase markedly as the lake stratified in spring. The efficiency of energy transfer ( Eff), defined as the ratio of the rate of working in near-surface waters ( RW) to that above the lake surface ( P 10), increased from ˜0.0013 in vertically homogenous conditions to ˜0.0064 in the first 40 days of the stratified regime. A maximum value of Eff˜0.01 was observed when, with increasing stratification, the first mode internal seiche period decreased to match the diurnal wind period of 24 h. The increase in energy input, following the onset of stratification was reflected in enhancement of the mean depth-varying kinetic energy without a corresponding increase in wind forcing. Parallel estimates of energy dissipation in the bottom boundary layer, based on determination of the structure function show that it accounts for ˜15% of RW in stratified conditions. The evolution of stratification in the lake conforms to a heating stirring model which indicates that mixing accounts for ˜21% of RW. Taken together, these estimates of key energetic parameters point the way to the development of full energy budgets for lakes and shallow seas.

  3. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and

  4. An Optimal Free Energy Dissipation Strategy of the MinCDE Oscillator in Regulating Symmetric Bacterial Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liping; Lan, Ganhui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. The obtained oscillatory patterns provide vital functions as timekeepers, pacemakers and spacemarkers. Models based on control theory have been introduced to explain how specific oscillatory behaviors stem from protein interaction feedbacks, whereas the energy dissipation through the oscillating processes and its role in the regulatory function remain unexplored. Here we developed a general framework to assess an oscillator’s regulation performance at different dissipation levels. Using the Escherichia coli MinCDE oscillator as a model system, we showed that a sufficient amount of energy dissipation is needed to switch on the oscillation, which is tightly coupled to the system’s regulatory performance. Once the dissipation level is beyond this threshold, unlike stationary regulators’ monotonic performance-to-cost relation, excess dissipation at certain steps in the oscillating process damages the oscillator’s regulatory performance. We further discovered that the chemical free energy from ATP hydrolysis has to be strategically assigned to the MinE-aided MinD release and the MinD immobilization steps for optimal performance, and a higher energy budget improves the robustness of the oscillator. These results unfold a novel mode by which living systems trade energy for regulatory function. PMID:26317492

  5. Scaling of normalized mean energy and scalar dissipation rates in a turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Antonia, Robert Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Non-dimensional parameters for the mean energy and scalar dissipation rates Cɛ and Cɛθ are examined using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data obtained in a fully developed turbulent channel flow with a passive scalar (Pr = 0.71) at several values of the Kármán (Reynolds) number h+. It is shown that Cɛ and Cɛθ are approximately equal in the near-equilibrium region (viz., y+ = 100 to y/h = 0.7) where the production and dissipation rates of either the turbulent kinetic energy or scalar variance are approximately equal and the magnitudes of the diffusion terms are negligibly small. The magnitudes of Cɛ and Cɛθ are about 2 and 1 in the logarithmic and outer regions, respectively, when h+ is sufficiently large. The former value is about the same for the channel, pipe, and turbulent boundary layer, reflecting the similarity between the mean velocity and temperature distributions among these three canonical flows. The latter value is, on the other hand, about twice as large as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence due to the existence of the large-scale u structures in the channel. The behaviour of Cɛ and Cɛθ impacts on turbulence modeling. In particular, the similarity between Cɛ and Cɛθ leads to a simple relation for the scalar variance to turbulent kinetic energy time-scale ratio, an important ingredient in the eddy diffusivity model. This similarity also yields a relation between the Taylor and Corrsin microscales and analogous relations, in terms of h+, for the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and Corrsin microscale Peclet number. This dependence is reasonably well supported by both the DNS data at small to moderate h+ and the experimental data of Comte-Bellot [Ph. D. thesis (University of Grenoble, 1963)] at larger h+. It does not however apply to a turbulent boundary layer where the mean energy dissipation rate, normalized on either wall or outer variables, is about 30% larger than for the channel flow.

  6. Exploring elasticity and energy dissipation in mussel-inspired hydrogel transient networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindy, Scott; Learsch, Robert; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    Dynamic, reversible crosslinks have been shown to specifically control the mechanical properties of a wide variety of mechanically tough and resilient biomaterials. We have shown that reversible histidine-metal ion interactions, known to contribute to the strong mechanical properties and self-healing nature of mussel byssal threads, can be used to control and engineer the temporally-hierarchical mechanical properties of model hydrogels orthogonally from the spatial structure of the material. Here, we explore the scaling relationships in our model networks to further inform our abilities to control the relative elasticity and energy dissipation on hierarchical timescales. Scaling arguments suggest that the elasticity is dominated by long-range entanglements, while the dissipation is controlled by the exchange kinetics of the transient crosslinks. Further, we show that by using UV light, we can further control the viscoelastic properties of our mussel-inspired hydrogels in situ. This process opens the door for creating biocompatible hydrogel materials with arbitrary spatial control over their viscoelastic mechanical properties. Overall, we show that by understanding the interplay between bio-inspired dynamic crosslinks and soft matter physics allows us to rationally design high-strength hydrogels for specific states of dynamic loading.

  7. Do inertial wave interactions control the rate of energy dissipation of rotating turbulence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Campagne, Antoine; Machicoane, Nathanael; Gallet, Basile; Moisy, Frederic

    2015-11-01

    The scaling law of the energy dissipation rate, ɛ ~U3 / L (with U and L the characteristic velocity and lengthscale), is one of the most robust features of fully developed turbulence. How this scaling is affected by a background rotation is still a controversial issue with importance for geo and astrophysical flows. At asymptotically small Rossby numbers Ro = U / ΩL , i.e. in the weakly nonlinear limit, wave-turbulence arguments suggest that ɛ should be reduced by a factor Ro . Such scaling has however never been evidenced directly, neither experimentally nor numerically. We report here direct measurements of the injected power, and therefore of ɛ, in an experiment where a propeller is rotating at a constant rate in a large volume of fluid rotating at Ω. In co-rotation, we find a transition between the wave-turbulence scaling at small Ro and the classical Kolmogorov law at large Ro . The transition between these two regimes is characterized from experiments varying the propeller and tank dimensions. In counter-rotation, the scenario is much richer with the observation of an additional peak of dissipation, similar to the one found in Taylor-Couette experiments.

  8. Optimization of synthesis and peptization steps to obtain iron oxide nanoparticles with high energy dissipation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mérida, Fernando [Deparment of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9046, Mayagüez, PR 00680 (United States); Chiu-Lam, Andreina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 (United States); Bohórquez, Ana C. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States); Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 (United States); Pérez, María-Eglée; Pericchi, Luis [Department of Mathematics, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Deparment of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9046, Mayagüez, PR 00680 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) uses heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles exposed to alternating magnetic fields to cause a temperature increase in tumors to the hyperthermia range (43–47 °C), inducing apoptotic cancer cell death. As with all cancer nanomedicines, one of the most significant challenges with MFH is achieving high nanoparticle accumulation at the tumor site. This motivates development of synthesis strategies that maximize the rate of energy dissipation of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, preferable due to their intrinsic biocompatibility. This has led to development of synthesis strategies that, although attractive from the point of view of chemical elegance, may not be suitable for scale-up to quantities necessary for clinical use. On the other hand, to date the aqueous co-precipitation synthesis, which readily yields gram quantities of nanoparticles, has only been reported to yield sufficiently high specific absorption rates after laborious size selective fractionation. This work focuses on improvements to the aqueous co-precipitation of iron oxide nanoparticles to increase the specific absorption rate (SAR), by optimizing synthesis conditions and the subsequent peptization step. Heating efficiencies up to 1048 W/g{sub Fe} (36.5 kA/m, 341 kHz; ILP=2.3 nH m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}) were obtained, which represent one of the highest values reported for iron oxide particles synthesized by co-precipitation without size-selective fractionation. Furthermore, particles reached SAR values of up to 719 W/g{sub Fe} (36.5 kA/m, 341 kHz; ILP=1.6 nH m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}) when in a solid matrix, demonstrating they were capable of significant rates of energy dissipation even when restricted from physical rotation. Reduction in energy dissipation rate due to immobilization has been identified as an obstacle to clinical translation of MFH. Hence, particles obtained with the conditions reported here have great potential for application in nanoscale thermal

  9. Charge regulation and energy dissipation while compressing and sliding a cross-linked chitosan hydrogel layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Tyrode, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between a silica surface and a surface coated with a grafted cross-linked hydrogel made from chitosan/PAA multilayers are investigated, utilizing colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. Attractive double-layer forces are found to dominate the long-range interaction over a broad range...... of pH and ionic strength conditions. The deduced potential at the hydrogel/aqueous interface is found to be very low. This situation is maintained in the whole pH-range investigated, even though the degree of protonation of chitosan changes significantly. This demonstrates that pH-variations change......, but not the friction coefficient. This suggests that the main energy dissipation mechanism arises from processes occurring within the hydrogel layer, rather than at the silica/hydrogel interface, and we suggest that it is related to stretching of polymer chains between the cross-linking points. We also find...

  10. Turbulent energy dissipation rate in a tilting flume with a highly rough bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarella, F.; Servidio, S.; Ferraro, D.; Carbone, V.; Gaudio, R.

    2017-08-01

    Turbulent flows on highly rough beds, such as those occurring in natural watercourses, represent a longstanding and fascinating problem of hydraulics, motivating in the past few decades huge research on new models of turbulence. In this work, laboratory experiments are presented on a stream flowing on a heterogeneous pebble bed with varying slope. The analysis of the flow speed puts in evidence a clear inertial range, where the Kolmogorov 4/5-law for the streamwise velocity spatial increments holds. The law is used for a systematic estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate 𝜖 , here measured for three different bed slopes and hence for three different shear Reynolds numbers. The experiments presented here suggest that small scale turbulence has properties similar to the classical picture of homogeneous universal turbulence invoked by the Kolmogorov theory.

  11. Biomimetic staggered composites with highly enhanced energy dissipation: Modeling, 3D printing, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Heyne, Mary A.; To, Albert C.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the damping enhancement in a class of biomimetic staggered composites via a combination of design, modeling, and experiment. In total, three kinds of staggered composites are designed by mimicking the structure of bone and nacre. These composite designs are realized by 3D printing a rigid plastic and a viscous elastomer simultaneously. Greatly-enhanced energy dissipation in the designed composites is observed from both the experimental results and theoretical prediction. The designed polymer composites have loss modulus up to ~500 MPa, higher than most of the existing polymers. In addition, their specific loss modulus (up to 0.43 km2/s2) is among the highest of damping materials. The damping enhancement is attributed to the large shear deformation of the viscous soft matrix and the large strengthening effect from the rigid inclusion phase.

  12. Experimental basis for parameters contributing to energy dissipation in piping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, P.; Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews several pipe testing programs to suggest the phenomena causing energy dissipation in piping systems. Such phenomena include material damping, plasticity, collision in gaps and between pipes, water dynamics, insulation straining, coupling slippage, restraints (snubbers, struts, etc.), and pipe/structure interaction. These observations are supported by a large experimental data base. Data are available from in-situ and laboratory tests (pipe diameters up to about 20 inches, response levels from milli-g's to responses causing yielding, and from excitation wave forms including sinusoid, snapback, random, and seismic). A variety of pipe configurations have been tested, including simple, bare, straight sections and complex lines with bends, snubbers, struts, and insulation. Tests have been performed with and without water and at zero to operating pressure. Both light water reactor and LMFBR piping have been tested.

  13. Non-linear dynamics in biological microtubules: solitons and dissipation-free energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2017-08-01

    I review some recent developments concerning soliton solutions in biological microtubules and their significance in transferring energy without dissipation. I discuss various types of soliton solutions, as well as ‘spikes’, of the associated non-linear Lagrange equations describing the dynamics of a ‘pseudo-spin non-linear σ-model’ that models the dynamics of a microtubule system with dipole-dipole interactions. These results will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the functional properties of microtubules, including the motor protein dynamics and the information transfer processes. With regards to the latter we also speculate on the use of microtubules as ‘logical’ gates. Our considerations are classical, but the soliton solutions may have a microscopic quantum origin, which we briefly touch upon.

  14. Testing Procedures for High Output Fluid Viscous Dampers Used in Building and Bridge Structures to Dissipate Seismic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Taylor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's economic climate demands that conversion of military technology for commerical applications be a part of an aerospace and defense company's strategic planning. Toward this goal, a successful defense conversion has occurred recently with the application of high capacity fluid damping devices from the defense community for use as seismic energy dissipation elements in commercial buildings, bridges, and related structures. These products have been used by the military for many years for attenuation of weapons grade shock, typically applied to shipboard equipment or land based strategic weapons. Commercial energy dissipation devices historically have involved heavy yielding sections or hysteretic joints.

  15. Measurement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in the mesosphere by a 3 MHz Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Hocking, W. K.

    A new narrow beam Doppler radar operating at 3.17 MHz has been installed close to the Andøya Rocket Range in Andenes, Norway in summer 2002 in order to improve the ground based capabilities for measurements of turbulence in the mesosphere. The main feature of the radar is a Mills Cross transmitting/receiving antenna consisting of 29 crossed half-wave dipoles. In combination with the modular transceiver system this provides high flexibility in beam forming and pointing. In general, vertical and oblique beams with a minimum one way half-power full-beam width (HPFW) of 6.6° are used. The observations are usually performed with a height resolution of 1 km and with off-zenith beams at 7.3° directed towards NW, NE, SE, and SW. Turbulence intensities have been estimated from the width of the observed signal spectra using an computationally intensive correction method which requires precise knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern. The program uses real-time measurements of the wind field in all determinations. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on radar observations are presented and compared with corresponding climatological summer and winter profiles from rocket measurements, as well as with single profiles from model runs for selected periods from September 2003 to Summer 2004. The mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on these radar measurements are about 5 mW/kg at 60 km altitude and about 20 mW/kg at 80 km, in reasonable agreement with mean turbulence intensities obtained from previous rocket soundings at Andenes.

  16. Rapid contrasting of ultrathin sections using microwave irradiation with heat dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chavarría, F; Vargas-Montero, M

    2001-08-01

    The use of microwave irradiation (MWI) to accelerate fixation, dehydration and contrasting (staining) for electron microscopy has been applied to the development of rapid methods to process biological samples in electron microscopy. A simple explanation is that the reduced time in those procedures is due to heating. In this paper we propose a contrasting method for thin sections that avoids the thermal effects of MWI. Grids with thin sections of mouse kidney, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum, spermatophores of the fly Archicepsis diversiformis, the bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticum and Enterobacter cloacae were placed into Beem capsules and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, while immersed in an ice-water bath, and irradiated for periods ranging from 30 s to 2 min. After each contrasting procedure, the Beem capsule was filled with distilled water to wash the grids under MWI with the same irradiation time as used to contrast. Good results were obtained on irradiating for 1 min and the temperature of the Beem capsule was maintained around 5 degrees C.

  17. Reassessing the Plastic Hinge Model for Energy Dissipation of Axially Loaded Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Korol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy dissipation potential of axially loaded columns and evaluates the use of a plastic hinge model for analysis of hi-rise building column collapse under extreme loading conditions. The experimental program considered seven axially loaded H-shaped extruded aluminum structural section columns having slenderness ratios that would be typical of floor-to-ceiling heights in buildings. All seven test specimens initially experienced minor-axis overall buckling followed by formation of a plastic hinge at the mid-height region, leading to local buckling of the flanges on the compression side of the plastic hinge, and eventual folding of the compression flanges. The experimental energy absorption, based on load-displacement relations, was compared to the energy estimates based on section plastic moment resistance based on measured yield stress and based on measured hinge rotations. It was found that the theoretical plastic hinge model underestimates a column’s actual ability to absorb energy by a factor in the range of 3 to 4 below that obtained from tests. It was also noted that the realizable hinge rotation is less than 180°. The above observations are based, of course, on actual columns being able to sustain high tensile strains at hinge locations without fracturing.

  18. Rapid Energy Estimation for Hardware-Software Codesign Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor K. Prasanna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available By allowing parts of the applications to be executed either on soft processors (as software programs or on customized hardware peripherals attached to the processors, FPGAs have made traditional energy estimation techniques inefficient for evaluating various design tradeoffs. In this paper, we propose a high-level simulation-based two-step rapid energy estimation technique for hardware-software codesign using FPGAs. In the first step, a high-level hardware-software cosimulation technique is applied to simulate both the hardware and software components of the target application. High-level simulation results of both software programs running on the processors and the customized hardware peripherals are gathered during the cosimulation process. In the second step, the high-level simulation results of the customized hardware peripherals are used to estimate the switching activities of their corresponding register-transfer/gate level (“low-level” implementations. We use this information to employ an instruction-level energy estimation technique and a domain-specific energy performance modeling technique to estimate the energy dissipation of the complete application. A Matlab/Simulink-based implementation of our approach and two numerical computation applications show that the proposed energy estimation technique can achieve more than 6000x speedup over low-level simulation-based techniques while sacrificing less than 10% estimation accuracy. Compared with the measured results, our experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves an average estimation error of less than 12%.

  19. Energy and centrality dependence of rapidity densities at RHIC energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X N; Gyulassy, M

    2001-04-16

    The energy and centrality dependence of the charged multiplicity per participant nucleon is shown to be able to differentiate between final state saturation and fixed scale perturbative QCD models of initial entropy production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The energy dependence is shown to test the nuclear enhancement of the minijet component of the initial conditions, while the centrality dependence provides a key test of whether gluon saturation is reached at RHIC energies. The HIJING model predicts that the rapidity density per participant increases with centrality, while the saturation model prediction is essentially independent of centrality.

  20. Energy Conservation in Dissipative Processes: Teacher Expectations and Strategies Associated with Imperceptible Thermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in…

  1. Relaxation dynamics in quantum dissipative systems: The microscopic effect of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: jean.c.tremblay@gmail.com [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-21

    We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It

  2. Carbon nanotubes within polymer matrix can synergistically enhance mechanical energy dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Taimoor; Ranaiefar, Meelad; Khatri, Sumit; Kavosi, Jamshid; Gardea, Frank; Glaz, Bryan; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2018-03-16

    Safe operation and health of structures relies on their ability to effectively dissipate undesired vibrations, which could otherwise significantly reduce the life-time of a structure due to fatigue loads or large deformations. To address this issue, nanoscale fillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been utilized to dissipate mechanical energy in polymer-based nanocomposites through filler-matrix interfacial friction by benefitting from their large interface area with the matrix. In this manuscript, for the first time, we experimentally investigate the effect of CNT alignment with respect to reach other and their orientation with respect to the loading direction on vibrational damping in nanocomposites. The matrix was polystyrene (PS). A new technique was developed to fabricate PS-CNT nanocomposites which allows for controlling the angle of CNTs with respect to the far-field loading direction (misalignment angle). Samples were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis, and the damping of the samples were measured as the ratio of the loss to storage moduli versus CNT misalignment angle. Our results defied a notion that randomly oriented CNT nanocomposites can be approximated as a combination of matrix-CNT representative volume elements with randomly aligned CNTs. Instead, our results points to major contributions of stress concentration induced by each CNT in the matrix in proximity of other CNTs on vibrational damping. The stress fields around CNTs in PS-CNT nanocomposites were studied via finite element analysis. Our findings provide significant new insights not only on vibrational damping nanocomposites, but also on their failure modes and toughness, in relation to interface phenomena.

  3. Improved analysis and visualization of friction loop data: unraveling the energy dissipation of meso-scale stick–slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorian, Jaap; Merlijn van Spengen, W.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a new method for analyzing and visualizing friction force measurements of meso-scale stick–slip motion, and introduce a method for extracting two separate dissipative energy components. Using a microelectromechanical system tribometer, we execute 2 million reciprocating sliding cycles, during which we measure the static friction force with a resolution of \

  4. Improved analysis and visualization of friction loop data : unraveling the energy dissipation of meso-scale stick–slip motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokorian, J.; van Spengen, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a new method for analyzing and visualizing friction force measurements of meso-scale stick–slip motion, and introduce a method for extracting two separate dissipative energy components. Using a microelectromechanical system tribometer, we execute 2 million reciprocating

  5. Superconducting energy scales and anomalous dissipative conductivity in thin films of molybdenum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmendinger, Julian; Pracht, Uwe S.; Daschke, Lena; Proslier, Thomas; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-08-01

    We report investigations of molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films with different thickness and disorder and with superconducting transition temperature 9.89K >= T-c >= 2.78 K. Using terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy we explore the normal and superconducting charge carrier dynamics for frequencies covering the range from 3 to 38 cm(-1) (0.1 to 1.1 THz). The superconducting energy scales, i.e., the critical temperature T-c, the pairing energy Delta, and the superfluid stiffness J, and the superfluid density n(s) can be well described within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for conventional superconductors. At the same time, we find an anomalously large dissipative conductivity, which cannot be explained by thermally excited quasiparticles, but rather by a temperature-dependent normal-conducting fraction, persisting deep into the superconducting state. Our results on this disordered system constrain the regime, where discernible effects stemming from the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition possibly become relevant, to MoN films with a transition temperature lower than at least 2.78 K.

  6. Superconducting qubit in a nonstationary transmission line cavity: Parametric excitation, periodic pumping, and energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, A.A. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapiro, D.S., E-mail: shapiro.dima@gmail.com [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Remizov, S.V. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pogosov, W.V. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lozovik, Yu.E. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Moscow Region, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-12

    We consider a superconducting qubit coupled to the nonstationary transmission line cavity with modulated frequency taking into account energy dissipation. Previously, it was demonstrated that in the case of a single nonadiabatical modulation of a cavity frequency there are two channels of a two-level system excitation which are due to the absorption of Casimir photons and due to the counterrotating wave processes responsible for the dynamical Lamb effect. We show that the parametric periodical modulation of the resonator frequency can increase dramatically the excitation probability. Remarkably, counterrotating wave processes under such a modulation start to play an important role even in the resonant regime. Our predictions can be used to control qubit-resonator quantum states as well as to study experimentally different channels of a parametric qubit excitation. - Highlights: • Coupled qubit-resonator system under the modulation of a resonator frequency is considered. • Counterrotating terms of the Hamiltonian are of importance even in the resonance. • Qubit excited state population is highest if driving frequency matches dressed-state energy.

  7. Thermodynamics of a tropical cyclone: generation and dissipation of mechanical energy in a self-driven convection system

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi Ozawa; Shinya Shimokawa

    2015-01-01

    The formation process of circulatory motion of a tropical cyclone is investigated from a thermodynamic viewpoint. The generation rate of mechanical energy by a fluid motion under diabatic heating and cooling, and the dissipation rate of this energy due to irreversible processes are formulated from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This formulation is applied to a tropical cyclone, and the formation process of the circulatory motion is examined from a balance between the generation ...

  8. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  9. Resolution and Energy Dissipation Characteristics of Implicit LES and Explicit Filtering Models for Compressible Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romit Maulik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Solving two-dimensional compressible turbulence problems up to a resolution of 16, 384^2, this paper investigates the characteristics of two promising computational approaches: (i an implicit or numerical large eddy simulation (ILES framework using an upwind-biased fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO reconstruction algorithm equipped with several Riemann solvers, and (ii a central sixth-order reconstruction framework combined with various linear and nonlinear explicit low-pass spatial filtering processes. Our primary aim is to quantify the dissipative behavior, resolution characteristics, shock capturing ability and computational expenditure for each approach utilizing a systematic analysis with respect to its modeling parameters or parameterizations. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are addressed for solving a stratified Kelvin-Helmholtz instability shear layer problem as well as a canonical Riemann problem with the interaction of four shocks. The comparisons are both qualitative and quantitative, using visualizations of the spatial structure of the flow and energy spectra, respectively. We observe that the central scheme, with relaxation filtering, offers a competitive approach to ILES and is much more computationally efficient than WENO-based schemes.

  10. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.

    2017-11-01

    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  11. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M., E-mail: zenkour@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516 (Egypt); Abbas, Ibrahim A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts-Khulais, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green–Naghdi's (G–N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. - Highlights: • The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of a FG cylinder is studied. • A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. • The results are investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. • It provides interesting information for all researchers working on this subject.

  12. Energy decay for wave equations of phi-Laplacian type with weakly nonlinear dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Guesmia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first we prove the existence of global solutions in Sobolev spaces for the initial boundary value problem of the wave equation of $phi$-Laplacian with a general dissipation of the form $$ (|u'|^{l-2}u''-Delta_{phi}u+sigma(t g(u'=0 quadext{in } Omegaimes mathbb{R}_+ , $$ where $Delta_{phi}=sum_{i=1}^n partial_{x_i}igl(phi (|partial_{x_i}|^2partial_{x_i}igr$. Then we prove general stability estimates using multiplier method and general weighted integral inequalities proved by the second author in [18]. Without imposing any growth condition at the origin on $g$ and $phi$, we show that the energy of the system is bounded above by a quantity, depending on $phi$, $sigma$ and $g$, which tends to zero (as time approaches infinity. These estimates allows us to consider large class of functions $g$ and $phi$ with general growth at the origin. We give some examples to illustrate how to derive from our general estimates the polynomial, exponential or logarithmic decay. The results of this paper improve and generalize many existing results in the literature, and generate some interesting open problems.

  13. Discovery of intramolecular signal transduction network based on a new protein dynamics model of energy dissipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Ma

    Full Text Available A novel approach to reveal intramolecular signal transduction network is proposed in this work. To this end, a new algorithm of network construction is developed, which is based on a new protein dynamics model of energy dissipation. A key feature of this approach is that direction information is specified after inferring protein residue-residue interaction network involved in the process of signal transduction. This enables fundamental analysis of the regulation hierarchy and identification of regulation hubs of the signaling network. A well-studied allosteric enzyme, E. coli aspartokinase III, is used as a model system to demonstrate the new method. Comparison with experimental results shows that the new approach is able to predict all the sites that have been experimentally proved to desensitize allosteric regulation of the enzyme. In addition, the signal transduction network shows a clear preference for specific structural regions, secondary structural types and residue conservation. Occurrence of super-hubs in the network indicates that allosteric regulation tends to gather residues with high connection ability to collectively facilitate the signaling process. Furthermore, a new parameter of propagation coefficient is defined to determine the propagation capability of residues within a signal transduction network. In conclusion, the new approach is useful for fundamental understanding of the process of intramolecular signal transduction and thus has significant impact on rational design of novel allosteric proteins.

  14. Molecular engineering of fracture energy dissipating sacrificial bonds into cellulose nanocrystal nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Jason R; Huokuna, Johannes; Martikainen, Lahja; Karesoja, Mikko; Nykänen, Antti; Kontturi, Eero; Tenhu, Heikki; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli

    2014-05-12

    Even though nanocomposites have provided a plethora of routes to increase stiffness and strength, achieving increased toughness with suppressed catastrophic crack growth has remained more challenging. Inspired by the concepts of mechanically excellent natural nanomaterials, one-component nanocomposites were fabricated involving reinforcing colloidal nanorod cores with polymeric grafts containing supramolecular binding units. The concept is based on mechanically strong native cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) grafted with glassy polymethacrylate polymers, with side chains that contain 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidone (UPy) pendant groups. The interdigitation of the grafts and the ensuing UPy hydrogen bonds bind the nanocomposite network together. Under stress, UPy groups act as sacrificial bonds: simultaneously providing adhesion between the CNCs while allowing them to first orient and then gradually slide past each other, thus dissipating fracture energy. We propose that this architecture involving supramolecular binding units within side chains of polymer grafts attached to colloidal reinforcements opens generic approaches for tough nanocomposites. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Shear Induced Reaction Localizations and Mechanisms of Energy Dissipation in PBX Subjected to Strong Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksin, Igor

    2007-06-01

    Paper addresses two emerging topics: how reaction initiation arises when PBX is subjected to shock and how detonation wave becomes oscillating. We apply the 96-channel optical analyzer for simultaneous measurements of radiation from the reaction spots surface and stress field caused by shock or detonation reaction zone in multi-layer optical monitor. This metrology allows meso-scale probing of the 3-D structure of shock- or detonation- reaction-zone as well as revealing mechanisms of its formation at different initiation scenarios. The dominant role of the shear driven plastic deformation in initiation scenario is disclosed in all tested PBX-s (including simulants of PBXN-110, PBAN-128, PBXN-109, 111, 121 and B-2208), in wide range of PBX sample sizes: from 1 mm^3 (single crystal within the binder) up to few cm^3. This research is complementing a separate, longer running, theoretical effort by Dr. Steve Coffey that examines the solid state--quantum physics responsible for initiation of explosive crystals subjected to shock or impact. Finally, this represents a novel research effort to relate plastic deformation, energy dissipation and localization in crystals to shear and shear deformation. The accompanying experimental results strongly support Coffey's theoretical prediction that initiation is due to shear driven plastic deformation and is not due solely to uniform shock pressure. Finally, we will present and discuss the recently revealed phenomenon of the thermal precursor origination caused by the reaction front radiation. The role of this earlier unknown energy localization mechanism, at Shock-to-Detonation transition in PBX, will be shown as a function of HMX particle sizes and the PBX porosity.

  16. Assessment of Left Ventricular Dissipative Energy Loss by Vector Flow Mapping in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yue; Liu, Yanting; Wu, Ting; Song, Huizi; Chen, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Yuyan; Zhang, Wen; Bai, Wenjuan; Tang, Hong; Rao, Li

    2016-05-01

    Dissipative energy loss derived from vector flow mapping represents the viscous dissipation of turbulent blood flow. We aimed to determine the left ventricular (LV) energy loss in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with ESRD and a preserved LV ejection fraction, who consisted of a group receiving peritoneal dialysis, a group receiving hemodialysis, and a group receiving preparation for dialysis initiation, were examined by echocardiography; a group of healthy control participants were examined as well. Vector flow mapping analysis was then performed from the apical 4-chamber view to calculate the energy loss during diastole and systole in the left ventricle. Conventional transthoracic echocardiography and LV energy loss calculations were successfully performed in 63 cases and 50 controls. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher diastolic energy loss [median (interquartile range), 71.73 (46.08-106.75) versus 23.32 (17.17-29.26) mW/m; P energy loss [25.28 (19.03-33.93) versus 12.52 (9.35-16.47) mW/m; P energy loss between the peritoneal dialysis and preparation groups was found [54.92 (39.28-89.94) versus 84.82 (62.58-171.4) mW/m; P = .04]. In patients with ESRD, the log-transformed diastolic energy loss had a significant association with the peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (P = .011), peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity-to-peak early diastolic mitral annular flow velocity ratio (P = .001), LV mass index (P = .017), and heart rate (P = .003). Impaired blood flow efficiency was detected in patients with ESRD by using dissipative energy loss derived from vector flow mapping. The energy loss value could be a novel parameter for evaluating the ventricular workload of uremic hearts in terms of fluid mechanics. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Thermodynamics of a tropical cyclone: generation and dissipation of mechanical energy in a self-driven convection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Ozawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation process of circulatory motion of a tropical cyclone is investigated from a thermodynamic viewpoint. The generation rate of mechanical energy by a fluid motion under diabatic heating and cooling, and the dissipation rate of this energy due to irreversible processes are formulated from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This formulation is applied to a tropical cyclone, and the formation process of the circulatory motion is examined from a balance between the generation and dissipation rates of mechanical energy in the fluid system. We find from this formulation and data analysis that the thermodynamic efficiency of tropical cyclones is about 40% lower than the Carnot maximum efficiency because of the presence of thermal dissipation due to irreversible transport of sensible and latent heat in the atmosphere. We show that a tropical cyclone tends to develop within a few days through a feedback supply of mechanical energy when the sea surface temperature is higher than 300 K, and when the horizontal scale of circulation becomes larger than the vertical height of the troposphere. This result is consistent with the critical radius of 50 km and the corresponding central pressure of about 995 hPa found in statistical properties of typhoons observed in the western North Pacific.

  18. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in the polar mesosphere measured by a 3-MHz-Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Hocking, W. K.

    2005-08-01

    Turbulence produces changes in the spectral width of a backscattered radar signal which can be used to deduce turbulent energy dissipation rates at the region of the scatter. Since the radar signal spectrum is also influenced by the background wind field causing broadening effects of the spectrum, a system with a relative small beam width as well as corresponding methods to correct for the non-turbulent broadening of the spectrum are necessary for the estimation of reliable energy dissipation rates. The new narrow beam MF radar at Saura on Andøya island in northern Norway has got a Mills-Cross antenna with a minimum beam width of θ = 6.6° (Half-Power-Full-Width, one way) and a modular transceiver system which provides high flexibility in beam pointing as well as beam forming. An correction method for non-turbulent spectral broadening effects has been implemented for the estimation of turbulence intensities from the width of the observed signal spectra. The method requires the precise knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern and real-time measurements of the wind field. The critical steps of the estimation of the turbulent part of the signal spectrum are discussed. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates based on the spectral width method are obtained with the Saura MF radar since September 2003. The radar results are compared with corresponding data from rocket measurements at Andenes under summer and winter conditions, as well as with the results from the Kühlungsborn Mechanistic Circulation Model (KMCM). The mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates basing on these radar measurements are about 5 mW/kg at 60 km altitude and about 20 mW/kg at 80 km, in reasonable agreement with mean turbulence intensities obtained from previous rocket soundings at Andenes.

  19. Energy Dissipation of Rayleigh Waves due to Absorption Along the Path by the Use of Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-31

    the reader is referred to Anderson, et al (5) and Tryggvason (115). The effect of geometrical discontinuities on the propagation of Rayleigh waves have...two bound- aries are the common boundaries between the heterogeneous medium and two semiinfinite horizontal layered media extending to left and right...Tolstoy, I. Wave Propagation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. 115. Tryggvason , E. E. "Dissipation of Rayleigh Wave Energy." Jour. Geophys. Res. 70

  20. A comparative analysis of energy dissipation and equivalent viscous damping of RC columns subjected to uniaxial and biaxial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Rodrigues; Humberto Varum; Antonio Arede; Anibal Costa

    2012-01-01

    The hysteretic behaviour of RC columns has been object of many experimental studies over the past years. However, the majority of these studies are focused on unidirectional loading. An experimental program was carried out where 24 columns were tested for different loading histories, under uniaxial and biaxial conditions. The experimental results are presented in this paper and are discussed in terms of global column behaviour, and particularly with regards to energy dissipation and damping c...

  1. THE EXTREMELY HIGH PEAK ENERGY OF GRB 110721A IN THE CONTEXT OF A DISSIPATIVE PHOTOSPHERE SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, Peter; Zhang Binbin; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: veresp@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The Fermi observations of GRB 110721A have revealed an unusually high peak energy {approx}15 MeV in the first time bin of the prompt emission. We find that an interpretation is unlikely in terms of internal shock models, and confirm that a standard blackbody photospheric model also falls short. On the other hand, we show that dissipative photospheric synchrotron models ranging from extreme magnetically dominated to baryon dominated dynamics are able to accommodate such high peak values.

  2. Novel approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate from low- and moderate-resolution velocity fluctuation time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacławczyk, Marta; Ma, Yong-Feng; Kopeć, Jacek M.; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we propose two approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate, based on the zero-crossing method by Sreenivasan et al. (1983). The original formulation requires a fine resolution of the measured signal, down to the smallest dissipative scales. However, due to finite sampling frequency, as well as measurement errors, velocity time series obtained from airborne experiments are characterized by the presence of effective spectral cutoffs. In contrast to the original formulation the new approaches are suitable for use with signals originating from airborne experiments. The suitability of the new approaches is tested using measurement data obtained during the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST) airborne research campaign as well as synthetic turbulence data. They appear useful and complementary to existing methods. We show the number-of-crossings-based approaches respond differently to errors due to finite sampling and finite averaging than the classical power spectral method. Hence, their application for the case of short signals and small sampling frequencies is particularly interesting, as it can increase the robustness of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate retrieval.

  3. Novel approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate from low- and moderate-resolution velocity fluctuation time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wacławczyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose two approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE dissipation rate, based on the zero-crossing method by Sreenivasan et al. (1983. The original formulation requires a fine resolution of the measured signal, down to the smallest dissipative scales. However, due to finite sampling frequency, as well as measurement errors, velocity time series obtained from airborne experiments are characterized by the presence of effective spectral cutoffs. In contrast to the original formulation the new approaches are suitable for use with signals originating from airborne experiments. The suitability of the new approaches is tested using measurement data obtained during the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST airborne research campaign as well as synthetic turbulence data. They appear useful and complementary to existing methods. We show the number-of-crossings-based approaches respond differently to errors due to finite sampling and finite averaging than the classical power spectral method. Hence, their application for the case of short signals and small sampling frequencies is particularly interesting, as it can increase the robustness of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate retrieval.

  4. Exploring Interannual Sandbar Behavior Along a High-Energy Dissipative Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) in the Pacific Northwest is a modally dissipative coastline characterized by fine-grained sediment and high wave energy. Storms of magnitude are frequent in this region, with significant wave heights exceeding 10 m approximately once per year. Sandbars in the CRLC have been observed to follow the interannual pattern of net offshore migration (NOM) that has been observed at several other locations, with bars typically forming close to shore, migrating seaward, and ultimately degenerating offshore. Including playing a major role in local sand budgets, sandbars also influence circulation patterns and storm impact to the coast. Despite the importance of these geomorphic features to coastal environments much is still unknown concerning the dominant mechanics that drive interannual sandbar behavior. A recent, three-year model hindcast of bar evolution off the coast of the Netherlands (Noordwijk) indicated that bar response is most heavily influenced by two factors: the directionality of waves relative to the coastline and the depth of the bar crest below the water surface (D.J.R. Walstra, A.J.H.M. Reniers, R. Ranasinghe, J.A. Roelcink, and B.G. Ruessink, Coast Eng. 47:190-200, 2012). While other factors such as wave height, wave period, and tidal elevation were recognized as influencing bar morphology, overall they were determined to play a subordinate role in bar behavior. In order to test whether the conclusions from the Noordwijk study are generally valid, the same model (Unibest-TC) and approach will be applied to bathymetric data from the CRLC. Because the CRLC and Noordwijk have widely different physical characteristics (e.g., wave climate, sediment supply, beach slope, tidal range) the CRLC provides a sharply different environment for which to investigate interannual bar behavior. Annual nearshore bathymetric surveys in the CRLC have been completed for over a decade using personal watercraft outfitted with the Coastal

  5. Ultra low-power straintronics with multiferroic nanomagnets: magnetization dynamics, universal logic gates and associated energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Fashami, Mohammad; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-02-01

    Stress induced magnetization dynamics of dipole coupled multiferroic nanomagnet arrays is modeled by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. We show that in such multiferroic nanomagnets, consisting of magnetostrictive layers elastically coupled to piezoelectric layers, the single domain magnetization can be rotated by a large angle (˜ 90^o) in ˜ 1 ns if a tiny voltage of a few tens of millivolts is applied across the piezoelectric layer [Nanotechnology, 22, 155201, 2011, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 063108, 2011]. Arrays of such multiferroic nanomagnets can be laid out in specific geometric patterns to implement combinational and sequential logic circuits by exploiting inter-magnet dipole coupling and Bennett clocked with specific stress cycles to propagate logic bits and implement dynamic logic. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate logic propagation in and fan-out characteristics of a universal NAND gate and discuss energy dissipation in the magnet and in the external clock. We show that this energy dissipation can be 3 orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than current CMOS technology for a reasonable clock speed of 1 GHz. This work is supported by the NSF under grant ECCS-1124714.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kondaraju, Sasidhar [Department of Mechanical Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013 (India); Lee, Jung Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H. [Samsung Electronics, Mechatronics R& D Center, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sang, E-mail: joonlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Contact line forces, including friction and spreading forces are directly calculated. • Overall trends of variations in contact line forces during droplet spreading process show characteristics of contact line forces. • Detail relations of contact line forces and atomic kinetics in the contact line provide a clear evidence of the possible energy dissipation mechanism in droplet spreading process. - Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  7. Comparative study of passive and semi-active energy dissipation devices intended for overhead cranes; Etude comparative de dispositifs de dissipation d`energie passif et semi-actif destines aux ponts roulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Revaud, D.

    1996-04-01

    This paper deals with the results of a bibliographic survey of energy dissipation devices which could be adapted for overhead cranes. The principle of passive devices using friction, yielding steel systems of viscous and viscoelastic systems are remembered. An active control system, which needs a minimum of external control energy is also presented. The application to overhead cranes which have a strong non linear behaviour under strong seismic motion (sliding between rails and wheels, local yielding and damage) is further discussed. The first results of a numerical study in progress are likewise purposed. The criterion of selection of the devices turn on the performance, the robustness and the reliability. The behaviour in the presence of non linearities, the sensitivity to the variations of the vibratory characteristics, and lastly the sensitivity to the response delay of the active controller are taken into account. (authors). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Experimental estimation of the heat energy dissipated in a volume surrounding the tip of a fatigue crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meneghetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack initiation and propagation involve plastic strains that require some work to be done on the material. Most of this irreversible energy is dissipated as heat and consequently the material temperature increases. The heat being an indicator of the intense plastic strains occurring at the tip of a propagating fatigue crack, when combined with the Neuber’s structural volume concept, it might be used as an experimentally measurable parameter to assess the fatigue damage accumulation rate of cracked components. On the basis of a theoretical model published previously, in this work the heat energy dissipated in a volume surrounding the crack tip is estimated experimentally on the basis of the radial temperature profiles measured by means of an infrared camera. The definition of the structural volume in a fatigue sense is beyond the scope of the present paper. The experimental crack propagation tests were carried out on hot-rolled, 6-mm-thick AISI 304L stainless steel specimens subject to completely reversed axial fatigue loading.

  9. Magnetization dynamics of single-domain nanodots and minimum energy dissipation during either irreversible or reversible switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madami, Marco; Gubbiotti, Gianluca; Tacchi, Silvia; Carlotti, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Single- or multi-layered planar magnetic dots, with lateral dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers, are used as elemental switches in current and forthcoming devices for information and communication technology (ICT), including magnetic memories, spin-torque oscillators and nano-magnetic logic gates. In this review article, we will first discuss energy dissipation during irreversible switching protocols of dots of different dimensions, ranging from a few tens of nanometers to the micrometric range. Then we will focus on the fundamental energy limits of adiabatic (slow) erasure and reversal of a magnetic nanodot, showing that dissipationless operation is achievable, provided that both dynamic reversibility (arbitrarily slow application of external fields) and entropic reversibility (no free entropy increase) are insured. However, recent theoretical and experimental tests of magnetic-dot erasure reveal that intrinsic defects related to materials imperfections such as roughness or polycrystallinity, may cause an excess of dissipation if compared to the minimum theoretical limit. We will conclude providing an outlook on the most promising strategies to achieve a new generation of power-saving nanomagnetic logic devices based on clusters of interacting dots and on straintronics.

  10. Rapid prototyping of energy management charging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulavu, Oana [Hella Electronics Romania, Timisoara (Romania); Starkmuth, Timo; Jesolowitz, Reinhard [Hella KGaA Hueck und Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to develop charging strategies to support a vehicle energy management aiming for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and decreased fuel consumption by using the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environment. (orig.)

  11. The effect of the polymer relaxation time on the nonlinear energy cas- cade and dissipation of statistically steady and decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Pedro C.; da Silva, Carlos B.; Pinho, Fernando T.

    2013-11-01

    We report a numerical study of statistically steady and decaying turbulence of FENE-P fluids for varying polymer relaxation times ranging from the Kolmogorov dissipation time-scale to the eddy turnover time. The total turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is shown to increase with the polymer relaxation time in both steady and decaying turbulence, implying a ``drag increase.'' If the total power input in the statistically steady case is kept equal in the Newtonian and the viscoelastic simulations the increase in the turbulence-polymer energy transfer naturally lead to the previously reported depletion of the Newtonian, but not the overall, kinetic energy dissipation. The modifications to the nonlinear energy cascade with varying Deborah/Weissenberg numbers are quantified and their origins investigated. The authors acknowledge the financial support from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia under grant PTDC/EME-MFE/113589/2009.

  12. Wave induced coastal cliff top ground motions and infragravity wave dissipation under high energy wave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; le Dantec, N.; Young, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal cliff erosion is a widespread problem that threatens property and infrastructure globally. The prediction of this risk calls for robust understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in causing coastal cliff failure. Over the last decade, a number of geomorphological studies have highlighted the importance of the relationship between the offshore wave climate and cliff-toe water levels, and the resultant coastal response in terms of cliff-top ground motion and erosion. Field-based studies of instantaneous cliff response to direct wave impact have shown that wave-induced loading of the foreshore leads to cliff-top ground motions that may have the potential to weaken the integrity of the rocks and prepare them for failure. In order to understand wave-cliff interaction and how beach morphodynamics influences cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion, two field experiments were carried out simultaneously at two locations in Northern Brittany (France). This three-month long winter field campaign (Jan-Mar 2016) included, for the first time, a comparison of cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion at sites fronted by different beach morphologies (reflective/dissipative), along with monitoring of hydrodynamic forcing and beach topography. The magnitude of cliff-top displacements at both sites were dependent on tidal stage and free water surface elevation at the cliff toe, with the greatest contributions of cliff-top ground motions found at infragravity frequencies (0.05-0.005 Hz). Vertical displacements at infragravity and incident sea-swell (0.1-0.5 Hz) frequencies were greater at the dissipative site, apart from during spring high tide and energetic wave conditions, where displacements were two times that at the reflective site. Combining these wave-cliff interaction data with beach morphology and nearshore bathymetry will be key to understanding the spatial variability in cliff erosion under a variety of environmental settings and forcing conditions.

  13. A Technique for Mapping Characteristic Lengths to Preserve Energy Dissipated via Strain Softening in a Multiscale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often advantageous to account for the microstructure of the material directly using multiscale modeling. For computational tractability, an idealized repeating unit cell (RUC) is used to capture all of the pertinent features of the microstructure. Typically, the RUC is dimensionless and depends only on the relative volume fractions of the different phases in the material. This works well for non-linear and inelastic behavior exhibiting a positive-definite constitutive response. Although, once the material exhibits strain softening, or localization, a mesh objective failure theories, such as smeared fracture theories, nodal and element enrichment theories (XFEM), cohesive elements or virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), can be utilized at the microscale, but the dimensions of the RUC must then be defined. One major challenge in multiscale progressive damage modeling is relating the characteristic lengths across the scales in order to preserve the energy that is dissipated via localization at the microscale. If there is no effort to relate the size of the macroscale element to the microscale RUC, then the energy that is dissipated will remain mesh dependent at the macroscale, even if it is regularized at the microscale. Here, a technique for mapping characteristic lengths across the scales is proposed. The RUC will be modeled using the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, and local failure in the matrix constituent subcells will be modeled using the crack band theory. The subcell characteristic lengths used in the crack band calculations will be mapped to the macroscale finite element in order to regularize the local energy in a manner consistent with the global length scale. Examples will be provided with and without the regularization, and they will be compared to a baseline case where the size and shape of the element and RUC are coincident (ensuring energy is preserved across the scales).

  14. Refined energy-conserving dissipative particle dynamics model with temperature-dependent properties and its application in solidification problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K. C.; Sheu, T. W. H.

    2017-10-01

    It has been observed previously that the physical behaviors of Schmidt number (Sc) and Prandtl number (Pr) of an energy-conserving dissipative particle dynamics (eDPD) fluid can be reproduced by the temperature-dependent weight function appearing in the dissipative force term. In this paper, we proposed a simple and systematic method to develop the temperature-dependent weight function in order to better reproduce the physical fluid properties. The method was then used to study a variety of phase-change problems involving solidification. The concept of the "mushy" eDPD particle was introduced in order to better capture the temperature profile in the vicinity of the solid-liquid interface, particularly for the case involving high thermal conductivity ratio. Meanwhile, a way to implement the constant temperature boundary condition at the wall was presented. The numerical solutions of one- and two-dimensional solidification problems were then compared with the analytical solutions and/or experimental results and the agreements were promising.

  15. An energy dissipation and cross shear time dependent computational wear model for the analysis of polyethylene wear in total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sean T; Bohm, Eric R; Petrak, Martin J; Wyss, Urs P; Brandt, Jan-M

    2014-03-21

    The cost and time efficiency of computational polyethylene wear simulations may enable the optimization of total knee replacements for the reduction of polyethylene wear. The present study proposes an energy dissipation wear model for polyethylene which considers the time dependent molecular behavior of polyethylene, aspects of tractive rolling and contact pressure. This time dependent - energy dissipation wear model was evaluated, along with several other wear models, by comparison to pin-on-disk results, knee simulator wear test results under various kinematic conditions and knee simulator wear test results that were performed following the ISO 14243-3 standard. The proposed time dependent - energy dissipation wear model resulted in improved accuracy for the prediction of pin-on-disk and knee simulator wear test results compared with several previously published wear models. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  17. Reflection and transmission of thermo-elastic waves without energy dissipation at the interface of two dipolar gradient elastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueqiu; Wei, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    The reflection and transmission of thermal elastic waves at the interface between two different dipolar gradient elastic solids are studied based on the generalized thermo-elastic theory of Green and Naghdi [(1993). J. Elasticity 31, 189-208] (type II of no energy dissipation). First, some thermodynamic formulas are generalized to a dipolar gradient elastic solid and the function of free energy density is postulated. Second, equations of thermal motion and constitutive relations in a dipolar gradient elasticity are derived. Then the nontraditional interfacial conditions are used to determine the amplitude ratio of the reflection and transmission waves with respect to the incident wave. Some numerical results of the reflection and transmission coefficients in the form of an energy flux ratio are given for different microstructure parameters while thermal parameters are fixed. The numerical results are validated by the consideration of energy conservation. It is found that there are a total of five modes of dispersive waves, namely, coupled MT1 wave, coupled MT2 wave, coupled MT3 wave, SV wave, and one evanescent wave which reduces to the surface waves at an interface, namely, SS wave. The thermal parameters mainly affect the coupled MT2 wave while the microstructure parameters affect not only the coupled waves but also the SS surface waves.

  18. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  19. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  20. Utilization of Double-Water-Chamber Seawall type for Wave Energy Extraction and Wave Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Firman

    2016-01-01

    Variation type and model of wave energy converter have been applied in many countries around the world in order to harvest the ocean wave power. A number of other devices were developing and testing by researchers in the experimental scale. In the present paper investigates double-water-chamber seawall performance for wave energy converter. The main body of water chamber seawall is like OWC structure. Savonius water turbine and guide vanes used to extract a wave power instead of air turbine a...

  1. Differentiation in light energy dissipation between hemiepiphytic and non-hemiepiphytic Ficus species with contrasting xylem hydraulic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guang-You; Wang, Ai-Ying; Liu, Zhi-Hui; Franco, Augusto C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2011-06-01

    Hemiepiphytic Ficus species (Hs) possess traits of more conservative water use compared with non-hemiepiphytic Ficus species (NHs) even during their terrestrial growth phase, which may result in significant differences in photosynthetic light use between these two growth forms. Stem hydraulic conductivity, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were compared in adult trees of five Hs and five NHs grown in a common garden. Hs had significantly lower stem hydraulic conductivity, lower stomatal conductance and higher water use efficiency than NHs. Photorespiration played an important role in avoiding photoinhibition at high irradiance in both Hs and NHs. Under saturating irradiance levels, Hs tended to dissipate a higher proportion of excessive light energy through thermal processes than NHs, while NHs dissipated a larger proportion of electron flow than Hs through the alternative electron sinks. No significant difference in maximum net CO2 assimilation rate was found between Hs and NHs. Stem xylem hydraulic conductivity was positively correlated with maximum electron transport rate and negatively correlated with the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching across the 10 studied Ficus species. These findings indicate that a canopy growth habit during early life stages in Hs of Ficus resulted in substantial adaptive differences from congeneric NHs not only in water relations but also in photosynthetic light use and carbon economy. The evolution of epiphytic growth habit, even for only part of their life cycle, involved profound changes in a suite of inter-correlated ecophysiological traits that persist to a large extent even during the later terrestrial growth phase.

  2. Photosynthesis impairments and excitation energy dissipation on wheat plants supplied with silicon and infected with Pyricularia oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucique-Pérez, Carlos Eduardo; de Menezes Silva, Paulo Eduardo; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2017-12-01

    Considering the effect of silicon (Si) in reducing the blast symptoms on wheat in a scenario where the losses in the photosynthetic capacity of the infected plants is lowered, this study investigated the ability of using the incident light, the chloroplastidic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) alterations and the possible role of carotenoids on the process of light dissipation on wheat plants non-supplied (-Si) or supplied (+Si) with Si and inoculated or not with Pyricularia oryzae. For + Si plants, blast severity was reduced compared to -Si plants. Reductions in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll, violanxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lutein) were greater for inoculated -Si plants than for inoculated + Si ones. The α-carotene concentration increased for inoculated -Si and +Si plants in comparison to non-inoculated plants limiting, therefore, lutein production. Higher functional damage to the photosystem II (PSII) was noticed for inoculated -Si plants with reductions in the values of maximum quantum quenching, photochemical yield of PSII and electron transport rate, but higher values for quenching non-photochemical. This finding also contributed to reductions in the values of light saturated rate photosynthesis and light saturation point for -Si plants which was attenuated for inoculated + Si plants. Increase in dark respiration values occurred for inoculated plants than for non-inoculated ones. The Si supply to wheat plants, besides reducing blast severity, contributed to their better photosynthetic performance. Moreover, inoculated + Si plants coped with drastic losses of light energy dissipation processes (fluorescence and heat) by increasing the concentration of carotenoids which helped to maintain the structural and functional viability of the photosynthetic machinery minimizing, therefore, lipid peroxidation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson

  3. Energy considerations in accelerating rapid shear granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a complete expression for the total energy associated with a rapid frictional granular shear flow down an inclined surface. This expression reduces to the often used energy for a non-accelerating flow of an isotropic, ideal fluid in a horizontal channel, or to the energy for a vertically falling mass. We utilize thickness-averaged mass and momentum conservation laws written in a slope-defined coordinate system. Both the enhanced gravity and friction are taken into account in addition to the bulk motion and deformation. The total energy of the flow at a given spatial position and time is defined as the sum of four energy components: the kinetic energy, gravity, pressure and the friction energy. Total energy is conserved for stationary flow, but for non-stationary flow the non-conservative force induced by the free-surface gradient means that energy is not conserved. Simulations and experimental results are used to sketch the total energy of non-stationary flows. Comparison between the total energy and the sum of the kinetic and pressure energy shows that the contribution due to gravity acceleration and frictional resistance can be of the same order of magnitude, and that the geometric deformation plays an important role in the total energy budget of the cascading mass. Relative importance of the different constituents in the total energy expression is explored. We also introduce an extended Froude number that takes into account the apparent potential energy induced by gravity and pressure.

  4. Estimation of the turbulence energy dissipation rate in the atmospheric boundary layer from measurements of the radial wind velocity by micropulse coherent Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakh, V A; Smalikho, I N; Falits, A V

    2017-09-18

    The accuracy of the method of azimuth structure function for estimation of the dissipation rate of the kinetic energy of turbulence from an array of radial velocities measured by low-energy micropulse coherent Doppler lidars with conical scanning by a probing beam around the vertical axis has been studied numerically. The applicability of the method in dependence on the turbulence intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio has been determined. The method of azimuth structure function was applied for estimation of the turbulent energy dissipation rate from radial velocities measured by the lidar in the experiments on the coast of Lake Baikal. Two dimensional time-height patterns of the wind turbulence energy dissipation rate were obtained. Part of them were obtained in presence of the atmospheric internal waves (AIWs) and low-level jet streams. It is observed that the wind turbulence in the area occupied by jet streams is very weak. In the process of dissipation of AIWs the wind turbulence strength increases.

  5. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO2 assimilation is restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Baker, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water–water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO2 assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution together with CO2 uptake in leaves

  6. Infragravity-wave dynamics in shallow water : energy dissipation and role in sand suspension and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, A.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371573734

    2016-01-01

    Infragravity waves (20-200 s) receive their energy from sea-swell waves (2-20 s), and are thought to be important to beach erosion during storms, when they can reach up to several meters in height. Numerous studies have observed that on sandy beaches infragravity waves can lose a large part of their

  7. Dissipation of energy during the respiratory cycle: conditional importance of ergotrauma to structural lung damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, John J

    2017-11-16

    To describe and put into context recent conceptual advances regarding the relationship of energy load and power to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Investigative emphasis regarding VILI has almost exclusively centered on the static characteristics of the individual tidal cycle - tidal volume, plateau pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and driving pressure. Although those static characteristics of the tidal cycle are undeniably important, the 'dynamic' characteristics of ventilation must not be ignored. To inflict the nonrupturing damage we identify as VILI, work must be performed and energy expended by high stress cycles applied at rates that exceed the capacity of endogenous repair. Machine power, the pace at which the work performing energy load is applied by the ventilator, has received increasing scrutiny as a candidate for the proximate and integrative cause of VILI. Although the unmodified values of machine-delivered energy or power (which are based on airway pressures and tidal volumes) cannot serve unconditionally as a rigid and quantitative guide to ventilator adjustment for lung protection, bedside consideration of the dynamics of ventilation and potential for ergotrauma represents a clear conceptual advance that complements the static parameters of the individual tidal cycle that with few exceptions have held our scientific attention.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong Min; Kondaraju, Sasidhar; Lee, Jung Shin; Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H.; Lee, Joon Sang

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  9. Impact and Energy Dissipation Characteristics of Squeeze and Die Cast Magnesium Alloy AM60

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, Sante; Hu, Henry; Altenhof, William

    High-pressure die cast (HPDC) magnesium alloy AM60 is recognized for its versatility in the manufacturing of weight sensitive components of relatively thin cross section. To further expand practical applications of the alloy, squeeze casting has been proposed to allow for thicker castings. In this study, AM60 alloy specimens of 10mm thickness were squeeze cast using a hydraulic press with an applied pressure of 60 MPa. Fracture energies, following a Charpy Impact Testing protocol, of the squeeze cast specimens were characterized in comparison with the HPDC counterparts using both experimental and numerical techniques. The experimental results show the squeeze cast alloy absorbing approximately 46.2% more energy during impact than its HPDC counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy fractography reveals the favourable quasi-cleavage fracture mode of the squeeze cast alloy AM60, relative to the decohesive rupture fracture mode present in the die cast alloy.

  10. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A nonlinear structural subgrid-scale closure for compressible MHD. I. Derivation and energy dissipation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaykov, Dimitar G., E-mail: Dimitar.Vlaykov@ds.mpg.de [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Am Faßberg 17, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grete, Philipp [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schmidt, Wolfram [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Schleicher, Dominik R. G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C (Chile)

    2016-06-15

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical phenomena ranging from the intergalactic to the stellar scales. In studying them, numerical simulations are nearly inescapable, due to the large degree of nonlinearity involved. However, the dynamical ranges of these phenomena are much larger than what is computationally accessible. In large eddy simulations (LESs), the resulting limited resolution effects are addressed explicitly by introducing to the equations of motion additional terms associated with the unresolved, subgrid-scale dynamics. This renders the system unclosed. We derive a set of nonlinear structural closures for the ideal MHD LES equations with particular emphasis on the effects of compressibility. The closures are based on a gradient expansion of the finite-resolution operator [W. K. Yeo (CUP, 1993)] and require no assumptions about the nature of the flow or magnetic field. Thus, the scope of their applicability ranges from the sub- to the hyper-sonic and -Alfvénic regimes. The closures support spectral energy cascades both up and down-scale, as well as direct transfer between kinetic and magnetic resolved and unresolved energy budgets. They implicitly take into account the local geometry, and in particular, the anisotropy of the flow. Their properties are a priori validated in Paper II [P. Grete et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062317 (2016)] against alternative closures available in the literature with respect to a wide range of simulation data of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  12. Factors responsible for rapid dissipation of acidic herbicides in the coastal lagoons of the Camargue (Rhône River Delta, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Housari, Fadi; Höhener, Patrick; Chiron, Serge

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating which processes cause acidic herbicides (e.g., bentazone, MCPA and dichlorprop) to rapidly disappear in the lagoons of the Rhône delta, which are peculiar brackish and shallow aquatic environments. The use of the model MASAS (Modeling of Anthropogenic Substances in Aquatic Systems) revealed that sorption, sedimentation, volatilization, flushing and abiotic hydrolysis had a minor role in the attenuation of the investigated herbicides. Laboratory scale biodegradation and photodegradation studies were conducted to better assess the significance of these two processes in the natural attenuation of herbicides in brackish (lagoons) waters with respect to fresh waters (canals draining paddy fields). Herbicide biodegradation rates were significantly lower in lagoon water than in canal water. Consequently, photodegradation was the main dissipation route of all investigated herbicides. The contribution of indirect photolysis was relevant for MCPA and dichlorprop while direct photolysis dominated for bentazone removal. There is a need to further investigate the identity of phototransformation products of herbicides in lagoons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Role of Minor Branches, Energy Dissipation, and Small Defects in the Transient Response of Transmission Mains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Meniconi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades several reliable technologies have been proposed for fault detection in water distribution networks (DNs, whereas there are some limitations for transmission mains (TMs. For TM inspection, the most common fault detection technologies are of inline types—with sensors inserted into the pipelines—and then more expensive with respect to those used in DNs. An alternative to in-line sensors is given by transient test-based techniques (TTBTs, where pressure waves are injected in pipes “to explore” them. On the basis of the results of some tests, this paper analyses the relevance of the system configuration, energy dissipation phenomena, and pipe material characteristics in the transient behavior of a real TM. With this aim, a numerical model has been progressively refined not only in terms of the governing equations but also by including a more and more realistic representation of the system layout and taking into account the actual functioning conditions. As a result, the unexpected role of the minor branches—i.e., pipes with a length smaller than the 1% of the length of the main pipe—is pointed out and a preliminary criterion for the system skeletonization is offered. Moreover, the importance of both unsteady friction and viscoelasticity is evaluated as well as the remarkable effects of small defects is highlighted.

  14. Particle propagation, wave growth and energy dissipation in a flaring flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Melrose, D. B.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Wave amplification by downgoing particles in a common flare model is investigated. The flare is assumed to occur at the top of a coronal magnetic flux loop, and results in the heating of plasma in the flaring region. The hot electrons propagate down the legs of the flux tube towards increasing magnetic field. It is simple to demonstrate that the velocity distributions which result in this model are unstable to both beam instabilities and cyclotron maser action. An explanation is presented for the propagation effects on the distribution, and the properties of the resulting amplified waves are explored, concentrating on cyclotron maser action, which has properties (emission in the z mode below the local gyrofrequency) quite different from maser action by other distributions considered in the context of solar flares. The z mode waves will be damped in the coronal plasma surrounding the flaring flux tube and lead to heating there. This process may be important in the overall energy budget of the flare. The downgoing maser is compared with the loss cone maser, which is more likely to produce observable bursts.

  15. Israel-Stewart Approach to Viscous Dissipative Extended Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Dominated Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the truncated Israel-Stewart formalism for bulk viscosity using the extended holographic Ricci dark energy (EHRDE. Under the consideration that the universe is dominated by EHRDE, the evolution equation for the bulk viscous pressure Π in the framework of the truncated Israel-Stewart theory has been taken as τΠ˙+Π=-3ξH, where τ is the relaxation time and ξ is the bulk viscosity coefficient. Considering effective pressure as a sum of thermodynamic pressure of EHRDE and bulk viscous pressure, it has been observed that under the influence of bulk viscosity the EoS parameter wDE is behaving like phantom, that is, wDE≤-1. It has been observed that the magnitude of the effective pressure peff=p+Π is decaying with time. We also investigated the case for a specific choice of scale factor; namely, a(t=(t-t0β/(1-α. For this choice we have observed that a transition from quintessence to phantom is possible for the equation of state parameter. However, the ΛCDM phase is not attainable by the state-finder trajectories for this choice. Finally it has been observed that in both of the cases the generalized second law of thermodynamics is valid for the viscous EHRDE dominated universe enveloped by the apparent horizon.

  16. Practical lesson of Photosynthesis: A demonstration of Hill reaction in chloroplasts with energy dissipation by fluorescence upon photosystems uncoupling or inhibition by Diuron herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ravara Viviani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During photosynthesis, the photochemical electron transfer process is easily demonstrated by the Hill reaction, where artificial electron acceptors are reduced by active chloroplasts suspensions in the presence of light.  However, the destiny of luminous energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in uncoupled or damaged photosystems is not usually demonstrated. Here we provide an adaptation of the classical Hill reaction using intact spinach chloroplasts, which includes the visualization of energy dissipation by fluorescence in lysed chloroplasts, and a dose/effect response in photosystems inhibited by the herbicide DCMU. This laboratory lesson, which is aimed to biochemistry and biophysics for undergraduate courses of Chemistry, Biological, Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, provides the basic photochemical principles using the classical Hill reaction, and photophysical principles through the visualization of energy dissipation by chlorophyll fluorescence,  improving the understanding of the photosynthetic process, and introducing the concept of fluorescence and its applications as bioanalytical tool to monitor photosynthesis in plants and vegetal ecosystems.

  17. Dissipative structures and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Hazime

    1998-01-01

    This monograph consists of two parts and gives an approach to the physics of open nonequilibrium systems. Part I derives the phenomena of dissipative structures on the basis of reduced evolution equations and includes Bénard convection and Belousov-Zhabotinskii chemical reactions. Part II discusses the physics and structures of chaos. While presenting a construction of the statistical physics of chaos, the authors unify the geometrical and statistical descriptions of dynamical systems. The shape of chaotic attractors is characterized, as are the mixing and diffusion of chaotic orbits and the fluctuation of energy dissipation exhibited by chaotic systems.

  18. Limits to sustained energy intake. XIX. A test of the heat dissipation limitation hypothesis in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Bao; Li, Li; Wang, Lu-Ping; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, De-Hua; Speakman, John R

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated factors limiting lactating Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at three temperatures (10, 21 and 30°C). Energy intake and daily energy expenditure (DEE) increased with decreased ambient temperature. At peak lactation (day 14 of lactation), energy intake increased from 148.7±5.7 kJ day(-1) at 30°C to 213.1±8.2 kJ day(-1) at 21°C and 248.7±12.3 kJ day(-1) at 10°C. DEE increased from 105.1±4.0 kJ day(-1) at 30°C to 134.7±5.6 kJ day(-1) at 21°C and 179.5±8.4 kJ day(-1) at 10°C on days 14-16 of lactation. With nearly identical mean litter sizes, lactating gerbils at 30°C exported 32.0 kJ day(-1) less energy as milk at peak lactation than those allocated to 10 or 21°C, with no difference between the latter groups. On day 14 of lactation, the litter masses at 10 and 30°C were 12.2 and 9.3 g lower than those at 21°C, respectively. Lactating gerbils had higher thermal conductance of the fur and lower UCP-1 levels in brown adipose tissue than non-reproductive gerbils, independent of ambient temperature, suggesting that they were attempting to avoid heat stress. Thermal conductance of the fur was positively related to circulating prolactin levels. We implanted non-reproductive gerbils with mini-osmotic pumps that delivered either prolactin or saline. Prolactin did not influence thermal conductance of the fur, but did reduce physical activity and UCP-1 levels in brown adipose tissue. Transferring lactating gerbils from warm to hot conditions resulted in reduced milk production, consistent with the heat dissipation limit theory, but transferring them from warm to cold conditions did not elevate milk production, consistent with the peripheral limitation hypothesis, and placed constraints on pup growth.

  19. Comparison of Energy Dissipation, Stiffness, and Damage of Structural Oriented Strand Board (OSB, Conventional Gypsum, and Viscoelastic Gypsum Shearwalls Subjected to Cyclic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Blasetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed shear walls is typically neglected in high seismic areas due to the susceptibility of conventional drywall screw connections to damage caused by earthquakes. The earthquake resistance of an innovative viscoelastic (VE gypsum shearwall is evaluated and compared to conventional structural and non-structural walls. Ten 8 ft × 8 ft wood framed wall specimens of three configurations [nailed-OSB, screw-gypsum, and VE polymer-gypsum] were subjected to a cyclic test protocol. The energy dissipation, stiffness, and damage characteristics of all shearwalls are reported herein. Testing results indicate the VE-gypsum walls can dissipate more energy than the OSB structural panels and 500% more energy that the conventional gypsum sheathed walls and contains a constant source of energy dissipation not seen in the structural and non-structural walls. The wall stiffness of the OSB wall degrades at a far greater rate that the VE gypsum wall and at continued cycling degrades below the VE wall stiffness. Unlike both of the conventional wall types, the VE wall showed no visible or audible signs of damage when subjected to shear displacements up to 1.

  20. Altered Right Ventricular Kinetic Energy Work Density and Viscous Energy Dissipation in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study Using 4D Flow MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Joyce Han

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI to derive RV kinetic energy (KE work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA to better characterize RV work in PAH patients.4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA.PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007 as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001 throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction.This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.

  1. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-03-06

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  2. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeok Shon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  3. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  4. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  5. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  6. Variation in energy stored and dissipated in type-II superconductor in applied ac magnetic field with relative phase of two sinusoidal components of the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janů, Zdeněk; Chagovets, Tymofiy

    2017-01-01

    We show that both the energy stored and dissipated by a system with hysteretic nonlinearity in an applied field varies with the relative phase of the sinusoidal components of the field, even if the magnitude of these components, and thus an effective value of the field, are kept constant. The explored system is a type-II superconductor in the critical state subjected to a time varying applied magnetic field. Complete analytical expressions for hysteresis loops, determined from basic physical phenomena, are known for this system. A theoretically predicted variation in the energy is in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  7. Dissipation of the striped pulsar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, B.; Philippov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Rapidly rotating neutron stars blow a relativistic, magnetized wind mainly composed of electron-positron pairs. The free expansion of the wind terminates far from the neutron star where a weakly magnetized pulsar wind nebula forms, implying efficient magnetic dissipation somewhere upstream. Aims: The wind current sheet that separates the two magnetic polarities is usually considered as the most natural place for magnetic dissipation via relativistic reconnection, but its efficiency remains an open question. Here, the goal of this work is to revisit this issue in light of the most recent progress in the understanding of reconnection and pulsar electrodynamics. Methods: We perform large two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the oblique rotator to capture the multi-scale evolution of the wind. Our simulations are limited to the equatorial plane. Results: We find that the current sheet breaks up into a dynamical chain of magnetic islands separated by secondary thin current sheets. The sheet thickness increases linearly with radius while the Poynting flux decreases monotonically as reconnection proceeds. The radius of complete annihilation of the stripes is given by the plasma multiplicity parameter at the light cylinder. Current starvation within the sheets does not occur before complete dissipation as long as there is enough charges where the sheets form. Particles are efficiently heated up to a characteristic energy set by the magnetization parameter at the light cylinder. Energetic pulsed synchrotron emission peaks close to the light cylinder, and presents sub-pulse variability associated with the formation of plasmoids in the sheet. Conclusions: This study suggests that the striped component of the wind dissipates far before reaching the termination shock in isolated pulsars, even in very-high-multiplicity systems such as the Crab pulsar. Pulsars in binary systems may provide the best environments to study magnetic dissipation in the wind.

  8. Nonlinear Landau damping and Alfven wave dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Miller, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Landau damping has been often suggested to be the cause of the dissipation of Alfven waves in the solar wind as well as the mechanism for ion heating and selective preacceleration in solar flares. We discuss the viability of these processes in light of our theoretical and numerical results. We present one-dimensional hybrid plasma simulations of the nonlinear Landau damping of parallel Alfven waves. In this scenario, two Alfven waves nonresonantly combine to create second-order magnetic field pressure gradients, which then drive density fluctuations, which in turn drive a second-order longitudinal electric field. Under certain conditions, this electric field strongly interacts with the ambient ions via the Landau resonance which leads to a rapid dissipation of the Alfven wave energy. While there is a net flux of energy from the waves to the ions, one of the Alfven waves will grow if both have the same polarization. We compare damping and growth rates from plasma simulations with those predicted by Lee and Volk (1973), and also discuss the evolution of the ambient ion distribution. We then consider this nonlinear interaction in the presence of a spectrum of Alfven waves, and discuss the spectrum's influence on the growth or damping of a single wave. We also discuss the implications for wave dissipation and ion heating in the solar wind.

  9. Mechanisms of reaction and energy dissipation in the nucleus-nucleus symmetric collisions at 25 to 74 MeV/u: contribution of exclusive measurements of the INDRA multidetector; Mecanismes de reaction et de dissipation de l`energie dans les collisions symetriques noyau-noyau de 25 a 74 MeV/u: apport des mesures exclusives du multidetecteur INDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metivier, V. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    1995-04-01

    This work is about the first experimental results obtained with the INDRA multidetector. First, the characterization of reaction mechanisms is performed. For complete events, global description of the collision is performed and compared with theoretical calculations. Dissipative binary mechanisms represent the largest part of the cross section for violent collisions whatever the bombarding energy (from 25 to 74 MeV/u) for the studied systems (Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn). The two outgoing products decay takes place through light charged particle and fragment emission. The reconstruction of the two primary sources is achieved, allowing thus the study of the evolution of the energy dissipation. Excitation energies exceeding 10 MeV/u are reached. The decay of the primary outgoing partners can be understood in a statistical model approach and the role of collective modes like expansion energy seems to be negligible. The study of the angular distributions points out angular momentum effects, `proximity effect` and a dynamical ternary process corresponding to the emission of a light fragment in between the two heavier products. For the most violent collisions, events can also be interpreted in terms of the multifragmentation of a single source, at least for the Xe + Sn system at 50 MeV/u (80 m barn). For the lower incident energies, fusion residues associated to the largest dissipations are recognized, but the cross sections is small (35 m barn for the Ar + KCl system at 32 MeV/u). (author) 91 refs.

  10. A piezoelectric active sensing method for quantitative monitoring of bolt loosening using energy dissipation caused by tangential damping based on the fractal contact theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Furui; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of bolt looseness is essential for ensuring the safety and reliability of equipment and structures with bolted connections. It is well known that tangential damping has an important influence on energy dissipation during wave propagation across the bolted joints, which require different levels of preload. In this paper, the energy dissipation generated by tangential damping of the bolted joints under different bolt preloads was modeled analytically based on fractal contact theory, which took the imperfect interface into account. A saturation value exists with the increase of the bolt preload, and the center frequency of emitted signal is demonstrated to affect the received energy significantly. Compared with previous similar studies based on experimental techniques and numerical method, the investigation presented in this paper explains the phenomenon from the inherent mechanism, and achieves the accurate quantitative monitoring of bolt looseness directly, rather than an indirect failure index. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in this paper was demonstrated with an experimental study of a bolted joint with different preload levels.

  11. Allocating dissipation across a molecular machine cycle to maximize flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aidan I; Sivak, David A

    2017-10-17

    Biomolecular machines consume free energy to break symmetry and make directed progress. Nonequilibrium ATP concentrations are the typical free energy source, with one cycle of a molecular machine consuming a certain number of ATP, providing a fixed free energy budget. Since evolution is expected to favor rapid-turnover machines that operate efficiently, we investigate how this free energy budget can be allocated to maximize flux. Unconstrained optimization eliminates intermediate metastable states, indicating that flux is enhanced in molecular machines with fewer states. When maintaining a set number of states, we show that-in contrast to previous findings-the flux-maximizing allocation of dissipation is not even. This result is consistent with the coexistence of both "irreversible" and reversible transitions in molecular machine models that successfully describe experimental data, which suggests that, in evolved machines, different transitions differ significantly in their dissipation.

  12. Magnetization dynamics, throughput and energy dissipation in a universal multiferroic nanomagnetic logic gate with fan-in and fan-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Fashami, Mohammad; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-03-01

    The switching dynamics of a multiferroic nanomagnetic NAND gate with fan-in/fan-out is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation while neglecting thermal fluctuation effects. The gate and logic wires are implemented with dipole-coupled two-phase (magnetostrictive/piezoelectric) multiferroic elements that are clocked with electrostatic potentials of ˜50 mV applied to the piezoelectric layer generating 10.1 MPa stress in the magnetostrictive layers for switching. We show that a pipeline bit throughput rate of ˜0.5 GHz is achievable with proper magnet layout and sinusoidal four-phase clocking. The gate operation is completed in 2 ns with a latency of 4 ns. The total (internal + external) energy dissipated for a single gate operation at this throughput rate is found to be only ˜500 kT in the gate and ˜1250 kT in the 12-magnet array comprising two input and two output wires for fan-in and fan-out. This makes it respectively three and five orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor-transistor (CMOS)-based and spin-transfer-torque-driven nanomagnet-based NAND gates. Finally, we show that the dissipation in the external clocking circuit can always be reduced asymptotically to zero using increasingly slow adiabatic clocking, such as by designing the RC time constant to be three orders of magnitude smaller than the clocking period. However, the internal dissipation in the device must remain and cannot be eliminated if we want to perform fault-tolerant classical computing.

  13. Multi-Source Generation Mechanisms for Low Frequency Noise Induced by Flood Discharge and Energy Dissipation from a High Dam with a Ski-Jump Type Spillway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Wenjiao; Ma, Bin; Liu, Dongming

    2017-11-30

    As excess water is discharged from a high dam, low frequency noise (air pulsation lower than 10 Hz, LFN) is generated and propagated in the surrounding areas, causing environmental hazards such as the vibration of windows and doors and the discomfort of local residents. To study the generation mechanisms and key influencing factors of LFN induced by flood discharge and energy dissipation from a high dam with a ski-jump type spillway, detailed prototype observations and analyses of LFN are carried out. The discharge flow field is simulated and analyzed using a gas-liquid turbulent flow model. The acoustic response characteristics of the air cavity, which is formed between the discharge nappe and dam body, are analyzed using an acoustic numerical model. The multi-sources generation mechanisms are first proposed basing on the prototype observation results, vortex sound model, turbulent flow model and acoustic numerical model. Two kinds of sources of LFN are studied. One comes from the energy dissipation of submerged jets in the plunge pool, the other comes from nappe-cavity coupled vibration. The results of the analyses reveal that the submerged jets in the plunge pool only contribute to an on-site LFN energy of 0-1.0 Hz, and the strong shear layers around the high-velocity submerged jets and wall jet development areas are the main acoustic source regions of LFN in the plunge pool. In addition, the nappe-cavity coupled vibration, which is induced when the discharge nappe vibrates with close frequency to the model frequency of the cavity, can induce on-site LFN energy with wider frequency spectrum energy within 0-4.0 Hz. By contrast, the contribution degrees to LFN energy from two acoustic sources are almost same, while the contribution degree from nappe-cavity coupled vibration is slightly higher.

  14. Indentation hardness: A simple test that correlates with the dissipated-energy predictor for fatigue-life in bovine pericardium membranes for bioprosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Rojo, Francisco Javier; García Paez, José María; Bourges, Jean Yves; Herrero, Eduardo Jorge; Millán, Isabel; Alvarez, Lourdes; Cordon, Ángeles; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of hardness with fatigue in calf pericardium, a biomaterial commonly used in bioprosthetic heart valves, and its relationship with the energy dissipated during the first fatigue cycle that has been shown to be a predictor of fatigue-life (García Páez et al., 2006, 2007; Rojo et al., 2010). Fatigue tests were performed in vitro on 24 pericardium specimens cut in a root-to-apex direction. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 1MPa in blocks of 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 cycles. By means of a modified Shore A hardness test procedure, the hardness of the specimen was measured before and after fatigue tests. Results showed a significant correlation of such hardness with fatigue performance and with the energy dissipated in the first cycle of fatigue, a predictor of pericardium durability. The study showed indentation hardness as a simple and reliable indicator of mechanical performance, one which could be easily implemented in improving tissue selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  16. Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    A few classes of algorithms to implement division in hardware have been used over the years: division by digit-recurrence, by reciprocal approximation by iterative methods and by polynomial approximation. Due to the differences in the algorithms, a comparison among their implementation in terms o...... of performance and precision is sometimes hard to make. In this work, we use power dissipation and energy consumption as metrics to compare among those different classes of algorithms. There are no previous works in the literature presenting such a comparison....

  17. Optimizing the microstructure of dissipative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    from experimental results in (Schaedler, 2011), where a highly energy absorbing material, constructed from structural elements with a small cross sectional area but large area moment of inertia, is presented. Furthermore, the applicability of multiscale finite element methods (Efendiev, 2009......The aim of this work is to present a method to design material microstructures with high dissipation using topology optimization. In order to compute the macroscopic energy dissipation in periodic structures, we focus both on capturing the physical dissipation mechanism and to find the effective...... macroscopic dissipation. The effective elastic material properties of a periodic structure can be found numerically using homogenization as describe in e.g. (Guedes and Kikuchi, 1990). For dissipative materials a quasi-static approach can be used to find the homogenized complex elasticity tensor, and thereby...

  18. Time in dissipative tunneling: Subtleties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, N. G.; Lozano Gómez, D.; Patiño, Edgar J.

    2017-07-01

    Characteristic features of tunneling times for dissipative tunneling of a particle through a rectangular barrier are studied within a semiclassical model involving dissipation in the form of a velocity dependent frictional force. The average dwell time and traversal time with dissipation are found to be less than those without dissipation. This counter-intuitive behavior is reversed if one evaluates the physically relevant transmission dwell time. Apart from these observations, we find that the percentage of energy lost by the tunneling particle is higher for smaller energies. The above observations are tested and confirmed in a realistic case by applying the dissipation model to study the current-voltage data in a Al/Al2O3/Al solid state junction at various temperatures. The friction coefficient for Al2O3 as a function of temperature is presented. It is found to decrease with increasing temperature.

  19. Radiation from relativistic jets in blazars and the efficient dissipation of their bulk energy via photon breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Boris E.; Poutanen, Juri

    2008-02-01

    High-energy photons propagating in the magnetized medium with large velocity gradients can mediate energy and momentum exchange. Conversion of these photons into electron-positron pairs in the field of soft photons with the consequent isotropization and emission of new high-energy photons by Compton scattering can lead to the runaway cascade of the high-energy photons and electron-positron pairs fed by the bulk energy of the flow. This is the essence of the photon breeding mechanism. We study the problem of high-energy emission of relativistic jets in blazars via photon breeding mechanism using 2D ballistic model for the jet with the detailed treatment of particle propagation and interactions. Our numerical simulations from first principles demonstrate that a jet propagating in the soft radiation field of broad emission-line region can convert a significant fraction (up to 80 per cent) of its total power into radiation. We show that the gamma-ray background of similar energy density as observed at Earth is sufficient to trigger the photon breeding. The considered mechanism produces a population of high-energy leptons and, therefore, alleviates the need for Fermi-type particle acceleration models in relativistic flows. The mechanism reproduces basic spectral features observed in blazars including the blazar sequence (shift of spectral peaks towards lower energies with increasing luminosity). The significant deceleration of the jet at subparsec scales and the transversal gradient of the Lorentz factor (so-called structured jet) predicted by the model reconcile the discrepancy between the high Doppler factors determined by the fits to the spectra of TeV blazars and the low apparent velocities observed at very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scales. The mechanism produces significantly broader angular distribution of radiation than that predicted by a simple model assuming the isotropic emission in the jet frame. This helps to reconcile the observed statistics and

  20. Mechanisms of drought-induced dissipation of excitation energy in sun- and shade-adapted drought-tolerant mosses studied by fluorescence yield change and global and target analysis of fluorescence decay kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Hisanori; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Heber, Ulrich; Itoh, Shigeru

    2017-11-18

    Some mosses stay green and survive long even under desiccation. Dissipation mechanisms of excess excitation energy were studied in two drought-tolerant moss species adapted to contrasting niches: shade-adapted Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and sun-adapted Rhytidium rugosum in the same family. (1) Under wet conditions, a light-induced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanism decreased the yield of photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence in both species. The NPQ extent saturated at a lower illumination intensity in R. squarrosus, suggesting a larger PSII antenna size. (2) Desiccation reduced the fluorescence intensities giving significantly lower F 0 levels and shortened the overall fluorescence lifetimes in both R. squarrosus and R. rugosum, at room temperature. (3) At 77 K, desiccation strongly reduced the PSII fluorescence intensity. This reduction was smaller in R. squarrosus than in R. rugosum. (4) Global and target analysis indicated two different mechanisms of energy dissipation in PSII under desiccation: the energy dissipation to a desiccation-formed strong fluorescence quencher in the PSII core in sun-adapted R. rugosum (type-A quenching) and (5) the moderate energy dissipation in the light-harvesting complex/PSII in shade-adapted R. squarrosus (type-B quenching). The two mechanisms are consistent with the different ecological niches of the two mosses.

  1. On the effect of the near field records on the steel braced frames equipped with energy dissipating devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bayat

    Full Text Available The behavior of braced steel frame structures is of special importance due to its extensive use. Also the application of active and semi-active control systems, regarding to their benefits in obtaining better seismic performance has increased significantly. The majority of the works on steel structures and steel connections has been done under far field records, and the behavior of steel frame structures equipped with yielding dampers under these circumstances has not yet been fully analyzed. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the behavior of structures equipped with yielding dampers, located in near field based on energy concepts. In order to optimize their seismic behavior, the codes and solutions are also presented.The selected system is a braced steel frame system which is equipped with yielding dampers and the analysis is performed using the "Perform 3D V.4" software and the conclusions are drawn upon energy criterion. The effect of PGA variation and height of the frames are also considered in the study .Finally, using the above mentioned results, a proper solution is presented for typical systems in order to increase the energy damping ability and reduce the destructive effects in structures on an earthquake event, so that a great amount of induced energy is damped and destruction of the structure is prevented as much as possible.

  2. Comparison of Two Railgun Power Supply Architectures to Quantify the Energy Dissipated After the Projectile Leaves the Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    large electrical currents to generate strong magnetic fields which accelerate projectiles (armature) to speeds of over seven times the speed of sound ...an electric circuit and a magnetic field creating a magnetic force, the voltage V needed to hold the current constant must increase as the...the muzzle. This energy, which is due to the loss of the low-voltage electrical contact that is ordinarily between the armature and the rail, is

  3. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  4. Investigations about the dissipated energy by partial discharges based on their measurements; Sobre la medida de energia de las descargas parciales basada en la medicion de estas resuelstas en fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdenegro, Ariel; Navarrete, Luis; Asenjo, Efrain [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica

    2001-07-01

    In this work, it is approached the possibility of calculating the dissipated energy by partial discharges(PD) of a insulation according to their measurements by means of a MPDP(Meter of Partial Discharges in Phase) digital equipment. The energy estimate is made by the comparison of the following methods: the demanded energy to the source due to PD and energy estimative according to Kreuger. The PD spectrum results were the expected ones and the calculated energy at different times of the process presented normal results (always growing). Both the calculation alternatives presented similar results.

  5. Electron energy dissipation model of gate dielectric progressive breakdown in n- and p-channel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, S.; Wu, E. Y.; Stathis, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    We report the data and a model showing that the energy loss experienced by the carriers flowing through breakdown spots is the primary cause of progressive breakdown spot growth. The experiments are performed in gate dielectrics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices subjected to accelerated high electric field constant voltage stress under inversion conditions. The model is analytical and contains few free parameters of clear physical meaning. This is compared to a large set of data on breakdown transients at various oxide thicknesses, stress voltages, and temperatures, both in cases of n-channel and p-channel transistors and polycrystalline Si/oxynitride/Si and metal gate/high k dielectric/Si gate stacks. The basic idea is that the breakdown transient is due to the growth of one or more filaments in the dielectric promoted by electromigration driven by the energy lost by the electrons traveling through the breakdown spots. Both cases of polycrystalline Si/oxynitride/Si and metal gate/high-k dielectric/Si MOS structures are investigated. The best fit values of the model to the data, reported and discussed in the paper, consistently describe a large set of data. The case of simultaneous growth of multiple progressive breakdown spots in the same device is also discussed in detail.

  6. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of techn...

  7. Analytical study of dissipative solitary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamzadeh, Mehdi Molaie [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Sina [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bobin, Jean Louis [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Amrollahi, Reza [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sodagar, Majid [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnegar, Milad [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, the analytical solution to a new class of nonlinear solitons is presented with cubic nonlinearity, subject to a dissipation term arising as a result of a first-order derivative with respect to time, in the weakly nonlinear regime. Exact solutions are found using the combination of the perturbation and Green's function methods up to the third order. We present an example and discuss the asymptotic behavior of the Green's function. The dissipative solitary equation is also studied in the phase space in the non-dissipative and dissipative forms. Bounded and unbounded solutions of this equation are characterized, yielding an energy conversation law for non-dissipative waves. Applications of the model include weakly nonlinear solutions of terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  8. Compressing turbulence and sudden viscous dissipation with compression-dependent ionization state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent plasma flow, amplified by rapid three-dimensional compression, can be suddenly dissipated under continuing compression. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the plasma viscosity to the temperature, μ∼T^{5/2}. The plasma viscosity is also sensitive to the plasma ionization state. We show that the sudden dissipation phenomenon may be prevented when the plasma ionization state increases during compression, and we demonstrate the regime of net viscosity dependence on compression where sudden dissipation is guaranteed. Additionally, it is shown that, compared to cases with no ionization, ionization during compression is associated with larger increases in turbulent energy and can make the difference between growing and decreasing turbulent energy.

  9. Energy-Dissipation Performance of Combined Low Yield Point Steel Plate Damper Based on Topology Optimization and Its Application in Structural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the disadvantages such as higher yield stress and inadequate adjustability, a combined low yield point steel plate damper involving low yield point steel plates and common steel plates is proposed. Three types of combined plate dampers with new hollow shapes are proposed, and the specific forms include interior hollow, boundary hollow, and ellipse hollow. The “maximum stiffness” and “full stress state” are used as the optimization objectives, and the topology optimization of different hollow forms by alternating optimization method is to obtain the optimal shape. Various combined steel plate dampers are calculated by finite element simulation, the results indicate that the initial stiffness of the boundary optimized damper and interior optimized damper is lager, the hysteresis curves are full, and there is no stress concentration. These two types of optimization models made in different materials rations are studied by numerical simulation, and the adjustability of yield stress of these combined dampers is verified. The nonlinear dynamic responses, seismic capacity, and damping effect of steel frame structures with different combined dampers are analyzed. The results show that the boundary optimized damper has better energy-dissipation capacity and is suitable for engineering application.

  10. Characterization of xanthophyll pigments, photosynthetic performance, photon energy dissipation, reactive oxygen species generation and carbon isotope discrimination during artemisinin-induced stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iftikhar Hussain

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial drug, is phytotoxic to many crops and weeds. The effects of artemisinin on stress markers, including fluorescence parameters, photosystem II photochemistry, photon energy dissipation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species generation and carbon isotope discrimination in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col-0 seedlings were grown in perlite and watered with 50% Hoagland nutrient solution. Adult plants of Arabidopsis were treated with artemisinin at 0, 40, 80, 160 μM for one week. Artemisinin, in the range 40-160 μM, decreased the fresh biomass, chl a, b and leaf mineral contents. Photosynthetic efficiency, yield and electron transport rate in Arabidopsis were also reduced following exposure to 80 and 160 μM artemisinin. The ΦNPQ and NPQ were less than control. Artemisinin treatment caused an increase in root oxidizability and lipid peroxidation (MDA contents of Arabidopsis. Calcium and nitrogen contents decreased after 80 and 160 μM artemisinin treatment compared to control. δ13C values were less negative following treatment with artemisinin as compared to the control. Artemisinin also decreased leaf protein contents in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these data suggest that artemisinin inhibits many physiological and biochemical processes in Arabidopsis.

  11. Turbulent energy dissipation rates observed by Doppler MST Radar and by rocket-borne instruments during the MIDAS/MaCWAVE campaign 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Engler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During the MIDAS/MaCWAVE campaign in summer 2002 we have observed turbulence using Doppler beam steering measurements obtained from the ALWIN VHF radar at Andøya/Northern Norway. This radar was operated in the Doppler beam steering mode for turbulence investigations during the campaign, as well as in spaced antenna mode, for continuously measuring the background wind field. The real-time data analysis of the Doppler radar backscattering provided the launch conditions for the sounding rockets. The spectral width data observed during the occurrence of PMSE were corrected for beam and shear broadening caused by the background wind field to obtain the turbulent part of the spectral width. The turbulent energy dissipation rates determined from the turbulent spectral width vary between 5 and 100mW kg-1 in the altitude range of 80-92km and increase with altitude. These estimations agree well with the in-situ measurements using the CONE sensor which was launched on 3 sounding rockets during the campaign.

  12. Turbulent energy dissipation rates observed by Doppler MST Radar and by rocket-borne instruments during the MIDAS/MaCWAVE campaign 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Engler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During the MIDAS/MaCWAVE campaign in summer 2002 we have observed turbulence using Doppler beam steering measurements obtained from the ALWIN VHF radar at Andøya/Northern Norway. This radar was operated in the Doppler beam steering mode for turbulence investigations during the campaign, as well as in spaced antenna mode, for continuously measuring the background wind field. The real-time data analysis of the Doppler radar backscattering provided the launch conditions for the sounding rockets. The spectral width data observed during the occurrence of PMSE were corrected for beam and shear broadening caused by the background wind field to obtain the turbulent part of the spectral width. The turbulent energy dissipation rates determined from the turbulent spectral width vary between 5 and 100mW kg-1 in the altitude range of 80-92km and increase with altitude. These estimations agree well with the in-situ measurements using the CONE sensor which was launched on 3 sounding rockets during the campaign.

  13. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Generation Mechanism and Prediction Model for Low Frequency Noise Induced by Energy Dissipating Submerged Jets during Flood Discharge from a High Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Zhang, Wenjiao; Guo, Qizhong; Liu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    As flood water is discharged from a high dam, low frequency (i.e., lower than 10 Hz) noise (LFN) associated with air pulsation is generated and propagated in the surrounding areas, causing environmental problems such as vibrations of windows and doors and discomfort of residents and construction workers. To study the generation mechanisms and key influencing factors of LFN induced by energy dissipation through submerged jets at a high dam, detailed prototype observations and analyses of LFN are conducted. The discharge flow field is simulated using a gas-liquid turbulent flow model, and the vorticity fluctuation characteristics are then analyzed. The mathematical model for the LFN intensity is developed based on vortex sound theory and a turbulent flow model, verified by prototype observations. The model results reveal that the vorticity fluctuation in strong shear layers around the high-velocity submerged jets is highly correlated with the on-site LFN, and the strong shear layers are the main regions of acoustic source for the LFN. In addition, the predicted and observed magnitudes of LFN intensity agree quite well. This is the first time that the LFN intensity has been shown to be able to be predicted quantitatively.

  15. Impacts on Dissipative Sonic Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichao; Nesterenko, Vitali

    We investigate the propagating compression bell shape stress waves generated by the strikers with different masses impacting the sonic vacuum - the discrete dissipative strongly nonlinear metamaterial with zero long wave sound speed. The metamaterial is composed of alternating steel disks and Nitrile O-rings. Being a solid material, it has exceptionally low speed of the investigated stress waves in the range of 50 - 74 m/s, which is a few times smaller than the speed of sound or shock waves in air generated by blast. The shape of propagating stress waves was dramatically changed by the viscous dissipation. It prevented the incoming pulses from splitting into trains of solitary waves, a phenomenon characteristic of the non-dissipative strongly nonlinear discrete systems when the striker mass is larger than the cell mass. Both high-speed camera images and numerical simulations demonstrate the unusual rattling behavior of the top disk between the striker and the rest of the system. The linear momentum and energy from the striker were completely transferred to the metamaterial. This strongly nonlinear dissipative metamaterial can be designed for the optimal attenuation of dynamic loads generated by impact or contact explosion. Author 1 wants to acknowledge the support provided by UCSD.

  16. On Current Conversion between Particle Rapidity and Pseudorapidity Distributions in High Energy Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In high energy collisions, one usually needs to give a conversion between the particle rapidity and pseudorapidity distributions. Currently, two equivalent conversion formulas are used in experimental and theoretical analyses. An investigation in the present work shows that the two conversions are incomplete. Then, we give a revision on the current conversion between the particle rapidity and pseudorapidity distributions.

  17. Light-induced energetic decoupling as a mechanism for phycobilisome-related energy dissipation in red algae: a single molecule study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ning Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple protective mechanisms to prevent photodamage in vivo under high-light conditions. Cyanobacteria and red algae use phycobilisomes (PBsomes as their major light-harvesting antennae complexes. The orange carotenoid protein in some cyanobacteria has been demonstrated to play roles in the photoprotective mechanism. The PBsome-itself-related energy dissipation mechanism is still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, single-molecule spectroscopy is applied for the first time on the PBsomes of red alga Porphyridium cruentum, to detect the fluorescence emissions of phycoerythrins (PE and PBsome core complex simultaneously, and the real-time detection could greatly characterize the fluorescence dynamics of individual PBsomes in response to intense light. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data revealed that strong green-light can induce the fluorescence decrease of PBsome, as well as the fluorescence increase of PE at the first stage of photobleaching. It strongly indicated an energetic decoupling occurring between PE and its neighbor. The fluorescence of PE was subsequently observed to be decreased, showing that PE was photobleached when energy transfer in the PBsomes was disrupted. In contrast, the energetic decoupling was not observed in either the PBsomes fixed with glutaraldehyde, or the mutant PBsomes lacking B-PE and remaining b-PE. It was concluded that the energetic decoupling of the PBsomes occurs at the specific association between B-PE and b-PE within the PBsome rod. Assuming that the same process occurs also at the much lower physiological light intensities, such a decoupling process is proposed to be a strategy corresponding to PBsomes to prevent photodamage of the photosynthetic reaction centers. Finally, a novel photoprotective role of gamma-subunit-containing PE in red algae was discussed.

  18. Dissipative photonic lattice solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultanir, Erdem A; Stegeman, George I; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2004-04-15

    We show that discrete dissipative optical lattice solitons are possible in waveguide array configurations that involve periodically patterned semiconductor optical amplifiers and saturable absorbers. The characteristics of these low-power soliton states are investigated, and their propagation constant eigenvalues are mapped on Floquet-Bloch band diagrams. The prospect of observing such low-power dissipative lattice solitons is discussed in detail.

  19. Dissipative universal Lindbladian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    It is by now well understood that quantum dissipative processes can be harnessed and turned into a resource for quantum-information processing tasks. In this paper we demonstrate yet another way in which this is true by providing a dissipation-assisted protocol for the simulation of general Markovian dynamics. More precisely, we show how a suitable coherent coupling of a quantum system to a set of Markovian dissipating qubits allows one to enact an effective Liouvillian generator of any Lindbladian form. This effective dynamical generator arises from high-order virtual-dissipative processes and governs the system dynamics exactly in the limit of infinitely fast dissipation. Applications to the simulation of collective decoherence are discussed as an illustration.

  20. Description of High-Energy pp Collisions Using Tsallis Thermodynamics: Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, L.; Deppman, A.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of transverse momentum and rapidity distributions measured in high-energy proton - proton (pp) collisions for energies ranging from 53 GeV to 7 TeV using Tsallis thermodynamics is presented. The excellent description of all transverse momentum spectra obtained in earlier analyses is confirmed and extended. All energies can be described by a single Tsallis temperature of 68 +/- 5 MeV at all beam energies and particle types investigated (43 in total). The value of the entropic index, q, shows a wider spread but is always close to q approx 1.146. These values are then used to describe the rapidity distributions using a superposition of two Tsallis fireballs along the rapidity axis. It is concluded that the hadronic system created in high-energy p - p collisions between 53 GeV and 7 TeV can be seen as obeying Tsallis thermodynamics.

  1. MIS - An alternative for the dissipation equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.; Liandrat, J.

    The application of the spectral integral method (French designation MIS), an extension of the model proposed by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin (1966) and Reynolds (1974), to the evaluation of dissipation phenomena in turbulent flows is described and demonstrated. The basic assumptions of the model are reviewed, and consideration is given to decaying turbulence, flows with energy production, and low-Re flows. The predictions of the MIS dissipation equation are then compared with experimental data in graphs, and the accuracy of an MIS model without tuned coefficients is shown to be equal to that of standard tuned dissipation equations for homogeneous strained or weakly sheared flows and superior for strongly sheared flows.

  2. Dissipation effects in mechanics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2016-07-01

    With the discussion of three examples, we aim at clarifying the concept of energy transfer associated with dissipation in mechanics and in thermodynamics. The dissipation effects due to dissipative forces, such as the friction force between solids or the drag force in motions in fluids, lead to an internal energy increase of the system and/or to heat transfer to the surroundings. This heat flow is consistent with the second law, which states that the entropy of the universe should increase when those forces are present because of the irreversibility always associated with their actions. As far as mechanics is concerned, the effects of the dissipative forces are included in Newton’s equations as impulses and pseudo-works.

  3. Noise and dissipation in magnetoelectronic nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    This thesis adresses electric and magnetic noise and dissipation in magnetoelectronic nanostructures. Charge and spin current fluctuations are studied in various nanosized metallic structures consisting of both ferromagnetic and non-magnetic elements. The interplay between current and magnetization fluctuations, and the relation of these fluctuations to the electric and magnetic dissipation of energy, are considered. Special focus is on the enhancement of magnetization damping due to so-calle...

  4. In situ monitoring of structural changes during formation of 30S translation initiation complex by energy dissipation measurement using 27-MHz quartz-crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuyuki, Yumi; Takahashi, Shuntaro; Okahata, Yoshio

    2014-06-03

    Ribosome is a bionanomachine that facilitates an orderly translation process during protein synthesis in living cells. Real-time monitoring of conformational changes in ribosomal subunits in aqueous solution is important to understand the regulatory mechanism of protein synthesis, because conformational changes in ribosome in E. coli have been predicted to operate the switch from translation initiation to an elongation process during translation. We performed an energy dissipation measurement by using a quartz-crystal microbalance-admittance (QCM-A) technique for in situ monitoring of conformational changes in pre-30S translation initiation complex in response to the binding of fMet-tRNA(fMet) in aqueous solution. The addition of fMet-tRNA(fMet) caused changes in the physical property (increased dehydration and elasticity) in 30S ribosomal subunit in the presence of mRNA and IF2/guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) on the QCM plate. Furthermore, two sequential changes triggered by the addition of fMet-tRNA(fMet) were observed in 30S ribosomal subunit bound to mRNA in the presence of IF2/GTP and IF3. These observations suggest that the structural changes in 30S ribosomal subunit caused by the binding of fMet-tRNA(fMet) with IF2/GTP in the presence of IF3 could act as a switch to regulate the orderly processing in the construction of translation initiation complex, because the structural distinction can be a guidepost in the process for the relevant biomolecules.

  5. Local equilibrium hypothesis and Taylor’s dissipation law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Susumu [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan); Vassilicos, J C, E-mail: goto@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: j.c.vassilicos@imperial.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    To qualitatively investigate the validity of Kolmogorov local equilibrium hypothesis and the Taylor dissipation law, we conduct direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional turbulent Kolmogorov flow. Since strong scale-by-scale (i.e. Richardson-type) energy cascade events occur quasi-periodically, the kinetic energy of the turbulence and its dissipation rate evolve quasi-periodically too. In this unsteady turbulence driven by a steady force, instantaneous values of the dissipation rate obey the scaling recently discovered in wind tunnel experiments (Vassilicos 2015 Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 47 95–114) instead of the Taylor dissipation law. The Taylor dissipation law does not hold because the local equilibrium hypothesis does not hold in a relatively low wave-number range. The breakdown of this hypothesis is caused by the finite time needed for the energy at such large scales to reach the dissipative scale by the scale-by-scale energy cascade. (paper)

  6. Relativistic dissipative fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Geroch, R

    1993-01-01

    We observe in Nature fluids that manifest dissipation, e.g., the effects of heat conductivity and viscosity. We believe that all physical phenomena are to be described within the framework of General Relativity. What, then, is the appropriate description of a relativistic dissipative fluid? This is not only a question of principle, but also one of practical interest. There exist systems, such as certain neutron stars, in which relativity and dissipation are at the same time significant.

  7. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio

    2016-12-22

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  8. Rapidity dependence of charged pion production at relativistic energies using Tsallis statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristea, Oana; Jipa, Alexandru [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania); Ristea, Catalin [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania); Institute of Space Science, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania)

    2017-05-15

    Transverse momentum distributions of charged pions produced in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, 200 GeV, Cu+Cu and d+Au collisions at 200 GeV, p+p collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV and Pb+Pb collisions at 17.3 GeV are studied using the Tsallis distribution as a parametrization. The non-extensivity parameter and Tsallis volume increase with energy, while the Tsallis temperature shows a decrease at higher energies. Using BRAHMS p{sub T} spectra obtained in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 GeV and 200 GeV, Tsallis fit parameters are obtained on a very wide rapidity range. Results are compared with p+p and Cu+Cu data and changes of Tsallis parameters with rapidity and energy are investigated. We found that non-extensivity parameter q shows a decrease from midrapidity to forward rapidities for all the studied systems. Tsallis volume, V, increases with the system size from p+p, Cu+Cu to Au+Au, both in central rapidity region and at forward rapidities. The values of temperatures increase with rapidity, but the T/cosh(y) ratio is constant as a function of rapidity. (orig.)

  9. Marine Fouling and Thermal Dissipation of Undersea Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Energy Harvesting thermal dissipation marine fouling high-power coil undersea wireless power transfer...should be a priority when implementing a high-power WPT system for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). Coils must be carefully designed to dissipate...require precision mating for the transfer of electrical energy . For the electrical socket configuration, any physical misalignments can lead to

  10. Core-Shell Fibers Electrospun from Phase-Separated Blend Solutions: Fiber Formation Mechanism and Unique Energy Dissipation for Synergistic Fiber Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Hsiue, Ting-Ting

    2017-09-11

    Through single-tube electrospinning, the biodegradable core-shell fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) were obtained from blend solutions with different compositions at a total polymer concentration of 7 wt %. Regardless whether PHB is the major or minor component (PHB/PDLLA = 90/10, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 wt. ratio), these phase-separated solutions all yielded core-shell fibers with PHB as core and PDLLA as shell. A new scenario of core-shell fiber formation was proposed on the basis of the relative magnitude of the intrinsic relaxation rate of fluids and external extension rate during electrospinning. The effects of blend compositions on the morphologies of the Taylor cone, whipping jet, and as-spun fibers were investigated. The diameters of core-shell fibers can be tailored by simply varying the PHB/PDLLA ratios. Two scaling laws describing the apparent viscosity (ηo) dependence of the outer fiber diameter (dfo) and core fiber diameter (dfc) were derived. That is, dfo ∼ ηo(0.38) and dfc ∼ ηo(0.86). The microstructures of the as-spun fibers were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchrotron wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings. Results showed that the PDLLA component was in the amorphous state, and the crystallizability of PHB component remained unchanged, except the amorphous 10/90 fibers electrospun from a miscible solution state. The synergistic mechanical properties of the core-shell fibers were obtained, along with the ductile PDLLA shell enclosing the brittle PHB core. The enhanced toughness was attributed to the fragmentation of the brittle PHB core and necking fracture of the ductile PDLLA shell, which served as an effective route for energy dissipation. Compared with the neat PHB fiber, the 90/10 and 75/25 core-shell fibers possessed larger elastic moduli, which was attributed to the high PHB crystal orientation in their core sections despite

  11. Investigating the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf characteristics along the vertical canopy profile: leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity, light energy dissipation and photoprotection mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Di Baccio, Daniela; Bertolotto, Pierangelo; Gavrichkova, Olga; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Forest functionality and productivity are directly related to canopy light interception and can be affected by potential damage from high irradiance. However, the mechanisms by which leaves adapt to the variable light environments along the multilayer canopy profile are still poorly known. We explored the leaf morphophysiological and metabolic responses to the natural light gradient in a pure European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest at three different canopy heights (top, middle and bottom). Structural adjustment through light-dependent modifications in leaf mass per area was the reason for most of the variations in photosynthetic capacity. The different leaf morphology along the canopy influenced nitrogen (N) partitioning, water- and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and quali-quantitative contents of photosynthetic pigments. The Chl a to Chl b ratio and the pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ) increased at the highest irradiance, as well as lutein and β-carotene. The total pool of ascorbate and phenols was higher in leaves of the top and middle canopy layers when compared with the bottom layer, where the ascorbate peroxidase was relatively more activated. The non-photochemical quenching was strongly and positively related to the VAZ/(Chl a + b) ratio, while Chl a/Chl b was related to the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. Along the multilayer canopy profile, the high energy dissipation capacity of leaves was correlated to an elevated redox potential of antioxidants. The middle layer gave the most relevant contribution to leaf area index and carboxylation capacity of the canopy. In conclusion, a complex interplay among structural, physiological and biochemical traits drives the dynamic leaf acclimation to the natural gradients of variable light environments along the tree canopy profile. The relevant differences observed in leaf traits within the canopy positions of the beech forest should be considered for

  12. Non-equilibrium dissipative supramolecular materials with a tunable lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Solsona, Marta; Rieß, Benedikt; Grötsch, Raphael K.; Löhrer, Franziska C.; Wanzke, Caren; Käsdorf, Benjamin; Bausch, Andreas R.; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Lieleg, Oliver; Boekhoven, Job

    2017-07-01

    Many biological materials exist in non-equilibrium states driven by the irreversible consumption of high-energy molecules like ATP or GTP. These energy-dissipating structures are governed by kinetics and are thus endowed with unique properties including spatiotemporal control over their presence. Here we show man-made equivalents of materials driven by the consumption of high-energy molecules and explore their unique properties. A chemical reaction network converts dicarboxylates into metastable anhydrides driven by the irreversible consumption of carbodiimide fuels. The anhydrides hydrolyse rapidly to the original dicarboxylates and are designed to assemble into hydrophobic colloids, hydrogels or inks. The spatiotemporal control over the formation and degradation of materials allows for the development of colloids that release hydrophobic contents in a predictable fashion, temporary self-erasing inks and transient hydrogels. Moreover, we show that each material can be re-used for several cycles.

  13. A Microelectromechanical High-Density Energy Storage/Rapid Release System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.

    1999-07-21

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  14. Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, Anna C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Whitesides, George M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials; Aranson, Igor S. [UChicago, LLC., Argonne, IL (United States); Chaikin, Paul [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogic, Zvonimir [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glotzer, Sharon [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Macromolecular Science and Engineering Physics; Hammer, Daniel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Irvine, Darrell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering; Little, Steven R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Parikh, Atul N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Stupp, Samuel [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Medicine. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Szostak, Jack [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2016-01-21

    Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.

  15. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  16. Dissipative fragmentation in a phase space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.; Di Toro, M.; Bonasera, A.; Gregoire, C.; Gulminelli, F.

    Semi-classical approaches have evidenced the role of one and two-body dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions. On the other hand, a substantial energy dissipation and some angular momentum transfer have been observed at moderate energy where a fragmentation process is the dominant reaction mechanism. In order to analyse main features of these reactions, we developed a phenomenological model taking into account phase space constraints. The transition between deep inelastic collisions and abrasion-like fragmentation is described and a general agreement with available data is found.

  17. Quantum Dissipative Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi

  18. Plasma Heating by Pedersen Current Dissipation From the Photosphere to the Upper Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M. L.

    2002-12-01

    An MHD model is used to estimate the contribution of Pedersen current dissipation, as a function of height z, to plasma heating from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere. The model computes the particle diffusion velocities, normalized to the local drift velocity, transverse to a vertical magnetic field for a seven species plasma of electrons, protons, a proxy heavy ion, HeI, HeII, HeIII, and H. The proxy heavy ion is a single species representation of singly ionized C, Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Na, and Ca. The temperature and particle densities as functions of z are given by VAL model C. Collisions between all unlike particle species are taken into account. The diffusion velocities are used to compute the heating rate per unit volume Q(z), normalized to the maximum possible heating rate per unit volume at height z, due to Pedersen current dissipation. Q is the fraction of energy in the current density perpendicular to the magnetic field that is dissipated by collisions. Solutions to the model suggest that: (i) The solar chromosphere above photospheric magnetic fields with strengths ~ 102 - 103 G is heated by Pedersen current dissipation; (ii) This heating mechanism first becomes effective at heights corresponding to the lower chromosphere as defined by VAL; (iii) It is the rapid increase of charged particle magnetization with height in the lower chromosphere that triggers the rapid onset of intense heating by Pedersen current dissipation, where the magnetization is the ratio of the cyclotron frequency to the total collision frequency with unlike particles; (iv) Q(z) rapidly decreases to zero for z > ~ 2100 km due to strong magnetization transforming the current perpendicular to the magnetic field into a Hall current, which is not dissipative; (v) The protons and the proxy heavy ions carry essentially all of the Pedersen current. These results suggest that network and internetwork regions of the chromosphere are heated by Pedersen current dissipation. The model does not

  19. Dissipative in quantum mesoscopic RLC circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Pahlavani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is investigated. Taking the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian in studding quantum mechanics of dissipative systems, we obtain the persistent current and the energy spectrum of a damped quantum LC-design mesoscopic circuit under the influence of a time-dependent external field.

  20. Influence of nuclear dissipation on fission dynamics of the excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... The magnitude of nuclear dissipation is one of the most interesting and challenging problems in nuclear physics, particularly in low and intermediate energy regions of heavy ion physics. At present, there are sev- eral models for dissipation but they give dependences which are very different from each other ...

  1. Early dissipation and viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Bozek, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We consider dissipative phenomena due to the relaxation of an initial anisotropic local pressure in the fireball created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, both for the Bjorken boost-invariant case and for the azimuthally symmetric radial expansion with boost-invariance. The resulting increase of the entropy can be counterbalanced by a suitable retuning of the initial temperature. An increase of the transverse collective flow is observed. The influence of the shear viscosity on the longitu...

  2. Effects of Subscale Size and Shape on Global Energy Dissipation in a Multiscale Model of a Fiber-Reinforced Composite Exhibiting Post-Peak Strain Softening Using Abaqus and FEAMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan, J.; Bednarcyk, Brett, A.; Arnold, Steven, M.

    2012-01-01

    A mesh objective crack band model is implemented in the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics model to predict failure of a composite repeating unit cell (RUC). The micromechanics calculations are achieved using the MAC/GMC core engine within the ImMAC suite of micromechanics codes, developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The microscale RUC is linked to a macroscale Abaqus/Standard finite element model using the FEAMAC multiscale framework (included in the ImMAC suite). The effects of the relationship between the characteristic length of the finite element and the size of the microscale RUC on the total energy dissipation of the multiscale model are investigated. A simple 2-D composite square subjected to uniaxial tension is used to demonstrate the effects of scaling the dimensions of the RUC such that the length of the sides of the RUC are equal to the characteristic length of the finite element. These results are compared to simulations where the size of the RUC is fixed, independent of the element size. Simulations are carried out for a variety of mesh densities and element shapes, including square and triangular. Results indicate that a consistent size and shape must be used to yield preserve energy dissipation across the scales.

  3. Quantum dissipative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with the statistical mechanics and dynamics of open quantum systems moving irreversibly under the influence of a dissipative environment. The basic concepts and methods are described on the basis of a microscopic description with emphasis on the functional integral approach. The general theory for the time evolution of the density matrix of the damped system is developed. Many of the sophisticated ideas in the field are explained with simple models. The discussion includes, among others, the interplay between thermal and quantum fluctuations, quantum statistical decay, macrosco

  4. Spectral Characteristics of Wave Breaking and Dissipation in Combined Tsunami - Swell Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihatu, J. M.; Goertz, J.; Sheremet, A.; Weiss, R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that the front face of landfalling tsunamis often feature dispersive "fission" waves. These are short, almost monochromatic coherent waves which result from the piling up of water as the tsunami rapidly decelerates upon encountering land. Photographs taken during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami show these waves to resemble cnoidal waves in shape and have a spatial and temporal scale of the same order as swell waves. As part of our goal to study the tsunami in concert with other aspects of the physical environment, we investigate possible physical linkages between the background random swell, monochromatic fission waves, and the long-scale tsunami waves. This particular investigation involves the modification of the dissipation characteristics of random surface waves when interacting with a coherent wavefield (e.g., laboratory proxies for the fission wave or the tsunami). Data from laboratory experiments conducted at the Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University (part of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation supported by the National Science Foundation) were analyzed and the dissipation characteristics inferred using a steepness-regulated instantaneous dissipation mechanism. It is shown that, for random waves, the instances of significant dissipation events temporally correspond to the appearance of high frequency energy in the time-frequency spectrogram. Furthermore, these observations are strongly affected by the presence of an underlying coherent wave signal, particularly in the case of interaction with a tsunami. We further discuss the possible effect of these interactions on the forces in the hydrodynamic field responsible for sediment transport.

  5. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  6. High power free space optical link for rapid energy and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Design and experimental data for a high power laser diode based free space point-to-point optical power/data link is presented. In time critical power up applications, such as providing power and guidance information to a munition shell just prior to deployment, energy of the order of 100 J needs to be transferred in under 10 s. Current inductive technology is slow and broadcasts a radio-frequency signal which is undesirable for stealth operation. Rapid energy transfer times require high irradiance levels at the surface of the photovoltaic cells, typically, exceeding 1000X suns. Through efficient thermal design of heat sinks, high optical to electrical power conversion efficiencies of 50%, which are usually attainable at low power levels of 1 W, are achievable at higher power levels.

  7. Manipulating scattering of ultracold atoms with light-induced dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eLemeshko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been shown that pairs of atoms can form metastable bonds due to non-conservative forces induced by dissipation [Lemeshko&Weimer, Nature Comm. textbf{4}, 2230 (2013]. Here we study the dynamics of interaction-induced coherent population trapping -- the process responsible for the formation of dissipatively bound molecules. We derive the effective dissipative potentials induced between ultracold atoms by laser light, and study the time evolution of the scattering states. We demonstrate that binding occurs on short timescales of $sim10~mu$s, even if the initial kinetic energy of the atoms significantly exceeds the depth of the dissipative potential. Dissipatively-bound molecules with preordained bond lengths and vibrational wavefunctions can be created and detected in current experiments with ultracold atoms.

  8. Energy Flow and Rapidity Gaps Between Jets in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boehme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dijet events in photon-proton collisions in which there is a large pseudorapidity separation Delta eta > 2.5 between the two highest E_T jets are studied with the H1 detector at HERA. The inclusive dijet cross sections are measured as functions of the longitudinal momentum fractions of the proton and photon which participate in the production of the jets, x_pjet and x_gjet respectively, Delta eta, the pseudorapidity separation between the two highest E_T jets, and E_T^gap, the total summed transverse energy between the jets. Rapidity gap events are defined as events in which E_T^gap is less than E_T^cut, for E_T^cut varied between 0.5 and 2.0 GeV. The fraction of dijet events with a rapidity gap is measured differentially in Delta eta, x_pjet and x_gjet. An excess of events with rapidity gaps at low values of E_T^cut is observed above the expectation from standard photoproduction processes. This excess can be explained by the exchange of a strongly interacting colour singlet object between the jets.

  9. The Taylor-Proudman column in a rapidly-rotating compressible fluid I. energy transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang [Halla University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A theoretical study is made of the steady flow of a compressible fluid in a rapidly rotating finite cylinder. Flow is generated by imposing mechanical and/or thermal disturbances at the rotating endwall disks. Both the Ekman and Rossby numbers are small. An examination is made of the energy budget for a control volume in the Ekman boundary layer. A combination of physical variables, which is termed the energy flux content, consisting of temperature and modified angular momentum, emerges to be relevant. The distinguishing features of a compressible fluid, in contrast to those of an incompressible fluid, are noted. A plausible argument is given to explain the difficulty in achieving the Taylor-Proudman column in a compressible rotating fluid. For the Taylor-Proudman column to be sustained, in the interior, it is shown that the net energy transport between the solid disk wall and the interior fluid should vanish. Physical rationalizations are facilitated by resorting to the concept of the afore-stated energy flux content.

  10. Estimating half-lives for pesticide dissipation from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Gillespie, Brenda W; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide risk and impact assessment models critically rely on and are sensitive to information describing dissipation from plants. Despite recent progress, experimental data are not available for all relevant pesticide-plant combinations, and currently no model predicting plant dissipation accounts for the influence of substance properties, plant characteristics, temperature, and study conditions. In this study, we propose models to estimate half-lives for pesticide dissipation from plants and provide recommendations for how to use our results. On the basis of fitting experimental dissipation data with reported average air temperatures, we estimated a reaction activation energy of 14.25 kJ/mol and a temperature coefficient Q10 of 1.22 to correct dissipation from plants for the influence of temperature. We calculated a set of dissipation half-lives for 333 substances applied at 20 °C under field conditions. Half-lives range from 0.2 days for pyrethrins to 31 days for dalapon. Parameter estimates are provided to correct for specific plant species, temperatures, and study conditions. Finally, we propose a predictive regression model for pesticides without available measured dissipation data to estimate half-lives based on substance properties at the level of chemical substance class. Estimated half-lives from our study are designed to be applied in risk and impact assessment models to either directly describe dissipation or as first proxy for describing degradation.

  11. Anisotropic Characteristics of Turbulence Dissipation in Swirling Flow: A Direct Numerical Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the anisotropic characteristics of turbulent energy dissipation rate in a rotating jet flow via direct numerical simulation. The turbulent energy dissipation tensor, including its eigenvalues in the swirling flows with different rotating velocities, is analyzed to investigate the anisotropic characteristics of turbulence and dissipation. In addition, the probability density function of the eigenvalues of turbulence dissipation tensor is presented. The isotropic subrange of PDF always exists in swirling flows relevant to small-scale vortex structure. Thus, with remarkable large-scale vortex breakdown, the isotropic subrange of PDF is reduced in strongly swirling flows, and anisotropic energy dissipation is proven to exist in the core region of the vortex breakdown. More specifically, strong anisotropic turbulence dissipation occurs concentratively in the vortex breakdown region, whereas nearly isotropic turbulence dissipation occurs dispersively in the peripheral region of the strong swirling flows.

  12. Visualization of the dissipation of energy during the cutting process. Presentation of energy value flows by means of dual energy signatures; Energieverschwendung beim Zerspanungsprozess sichtbar machen. Darstellung von Energiewertstroemen mittels dualer Energiesignaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillig, Rainer [Hochschule Aalen (Germany). Professur Fertigungsorganisation und Prozessmanagement; Kalhoefer, Eckehard [Hochschule Aalen (Germany). Stiftungslehrstuhl Spanende Fertigung; Stock, Timo [Hochschule Aalen (Germany). Studiengang Maschinenbau/Produktion und Management

    2012-09-15

    Lean production systems are the minimization of wastage. Therefore, process steps are divided in value-added and non-value-added process steps. Using the value stream analysis non-value-adding process shares can be identified easily.The main aim usually are the two factors processing time and inventory. By means of a cutting process, the authors of the paper under consideration report on a method which divides the process-related utilization of energy in value-adding and non-value-adding energy use. Due to the dual consideration of energy use, the energy consumption can be easily integrated in the value stream analysis.

  13. Rapidly switching multidirectional defibrillation: reversal of ventricular fibrillation with lower energy shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Marcelo A; Bassani, Rosana A; Petrucci, Orlando; Marques, Denilson A; Bassani, José Wilson M

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac arrest after open surgery has an incidence of approximately 3%, of which more than 50% of the cases are due to ventricular fibrillation. Electrical defibrillation is the most effective therapy for terminating cardiac arrhythmias associated with unstable hemodynamics. The excitation threshold of myocardial microstructures is lower when external electrical fields are applied in the longitudinal direction with respect to the major axis of cells. However, in the heart, cell bundles are disposed in several directions. Improved myocardial excitation and defibrillation have been achieved by applying shocks in multiple directions via intracardiac leads, but the results are controversial when the electrodes are not located within the cardiac chambers. This study was designed to test whether rapidly switching shock delivery in 3 directions could increase the efficiency of direct defibrillation. A multidirectional defibrillator and paddles bearing 3 electrodes each were developed and used in vivo for the reversal of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation in an anesthetized open-chest swine model. Direct defibrillation was performed by unidirectional and multidirectional shocks applied in an alternating fashion. Survival analysis was used to estimate the relationship between the probability of defibrillation and the shock energy. Compared with shock delivery in a single direction in the same animal population, the shock energy required for multidirectional defibrillation was 20% to 30% lower (P < .05) within a wide range of success probabilities. Rapidly switching multidirectional shock delivery required lower shock energy for ventricular fibrillation termination and may be a safer alternative for restoring cardiac sinus rhythm. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bifurcations in dissipative fermionic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Paolo; Colonna, Maria; Di Prima, Mariangela

    2014-05-01

    The Boltzmann-Langevin One-Body model (BLOB), is a novel one-body transport approach, based on the solution of the Boltzmann-Langevin equation in three dimensions; it is used to handle large-amplitude phase-space fluctuations and has a broad applicability for dissipative fermionic dynamics. We study the occurrence of bifurcations in the dynamical trajectories describing heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies. The model, applied to dilute systems formed in such collisions, reveals to be closer to the observation than previous attempts to include a Langevin term in Boltzmann theories. The onset of bifurcations and bimodal behaviour in dynamical trajectories, determines the fragment-formation mechanism. In particular, in the proximity of a threshold, fluctuations between two energetically favourable mechanisms stand out, so that when evolving from the same entrance channel, a variety of exit channels is accessible. This description gives quantitative indications about two threshold situations which characterise heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies. First, the fusion-to-multifragmentation threshold in central collisions, where the system either reverts to a compact shape, or splits into several pieces of similar sizes. Second, the transition from binary mechanisms to neck fragmentation (in general, ternary channels), in peripheral collisions.

  15. The Warburg effect as an adaptation of cancer cells to rapid fluctuations in energy demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamir Epstein

    Full Text Available To maintain optimal fitness, a cell must balance the risk of inadequate energy reserve for response to a potentially fatal perturbation against the long-term cost of maintaining high concentrations of ATP to meet occasional spikes in demand. Here we apply a game theoretic approach to address the dynamics of energy production and expenditure in eukaryotic cells. Conventionally, glucose metabolism is viewed as a function of oxygen concentrations in which the more efficient oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O produces all or nearly all ATP except under hypoxic conditions when less efficient (2 ATP/ glucose vs. about 36ATP/glucose anaerobic metabolism of glucose to lactic acid provides an emergency backup. We propose an alternative in which energy production is governed by the complex temporal and spatial dynamics of intracellular ATP demand. In the short term, a cell must provide energy for constant baseline needs but also maintain capacity to rapidly respond to fluxes in demand particularly due to external perturbations on the cell membrane. Similarly, longer-term dynamics require a trade-off between the cost of maintaining high metabolic capacity to meet uncommon spikes in demand versus the risk of unsuccessfully responding to threats or opportunities. Here we develop a model and computationally explore the cell's optimal mix of glycolytic and oxidative capacity. We find the Warburg effect, high glycolytic metabolism even under normoxic conditions, is represents a metabolic strategy that allow cancer cells to optimally meet energy demands posed by stochastic or fluctuating tumor environments.

  16. A simple model for electron dissipation in trapped ion turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, M.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Drouot, T.; Diamond, P. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Réveillé, T.; Gravier, E.; Garbet, X.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2017-01-01

    Trapped ion resonance-driven turbulence is investigated in the presence of electron dissipation in a simplified tokamak geometry. A reduced gyrokinetic bounce-averaged model for trapped ions is adopted. Electron dissipation is modeled by a simple phase-shift δ between density and electric potential perturbations. The linear eigenfunction features a peak at the resonant energy, which becomes stronger with increasing electron dissipation. Accurately resolving this narrow peak in numerical simulation of the initial-value problem yields a stringent lower bound on the number of grid points in the energy space. Further, the radial particle flux is investigated in the presence of electron dissipation, including kinetic effects. When the density gradient is higher than the temperature gradient, and the phase-shift is finite but moderate ( δ≈0.02 ), the particle flux peaks at an order-of-magnitude above the gyro-Bohm estimate. Slight particle pinch is observed for δ<0.003 .

  17. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  18. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  19. Surge in the heating market. Renewable energies rapidly gaining market share; Wende im Waermemarkt. Erneuerbare Energien gewinnen rasant an Marktanteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk; Hein, Thomas; Gatena, Jens [trend:research GmbH Institut fuer Trend- und Marktforschung, Bremen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The proportion of heat produced from renewable energies is rapidly growing in Germany. The main reasons for this dynamic development are governmental funds for heating technologies based on renewable energy, the growing importance attached by large parts of the population to environmentally responsible energy production and the rising costs of fossil fuels. Biomass plants, solar thermal installations and heat pumps will be widely used in upcoming refurbishment and new building projects, as a recent study shows.

  20. Deep Rapid Optical Follow-Up of Gravitational Wave Sources with the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart associated with a gravitational wave detection by the Advanced LIGO and VIRGO interferometers is one of the great observational challenges of our time. The large localization regions and potentially faint counterparts require the use of wide-field, large aperture telescopes. As a result, the Dark Energy Camera, a 3.3 sq deg CCD imager on the 4-m Blanco telescope at CTIO in Chile is the most powerful instrument for this task in the Southern Hemisphere. I will report on the results from our joint program between the community and members of the dark energy survey to conduct rapid and efficient follow-up of gravitational wave sources. This includes systematic searches for optical counterparts, as well as developing an understanding of contaminating sources on timescales not normally probed by traditional untargeted supernova surveys. I will additionally comment on the immense science gains to be made by a joint detection and discuss future prospects from the standpoint of both next generation wide-field telescopes and next generation gravitational wave detectors.

  1. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  2. Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Christian

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  3. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-09

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  4. Practical lesson of Photosynthesis: A demonstration of Hill reaction in chloroplasts with energy dissipation by fluorescence upon photosystems uncoupling or inhibition by Diuron herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Ravara Viviani

    2016-01-01

    During photosynthesis, the photochemical electron transfer process is easily demonstrated by the Hill reaction, where artificial electron acceptors are reduced by active chloroplasts suspensions in the presence of light.  However, the destiny of luminous energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in uncoupled or damaged photosystems is not usually demonstrated. Here we provide an adaptation of the classical Hill reaction using intact spinach chloroplasts, which includes the visualization of ene...

  5. Dissipative Effect and Tunneling Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadeb Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum Langevin equation has been studied for dissipative system using the approach of Ford et al. Here, we have considered the inverted harmonic oscillator potential and calculated the effect of dissipation on tunneling time, group delay, and the self-interference term. A critical value of the friction coefficient has been determined for which the self-interference term vanishes. This approach sheds new light on understanding the ion transport at nanoscale.

  6. Analysis of non-photochemical energy dissipating processes in wild type Dunaliella salina (green algae) and in zea1, a mutant constitutively accumulating zeaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipratum, Rutanachai; Melis, Anastasios; Svasti, Jisnuson; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2009-07-01

    Generally there is a correlation between the amount of zeaxanthin accumulated within the chloroplast of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and the degree of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Although constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin can help protect plants from photo-oxidative stress, organisms with such a phenotype have been reported to have altered rates of NPQ induction. In this study, basic fluorescence principles and the routinely used NPQ analysis technique were employed to investigate excitation energy quenching in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina, in both wild type (WT) and a mutant, zea1, constitutively accumulating zeaxanthin under all growth conditions. The results showed that, in D. salina, NPQ is a multi-component process consisting of energy- or DeltapH-dependent quenching (qE), state-transition quenching (qT), and photoinhibition quenching (qI). Despite the vast difference in the amount of zeaxanthin in WT and the zea1 mutant grown under low light, the overall kinetics of NPQ induction were almost the same. Only a slight difference in the relative contribution of each quenching component could be detected. Of all the NPQ subcomponents, qE seemed to be the primary NPQ operating in this alga in response to short-term exposure to excessive irradiance. Whenever qE could not operate, i.e., in the presence of nigericin, or under conditions where the level of photon flux is beyond its quenching power, qT and/or qI could adequately compensate its photoprotective function.

  7. Rapid energy modeling for existing buildings: Testing the business and environmental potential through an experiment at Autodesk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deodhar, Aniruddha; Stewart, Emma; Young, Rahul; Khan, Haider

    2010-09-15

    Retrofits of existing buildings represent a huge, growing market and an opportunity to achieve some of the most sizable and cost-effective carbon reductions in any sector of the economy. More 'zero energy' and 'carbon neutral' buildings are being conceived daily by combining energy efficiency measures with renewable energy technologies. However, for all the progress, the building industry faces technical and cost challenges in identifying the highest potential retrofit candidates. This presentation investigates one potential solution, a technology driven workflow called rapid energy modeling, to accelerate and scale the process of analyzing performance for existing buildings in prioritizing improvements.

  8. Magnetization dissipation in ferromagnets from scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brataas, Arne; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2011-08-01

    The magnetization dynamics of ferromagnets is often formulated in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The reactive part of this equation describes the response of the magnetization in terms of effective fields, whereas the dissipative part is parametrized by the Gilbert damping tensor. We formulate a scattering theory for the magnetization dynamics and map this description on the linearized LLG equation by attaching electric contacts to the ferromagnet. The reactive part can then be expressed in terms of the static scattering matrix. The dissipative contribution to the low-frequency magnetization dynamics can be described as an adiabatic energy pumping process to the electronic subsystem by the time-dependent magnetization. The Gilbert damping tensor depends on the time derivative of the scattering matrix as a function of the magnetization direction. By the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the fluctuations of the effective fields can also be formulated in terms of the quasistatic scattering matrix. The theory is formulated for general magnetization textures and worked out for monodomain precessions and domain-wall motions. We prove that the Gilbert damping from scattering theory is identical to the result obtained by the Kubo formalism.

  9. Energy Dissipation and the High-Strain Rate Dynamic Response of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Ensembles Grown on Silicon Wafer Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raju Mantena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic mechanical behavior and high-strain rate response characteristics of a functionally graded material (FGM system consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotube ensembles grown on silicon wafer substrate (VACNT-Si are presented. Flexural rigidity (storage modulus and loss factor (damping were measured with a dynamic mechanical analyzer in an oscillatory three-point bending mode. It was found that the functionally graded VACNT-Si exhibited significantly higher damping without sacrificing flexural rigidity. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB was used for determining the system response under high-strain rate compressive loading. Combination of a soft and flexible VACNT forest layer over the hard silicon substrate presented novel challenges for SHPB testing. It was observed that VACNT-Si specimens showed a large increase in the specific energy absorption over a pure Si wafer.

  10. 'Energy challenges multiply rapidly' and 'The Book of Numbers'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.; Cragg, C.

    2008-07-15

    In two articles attention is paid to statistical data on energy, focusing on the BP Statistical Review of World Energy. From the first article it appears that a number of worrying themes emerge from detailed energy data for 2007 published by BP and Cedigaz. With energy demand rising inexorably and supply struggling to keep up, prices are probably to remain high and volatile, We are not running short of hydrocarbons yet, but bringing reserves to market is becoming increasingly difficult. And carbon emissions continue to rise rapidly. The second article focuses on the annually published BP Statistical Review of World Energy. The Review has now been published for over 50 years and remains by far the most accessible source of global energy statistics available. Looking back to the earliest editions not only reveals the astonishing, almost exponential, increase in the world's energy demand, but also how the preoccupations of the oil industry have changed down the years.

  11. Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch; William H. Morrison

    2012-04-01

    Harmonic compensated synchronous detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from the HCSD technique were very similar to the changes observed from standardized impedance spectroscopy methods. Results from these studies, therefore, indicate that HCSD is a viable, rapid alternative approach to acquiring impedance spectra.

  12. Design of a seismic energy dissipator for an interruptor type 3AS2-45; Diseno de un disipador de energia sismica para un interruptor tipo 3AS2-45

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Felix, Jaime

    2004-02-15

    With the aid of the theory behind seismically isolated structures and the bi-linear behavior of an isolated system of Multiple Degrees of Freedom (MDOF), the information obtained on the spectral analysis is complemented with the purpose of simulating one itself for the design of a dissipator of seismic energy. The seismicity in the world is briefly explained, (in Mexico in special for the Geothermal Field of Cerro Prieto), the types of earthquakes, etc., to give way to a documentation of the state-of-the-art in advanced seismic resistant systems and to a procedure to establish the level of seismic qualification of electrical equipment from the level of seismic performance for the Mexican Republic. [Spanish] Con la ayuda de la teoria detras de estructuras aisladas sismicamente y el comportamiento bilineal de un sistema de aislamiento de Multiples Grados de Libertad (MDOF), se complementa la informacion recabada sobre el analisis espectral con el fin de simular uno propio para el diseno de un disipador de energia sismica. Se explica brevemente la sismicidad en el mundo, en Mexico, en especial el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, los tipos de sismos, etc., para dar paso a una documentacion del estado del arte en sistemas sismorresistentes avanzados y a un procedimiento para establecer el nivel de calificacion sismica de equipos electricos a partir del Nivel de desempeno sismico para la Republica Mexicana.

  13. Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    A fluid above the critical Rayleigh number is far from equilibrium and spontaneously organizes itself into patterns involving the collective motion of large numbers of molecules which are resisted by the viscosity of the fluid. No external template is involved in forming the pattern. In 1928 Pearson showed that Bénard's experiments were driven by variations in surface tension at the top of the fluid and the surface motions drove convection in the fluid. In this case, the surface organized itself AND the underlying fluid. Both internal buoyancy driven flow and flow driven by surface forces can be far-from-equilibrium self-organized open systems that receive energy and matter from the environment. In the Earth, the cold thermal boundary layer at the surface drives plate tectonics and introduces temperature, shear and pressure gradients into the mantle that drive mantle convection. The mantle provides energy and material but may not provide the template. Plate tectonics is therefore a candidate for a far-from-equilibrium dissipative self-organizing system. Alternatively, one could view mantle convection as the self-organized system and the plates as simply the surface manifestation. Lithospheric architecture also imposes lateral temperature gradients onto the mantle which can drive and organize flow. Far-from-equilibrium self-organization requires; an open system, interacting parts, nonlinearities or feedbacks, an outside steady source of energy or matter, multiple possible states and a source of dissipation. In uniform fluids viscosity is the source of dissipation. Sources of dissipation in the plate system include bending, breaking, folding, shearing, tearing, collision and basal drag. These can change rapidly, in contrast to plate driving forces, and introduce the sort of fluctuations that can reorganize far-from-equilibrium systems. Global plate reorganizations can alternatively be thought of as convective overturns of the mantle, or thermal weakening of plates

  14. Tidal Dissipation in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    Short-period extrasolar giant planets (hot Jupiters) experience periods of strong tidal dissipation. It is not well known whether tidal energy is deposited primarily in the deep interior or the surface layers of these planets, or what effect the location of tidal heating has on their evolution and observable properties (e.g. radii, spectra, and rate of mass loss in a planetary wind). I present a study of the local tidal heating rate as a function of latitude and depth in the radiative envelope and atmosphere (between pressure levels of about 1 kilobar and 0.001 microbars). Results are based on a nonadiabatic linear analysis of the tide in this region, which takes the form of an upward-propagating train of inertial-gravity waves excited at the interface between the convective interior and the stably-stratified envelope. Radiative damping dominates the dissipation. Careful attention is paid to the computation of the radiative relaxation timescale, using nongray radiative transfer to transition smoothly from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. The potential exists for conversion from inertial-gravity waves to pure inertial waves in the presence of strong radiative damping. This raises the possibility that a significant tidal energy flux can be transported as high as the base of the thermosphere, where it would contribute to driving atmospheric escape. Results can be used to chart local tidal heating rates over the lifetime of a hot Jupiter as its orbit and rotation rate evolve. Although the potential for high-altitude tidal heating is intriguing, I find that over a wide range of orbital parameters the bulk of the energy flux is dissipated nearer the IR photosphere. Tidal heating at those heights (around 0.1-10 bars) has the greatest potential to affect the emergent spectrum, and is least likely to slow the planet's rate of contraction.

  15. Dissipative systems in a non-dissipative framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Umapada; Saha, Aparna; Ghosh, Subrata; Talukdar, Benoy

    2013-06-01

    Dissipative systems do not have a natural space in the variational formulation of mechanics. We introduce a change of variables such that in the transformed frame the dissipative Newtonian equations mimic those for conservative systems. We present solutions of (a) a linearly damped harmonic oscillator, (b) the corresponding quadratically damped system, (c) a modified Emden-type equation and (d) a generalized Emden equation using their first integrals and deal with the corresponding inverse variational problem to derive Lagrangian and Hamiltonian representations. We confirm that, as opposed to the original damped equations, the reduced equations can be solved by the use of Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  16. Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Patricia; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; DiCarlo, David A.; Bauters, Tim W. J.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Baveye, Philippe

    1998-11-01

    Understanding soil swelling is hampered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring water content and bulk density. A number of studies have used dual-energy gamma rays to investigate soil swelling. The long counting time of this technique makes it impracticable for studying the rapid changes in moisture content and soil swelling shortly after infiltration is initiated. In this paper, we use the dual-energy synchrotron X ray to measure, for the first time, the water content and bulk density changes during the fast, initial phase of the swelling process. Ponded infiltration experiments were performed with two soils: a bentonite-sand mixture and a vertisol. Swelling curves and hydraulic diffusivity were determined. Deformation was very rapid immediately after water application and then became progressively slower. The hydraulic diffusivity decreased with time, which can partially explain the very rapid decrease in infiltration rates observed in the field.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments FOCUS ON QUANTUM DISSIPATION IN UNCONVENTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Milena; Paladino, Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Quantum dissipation has been the object of study within the physics and chemistry communities for many years. Despite this, the field is in constant evolution, largely due to the fact that novel systems where the understanding of dissipation and dephasing processes is of crucial importance have become experimentally accessible in recent years. Among the ongoing research themes, we mention the defeat of decoherence in solid state-based quantum bits (qubits) (e.g. superconducting qubits or quantum dot based qubits), or dissipation due to non-equilibrium Fermi reservoirs, as is the case for quantum transport through meso- and nanoscale structures. A close inspection of dissipation in such systems reveals that one has to deal with 'unconventional' environments, where common assumptions of, for example, linearity of the bath and/or equilibrium reservoir have to be abandoned. Even for linear baths at equilibrium it might occur that the bath presents some internal structure, due, for example, to the presence of localized bath modes. A large part of this focus issue is devoted to topics related to the rapidly developing fields of quantum computation and information with solid state nanodevices. In these implementations, single and two-qubit gates as well as quantum information transmission takes place in the presence of broadband noise that is typically non-Markovian and nonlinear. On both the experimental and theory side, understanding and defeating such noise sources has become a crucial step towards the implementation of efficient nanodevices. On a more fundamental level, electron and spin transport through quantum dot nanostructures may suffer from 'unconventional' dissipation mechanisms such as the simultaneous presence of spin relaxation and fermionic dissipation, or may represent themselves out of equilibrium baths for nearby mesoscopic systems. Finally, although not expected from the outset, the present collection of articles has revealed that different

  18. Explicitly modelled deep-time tidal dissipation and its implication for Lunar history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A. M.; Huber, M.; Waltham, D.; Buzan, J.; Wells, M.

    2017-03-01

    Dissipation of tidal energy causes the Moon to recede from the Earth. The currently measured rate of recession implies that the age of the Lunar orbit is 1500 My old, but the Moon is known to be 4500 My old. Consequently, it has been proposed that tidal energy dissipation was weaker in the Earth's past, but explicit numerical calculations are missing for such long time intervals. Here, for the first time, numerical tidal model simulations linked to climate model output are conducted for a range of paleogeographic configurations over the last 252 My. We find that the present is a poor guide to the past in terms of tidal dissipation: the total dissipation rates for most of the past 252 My were far below present levels. This allows us to quantify the reduced tidal dissipation rates over the most resent fraction of lunar history, and the lower dissipation allows refinement of orbitally-derived age models by inserting a complete additional precession cycle.

  19. Dynamo action in dissipative, forced, rotating MHD turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, John V. [Astromaterials Research Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058-3696 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is an inherent feature of large-scale, energetic astrophysical and geophysical magnetofluids. In general, these are rotating and are energized through buoyancy and shear, while viscosity and resistivity provide a means of dissipation of kinetic and magnetic energy. Studies of unforced, rotating, ideal (i.e., non-dissipative) MHD turbulence have produced interesting results, but it is important to determine how these results are affected by dissipation and forcing. Here, we extend our previous work and examine dissipative, forced, and rotating MHD turbulence. Incompressibility is assumed, and finite Fourier series represent turbulent velocity and magnetic field on a 64{sup 3} grid. Forcing occurs at an intermediate wave number by a method that keeps total energy relatively constant and allows for injection of kinetic and magnetic helicity. We find that 3-D energy spectra are asymmetric when forcing is present. We also find that dynamo action occurs when forcing has either kinetic or magnetic helicity, with magnetic helicity injection being more important. In forced, dissipative MHD turbulence, the dynamo manifests itself as a large-scale coherent structure that is similar to that seen in the ideal case. These results imply that MHD turbulence, per se, may play a fundamental role in the creation and maintenance of large-scale (i.e., dipolar) stellar and planetary magnetic fields.

  20. Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2009-06-18

    Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.

  1. Fundamental study on the new method to estimate vibration level on a ship. Formulation of the damping matrix based on dissipation energy caused by fluid viscosity; Senpaku no shindo level suitei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Ryutai no nensei ni yoru san`itsu energy ni motozuku gensui matrix no teishikika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Viscosity and dissipative hydrodynamics from effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Polonyi, Janos

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of deriving dissipative hydrodynamics from an action, we study classical actions for open systems, which follow from the generic structure of effective actions in the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path (CTP) formalism with two time axes and a doubling of degrees of freedom. The central structural feature of such effective actions is the coupling between degrees of freedom on the two time axes. This reflects the fact that from an effective field theory point of view, dissipation is the loss of energy of the low-energy hydrodynamical degrees of freedom to the integrated-out, UV degrees of freedom of the environment. The dynamics of only the hydrodynamical modes may therefore not possess a conserved stress-energy tensor. After a general discussion of the CTP effective actions, we use the variational principle to derive the energy-momentum balance equation for a dissipative fluid from an effective Goldstone action of the long-range hydrodynamical modes. Despite the absence of conserved energy and momentum, we show that we can construct the first-order dissipative stress-energy tensor and derive the Navier-Stokes equations near hydrodynamical equilibrium. The shear viscosity is shown to vanish in the classical theory under consideration, while the bulk viscosity is determined by the form of the effective action. We also discuss the thermodynamics of the system and analyze the entropy production.

  3. Nonlinear and Dissipation Characteristics of Ocean Surface Waves in Estuarine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    models (viscous fluid , viscoelastic semi-rigid bed, Bingham plastic) for wave/ mud interaction and mud -induced dissipation. These proxy models for mud ...the development of computational modules for the dissipation of surface wave energy due to expanses of bottom mud and marshland vegetation. The...computational models for detailed, phase-resolved predictions of wave dissipation in estuarine areas. These models will include various mud proxy

  4. Kinetic scale turbulence and dissipation in the solar wind: key observational results and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wicks, R. T.; Perri, S.; Sahraoui, F.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in the solar wind. Turbulence causes kinetic and magnetic energy to cascade to small scales where they are eventually dissipated, adding heat to the plasma. The details of how this occurs are not well understood. This article reviews the evidence for turbulent dissipation and examines various diagnostics for identifying solar wind regions where dissipation is occurring. We also discuss how future missions will further enhance our understanding of the importance of turbulence to solar wind dynamics. PMID:25848084

  5. Dissipative entanglement of solid-state spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Yang, Sen; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Generating robust entanglement among solid-state spins is key for applications in quantum information processing and precision sensing. Here we show a dissipative approach to generate such entanglement among the hyperfine coupled electron nuclear spins using the rapid optical decay of electronic excited states. The combined dark state interference effects of the optical and microwave driving fields in the presence of spontaneous emission from the short-lived excited state leads to a dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that the dissipative entanglement is generated for any initial state conditions of the spins and is resilient to external field fluctuations. We analyze the scheme for both continuous and pulsed driving fields in the presence of realistic noise sources.

  6. Memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, H L

    2002-01-01

    A macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation is employed for a theoretical description of low-energy dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei. The effect of two-body collisions leading to intrinsic equilibrium has been treated phenomenologically using the basic concepts of dissipative diabatic dynamics. The heavy-ion reaction sup 8 sup 6 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 Er has been as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes. Our calculated results for the deflection angle, angular distributions d sigma/d theta sub c sub m , energy distributions d sigma/d DELTA EPSILON, and element distributions d sigma/d ZETA illustrate a remarkable dependence on the memory effects and are consistent with the experimental data

  7. Mechanical dissipation at elevated temperatures in tetrahedral amorphous carbon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Wendt, Joel Robert

    2005-05-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of mechanical dissipation in tetrahedral amorphous carbon flexural and torsional resonators over the temperature range from 300 to 1023 K. The mechanical dissipation was found to be controlled by defects within the material, and the magnitude and temperature dependence of the dissipation were found to depend on whether flexural or torsional vibrational modes were excited. The defects that were active under flexural stresses have a relatively flat concentration from 0.4 to 0.7 eV with an ever increasing defect concentration up to 1.9 eV. Under shear stresses (torsion), the defect activation energies increase immediately beginning at 0.4 eV, with increasing defect concentration at higher energies.

  8. Cassini Can Constrain Tidal Dissipation in Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Fuller, Jim; Quataert, Eliot

    2017-10-01

    Tidal dissipation inside giant planets is important for the orbital evolution of their natural satellites. It is conventionally treated by parameterized equilibrium tidal the- ory, in which the tidal torque declines rapidly with distance, and orbital expansion was faster in the past. However, Lainey et al. (2017) find that some Saturnian satellites are currently migrating outward faster than predicted by equilibrium tidal theory. Reso- nance locking between satellites and internal oscillations of Saturn, proposed by Fuller et al. (2016), naturally matches the observed migration rates. Here, we show that the resonance locking theory predicts dynamical tidal perturbations to Saturn’s gravita- tional field in addition to those produced by equilibrium tidal bulges. We show that these perturbations can likely be detected during Cassini’s proximal orbits if migra- tion of satellites results from resonant gravity modes, but will likely be undetectable if migration results from inertial wave attractors or dissipation of the equilibrium tide. Additionally, we show that the detection of gravity modes would place constraints on the size of the hypothetical stably stratified region in Saturn.

  9. Dissipative effects in Multilevel Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, A I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Schirmer, S G [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Dissipation is sometimes regarded as an inevitable and regrettable presence in the real evolution of a quantum system. However, the effects may not always be malign, although often non-intuitive and may even be beneficial. In this note we we display some of these effects for N-level systems, where N = 2,3,4. We start with an elementary introduction to dissipative effects on the Bloch Sphere, and its interior, the Bloch Ball, for a two-level system. We describe explicitly the hamiltonian evolution as well as the purely dissipative dynamics, in the latter case giving the t {yields} {infinity} limits of the motion. This discussion enables us to provide an intuitive feeling for the measures of control-reachable states. For the three-level case we discuss the impossibility of isolating a two-level (qubit) subsystem; this is a Bohm-Aharonov type consequence of dissipation. We finally exemplify the four-level case by giving constraints on the decay of two-qubit entanglement.

  10. Temperature evolution during dissipative collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numerous models that noncausal transport equations predict thermodynamical behaviours that can be far .... A radiating model. Following Govender et al [10] we consider a model in which the star undergoes dissipative collapse and evolves to a stable equilibrium state. .... Govender et al [8,9] have shown that the choice.

  11. Rapid crystallization of a-Si:H films with various silicon-to-hydrogen bonding configurations using rapid energy transfer annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y.-L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yljiang@nchu.edu.tw; Chang, Y.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2006-04-03

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were prepared by changing substrate temperature of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to induce different contents of monohydride and polyhydride bonds, which were then crystallized into polysilicon (poly-Si) films by rapid energy transfer annealing. Fourier transform infrared and transmission spectra show that the formation of numerous polyhydride bonds increases the hydrogen content and reduces the refractive index of a-Si:H films. The rise in the concentration of polyhydride bonds in as-deposited a-Si:H films can result in the increase of ultraviolet reflectance, small peak shift, and change in full width at half maximum of Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction peaks of the obtained poly-Si films after annealing. These results demonstrate that high-concentration polyhydride bonds can promote the rapid crystallization of a-Si:H and obtain high-crystallinity poly-Si films. Transmission electron microscopy identifies that the poly-Si films have the typical dendrite-like grain structure.

  12. Active and energy-dependent rapid formation of cell aggregates in the thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Satoshi; Shimada, Keizo; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2002-03-05

    The thermophilic filamentous phototroph Chloroflexus aggregans was able to form a bacterial mat-like dense cell aggregate rapidly. The aggregate formation, which was observed in growing cells in a liquid medium in a bottle, occurred every time within 20-30 min after the cells were dispersed by shaking. The aggregation depended on the energy supplied by photosynthesis or respiration. Cells aggregated most rapidly under temperature and pH conditions that support maximum growth. The aggregation was also accelerated by the addition of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine that inhibits cyclic 3',5'-AMP phosphodiesterase. Microscopic observation revealed that the bacterium has a fast gliding mobility (1-3 microm s(-1)). The distinctive cell aggregation of C. aggregans was due to this rapid gliding movement.

  13. Tidal dissipation in rotating fluid bodies: the presence of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yufeng; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate effects of the presence of a magnetic field on tidal dissipation in rotating fluid bodies. We consider a simplified model consisting of a rigid core and a fluid envelope, permeated by a background magnetic field (either a dipolar field or a uniform axial field). The wave-like tidal responses in the fluid layer are in the form of magnetic Coriolis waves, which are restored by both the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force. Energy dissipation occurs through viscous damping and Ohmic damping of these waves. Our numerical results show that the tidal dissipation can be dominated by Ohmic damping even with a weak magnetic field. The presence of a magnetic field smooths out the complicated frequency dependence of the dissipation rate, and broadens the frequency spectrum of the dissipation rate, depending on the strength of the background magnetic field. However, the frequency-averaged dissipation is independent of the strength and structure of the magnetic field, and of the dissipative parameters in the approximation that the wave-like response is driven only by the Coriolis force acting on the non-wavelike tidal flow. Indeed, the frequency-averaged dissipation quantity is in good agreement with previous analytical results in the absence of magnetic fields. Our results suggest that the frequency-averaged tidal dissipation of the wave-like perturbations is insensitive to detailed damping mechanisms and dissipative properties.

  14. Study of the heat flux generated by accelerated electrons on the components near the plasma; Etude du flux de chaleur dissipe par les electrons rapides sur les composants proches du plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    Experimental data have shown that a heat flux appears on components situated near the wave guide of the lower hybrid antenna of Tore-Supra. This heat flux is due to the energy release during collisions that occur between the component surface and the electrons accelerated by the high frequency field generated by the antenna. Simulations show that the electrons may reach an energy of 2-3 keV and that the heat flux generated in the shield may reach 10 MW/m{sup 2}. In this work a correlation has been established between the local heat flux due to electron impact and the mean electrical field near the antenna: {phi} (W/m{sup 2}) = 4.10{sup -4} x E{sup -6} (10{sup 5} V/m). It is also shown that the ratio of electrons that reach the shield is roughly not dependent on the value of the mean electrical field. In the hypothesis of a Gaussian distribution of electron initial velocities this ratio is 10%. (A.C.)

  15. Rapid Determination of Biochar Energy Quality Based on Visible and Near-infrared Spectroscopy (400-1000nm)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Hai-Qing; Guo Geng-Xin; Ji Jian-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Rapid determination of biochar energy quality is fundamental for the purpose of biomass efficient utilization. In this work, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon content and calorific value of biochar samples produced at different pyrolysis temperatures from agricultural biomass feedstocks. Biochar samples were detected by a USB4000 spectrometer with 400-1000nm reflectance spectra recorded for investigation. The spectra were transformed...

  16. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby , Deborah, M.; Crossley, Stephen; Lake, Amelia; UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health (FUSE)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Design Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. Data sources 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. Results A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, invol...

  17. Power Dissipation Challenges in Multicore Floating-Point Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With increased densities on chips and the growing popularity of multicore processors and general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) power dissipation and energy consumption pose a serious challenge in the design of system-on-chips (SoCs) and a rise in costs for heat removal. In this work...

  18. Dynamic failure of high energy materials under compression and periodic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowski, Marisol; Grilli, Nicolo; Tanasoiu, Bogdan; Duarte Cordon, Camilo

    2017-06-01

    Polymer bonded explosives consist of high energetic particles in a polymeric binder. When these composites are subjected to heat, impact, friction, shock, or other initiation stimulus, they undergo a rapid chemical change. The sensitivity to initiation depends not only on the amount of energy available in the system but also on the rate at which available energy is released. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to predict the dissipated energy and its rate due to mechanical insults from accurate predictions of the deformation fields including localization, fracture and plasticity. The focus of this work is to study energy dissipation due to fracture and plasticity in high energy particles embeded in a polymer binder using finite elements. Numerical simulations of crack propagation under compressive load and dynamic excitation are performed with a phase field damage model. A systematic study of the energy release rate and initial microstructure is performed to analyze their repercussion on the dissipated energy and initiation. MURI-ONR.

  19. Rapid Detection of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens by Real-Time Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    dela Cruz, Wilfred P; Gozum, Mary M.A; Lineberry, Sarah F; Stassen, Sarah D; Daughtry, Marianne; Stassen, Nicholas A; Jones, Morris S; Johnson, Oswald L

    2006-01-01

    ...) produced by some strains during sporulation. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization chemistry that targets the C. perfringens...

  20. Thermoelastic dissipation in MEMS/NEMS flexural mode resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jize; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the energy dissipation mechanisms in single-crystal silicon MEMS/NEMS resonators are particularly important to maximizing an important figure of merit relevant for miniature sensor and signal processing applications: the Quality factor (Q) of resonance. This paper discusses thermoelastic dissipation (TED) as the dominant internal-friction mechanism in flexural mode MEMS/NEMS resonators. Criteria for optimizing the geometrical design of flexural mode MEMS/NEMS resonators are theoretically established with a view towards minimizing the TED for single-crystal silicon MEMS/NEMS flexural mode resonators.

  1. On rate-dependent dissipation effects in electro-elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Prashant; Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of large strain electro-viscoelastic deformations in electro-active polymers. Energy dissipation is assumed to occur due to mechanical viscoelasticity of the polymer as well as due to time-dependent effective polarisation of the material. Additive decomposition of the electric field $\\mathbb{E} = \\mathbb{E}_e + \\mathbb{E}_v$ and multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient $\\mathbf{F} = \\mathbf{F}_e \\mathbf{F}_v$ are proposed to model the internal dissipation mechanisms. The theory is illustrated with some numerical examples in the end.

  2. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy γ-Ray Variability in Blazars G. E. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the ideas and models proposed then to explain the origin of phenomenon ... 2012), producing a rapid succession of short γ-ray flares, as ... origin. Finally, we show a wide variety of light curves that are attainable in our model by changing within a reasonable range of values, the parameters related to different.

  3. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy -Ray Variability in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a family of models for rapid -ray variability in blazars based on a two-component jet. Fast variability occurs when relativistic electron–positron pairs interact with small-scale perturbations in the inner jet. These perturbations are produced by Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. We fit the minute-scale strong variability ...

  4. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  5. Dissipative Waves in Real Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Neelam; Sharma, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize a class of solutions to the unsteady 2-dimensional flow of a van der Waals fluid involving shock waves, and derive an asymptotic amplitude equation exhibiting quadratic and cubic nonlinearities including dissipation and diffraction. We exploit the theory of nonclassical symmetry reduction to obtain some exact solutions. Because of the nonlinearities present in the evolution equation, one expects that the wave profile will eventually encounter distortion and stee...

  6. Non-Equilibrium Quantum Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Dvira; Reichman, David R.; Millis, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Dissipative processes in non-equilibrium many-body systems are fundamentally different than their equilibrium counterparts. Such processes are of great importance for the understanding of relaxation in single molecule devices. As a detailed case study, we investigate here a generic spin-fermion model, where a two-level system couples to two metallic leads with different chemical potentials. We present results for the spin relaxation rate in the nonadiabatic limit for an arbitrary coupling to ...

  7. Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Halbertal, Dorri; Shalom, Moshe Ben; Embon, Lior; Shadmi, Nitzan; Anahory, Yonathan; Naren, HR; Sarkar, Jayanta; Uri, Aviram; Ronen, Yuval; Myasoedov, Yury; Levitov, Leonid; Joselevich, Ernesto; Geim, Andre Konstantin; Zeldov, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics distinguishing quantum and classical phenomena. In condensed matter physics, in particular, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information, or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Despite its vital importance the microscopic behavior of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because the latter is not a readily measureable quantity on the microscale. Although nanoscale thermometry is gaining much recent interest, the existing thermal imaging methods lack the necessary sensitivity and are unsuitable for low temperature operation required for study of quantum systems. Here we report a superconducting quantum interference nano-thermometer device with sub 50 nm diameter that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette and provides scanning cryogenic thermal se...

  8. Nanomechanical dissipation at a tip-induced Kondo onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Fabrizio, Michele; Tosatti, Erio

    2017-08-01

    The onset or demise of Kondo effect in a magnetic impurity on a metal surface can be triggered, as sometimes observed, by the simple mechanical nudging of a tip. Such a mechanically driven quantum phase transition must reflect in a corresponding mechanical dissipation peak; yet, this kind of signature has not been focused upon so far. Aiming at the simplest theoretical modeling, we treat the impurity as an Anderson impurity model, the tip action as a hybridization switching, and solve the problem by numerical renormalization group. Studying this model as function of temperature and magnetic field we are able to isolate the Kondo contribution to dissipation. While that is, reasonably, of the order of the Kondo energy, its temperature evolution shows a surprisingly large tail even above the Kondo temperature. The detectability of Kondo mechanical dissipation in atomic force microscopy is also discussed.

  9. Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Björn; Larsson, Josefin; Nymark, Tanja; Ryde, Felix; Pe'er, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. Here, we fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data, we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM (Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model), a table model for XSPEC. We show that this model can describe different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipation site.

  10. NLO Vertex for a Forward Jet plus a Rapidity Gap at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, Martin; Murdaca, Beatrice; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2015-01-01

    We present the calculation of the forward jet vertex associated to a rapidity gap (coupling of a hard pomeron to the jet) in the BFKL formalism at next-to-leading order (NLO). Real emission contributions are computed via Lipatov's effective action. The NLO jet vertex turns out to be finite within collinear factorization and allows, together with the NLO non-forward gluon Green's function, to perform NLO studies of jet production in diffractive events (e.g. Mueller-Tang dijets).

  11. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickman, B.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Burrows, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes...

  12. The rapid bi-level exploration on the evolution of regional solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy, solar energy is experiencing increased but exploratory development worldwide. The positive or negative influences of regional characteristics, like economy, production capacity and allowance policies, make them have uneven solar energy development. In this paper, we aim at quickly exploring the features of provincial solar energy development, and their concerns about solar energy. We take China as a typical case, and combine text mining and two-actor networks. We find that the classification of levels based on certain nodes and the amount of degree avoids missing meaningful information that may be ignored by global level results. Moreover, eastern provinces are hot focus for the media, western countries are key to bridge the networks and special administrative region has local development features; third, most focus points are more about the application than the improvement of material. The exploration of news provides practical information to adjust researches and development strategies of solar energy. Moreover, the bi-level exploration, which can also be expanded to multi-level, is helpful for governments or researchers to grasp more targeted and precise knowledge.

  13. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  14. Neural network training as a dissipative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Marco; Maggini, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyzes the practical issues and reports some results on a theory in which learning is modeled as a continuous temporal process driven by laws describing the interactions of intelligent agents with their own environment. The classic regularization framework is paired with the idea of temporal manifolds by introducing the principle of least cognitive action, which is inspired by the related principle of mechanics. The introduction of the counterparts of the kinetic and potential energy leads to an interpretation of learning as a dissipative process. As an example, we apply the theory to supervised learning in neural networks and show that the corresponding Euler-Lagrange differential equations can be connected to the classic gradient descent algorithm on the supervised pairs. We give preliminary experiments to confirm the soundness of the theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon; Olson, Britton; Greenough, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the flow evolution, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As described in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous energy transfer. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  17. Rapid and facile ratiometric detection of an anthrax biomarker by regulating energy transfer process in bio-metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihe; Li, Bin; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Liming; Zheng, Youxuan

    2016-11-15

    A ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on luminescent bio-metal-organic framework was prepared by exchanging both Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) cations into anionic bio-MOF-1. Due to a highly efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) (>89%), emission color of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 was orange-red even though Tb(3+) was the dominant content in this Tb/Eu co-doping material. More interestingly, this energy transfer process could be modulated by dipicolinic acid (DPA), an unique biomarker for bacillus spores. With DPA addition, corresponding DPA-to-Tb(3+) energy transfer was gradually enhanced while the energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) was significantly weakened. By regulating the energy transfer process in Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1, visual colorimetric sensing of DPA in porous MOF was realized for the first time. Detection limit of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 for DPA was 34nM, which was much lower than an infectious dosage of Bacillus anthracis spores (60μM) for human being. Besides, Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 showed a remarkable selectivity over other aromatic ligands and amino acids. More importantly, this porous ratiometric sensor worked equally well in human serum. These particularly attractive features of Tb/Eu@bio-MOF-1 made the direct, rapid and naked-eye detection of DPA for practical application possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulatory standards related to building energy conservation and indoor-air-quality during rapid urbanization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Yu, H.; Zhu, T. [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering; Zhang, J. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The number of airtight buildings equipped with air-conditioning units along with levels of energy consumption from residential and commercial buildings has both increased markedly in China since 1990 due to rapid economic growth and urbanization. During this same period, home refurbishment/decoration/remodeling activities in newly constructed or existing apartments have become very popular and brought attention to a wide range of health concerns. This paper reviews building energy-saving and indoor-air-quality (IAQ) related standards in China. In summary, the two systems of building energy-saving and IAQ-related standards have been already established separately, although Chinese IAQ standards contain some indices related to building ventilation and energy (e.g. fresh air volume, relative humidity, and temperature). Building energy-saving systems are applicable to buildings existing in a wide range of climatic conditions. Formaldehyde was selected as a pollution index in ''Chinese Evaluation Handbook of Ecological Residence Technology'' (promulgated in 2001) for buildings mainly contaminated with harmful compounds emitted from interior decorating materials. As part of its IAQ control strategy, China promulgated a series of IAQ-related standards and compulsory national standards for limits of harmful substances contained in interior decorative materials (LHSCIDM), which placed strong emphasis on source control. When enacting the IAQ-related standards, China adopted some of the standards used in developed countries and related international standards for reference. (author)

  19. Regulatory standards related to building energy conservation and indoor-air-quality during rapid urbanisation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Yu, H.; Zhu, T. [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, and Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The number of airtight buildings equipped with air-conditioning units along with levels of energy consumption from residential and commercial buildings has both increased markedly in China since 1990 due to rapid economic growth and urbanization. During this same period, home refurbishment/decoration/remodeling activities in newly constructed or existing apartments have become very popular and brought attention to a wide range of health concerns. This paper reviews building energy-saving and indoor-air-quality (IAQ) related standards in China. In summary, the two systems of building energy-saving and IAQ-related standards have been already established separately, although Chinese IAQ standards contain some indices related to building ventilation and energy (e.g. fresh air volume, relative humidity, and temperature). Building energy-saving systems are applicable to buildings existing in a wide range of climatic conditions. Formaldehyde was selected as a pollution index in 'Chinese Evaluation Handbook of Ecological Residence Technology' (promulgated in 2001) for buildings mainly contaminated with harmful compounds emitted from interior decorating materials. As part of its IAQ control strategy, China promulgated a series of IAQ-related standards and compulsory national standards for limits of harmful substances contained in interior decorative materials (LHSCIDM), which placed strong emphasis on source control. When enacting the IAQ-related standards, China adopted some of the standards used in developed countries and related international standards for reference. (author)

  20. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  1. Microscopic dissipative structuring and proliferation at the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, Karo

    2017-10-01

    Some fundamental molecules of life are suggested to have been formed, proliferated, and evolved through photochemical microscopic dissipative structuring and autocatalytic proliferation under the UV-C/UV-B solar environment prevalent at Earth's surface throughout the Archean. Evidence is given in the numerous salient characteristics of these, including their strong absorption in this spectral region and their rapid non-radiative excited state decay through inherent conical intersections. The examples of the dissipative structuring and dissipative proliferation of the purines and of single strand DNA are given. UV-C and UV-B-induced stationary state isomerizations and tautomerizations are shown to be crucial to the formation of the purines from hydrogen cyanide in an aqueous environment under UV-C light, while UV-C induced phosphorylation of nucleosides and denaturing of double helix RNA and DNA are similarly important to the production and proliferation of single strand DNA. This thermodynamic dissipation perspective provides a physical-chemical foundation for understanding the origin and evolution of life.

  2. Principle design of a protontherapy, rapid-cycling, variable energy spiral FFAG

    CERN Document Server

    Antoin, S; Beeckman, W; Collot, J; Conjat, M; Forest, F; Fourrier, J; Froidefond, E; Lancelot, J L; Mandrillon, J; Mandrillon, P; Méot, F; Mori, Y; Neuvéglise, D; Ohmori, C; Pasternak, J; Planche, f, T

    2009-01-01

    The FFAG method is nowadays seen as a potential candidate for the acceleration of protons and light ions for hadrontherapy. This has motivated the design of a principle protontherapy installation, in the frame of the RACCAM project. This article presents the design study, a medical spiral scaling FFAG assembly, capable of producing variable energy proton beams, with potentially high repetition and dose delivery rates.

  3. Tidal Dissipation in WASP-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Essick, Reed

    2017-11-01

    WASP-12 is a hot Jupiter system with an orbital period of P = 1.1 days, making it one of the shortest-period giant planets known. Recent transit timing observations by Maciejewski et al. and Patra et al. found a decreasing period with P/| \\dot{P}| = 3.2 Myr. This has been interpreted as evidence of either orbital decay due to tidal dissipation or a long-term oscillation of the apparent period due to apsidal precession. Here, we consider the possibility that it is orbital decay. We show that the parameters of the host star are consistent with either a M * ≃ 1.3 M ⊙ main sequence star or a M * ≃ 1.2 M ⊙ subgiant. We find that if the star is on the main sequence, the tidal dissipation is too inefficient to explain the observed \\dot{P}. However, if it is a subgiant, the tidal dissipation is significantly enhanced due to nonlinear wave-breaking of the dynamical tide near the star’s center. The subgiant models have a tidal quality factor Q{{\\prime} }* ≃ 2× {10}5 and an orbital decay rate that agrees well with the observed \\dot{P}. It would also explain why the planet survived for ≃3 Gyr while the star was on the main sequence and yet is now inspiraling on a 3 Myr timescale. Although this suggests that we are witnessing the last ∼0.1% of the planet’s life, the probability of such a detection is a few percent given the observed sample of ≃30 hot Jupiters in P 1.2 M ⊙ hosts.

  4. Biological effects of implanted nuclear energy sources for artificial heart devices. Progress report, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976. [Heat dissipation from /sup 238/Pu power sources implanted in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Wentworth, R.A.; Cady, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    A total of sixty dogs were implanted with radioisotope-powered artificial heart systems producing radiation fluxes similar to that of plutonium-238, but having no associated heat, at levels of from one to seventy times the radiation flux expected from a 30-watt plutonium-238 source. Results from studies lasting up to 6 years after implantation indicate that these animals, and by inference human beings, may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from 30-watt /sup 238/Pu power sources. Results of heat dissipation studies in calves indicate that it may be possible to induce a vascularized connective tissue capsule sufficient to dissipate 30 watts of additional heat from a surface area of approximately 500 cm sq., allowing a heat flux of 0.06 watts per cm sq.

  5. Dissipation, lag, and drift in driven fluctuating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzato, Diego

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with thermostated fluctuating systems subjected to driven transformations of the internal energetics. The main focus is on generally multidimensional systems with continuous configurational degrees of freedom over which overdamped Markovian fluctuations take place (diffusive regime of the motion). Mutual bounds are established between the average energy dissipation, the deviation between nonequilibrium probability density and underlying equilibrium distribution due to the system's lag, and the statistical properties of the components of the directed flow induced by the transformation itself. The directed flow is here expressed in terms of time-dependent "drift velocity" associated with the probability current in a advection-like formulation of the nonstationary Fokker-Planck equation. Consideration of the drift makes that the bounds achieved here extend the inequality derived by Vaikuntanathan and Jarzynski [Europhys. Lett. 87, 60005 (2009), 10.1209/0295-5075/87/60005] involving only dissipation and lag. The key relations are then specified for the so-called stochastic pumps, i.e., systems that reach a periodic steady state in response of cyclic transformations and that are prototypes of nonautonomous dissipative converters of input energy into directed motion; a one-dimensional case model is adopted to illustrate the main features. Complementary results concerning bounds between the evolution rates of dissipation and lag, valid for both overdamped and underdamped dynamics, are also presented.

  6. Scope-oriented thermoeconomic analysis of energy systems. Part I: Looking for a non-postulated cost accounting for the dissipative devices of a vapour compression chiller. Is it feasible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Fabio [DREAM - Department of Energy and Environmental Researches, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    The authors of the main thermoeconomic methodologies developed in the last two decades have recently focused their efforts on the analysis of dissipative devices, i.e. those components whose productive purpose is neither intuitive nor easy to define. Coherent and unanimously accepted cost structures have been identified for dissipative components, while ambiguities still exist as concerns the cost allocation principles to be adopted. Being this aspect evidently cost-influencing, accurate analyses focused on the subjectivity of results are needed. This paper is structured in two parts. In the Part I an in-depth study of some critical issues arising from the thermoeconomic analysis of a 1.5 MW{sub c} industrial chiller is presented. The attention is focused on the role of the condenser and the throttling valve (considered as a limit condition for an expander with very low isentropic efficiency); marginal analyses performed on the condensation pressure and the isentropic efficiency of the expander provided elements to assess the rational of the cost allocation principles. Attempting to refugee any cost allocation criterion based on postulates, the concept of Scope is identified as a possible non-arbitrary basis for cost allocation in dissipative devices; consequently, a new topology is defined, abandoning the conventional classification between dissipative and productive units, toward a new distinction between Product Makers and Product Takers functions. The proposed approach is applied to the cost accounting of the examined chiller, revealing inadequate and less explicative than the conventional thermoeconomic approaches due to its ''intrinsically differential'' nature. In the Part II of this paper the proposed approach will be applied to an Optimization problem, revealing very flexible and insightful. (author)

  7. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  8. Compressing turbulence and sudden viscous dissipation with compression-dependent ionization state

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent plasma flow, amplified by rapid 3D compression, can be suddenly dissipated under continuing compression. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the plasma viscosity to the temperature, $\\mu \\sim T^{5/2}$. The plasma viscosity is also sensitive to the plasma ionization state. We show that the sudden dissipation phenomenon may be prevented when the plasma ionization state increases during compression, and demonstrate the regime of net viscosity dependence on compression where sudden...

  9. Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.

  10. Rapid Determination of Biochar Energy Quality Based on Visible and Near-infrared Spectroscopy (400-1000nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hai-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of biochar energy quality is fundamental for the purpose of biomass efficient utilization. In this work, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon content and calorific value of biochar samples produced at different pyrolysis temperatures from agricultural biomass feedstocks. Biochar samples were detected by a USB4000 spectrometer with 400-1000nm reflectance spectra recorded for investigation. The spectra were transformed by Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by baseline offset correction (BOC. The BOC-transformed spectra of calibration set were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR algorithm for obtaining a PLSR calibration model for each biochar property. Prediction result shows that the PLSR models developed for 400-1000nm spectra achieve good prediction performance with coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.85, 0.86, 0.87 and residual prediction deviation (RPD of 2.61, 2.64, 2.85 for ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon content, respectively. For the prediction of biochar calorific value, the PLSR model developed for 400-780nm spectra performs better with R2 of 0.82 and RPD of 2.51 compared with the 400-1000nm spectra. It is suggested that biochar energy quality can be rapidly measured with acceptable accuracy based on a 400-1000nm spectrum which can be obtained by a low-cost spectrometer.

  11. Proposal of a New Method for Measuring Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET Rapidly, Quantitatively and Non-Destructively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Johannes Helm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of radiationless energy transfer from a chromophore in an excited electronic state (the “donor” to another chromophore (an “acceptor”, in which the energy released by the donor effects an electronic transition, is known as “Förster Resonance Energy Transfer” (FRET. The rate of energy transfer is dependent on the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor. Determining FRET efficiencies is tantamount to measuring distances between molecules. A new method is proposed for determining FRET efficiencies rapidly, quantitatively, and non-destructively on ensembles containing donor acceptor pairs: at wavelengths suitable for mutually exclusive excitations of donors and acceptors, two laser beams are intensity-modulated in rectangular patterns at duty cycle ½ and frequencies ƒ1 and ƒ2 by electro-optic modulators. In an ensemble exposed to these laser beams, the donor excitation is modulated at ƒ1, and the acceptor excitation, and therefore the degree of saturation of the excited electronic state of the acceptors, is modulated at ƒ2. Since the ensemble contains donor acceptor pairs engaged in FRET, the released donor fluorescence is modulated not only at ƒ1 but also at the beat frequency Δƒ: = |ƒ1 − ƒ2|. The depth of the latter modulation, detectable via a lock-in amplifier, quantitatively indicates the FRET efficiency.

  12. A rapid change in the low energy cut-off of Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. E.; Cordova, F.; Garmire, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Sco X-1 was observed on June 10, 1972 near 04 hr 33 min U.T. simultaneously in the optical (B) the soft X-ray (0.1 to 2.4 keV) and the X-ray (1.5 to 20 keV) bands of the spectrum. It is believed that a change of short duration in the absorbing medium associated with Sco X-1 was observed. The medium attenuating the low energy X-ray flux from Sco X-1 has apparently changed by more than 40% on a time scale of less than 45 sec.

  13. Dissipative heat engine is thermodynamically inconsistent

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Makarieva; Gorshkov, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    A heat engine operating on the basis of the Carnot cycle is considered, where the mechanical work performed is dissipated within the engine at the temperature of the warmer isotherm and the resulting heat is added to the engine together with an external heat input. The resulting work performed by the engine per cycle is increased at the expense of dissipated work produced in the previous cycle. It is shown that such a dissipative heat engine is thermodynamically inconsistent violating the fir...

  14. Interacting lattice systems with quantum dissipation: A quantum Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Pollet, Lode; Lou, Jie; Wang, Xiaoqun; Chen, Yan; Cai, Zi

    2018-01-01

    Quantum dissipation arises when a large system can be split in a quantum system and an environment to which the energy of the former flows. Understanding the effect of dissipation on quantum many-body systems is of particular importance due to its potential relationship with quantum information. We propose a conceptually simple approach to introduce dissipation into interacting quantum systems in a thermodynamical context, in which every site of a one-dimensional (1D) lattice is coupled off-diagonally to its own bath. The interplay between quantum dissipation and interactions gives rise to counterintuitive interpretations such as a compressible zero-temperature state with spontaneous discrete symmetry breaking and a thermal phase transition in a 1D dissipative quantum many-body system as revealed by quantum Monte Carlo path-integral simulations.

  15. Dissipation of sulfamethoxazole in pasture soils as affected by soil and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2014-05-01

    The dissipation of sulfamethoxazole (SMO) antibiotic in three different soils was investigated through laboratory incubation studies. The experiments were conducted under different incubation conditions such as initial chemical concentration, soil depth, temperature, and with sterilisation. The results indicate that SMO dissipated rapidly in New Zealand pasture soils, and the 50% dissipation times (DT50) in Hamilton, Te Kowhai and Horotiu soils under non-sterile conditions were 9.24, 4.3 and 13.33 days respectively. During the incubation period for each sampling event the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and the variation in microbial community were monitored thorough phospholipid fatty acid extraction analysis (PLFA). The DHA data correlated well with the dissipation rate constants of SMO antibiotic, an increase in the DHA activity resulted in faster antibiotic dissipation. The PLFA analysis was indicative of higher bacterial presence as compared to fungal community, highlighting the type of microbial community responsible for dissipation. The results indicate that with increasing soil depth, SMO dissipation in soil was slower (except for Horotiu) while with increase in temperature the antibiotic loss was faster, and was noticeable in all the soils. Both the degree of biological activity and the temperature of the soil influenced overall SMO dissipation. SMO is not likely to persist more than 5-6 months in all three soils suggesting that natural biodegradation may be sufficient for the removal of these contaminants from the soil. Its dissipation in sterile soils indicated abiotic factors such as strong sorption onto soil components to play a role in the dissipation of SMO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How Cassini can constrain tidal dissipation in Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Fuller, Jim; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-02-01

    Tidal dissipation inside giant planets is important for the orbital evolution of their natural satellites. It is conventionally treated by parametrized equilibrium tidal theory, in which the tidal torque declines rapidly with distance, and orbital expansion was faster in the past. However, some Saturnian satellites are currently migrating outward faster than predicted by equilibrium tidal theory. Resonance locking between satellites and internal oscillations of Saturn naturally matches the observed migration rates. Here, we show that the resonance locking theory predicts dynamical tidal perturbations to Saturn's gravitational field in addition to those produced by equilibrium tidal bulges. We show that these perturbations can likely be detected during Cassini's proximal orbits if migration of satellites results from resonant gravity modes, but will likely be undetectable if migration results from inertial wave attractors or dissipation of the equilibrium tide. Additionally, we show that the detection of gravity modes would place constraints on the size of the hypothetical stably stratified region in Saturn.

  17. Metriplectic Algebra for Dissipative Fluids in Lagrangian Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Materassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of dissipative fluids in Eulerian variables may be derived from an algebra of Leibniz brackets of observables, the metriplectic algebra, that extends the Poisson algebra of the frictionless limit of the system via a symmetric semidefinite component, encoding dissipative forces. The metriplectic algebra includes the conserved total Hamiltonian H, generating the non-dissipative part of dynamics, and the entropy S of those microscopic degrees of freedom draining energy irreversibly, which generates dissipation. This S is a Casimir invariant of the Poisson algebra to which the metriplectic algebra reduces in the frictionless limit. The role of S is as paramount as that of H, but this fact may be underestimated in the Eulerian formulation because S is not the only Casimir of the symplectic non-canonical part of the algebra. Instead, when the dynamics of the non-ideal fluid is written through the parcel variables of the Lagrangian formulation, the fact that entropy is symplectically invariant clearly appears to be related to its dependence on the microscopic degrees of freedom of the fluid, that are themselves in involution with the position and momentum of the parcel.

  18. Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding

    CERN Document Server

    Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-01-01

    Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the filament's foot, and the pore on the bacterium outer surface from where the filament is ejected. We prove that kinematic compatibility for shock propagation requires that the bacterium uniform gliding velocity (relative to the substrate) and the slime ejecting velocity (relative to the bacterium) must be equal, a coincidence that seems to have already been observed.

  19. Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G., E-mail: anderson@ecs.umass.edu

    2013-12-17

    Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.

  20. Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G.

    2013-12-01

    Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.

  1. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-05-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively.

  2. Tidal dissipation in the ice-ocean system on Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, H.; Sohl, F.; Van der Wal, W.; Steinke, T.; Hußmann, H.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate how the interior structure and dissipation of tidal energy on Enceladus affect the lateral layering of its outer ice shell. Structural models are created that satisfy the satellite's mean density and polar moment-of-inertia factor as derived from Cassini gravity field data. We particularly consider variations in core density, ice shell thickness and ocean composition. A partly dehydrated core is found to be consistent with current ice shell thickness estimates and power output measurements for Enceladus.

  3. Constraints on dissipative unified dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, Hermano [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, Goiabeiras, Vitória (Brazil); Schwarz, Dominik J., E-mail: velten@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Modern cosmology suggests that the Universe contains two dark components — dark matter and dark energy — both unkown in laboratory physics and both lacking direct evidence. Alternatively, a unified dark sector, described by a single fluid, has been proposed. Dissipation is a common phenomenon in nature and it thus seems natural to consider models dominated by a viscous dark fluid. We focus on the study of bulk viscosity, as isotropy and homogeneity at large scales implies the suppression of shear viscosity, heat flow and diffusion. The generic ansatz ξ∝ρ{sup ν} for the coefficient of bulk viscosity (ρ denotes the mass/energy density), which for ν = −1/2 mimics the ΛCDM background evolution, offers excellent fits to supernova and H(z) data. We show that viscous dark fluids suffer from large contributions to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (generalising a previous study by Li and Barrow) and a suppression of structure growth at small-scales (as seen from a generalized Meszaros equation). Based on recent observations, we conclude that viscous dark fluid models (with ξ∝ρ{sup ν} and neglecting baryons) are strongly challenged.

  4. Observed eddy dissipation in the Agulhas Current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braby, L

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Channel and south of Madagascar dissipate as they approach the Agulhas Current. By tracking the offshore position of the current core and its velocity at 30°S in relation to eddies, it is demonstrated that eddy dissipation occurs through a transfer...

  5. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  6. Transformation Heat Treatment of Rapidly Quenched Nb3A1 Precursor Monitored in situ by High Energy Synchrotron Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Di Michiel, M; Jin, X; Takeuchi, T; Kikuchi, A; Tsuchiya, K; Nakagawa, K; Nakamoto, T

    2013-01-01

    Nb3Al superconductors are studied for use in high field magnets. Fine grained Nb3Al with nearly stoichiometric Al content is obtained by a Rapid Heating Quenching and Transformation (RHQT) process. We describe a non destructive in situ study of the transformation process step of a RHQ Nb3Al precursor wire with ramp rates of either 120 °C/h or 800 °C/h. High energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements show the transformation from a Nb(Al)SS supersaturated solid solution into Nb3Al. When heating with a ramp rate of 120 °C/h a strong reduction of the Nb(Al)SS (110) diffraction peak component is observed when the temperature exceeds 660 °C. Additional diffraction peaks are detectable in the approximate temperature interval 610 °C - 750 °C and significant Nb3Al growth is observed above 730 °C.

  7. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  8. The Rapidity Distributions and the Thermalization Induced Transverse Momentum Distributions in Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jin Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that the quark-gluon plasma (QGP might be formed in the current heavy ion collisions. It is also widely recognized that the relativistic hydrodynamics is one of the best tools for describing the process of expansion and hadronization of QGP. In this paper, by taking into account the effects of thermalization, a hydrodynamic model including phase transition from QGP state to hadronic state is used to analyze the rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of identified charged particles produced in heavy ion collisions. A comparison is made between the theoretical results and experimental data. The theoretical model gives a good description of the corresponding measurements made in Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies.

  9. Dissipation of four forest-use herbicides at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mike; Cole, Elizabeth C; Tinsley, Ian J

    2008-10-01

    Large-scale deforestation is occurring in subarctic North America following clearing by salvage logging or insect attack. Numerous shrubs, herbs, and deciduous tree species tend to dominate areas on which stands of white spruce have grown. In the absence of economically advantageous mechanical methods, several herbicides have value in efforts to reforest by planting white spruce. Glyphosate, imazapyr, triclopyr, and hexazinone are all capable of selectively removing many competing species, but there is concern about whether they would degrade naturally or persist owing to the frigid climate. We established test plots with all four herbicides in upland and river bottom sites at 65 degrees N and 58 degrees N latitudes. The northern site has extremely cold winters, with soils that freeze to a depth of 1-2 m, and precipitation of 275 mm/year. The southern site has heavy rain and snowfall, amounting to 2,250 mm/year evenly distributed. Soil seldom freezes deeply. On each test plot, one of the four herbicides was applied at twice the normal operational use rate to facilitate detection. They were applied at the normal timing, with hexazinone, imazapyr, and triclopyr applied in June and glyphosate applied in fall. Soils were sampled immediately after treatment and those samples used as references for dissipation data gathered over the next 11-14 months from soil 0- to 15- and 15- to 45-cm depths. Dissipation rates did not follow first-order rates because freezing conditions slowed most microbial activity. All products dissipated to close to or below detection limits within the time of the study. Dissipation from vegetation was substantially more rapid and depended on the nature of the plants treated as well as the product used. While soil residues dissipated more slowly than in temperate regions, they did display consistent dissipation patterns during above-freezing conditions and also the influence of microbial activity. Mobility was very limited with all products but

  10. Energy dependence of forward-rapidity J/ψ and ψ(2S) production in pp collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Adamova, D. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez u Prahy (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst.; Aggarwal, M.M. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Physics Dept.; Collaboration: ALCE Collaboration; and others

    2017-06-15

    We present results on transverse momentum (p{sub t}) and rapidity (y) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive J/ψ and ψ(2S) at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4) as well as ψ(2S)-to-J/ψ cross section ratios. These quantities are measured in pp collisions at center of mass energies √(s) = 5.02 and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector. Both charmonium states are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel, using the muon spectrometer. A comprehensive comparison to inclusive charmonium cross sections measured at √(s) = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV is performed. A comparison to non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and fixed-order next-to-leading logarithm calculations, which describe prompt and non-prompt charmonium production respectively, is also presented. A good description of the data is obtained over the full p{sub t} range, provided that both contributions are summed. In particular, it is found that for p{sub t} > 15 GeV/c the non-prompt contribution reaches up to 50% of the total charmonium yield. (orig.)

  11. Energy dependence of forward-rapidity [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production in pp collisions at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; An, M; Andrei, C; Andrews, H A; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Anwar, R; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Ball, M; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barioglio, L; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Beltran, L G E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boca, G; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bonomi, G; Bonora, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buhler, P; Buitron, S A I; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Capon, A A; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Concas, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Costanza, S; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Duggal, A K; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eulisse, G; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabbietti, L; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Francisco, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gajdosova, K; Gallio, M; Galvan, C D; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garg, K; Garg, P; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Gay Ducati, M B; Germain, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Greiner, L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosa, F; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Gruber, L; Grull, F R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Guzman, I B; Haake, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, F; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hohlweger, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Hughes, C; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Isakov, V; Islam, M S; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacak, B; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jaelani, S; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jercic, M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Khatun, A; Khuntia, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Kileng, B; Kim, D; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, J; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kundu, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lapidus, K; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lavicka, R; Lazaridis, L; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lehner, S; Lehrbach, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Litichevskyi, V; Ljunggren, H M; Llope, W J; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Loncar, P; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lupi, M; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, J A L; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastroserio, A; Mathis, A M; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzilli, M; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Mhlanga, S; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mihaylov, D L; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Münning, K; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Myers, C J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Negrao De Oliveira, R A; Nellen, L; Nesbo, S V; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Ohlson, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Oravec, M; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pacik, V; Pagano, D; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Palni, P; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Panebianco, S; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, J; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Pathak, S P; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Peng, X; Pereira, L G; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pezzi, R P; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Poppenborg, H; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Pozdniakov, V; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Rana, D B; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Ratza, V; Ravasenga, I; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Rokita, P S; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Rotondi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rueda, O V; Rui, R; Russo, R; Rustamov, A; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Saarinen, S; Sadhu, S; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Saha, S K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sandoval, A; Sarkar, D; Sarkar, N; Sarma, P; Sas, M H P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Scheid, H S; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, M O; Schmidt, M; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sett, P; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Sheikh, A I; Shigaki, K; Shou, Q; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Sozzi, F; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stenlund, E; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Sumowidagdo, S; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Szabo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thakur, D; Thakur, S; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Tikhonov, A; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Tripathy, S; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Trzeciak, B A; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Umaka, E N; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vala, M; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vázquez Doce, O; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Velure, A; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Vértesi, R; Vickovic, L; Vigolo, S; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Voscek, D; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Willems, G A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Witt, W E; Yalcin, S; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zimmermann, S; Zinovjev, G; Zmeskal, J

    2017-01-01

    We present results on transverse momentum ([Formula: see text]) and rapidity ([Formula: see text]) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at forward rapidity ([Formula: see text]) as well as [Formula: see text]-to-[Formula: see text] cross section ratios. These quantities are measured in pp collisions at center of mass energies [Formula: see text] and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector. Both charmonium states are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel, using the muon spectrometer. A comprehensive comparison to inclusive charmonium cross sections measured at [Formula: see text], 7 and 8 TeV is performed. A comparison to non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and fixed-order next-to-leading logarithm calculations, which describe prompt and non-prompt charmonium production respectively, is also presented. A good description of the data is obtained over the full [Formula: see text] range, provided that both contributions are summed. In particular, it is found that for [Formula: see text] GeV/c the non-prompt contribution reaches up to 50% of the total charmonium yield.

  12. Precisely timing dissipative quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastoryano, Michael; Eisert, Jens [FU Berlin (Germany); Wolf, Michael [TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource, and consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that the protocols are typically independent of the initial state of the system. However, the time independent nature of this scheme makes it difficult to imagine precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements or error correction. In this work, we provide a path around these challenges, by introducing basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger and time dissipative operations, while keeping the system Liouvillian time-independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how measurement based computation can be simulated in the dissipative setting.

  13. Proposed method for the hydraulic design of ski-jump energy dissipators in dam spillways considering the occurrence of scour holes downstream of the structure; Metodo propuesto para el diseno hidraulico de trampolines empleados como disipadores de energia en aliviaderos para presas, considerando la ocurrencia del cono de socavacion al pie del mismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gomez, Rafael [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas (Cuba)

    2008-04-15

    Ski-jump energy dissipators are widely used in hydraulic engineering because of their well-known effectiveness. Nevertheless, some uncertainty exits associated with the dimensions of the scour hole appearing downstream of the structure. This paper presents a new method for solving this problem. This method includes spillway stability checking as part of the design process and also stability checking of any other construction near the energy dissipation zone. [Spanish] Los disipadores de energia tipo trampolin tienen amplia utilizacion en la practica de la ingenieria hidraulica por su probada eficacia; sin embargo, su diseno esta sujeto a cierto grado de incertidumbre en cuanto a la prediccion de las dimensiones del cono de socavacion que habra de producirse aguas abajo de la estructura. En el presente trabajo se muestra un metodo novedoso, mediante el cual el autor soluciona el aspecto antes referido, toda vez que se incluye como parte del proceso de diseno la comprobacion de la estabilidad del propio aliviadero o de cualquier otra obra cercana a la zona de disipacion de energia.

  14. Uncontrollable dissipative systems: observability and embeddability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikalan, Selvaraj; Belur, Madhu N.; Athalye, Chirayu D.; Razak, Rihab Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The theory of dissipativity is well developed for controllable systems. A more appropriate definition of dissipativity in the context of uncontrollable systems is in terms of the existence of a storage function, namely a function such that, along every system trajectory, its rate of change at each time instant is at most the power supplied to the system at that time. However, even when the supplied power is expressible in terms of just the external variables, the dissipativity property for uncontrollable systems crucially hinges on whether or not the storage function depends on variables unobservable/hidden from the external variables: this paper investigates the key aspects of both cases, and also proposes another intuitive definition of dissipativity. These three definitions are compared: we show that drawbacks of one definition are addressed by another. Dealing first with observable storage functions, under the conditions that no two uncontrollable poles add to zero and that dissipativity is strict as frequency tends to infinity, we prove that the dissipativities of a system and its controllable part are equivalent. We use the behavioural approach for formalising key notions: a system behaviour is the set of all system trajectories. We prove that storage functions have to be unobservable for 'lossless' uncontrollable systems. It is known, however, that unobservable storage functions result in certain 'fallacious' examples of lossless systems. We propose an intuitive definition of dissipativity: a system/behaviour is called dissipative if it can be embedded in a controllable dissipative superbehaviour. We prove embeddability results and use them to resolve the fallacy in the example termed 'lossless' due to unobservable storage functions. We next show that, quite unreasonably, the embeddability definition admits behaviours that are both strictly dissipative and strictly antidissipative. Drawbacks of the embeddability definition in the context of RLC circuits are

  15. Thermal sine-Gordon system in the presence of different types of dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Svensmark, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    The effects of thermal fluctuations on solitons and phonons of the sine-Gordon system are investigated in the presence of a αφt-βφxxt dissipation. The analysis requires the assumption of a more general autocorrelation function for the noise than the one used in previous works. We verify...... that this leads to the correct results for the average kinetic energies of solitons and phonons in the system. We also evaluate the linewidth for a Josephson oscillator in the presence of both α and β dissipation, and lastly we briefly discuss the extension of the theory to more general dissipative terms....

  16. Dissipation of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon Hydrolysate in a Model California Rice Field Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katryn L; Gladfelder, Joshua J; Quigley, Lindsay L; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2017-10-25

    The herbicide benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has recently been approved for use on California rice fields by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Hydrolysis of BZB rapidly forms the active compound, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), whose fate is currently not well understood. A model California rice soil was used to determine BH soil dissipation. The pKa and aqueous solubility were also determined, as experimental values are not currently available. Sorption data indicate BH does not bind tightly, or irreversibly, with this soil. Flooding resulted in decreased BH loss, indicating anaerobic microbes are less likely to transform BH compared to aerobic microorganisms. Temperature increased dissipation, while autoclaving decreased BH loss. Overall, dissipation was slow regardless of treatment. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the exact routes of loss in soil, though BH is expected to dissipate slowly in flooded rice field soil.

  17. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  18. Dynamical and steady-state properties of a Bose-Hubbard chain with bond dissipation: A study based on matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnes, Lars; Charrier, Daniel; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2014-09-01

    We study a dissipative Bose-Hubbard chain subject to an engineered bath using a superoperator approach based on matrix product operators. The dissipation is engineered to stabilize a Bose-Einstein condensate wave function in its steady state. We then characterize the steady state emerging from the interplay between incompatible Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamics. While it is expected that interactions lead to this competition, even the kinetic energy in an open boundary condition setup competes with the dissipation, leading to a nontrivial steady state. We also present results for the transient dynamics and probe the relaxation time revealing the closing of the dissipative gap in the thermodynamic limit.

  19. Change in velocity and energy dissipation on impact in motor vehicle crashes as a function of the direction of crash: key factors in the production of thoracic aortic injuries, their pattern of associated injuries and patient survival. A Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, John H; Smith, Joyce A; Siddiqi, Shabana Q

    2004-10-01

    To examine the effect of change in velocity (MV) and energy dissipation (IE) on impact, above and below the test levels for federal motor vehicle crash (MVC) safety standards, on the incidence of aortic injury (AI) and its mortality and associated injury patterns in frontal (F) and lateral (L) MVCs. Comparison of 80 AI and 796 non-AI patients of AIS=3. Eight hundred seventy-six MVC adult drivers or front-seat passengers (552 F and 324 L) evaluated by 10 Level I CIREN study Trauma Centers together with vehicle and crash scene engineering reconstruction. Patient seatbelt and/or airbag use correlated with clinical or autopsy findings. In AI, 63% of cases were dead at the scene and only 16% survived to leave hospital. The relation between IE dissipated in the MVC and the DeltaV on impact was exponential as DeltaV increased, but the rise in IE for a given DeltaV was greater in LMVC than in FMVC (p MVC AI with the pressurized aortic arch acting as the long arm of a lever system with the fulcrum at the subclavian artery, producing maximum torsional strain at the short arm of the isthmus where 75% of the AIs occurred. AI mortality is also influenced by the associated injuries. To develop more effective safety systems to prevent AI, MVC safety testing with airbags and seatbelts should be carried out at DeltaVs of 1 SD above means for FMVC and LMVC.

  20. Distinct associations between energy balance and the sleep characteristics slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, F; Gonnissen, H K; Hursel, R; Lemmens, S G; Martens, E A; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiologically, an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep duration is observed. Intra-individual variance in the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been related to variance of metabolic and endocrine parameters, which are risk factors for the disturbance of energy balance (EB). To investigate inter-individual relationships between EB (EB= energy intake-energy expenditure∣, MJ/24 h), SWS or REM sleep, and relevant parameters in normal-weight men during two 48 h stays in the controlled environment of a respiration chamber. A total of 16 men (age 23±3.7 years, BMI 23.9±1.9 kg m(-2)) stayed in the respiration chamber twice for 48 h to assure EB. Electroencephalography was used to monitor sleep (2330-0730 hrs). Hunger and fullness were scored by visual analog scales; mood was determined by State Trait Anxiety Index-state and food reward by liking and wanting. Baseline blood and salivary samples were collected before breakfast. Subjects were fed in EB, except for the last dinner, when energy intake was ad libitum. The subjects slept on average 441.8±49 min per night, and showed high within-subject reliability for the amount of SWS and REM sleep. Linear regression analyses showed that EB was inversely related to the amount of SWS (r=-0.43, Phunger, reward, stress and orexigenic hormone concentrations were related to overeating, as well as to the amount of SWS and REM sleep, however, after inclusion of these parameters in a multiple regression, the amount of SWS and REM sleep did not add to the explained variance of EB, which suggests that due to their individual associations, these EB parameters are mediator variables. A positive EB due to overeating, was explained by a smaller amount of SWS and higher amount of REM sleep, mediated by hunger, fullness, State Trait Anxiety Index-state scores, glucose/insulin ratio, and ghrelin and cortisol concentrations.

  1. Dissipative structures and biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, Albert

    2017-10-01

    Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms. Two tables present the main examples of cellular and supracellular rhythms ordered according to their period, and their role in physiology and pathophysiology. Among the rhythms discussed are neural and cardiac rhythms, metabolic oscillations such as those occurring in glycolysis in yeast, intracellular Ca++ oscillations, cyclic AMP oscillations in Dictyostelium amoebae, the segmentation clock that controls somitogenesis, pulsatile hormone secretion, circadian rhythms which occur in all eukaryotes and some bacteria with a period close to 24 h, the oscillatory dynamics of the enzymatic network driving the cell cycle, and oscillations in transcription factors such as NF-ΚB and tumor suppressors such as p53. Ilya Prigogine's concept of dissipative structures applies to temporal oscillations and allows us to unify within a common framework the various rhythms observed at different levels of biological organization, regardless of their period and underlying mechanism.

  2. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...... assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We...

  3. Noise and dissipation in magnetoelectronic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foros, J.; Brataas, A.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The interplay between current and magnetization fluctuations and dissipation in layered-ferromagnetic-normal-metal nanostructures is investigated. We use scattering theory and magnetoelectronic circuit theory to calculate charge and spin-current fluctuations. Via the spin-transfer torque,

  4. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  5. Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2012-01-01

    A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....

  6. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  7. Diagnostic performance of calcification-suppressed coronary CT angiography using rapid kilovolt-switching dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunaga, Hiroto; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Kitao, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago City, Tottori (Japan); Kaetsu, Yasuhiro [Kakogawa Higashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Kakogawa (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomi; Furuse, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Tottori University, Division of Cardiology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) plays an important role in the assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, MDCTA tends to overestimate stenosis in calcified coronary artery lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of calcification-suppressed material density (MD) images produced by using a single-detector single-source dual-energy computed tomography (ssDECT). We enrolled 67 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent ssDECT with rapid kilovolt-switching (80 and 140 kVp). Coronary artery stenosis was evaluated on the basis of MD images and virtual monochromatic (VM) images. The diagnostic performance of the two methods for detecting coronary artery disease was compared with that of invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. We evaluated 239 calcified segments. In all the segments, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy for detecting significant stenosis were respectively 88%, 88%, 75%, 95% and 88% for the MD images, 91%, 71%, 56%, 95% and 77% for the VM images. PPV was significantly higher on the MD images than on the VM images (P < 0.0001). Calcification-suppressed MD images improved PPV and diagnostic performance for calcified coronary artery lesions. (orig.)

  8. Simulations of Dissipative Circular Restricted Three-body Problems Using the Velocity-scaling Correction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoucheng; Huang, Guoqing; Wu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we survey the effect of dissipative forces including radiation pressure, Poynting–Robertson drag, and solar wind drag on the motion of dust grains with negligible mass, which are subjected to the gravities of the Sun and Jupiter moving in circular orbits. The effect of the dissipative parameter on the locations of five Lagrangian equilibrium points is estimated analytically. The instability of the triangular equilibrium point L4 caused by the drag forces is also shown analytically. In this case, the Jacobi constant varies with time, whereas its integral invariant relation still provides a probability for the applicability of the conventional fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm combined with the velocity scaling manifold correction scheme. Consequently, the velocity-only correction method significantly suppresses the effects of artificial dissipation and a rapid increase in trajectory errors caused by the uncorrected one. The stability time of an orbit, regardless of whether it is chaotic or not in the conservative problem, is apparently longer in the corrected case than in the uncorrected case when the dissipative forces are included. Although the artificial dissipation is ruled out, the drag dissipation leads to an escape of grains. Numerical evidence also demonstrates that more orbits near the triangular equilibrium point L4 escape as the integration time increases.

  9. Dissipative effects in fission investigated in complete kinematics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Ramos, D.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2017-09-01

    The study of dissipative effects in fission has been carried out with fusion-fission reactions by using a limited number of observables, such as the fission probabilities, the mass distribution of the fission fragments, or the neutron multiplicities. However, the large angular momenta gained by the compound nucleus in this kind of reaction could affect the conclusions drawn from such experiments. In this work, we propose to investigate the fission dynamics by the use of spallation reactions on 208Pb because the fissioning systems are produced with low angular momentum, small deformations, and high excitation energies, enhancing the dissipative effects. The complete kinematics measurements of the fission fragments and light-charged particles were performed by the use of the SOFIA setup combined with the inverse kinematics technique, allowing us for the first time a full indentification in atomic and mass number of the two fission fragments. These measurements permit us to define new fission observables for the investigation of the temperature and deformation dependencies of the dissipation parameter.

  10. Rapid peptide based diagnosis: peptide-based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) protease substrates for the detection and diagnosis of bacillus spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, F.J.; Kaman, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development of a highly specific protease-based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay for easy and rapid detection both in vitro and in vivo of Bacillus spp, including Bacillus anthracis. Synthetic substrates for B. anthracis proteases were designed and exposed to

  11. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    1996-01-01

    A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffs—a collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equation—the frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....

  12. Imaging of acute pulmonary embolism using a dual energy CT system with rapid kVp switching: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Lucas L., E-mail: Lucas.Geyer@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael, E-mail: michael.scherr@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Körner, Markus, E-mail: markus.koerner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Wirth, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.wirth@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Deak, Paul, E-mail: paul.deak@ge.com [GE Healthcare, Oskar-Schlemmer-Straße 11, 80807 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: maximilian.reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Linsenmaier, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.linsenmaier@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered as clinical gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Whereas conventional CTPA only offers anatomic information, dual energy CT (DECT) provides functional information on blood volume as surrogate of perfusion by assessing the pulmonary iodine distribution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung perfusion imaging using a single-tube DECT scanner with rapid kVp switching. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with suspicion of acute PE underwent DECT. Two experienced radiologists assessed the CTPA images and lung perfusion maps regarding the presence of PE. The image quality was rated using a semi-quantitative 5-point scale: 1 (=excellent) to 5 (=non-diagnostic). Iodine concentrations were quantified by a ROI analysis. Results: Seventy perfusion defects were identified in 266 lung segments: 13 (19%) were rated as consistent with PE. Five patients had signs of PE at CTPA. All patients with occlusive clots were correctly identified by DECT perfusion maps. On a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 88.9%, respectively, while on a per segment basis it was 40.0% and 97.6%, respectively. None of the patients with a homogeneous perfusion map had an abnormal CTPA. The overall image quality of the perfusion maps was rated with a mean score of 2.6 ± 0.6. There was a significant ventrodorsal gradient of the median iodine concentrations (1.1 mg/cm{sup 3} vs. 1.7 mg/cm{sup 3}). Conclusion: Lung perfusion imaging on a DE CT-system with fast kVp-switching is feasible. DECT might be a helpful adjunct to assess the clinical severity of PE.

  13. Synchronizability of nonidentical weakly dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Letellier, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    Synchronization is a very generic process commonly observed in a large variety of dynamical systems which, however, has been rarely addressed in systems with low dissipation. Using the Rössler, the Lorenz 84, and the Sprott A systems as paradigmatic examples of strongly, weakly, and non-dissipative chaotic systems, respectively, we show that a parameter or frequency mismatch between two coupled such systems does not affect the synchronizability and the underlying structure of the joint attractor in the same way. By computing the Shannon entropy associated with the corresponding recurrence plots, we were able to characterize how two coupled nonidentical chaotic oscillators organize their dynamics in different dissipation regimes. While for strongly dissipative systems, the resulting dynamics exhibits a Shannon entropy value compatible with the one having an average parameter mismatch, for weak dissipation synchronization dynamics corresponds to a more complex behavior with higher values of the Shannon entropy. In comparison, conservative dynamics leads to a less rich picture, providing either similar chaotic dynamics or oversimplified periodic ones.

  14. Dissipative structures, machines, and organisms: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondepudi, Dilip; Kay, Bruce; Dixon, James

    2017-10-01

    Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems resulting in the formation of dissipative structures has been studied in a variety of systems, most prominently in chemical systems. We present a study of a voltage-driven dissipative structure consisting of conducting beads immersed in a viscous medium of oil. In this simple system, we observed remarkably complex organism-like behavior. The dissipative structure consists of a tree structure that spontaneously forms and moves like a worm and exhibits many features characteristic of living organisms. The complex motion of the beads driven by the applied field, the dipole-dipole interaction between the beads, and the hydrodynamic flow of the viscous medium result in a time evolution of the tree structure towards states of lower resistance or higher dissipation and thus higher rates of entropy production. The resulting end-directed evolution manifests as the tree moving to locations seeking higher current, the current that sustains its structure and dynamics. The study of end-directed evolution in the dissipative structure gives us a means to distinguish the fundamental difference between machines and organisms and opens a path for the formulation of physics of organisms.

  15. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  16. Dissipative structures, machines, and organisms: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondepudi, Dilip; Kay, Bruce; Dixon, James

    2017-10-01

    Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems resulting in the formation of dissipative structures has been studied in a variety of systems, most prominently in chemical systems. We present a study of a voltage-driven dissipative structure consisting of conducting beads immersed in a viscous medium of oil. In this simple system, we observed remarkably complex organism-like behavior. The dissipative structure consists of a tree structure that spontaneously forms and moves like a worm and exhibits many features characteristic of living organisms. The complex motion of the beads driven by the applied field, the dipole-dipole interaction between the beads, and the hydrodynamic flow of the viscous medium result in a time evolution of the tree structure towards states of lower resistance or higher dissipation and thus higher rates of entropy production. The resulting end-directed evolution manifests as the tree moving to locations seeking higher current, the current that sustains its structure and dynamics. The study of end-directed evolution in the dissipative structure gives us a means to distinguish the fundamental difference between machines and organisms and opens a path for the formulation of physics of organisms.

  17. Dissipation of sleep pressure is stable across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, L; Carskadon, M A; Achermann, P

    2012-08-02

    The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) undergoes many changes during adolescence. We assessed whether sleep homeostasis is altered across adolescent development using two measures: the dissipation of slow-wave activity (SWA, 0.6-4.6Hz) across the night and the rate of build-up of SWA in the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episode. Furthermore, we examined the association between homeostatic and circadian measures, by correlating the build-up of SWA in the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episode with circadian phase. Finally, we compared the dissipation of SWA in individuals with (PH+) and without (PH-) a parental history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Twenty children (8 PH+) and 25 teens (10 PH+) underwent two consecutive polysomnographic recordings at ages 9/10 and 15/16 years and again 1.5-3 years later. Thirteen young adults (ages 20-23 years; no PH+) were assessed one time. The decay of Process S was modeled for each individual at each assessment using data from both recordings. Four parameters of Process S were derived for EEG derivation C3/A2: time constant of the decay, lower asymptote (LA), the level of S at sleep onset (S(SO)), and S(SO) minus LA. We found no change in these parameters between assessments for the children and teen cohorts. Between-subject analysis of the follow-up assessment for children (ages 11-13 years) and the initial assessment for teens (ages 15/16 years) showed no difference in these parameters, nor did follow-up assessment of teens (ages 17-19 years) compared to the single assessment of young adults (ages 20-23 years). Similarly, we observed no developmental changes in the rate of the build-up of SWA in the first NREM sleep episode for our within- and between-subject analyses, or a correlation between this measure and circadian phase for either cohort. With regard to parental alcohol history, we found no difference in the dissipation of sleep pressure between PH+ and PH- children and teens. These results indicate

  18. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers Based on Dissipative Processes for Nonlinear Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of femtosecond-pulse fiber lasers with parameters appropriate for nonlinear microscopy is reviewed. Pulse-shaping in lasers with only normal-dispersion components is briefly described, and the performance of the resulting lasers is summarized. Fiber lasers based on the formation of dissipative solitons now offer performance competitive with that of solid-state lasers, but with the benefits of the fiber medium. Lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution in the gain section of a laser also offer a combination of short pulse duration and high pulse energy that will be attractive for applications in nonlinear bioimaging. PMID:23869163

  19. Energy dependence of forward-rapidity J/ψ and ψ(2S) production in pp collisions at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Janssen, M M; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C. D.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.C.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411263188; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371577810; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371578248; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411885812; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, Sukhee; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888056; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. 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M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L. C.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Grull, F. R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.W.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Islam, M. 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C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080400; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal’Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461684; Marín, Alicia; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, Isabel M.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405870; Mohanty, B.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Naik, B.; Nair, Rajiv; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal Da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07051349X; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323375618; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Park, J.-W.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413319628; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413332993; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q. Y.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. 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C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present results on transverse momentum (pT) and rapidity (y) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive J/ψ and ψ(2 S) at forward rapidity (2.5 < y< 4) as well as ψ(2S)-to-J/ψ cross section ratios. These quantities are

  20. Energy dependence of forward-rapidity J/$\\psi$ and $\\psi(2S)$ production in pp collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; An, Mangmang; Andrei, Cristian; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Garg, Prakhar; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Grull, Frederik Rolf; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Isakov, Vladimir; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lazaridis, Lazaros; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; 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Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Vigolo, Sonia; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Yalcin, Serpil; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Sebastian; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann

    2017-06-14

    We present ALICE results on transverse momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) and rapidity ($y$) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive J/$\\psi$ and $\\psi(2S)$ at forward rapidity ($2.515$ GeV/$c$ the non-prompt contribution reaches up to 50\\% of the total charmonium yield.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of a baroclinic wave and imbalanced dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Balu

    2015-11-01

    The question of how ocean circulation equilibrates in the presence of continuous large-scale forcing and a tendency of geostrophic turbulence to confine energy to large and intermediate scales is considered. By considering the nonlinear evolution of an unstable baroclinic wave at small Rossby and Froude numbers (small aspect ratio domain) at high resolutions, it is shown that submesoscale instabilities provide an interior pathway between the energetic oceanic mesoscales and smaller unbalanced scales. An estimate of the magnitude of this pathway is presented. Phenomenology-wise, mesoscale shear and strain resulting from the primary baroclinic instability drive frontogenesis; fronts in turn support ageostrophic secondary circulation and instabilities. These two processes together lead to a quick rise in dissipation rate which then reaches a peak and begins to fall as frontogenesis slows down; eventually balanced and imbalanced modes decouple. Dissipation of balanced energy by imbalanced processes is shown to scale exponentially with Rossby number of the base flow. Further, a break is seen in the total energy (TE) spectrum at small scales with a transition from k-3 to k - 5 / 3 reminiscent of the atmospheric spectra of Nastrom & Gage. For details see JFM 756, 965-1006.

  2. Development and dissipation of Ca(2+) gradients in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, F D; Monck, J R

    2000-01-01

    We used pulsed laser imaging to measure the development and dissipation of Ca(2+) gradients evoked by the activation of voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels in adrenal chromaffin cells. Ca(2+) gradients appeared rapidly (buffer capacity on the order of 1000 and appropriate affinity and kinetics, approximated the size of the Ca(2+) increases and rate of dissipation of the measured gradients. Finally, simulations without exogenous buffer suggest that the Ca(2+) signal due to Ca(2+) channel activation is restricted by the endogenous buffer to a space less than 1 microm from the cell membrane. PMID:11023887

  3. Dynamics of quasi-stable dissipative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chueshov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    This book is  devoted to background material and recently developed mathematical methods in the study of infinite-dimensional dissipative systems. The theory of such systems is motivated by the long-term goal to establish rigorous mathematical models for turbulent and chaotic phenomena. The aim here is to offer general methods and abstract results pertaining to fundamental dynamical systems properties related to dissipative long-time behavior. The book systematically presents, develops and uses the quasi-stability method while substantially extending it by including for consideration new classes of models and PDE systems arising in Continuum Mechanics. The book can be used as a textbook in dissipative dynamics at the graduate level.   Igor Chueshov is a Professor of Mathematics at Karazin Kharkov National University in Kharkov, Ukraine.

  4. Turbulent Dissipation Challenge: A community Driven Effort

    CERN Document Server

    Parashar, Tulasi N

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present document is to present the idea of, and convince the community to participate in, Turbulent Dissipation Challenge. The idea was discussed in Solar Heliospheric and Interplanetary ENvironment (SHINE) 2012 meeting. The proponents of the idea Tulasi Parashar and Chadi Salem have prepared this document to circulate the idea in the community. The Turbulent Dissipation Challenge idea is to bring the community together and simulate the same set of problems and try to come to a common set of conclusions about the relative strengths of two different kinds of dissipative processes (current sheets/ reconnection sites vs. wave particle interactions). To take the challenge further, the simulators will provide artificial spacecraft data from the simulations for the observers to analyze.

  5. Experimental observation of dissipative soliton resonance in an anomalous-dispersion fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lina; Liu, Xueming; Mao, Dong; Wang, Leiran; Wang, Guoxi

    2012-01-02

    We have experimentally observed conventional solitons and rectangular pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser operating at anomalous dispersion regime. The rectangular pulses exhibit broad quasi-Gaussian spectra (~40 nm) and triangular autocorrelation traces. With the enhancement of pump power, the duration and energy of the output rectangular pulses almost increase linearly up to 330 ps and 3.2 nJ, respectively. It is demonstrated that high-energy pulses can be realized in anomalous-dispersion regime, and may be explained as dissipative soliton resonance. Our results have confirmed that the formation of dissipative soliton resonance is not sensitive to the sign of cavity dispersion.

  6. Causal dissipation and shock profiles in the relativistic fluid dynamics of pure radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2014-01-01

    Current theories of dissipation in the relativistic regime suffer from one of two deficits: either their dissipation is not causal or no profiles for strong shock waves exist. This paper proposes a relativistic Navier–Stokes–Fourier-type viscosity and heat conduction tensor such that the resulting second-order system of partial differential equations for the fluid dynamics of pure radiation is symmetric hyperbolic. This system has causal dissipation as well as the property that all shock waves of arbitrary strength have smooth profiles. Entropy production is positive both on gradients near those of solutions to the dissipation-free equations and on gradients of shock profiles. This shows that the new dissipation stress tensor complies to leading order with the principles of thermodynamics. Whether higher order modifications of the ansatz are required to obtain full compatibility with the second law far from the zero-dissipation equilibrium is left to further investigations. The system has exactly three a priori free parameters χ,η,ζ, corresponding physically to heat conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. If the bulk viscosity is zero (as is stated in the literature) and the total stress–energy tensor is trace free, the entire viscosity and heat conduction tensor is determined to within a constant factor. PMID:24910526

  7. Dissipative dark matter explains rotation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2015-06-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particles interact with a massless (or very light) boson, is studied. Such dark matter can arise in simple hidden sector gauge models, including those featuring an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, leading to a dark photon. Previous work has shown that such models can not only explain the large scale structure and cosmic microwave background, but potentially also dark matter phenomena on small scales, such as the inferred cored structure of dark matter halos. In this picture, dark matter halos of disk galaxies not only cool via dissipative interactions but are also heated via ordinary supernovae (facilitated by an assumed photon-dark photon kinetic mixing interaction). This interaction between the dark matter halo and ordinary baryons, a very special feature of these types of models, plays a critical role in governing the physical properties of the dark matter halo. Here, we further study the implications of this type of dissipative dark matter for disk galaxies. Building on earlier work, we develop a simple formalism which aims to describe the effects of dissipative dark matter in a fairly model independent way. This formalism is then applied to generic disk galaxies. We also consider specific examples, including NGC 1560 and a sample of dwarf galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS survey. We find that dissipative dark matter, as developed here, does a fairly good job accounting for the rotation curves of the galaxies considered. Not only does dissipative dark matter explain the linear rise of the rotational velocity of dwarf galaxies at small radii, but it can also explain the observed wiggles in rotation curves which are known to be correlated with corresponding features in the disk gas distribution.

  8. Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...

  9. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  10. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górniewicz Lech

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  11. Analysis of phononic bandgap structures with dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    and longer wavelengths, we show that the two formulations produce nearly identical results in terms of propagation constant and wave decay. We use the k(ω)-formulation to compute loss factors with dissipative bandgap materials for steady-state wave propagation and create simplified diagrams that unify...... the spatial loss factor from dissipative and bandgap effects. Additionally, we demonstrate the applicability of the k(ω)-formulation for the computation of the band diagram for viscoelastic composites and compare the computed loss factors for low frequency wave propagation to existing results based on quasi...

  12. Noise and Dissipation on Coadjoint Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; De Castro, Alex L.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2018-02-01

    We derive and study stochastic dissipative dynamics on coadjoint orbits by incorporating noise and dissipation into mechanical systems arising from the theory of reduction by symmetry, including a semidirect product extension. Random attractors are found for this general class of systems when the Lie algebra is semi-simple, provided the top Lyapunov exponent is positive. We study in details two canonical examples, the free rigid body and the heavy top, whose stochastic integrable reductions are found and numerical simulations of their random attractors are shown.

  13. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  14. Parametrically driven hybrid qubit-photon systems: Dissipation-induced quantum entanglement and photon production from vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-10-01

    We consider a dissipative evolution of a parametrically driven qubit-cavity system under the periodic modulation of coupling energy between two subsystems, which leads to the amplification of counter-rotating processes. We reveal a very rich dynamical behavior of this hybrid system. In particular, we find that the energy dissipation in one of the subsystems can enhance quantum effects in another subsystem. For instance, optimal cavity decay assists the stabilization of entanglement and quantum correlations between qubits even in the steady state and the compensation of finite qubit relaxation. On the contrary, energy dissipation in qubit subsystems results in enhanced photon production from vacuum for strong modulation but destroys both quantum concurrence and quantum mutual information between qubits. Our results provide deeper insights to nonstationary cavity quantum electrodynamics in the context of quantum information processing and might be of importance for dissipative quantum state engineering.

  15. Dissipation kinetics of asparagine in soil measured by compound-specific analysis with metabolite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Weronika; Rasmussen, Jim; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    formation of compounds closely related to 13C15N-asparagine metabolism over 3 h in agricultural soil. 13C15N-asparagine was rapidly dissipated with half-lives of 55 and 231 min for the low and high 13C15N-asparagine concentrations used. Universally labeled aspartic acid and interestingly also universally......Estimating the potential for direct plant acquisition of organic N, in particular amino acids, requires assessment of their turnover times in soil. It is well known from 14C studies that mineralization of amino acids occurs within hours, but mineralization to 14CO2 does not indicate the rate...... of disappearance of the intact amino acid or the possible formation of metabolites during amino acid dissipation. We here used compound-specific isotope analysis with metabolite tracking to investigate the dissipation rate of universally labeled intact 13C15N-asparagine at two concentrations and the subsequent...

  16. Experimental characterization of extreme events of inertial dissipation in a turbulent swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, E. -W.; Kuzzay, D.; Faranda, D.; Guittonneau, A.; Daviaud, F.; Wiertel-Gasquet, C.; Padilla, V.; Dubrulle, B.

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, which describe the motion of many fluids, are the cornerstones of many physical and engineering sciences. However, it is still unclear whether they are mathematically well posed, that is, whether their solutions remain regular over time or develop singularities. Even though it was shown that singularities, if exist, could only be rare events, they may induce additional energy dissipation by inertial means. Here, using measurements at the dissipative scale of an axisymmetric turbulent flow, we report estimates of such inertial energy dissipation and identify local events of extreme values. We characterize the topology of these extreme events and identify several main types. Most of them appear as fronts separating regions of distinct velocities, whereas events corresponding to focusing spirals, jets and cusps are also found. Our results highlight the non-triviality of turbulent flows at sub-Kolmogorov scales as possible footprints of singularities of the Navier–Stokes equation. PMID:27578459

  17. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorolo...

  18. Iowa Lakes Community College: Partnerships for Academic and Economic Success in a Rapidly Evolving Wind-Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohni, Mary; Rogers, Jolene; Zeitz, Al

    2007-01-01

    Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications. Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…

  19. Observation of a Dissipation-Induced Classical to Quantum Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, James; Sadri, Darius; Schmidt, Sebastian; Türeci, Hakan; Houck, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of non-trivial structure in many-body physics has been a central topic of research bearing on many branches of science. Important recent work has explored the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics of closed many-body systems. With the rapid technological advances in solid state quantum optics, it is now possible to experimentally study strongly correlated photons, and to build model systems whose open nature gives rise to rich emergent behavior. We report the experimental observation of a novel dissipation driven dynamical localization transition of strongly correlated photons in an extended superconducting circuit. Interaction with an environment has been argued to provide a mechanism for the emergence of classical behavior from a quantum system. Surprisingly, homodyne measurements reveal the observed localization transition to be from a regime of classical oscillations into a macroscopically self-trapped state manifesting revivals, a fundamentally quantum phenomenon. This experiment also demonstrates a new class of scalable quantum simulators with well controlled coherent and dissipative dynamics suited to the study of quantum many-body phenomena out of equilibrium. Supported by The Eric and Wendy Schmidt Transformative Technology Fund, the US National Science Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the US Army Research Office.

  20. Thermodynamic dissipation theory for the origin of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michaelian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere and, thus, facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as a catalyst for the absorption and dissipation of sunlight on the surface of Archean seas. The resulting heat could then be efficiently harvested by other irreversible processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the intense ultraviolet light that penetrated the dense early atmosphere and are remarkably rapid in transforming this light into heat in the presence of liquid water. From this perspective, the origin and evolution of life, inseparable from water and the water cycle, can be understood as resulting from the natural thermodynamic imperative of increasing the entropy production of the Earth in its interaction with its solar environment. A mechanism is proposed for the reproduction of RNA and DNA without the need for enzymes, promoted instead through UV light dissipation and diurnal temperature cycling of the Archean sea-surface.

  1. Dissipativity Analysis of Linear State/Input Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses dissipativity problem for system of linear state/input delay equations. Motivated by dissipativity theory of control systems, we choose a new quadratic supply rate. Using the concept of dissipativity, necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear state/input delay systems to be dissipative and exponentially dissipative are derived. The connection of dissipativity with stability is also considered. Finally, passivity and finite gain are explored, correspondingly. The positive-real and bounded-real lemmas are derived.

  2. Dynamics of dissipative multifluid neutron star cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haskell, B.; Andersson, N.; Comer, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Newtonian multifluid formalism for superfluid neutron star cores, focusing on the additional dissipative terms which arise when one takes into account the individual dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the coupled "fluids." The problem is of direct astrophysical interest as the

  3. Magnetization dissipation in ferromagnets from scattering theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetization dynamics of ferromagnets is often formulated in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The reactive part of this equation describes the response of the magnetization in terms of effective fields, whereas the dissipative part is parametrized by the Gilbert damping

  4. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...

  5. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1980-04-24

    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic stokes problem for a dissipative heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat and Mass transfer MHD stokes problem for a dissipative heat generating fluid with radiation absorption, mass diffusion, Hall and ion-slip currents is presented. The set of governing equations for the problem are solved by a finite difference algorithm. Effects of the various parameters in the laminar boundary layer on ...

  7. Dissipative processes in interchange driven scrape-off layer turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundamenski, W.; Garcia, Odd Erik; Naulin, Volker

    2007-01-01

    First principles expressions are given for the parameters governing collisional diffusion and parallel losses of mass, momentum and energy in tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas. These dissipative, or damping, coefficients are based on neoclassical perpendicular transport (Pfirsch-Schluter dif......First principles expressions are given for the parameters governing collisional diffusion and parallel losses of mass, momentum and energy in tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas. These dissipative, or damping, coefficients are based on neoclassical perpendicular transport (Pfirsch......-Schluter diffusion) and classical parallel transport (sub-sonic advection and Spitzer-Harm diffusion). When numerical values derived from these expressions are used to compute damping coefficients for the edge-SOL electrostatic (ESEL) turbulence code, simulations correctly reproduce the radial profiles of particle...... density, n, and electron temperature, T-e, as well as statistical distributions and temporal correlations of particle density and flux density measured in Ohmic and L-mode plasmas on the TCV tokamak. Similarly, preliminary calculations agree reasonably well with radial profiles of T-e measured in Ohmic...

  8. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.

  9. Metal Dissipation and Inefficient Recycling Intensify Climate Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, Luca; Harper, E M; Nassar, N T; Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

    2016-10-07

    In the metals industry, recycling is commonly included among the most viable options for climate change mitigation, because using secondary (recycled) instead of primary sources in metal production carries both the potential for significant energy savings and for greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Secondary metal production is, however, limited by the relative quantity of scrap available at end-of-life for two reasons: long product lifespans during use delay the availability of the material for reuse and recycling; and end-of-life recycling rates are low, a result of inefficient collection, separation, and processing. For a few metals, additional losses exist in the form of in-use dissipation. The sum of these lost material flows forms the theoretical maximum potential for future efficiency improvements. Based on a dynamic material flow analysis, we have evaluated these factors from an energy perspective for 50 metals and calculated the corresponding greenhouse gas emissions associated with the supply of lost material from primary sources that would otherwise be used to satisfy demand. A use-by-use examination demonstrates the potential emission gains associated with major application sectors. The results show that minimizing in-use dissipation and constraints to metal recycling have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the metal industry by about 13-23%, corresponding to 1% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Final Technical Report for Award DESC0011912, "Trimodal Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy: Simultaneous 4D Mapping of Conservative and Dissipative Probe-Sample Interactions of Energy-Relevant Materials”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solares, Santiago D. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The final project report covering the period 7/1/14-6/30/17 provides an overview of the technical accomplishments in the areas of (i) fundamental viscoelasticity, (ii) multifrequency atomic force microscopy, and (iii) characterization of energy-relevant materials with atomic force microscopy. A list of publications supported by the project is also provided.

  11. The upside of noise: engineered dissipation as a resource in superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapit, Eliot

    2017-09-01

    Historically, noise in superconducting circuits has been considered an obstacle to be removed. A large fraction of the research effort in designing superconducting circuits has focused on noise reduction, with great success, as coherence times have increased by four orders of magnitude in the past two decades. However, noise and dissipation can never be fully eliminated, and further, a rapidly growing body of theoretical and experimental work has shown that carefully tuned noise, in the form of engineered dissipation, can be a profoundly useful tool in designing and operating quantum circuits. In this article, I review important applications of engineered dissipation, including state generation, state stabilization, and autonomous quantum error correction, where engineered dissipation can mitigate the effect of intrinsic noise, reducing logical error rates in quantum information processing. Further, I provide a pedagogical review of the basic noise processes in superconducting qubits (photon loss and phase noise), and argue that any dissipative mechanism which can correct photon loss errors is very likely to automatically suppress dephasing. I also discuss applications for quantum simulation, and possible future research directions.

  12. Nuclear dissipation as damping of collective motion in the time-dependent RPA and extensions of it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannouleas, C.P.

    1982-07-01

    We have formulated a nonperturbative, microscopic dissipative process in the limit of an infinite mean free path which does not require any statistical assumptions. It attributes the damping of the collective motion to real transitions from the collective state to degenerate, more complicated nucelar states. The dissipation is described through wave packets which solve an approximate Schroedinger equation within extended subspaces, larger than the original subspace of the undamped motion. When the simple RPA is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission. When the Second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy. The classical dissipation, however, is obtained for coherent, multiphonon, initial packets which describe the damping of the mean field oscillations, and allow a theoretical connection with the Vibrating Potential Model, and thereby with models of one-body dissipation. The present model contrasts with linear response theories. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced. This allows the construction of a nonlinear frictional Hamiltonian which provides a connection with quantal friction. The dissipation process developed here is properly reversible rather than irreversible, in the sense that it is described by an approximate Schroedinger equation which honors time reversibility, rather than by a coarse grained master equation which violates it. Thus, the present theory contrasts with transport theories.

  13. The EU-Turkey Energy Relations After the 2014 Ukraine Crisis. Enhancing The Partnership in a Rapidly Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tagliapietra, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades energy has emerged as an increasingly important component of the overall EU-Turkey relations. In particular, the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) and its flagship project, Nabucco, soon became the pivotal element of the EU-Turkey energy relations. After years of strong cooperation, the failure of Nabucco and the emergence of TANAP have ultimately outlined a divergence in the way the EU and Turkey perceive not only the SGC but also their energy relations. This divergence r...

  14. Phononic dissipation during "hot" adatom motion: A QM/Me study of O2 dissociation at Pd surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukas, Vanessa J.; Reuter, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    We augment ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with a quantitative account of phononic dissipation to study the non-equilibrium aftermath of the exothermic oxygen dissociation at low-index (111), (100), and (110) Pd surfaces. Comparing the hyperthermal diffusion arising from a non-instantaneous dissipation of the released chemical energy, we find a striking difference in the resulting "hot" adatom lifetime that is not overall reflected in experimentally recorded product end distances. We rationalize this finding through a detailed mode-specific phonon analysis and identify the dominant dissipation channels as qualitatively different groups of localized surface modes that ultimately lead to intrinsically different rates of dissipation to the Pd bulk. The thus obtained first-principles perspective on non-equilibrium adsorbate-phonon dynamics thereby underscores the sensitive dependence on details of the phononic fine structure, while questioning prevalent assumptions about energy sinks made in commonly used model bath Hamiltonians.

  15. Testing a dissipative kinetic k-essence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Victor H.; Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-04-01

    In thiswork,we present a study of a purely kinetic k-essence model, characterized basically by a parameter α in presence of a bulk dissipative term, whose relationship between viscous pressure Π and energy density ρ of the background follows a polytropic type law, Π ∝ ρ{sup λ+1/2}, where λ, in principle, is a parameter without restrictions. Analytical solutions for the energy density of the k-essence field are found in two specific cases: λ = 1/2 and λ = (1 - α)/2α, and then we show that these solutions possess the same functional form as the non-viscous counterpart. Finally, both approaches are contrasted with observational data from type Ia supernova, and the most recent Hubble parameter measurements, and therefore, the best values for the parameters of the theory are found. (orig.)

  16. Research on Dissipation and Fatigue Capacity of Nonstiffener Shear Panel Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-long Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive energy dissipation control system can effectively control structure response under seismic action. As a form of passive energy dissipation control, yielding steel shear panel dampers can dissipate energy of the ground motion very well with the plastic deformation. By monotonic cyclic loading, hysteretic performance of the 15 mm thick core-board nonstiffener shear panel damper is tested, and the test shows that the damper has a superior hysteretic performance. Using finite element analysis software ABAQUS, and taking height to thickness ratio of the core-board as variable, the qualitative analysis on the damper is carried out, and results show that the critical height to thickness ratio of shear panel damper is between 30 and 35. Three groups of 15 mm thick core-board nonstiffener shear panel dampers are tested by constant amplitude cyclic loading under different amplitudes; the results show that the fatigue performance is fine and the damper is a good energy dissipation device.

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the Eley-Rideal reaction of H + Cl-Au(111) → HCl + Au(111): Impact of energy dissipation to surface phonons and electron-hole pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linsen; Zhou, Xueyao; Alducin, Maite; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2018-01-07

    The reaction between an impinging H atom and a Cl atom adsorbed on Au(111), which is a prototype for the Eley-Rideal mechanism, is investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics at different incidence angles. The reaction yielding gaseous HCl with large internal excitation proceeds via both direct and hot-atom mechanisms. Significant energy exchange with both surface phonons and electron-hole pairs has been observed. However, their impact on the reactivity and final state distributions was found to be limited, thanks to the large exothermicity and small barrier of the reaction.

  18. Two mechanisms for dissipation of excess light in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osto, Luca [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Cazzaniga, Stefano [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Bressan, Mauro [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Paleček, David [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Židek, Karel [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Niyogi, Krishna K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Fleming, Graham R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry, Graduate Group in Applied Science and Technology; Zigmantas, Donatas [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Bassi, Roberto [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Firenze (Italy). Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante (IPP)

    2017-04-10

    Oxygenic photoautotrophs require mechanisms for rapidly matching the level of chlorophyll excited states from light harvesting with the rate of electron transport from water to carbon dioxide. These photoprotective reactions prevent formation of reactive excited states and photoinhibition. The fastest response to excess illumination is the so-called non-photochemical quenching which, in higher plants, requires the luminal pH sensor PsbS and other yet unidentified components of the photosystem II antenna. Both trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and monomeric LHC proteins have been indicated as site(s) of the heat-dissipative reactions. Different mechanisms have been proposed: Energy transfer to a lutein quencher in trimers, formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation in monomers. Here, we report on the construction of a mutant lacking all monomeric LHC proteins but retaining LHCII trimers. Its non-photochemical quenching induction rate was substantially slower with respect to the wild type. A carotenoid radical cation signal was detected in the wild type, although it was lost in the mutant. Here, we conclude that non-photochemical quenching is catalysed by two independent mechanisms, with the fastest activated response catalysed within monomeric LHC proteins depending on both zeaxanthin and lutein and on the formation of a radical cation. Trimeric LHCII was responsible for the slowly activated quenching component whereas inclusion in supercomplexes was not required. Finally, this latter activity does not depend on lutein nor on charge transfer events, whereas zeaxanthin was essential.

  19. Dissipation of coherent structures in confined two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clercx, H. J. H.; van Heijst, G. J. F.

    2017-11-01

    Since the seminal article "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence" by Kraichnan in 1967, our understanding of the dynamics and transport properties of two-dimensional turbulence is largely built on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of statistically steady or decaying turbulence. In the last two decades, more attention has been paid to the presence of lateral walls, either with stress-free or no-slip boundary conditions, and also considering a variety of geometries such as square, rectangular, or circular domains. The impact of confining boundaries on the dynamics of two-dimensional turbulence is important. This is in sharp contrast with three-dimensional turbulence, where homogeneity and isotropy are locally restored due to the cascade process in the inertial range. The impact of confining boundaries is therefore limited in three-dimensional turbulence. The presence of an inverse energy cascade in two-dimensional turbulence, however, will continuously generate large-scale energy-containing eddies, and their vigorous interaction with, in particular, no-slip walls generates large amounts of vorticity and contributes significantly to the dissipation of kinetic energy of the flow. The dissipation is even strongly enhanced compared with the unbounded case. In this review, we will focus on one of the elementary structures observed in two-dimensional turbulent flows: the dipolar vortex. With its self-induced velocity, it propagates easily through the domain and is hence likely to interact with domain boundaries. Standard vortex generation mechanisms allow to create well-defined dipoles and to investigate the collision of such structures with rigid domain boundaries in detail. Relevant aspects of the collision process concern the dynamics and stability of the generated boundary layers, the vorticity, and vorticity gradients contained in these boundary layers, and the dissipation of kinetic energy when dipoles collide with walls. Some of these aspects will

  20. Measuring fission lifetimes with the crystal-blocking technique in mono-crystal, access to nuclear dissipation; Mesures de temps de fission par la technique d'ombre dans les monocristaux: un acces a la dissipation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnary, St

    2002-10-01

    Energy dissipation in nuclear matter may play an important role in the determination of the way through which heavy nuclei des-excite: fission or particle evaporation. An important dissipation should imply longer interval of time during which the nucleus is deformed. In that way the measurement of fission lifetimes may shed light on energy dissipation, but these measurements are very delicate to perform. Most available data on deformation times come from indirect measurements combined with the use of more or less valid models. The crystal-blocking lifetime technique in mono-crystals allows the direct measurement of long fission lifetimes. This technique has been applied to different nuclei situated in the proximity of lead. We have obtained relatively high values: {tau} > 3.10{sup -19} s for both lead and uranium which implies a strong dissipation of energy. The computation of dissipation coefficients has led to the following values: {beta} {approx_equal} 2.10{sup 21} /s for lead and {beta} {>=} 6.10{sup 21} /s for uranium (E{sup *} > 120 MeV). These results show that dissipation effects have to be taken into account in the determination of the deexcitation way. (A.C.)

  1. An Optimal Dissipative Encoder for the Toric Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-16

    dissipative gadgets allowing the realization of different dissipative dynamics during subsequent time intervals. Here we examine the dissipative...Information Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [20] Wolf M and Cirac J I 2008 Dividing quantum channels Commun. Math. Phys. 279 147 11

  2. Dissipative geometric phase and decoherence in parity-violating chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta-Urra, A; Peñate-Rodríguez, H C; Bargueño, P; Rojas-Lorenzo, G; Miret-Artés, S

    2012-05-07

    Within a generalized Langevin framework for open quantum systems, the cyclic evolution of a two-level system is analyzed in terms of the geometric phase extended to dissipative systems for Ohmic friction. This proposal is applied to the dynamics of chiral molecules where the tunneling and parity violating effects are competing. The effect of different system-bath coupling functions in the dissipated energy is shown to be crucial to understand the behavior of the geometric phase as well as the decoherence displayed by the corresponding interference patterns.

  3. Micro-power dissipation device described

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, J.

    1985-11-01

    The common-emitter current gain beta of a common two-pole transistor is generally below 250. They are referred to as high-beta or high gain transistors when the beta of such transistors exceeds 300. When the beta of a transistor is higher than 1,000, it is called a super-beta transistor (SBT) or supergain transistor. The micropower dissipation type has the widest applications among the high-beta. Micropower dissipation high-beta means that there is a high gain or a superhigh gain under a microcurrent. The device is widely used in small signal-detection systems and stereo audio equipment because of their characteristics of high gain, low frequency and low noise under small signals.

  4. Patterns and Interfaces in Dissipative Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pismen, L.M

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous pattern formation in nonlinear dissipative systems far from equilibrium is a paradigmatic case of emergent behaviour associated with complex systems. It is encountered in a great variety of settings, both in nature and technology, and has numerous applications ranging from nonlinear optics through solid and fluid mechanics, physical chemistry and chemical engineering to biology. Nature creates its variety of forms through spontaneous pattern formation and self-assembly, and this strategy is likely to be imitated by future biomorphic technologies. This book is a first-hand account by one of the leading players in this field, which gives in-depth descriptions of analytical methods elucidating the complex evolution of nonlinear dissipative systems, and brings the reader to the forefront of current research. The introductory chapter on the theory of dynamical systems is written with a view to applications of its powerful methods to spatial and spatio-temporal patterns. It is followed by two chapters t...

  5. Stochastic resonance in dissipative drift motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Ricardo S.; Szezech, José D., Jr.; Batista, Antonio M.; Seoane, Jesus M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2018-01-01

    We study a simple model of drift waves that describes the particle transport in magnetised plasmas. In particular, we focus our attention on the effects of noise on a dissipative drift wave model. In the noiseless case, the relationship between the escape time and the damping term obeys a power-law scaling. In this work, we show that peaks in the escape time are enhanced for certain values of the noise intensity, when noise is added in the dissipative drift motion. This enhancement occurs in the situation where stochastic resonance (SR) appears. We also observe that the noise produces significant alterations to the escape time distribution. This way, we expect this work to be useful for a better understanding of drift wave models in the presence of noise, since noise is a natural ingredient in the environment of this kind of physical problems.

  6. Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy) by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive "4 /5 th-law"-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents) required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the "Big Power Law in the Sky" observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.

  7. Measurements of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Jarosz, Ewa; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan

    2013-06-01

    The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment (BOTEX) was conducted in the summer of 2011 to investigate the impact of turbulence on underwater optical imaging. Underwater optical properties can be affected by turbulence in the water, due to localized changes in the index of refraction. We discuss measurements of current velocity and temperature, made with a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity- Temperature (CT) probe, as well as observations made with a Rockland Oceanographic Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP). The instruments were deployed in close proximity in the field and in the context of measurements of optical target clarity. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKED) and temperature dissipation (TD) rates are calculated from the ADV/CT measurements and compared to TKED and TD estimated from the data collected with the VMP. The results show reasonable agreement between the two methods; differences are attributed to turbulence patchiness and intermittence, as well as sampling challenges. The study also highlights the importance of collecting concurrent data on temperature, current velocity, and current shear to assess the turbulence impact on underwater optical properties.

  8. Parallel magnetic field suppresses dissipation in superconducting nanostrips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Glatz, Andreas; Kimmel, Gregory J.; Aranson, Igor S.; Thoutam, Laxman R.; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Berdiyorov, Golibjon R.; Peeters, François M.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2017-11-13

    The motion of Abrikosov vortices in type-II superconductors results in a finite resistance in the presence of an applied electric current. Elimination or reduction of the resistance via immobilization of vortices is the "holy grail" of superconductivity research. Common wisdom dictates that an increase in the magnetic field escalates the loss of energy since the number of vortices increases. Here we show that this is no longer true if the magnetic field and the current are applied parallel to each other. Our experimental studies on the resistive behavior of a superconducting Mo0.79Ge0.21 nanostrip reveal the emergence of a dissipative state with increasing magnetic field, followed by a pronounced resistance drop, signifying a reentrance to the superconducting state. Large-scale simulations of the 3D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model indicate that the intermediate resistive state is due to an unwinding of twisted vortices. When the magnetic field increases, this instability is suppressed due to a better accommodation of the vortex lattice to the pinning configuration. Our findings show that magnetic field and geometrical confinement can suppress the dissipation induced by vortex motion and thus radically improve the performance of superconducting materials.

  9. Microscopic dissipation in a cohesionless granular jet impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Sufficiently fine granular systems appear to exhibit continuum properties, though the precise continuum limit obtained can be vastly different depending on the particular system. In the present paper the continuum limit of an unconfined, dense granular flow is investigated. To do this a two-dimensional dense cohesionless granular jet impinging upon a target is used as a test system. This is simulated via a time-step-driven hard-sphere method and apply a mean-field theoretical approach to connect the macroscopic flow with the microscopic material parameters of the grains. It is observed that the flow separates into a cone with an interior cone angle determined by the conservation of momentum and the dissipation of energy. From the cone angle a dimensionless quantity A-B that characterizes the flow is extracted. This quantity is found to depend both on whether or not a dead zone, i.e., a stationary region near the target, is present and on the value of the coefficient of dynamic friction. A theory is presented for the scaling of A-B with the coefficient of friction that suggests that dissipation is primarily a perturbative effect in this flow rather than the source of qualitatively different behavior.

  10. Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Foot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken U(1′ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ϵ∼10−9. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large (≳10% for a wide range of parameters.

  11. Dissipative effects in nonlinear Klein-Gordon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastino, A. R.; Tsallis, C.

    2016-03-01

    We consider dissipation in a recently proposed nonlinear Klein-Gordon dynamics that admits exact time-dependent solutions of the power-law form e_qi(kx-wt) , involving the q-exponential function naturally arising within the nonextensive thermostatistics (e_qz \\equiv [1+(1-q)z]1/(1-q) , with e_1^z=ez ). These basic solutions behave like free particles, complying, for all values of q, with the de Broglie-Einstein relations p=\\hbar k , E=\\hbar ω and satisfying a dispersion law corresponding to the relativistic energy-momentum relation E2 = c^2p2 + m^2c4 . The dissipative effects explored here are described by an evolution equation that can be regarded as a nonlinear generalization of the celebrated telegraph equation, unifying within one single theoretical framework the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and the power-law diffusion (porous-media) equation. The associated dynamics exhibits physically appealing traveling solutions of the q-plane wave form with a complex frequency ω and a q-Gaussian square modulus profile.

  12. Dissipative Systems Synthesis: a Linear Algebraic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Belur, Madhu N.; Pillai, Harish K.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of synthesis of dissipative systems for the case that first and higher order derivatives of the concerned variables also appear in the weighting function. The problem is formulated and solved using the behavioral approach to systems and control. We relate the problem of weighted H-infinity control as a special case of this synthesis problem. The synthesis problem and its solution can be systematically understood when one notices that it is similar to find...

  13. Acoustic vibration problem for dissipative fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Lepe, Felipe; Meddahi, Salim; Mora, David; Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a finite element method for solving a quadratic eigenvalue problem derived from the acoustic vibration problem for a heterogeneous dissipative fluid. The problem is shown to be equivalent to the spectral problem for a noncompact operator and athorough spectral characterization is given. The numerical discretization of the problem is based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. The method is proved to be free of spurious modes and to converge with optimal order. Finally, w...

  14. Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kysela Bohuš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity.

  15. Dissipative effects in fission investigated with proton-on-lead reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete kinematic measurement of the two fission fragments permitted us to investigate dissipative effects at large deformations, between the saddle-point and the corresponding scission configurations. Up to now, this kind of study has only been performed with fusionfission reactions using a limited number of observables, such as the mass distribution of the fission fragments or the neutron multiplicities. However, the large angular momenta gained by the compound nucleus could affect the conclusions drawn from such experiments. In this work, the use of spallation reactions, where the fissioning systems are produced with low angular momentum, small deformations and high excitation energies, favors the study of dissipation, and allowed us to define new observables, such as postscission neutron multiplicities and the neutron excess of the final fission fragments as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These new observables are used to investigate the dissipation at large deformations.

  16. Quadratic dissipation effect on the moonpool resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng-xu; Chen, Hai-long; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Wan-chao; Liu, Ming

    2017-12-01

    This paper adopted a semi-analytical method based on eigenfunction matching to solve the problem of sharp resonance of cylindrical structures with a moonpool that has a restricted entrance. To eliminate the sharp resonance and to measure the viscous effect, a quadratic dissipation is introduced by assuming an additional dissipative disk at the moonpool entrance. The fluid domain is divided into five cylindrical subdomains, and the velocity potential in each subdomain is obtained by meeting the Laplace equation as well as the boundary conditions. The free-surface elevation at the center of the moonpool, along with the pressure and velocity at the restricted entrance for first-order wave are evaluated. By choosing appropriate dissipation coefficients, the free-surface elevation calculated at the center of the moonpool is in coincidence with the measurements in model tests both at the peak period and amplitude at resonance. It is shown that the sharp resonance in the potential flow theory can be eliminated and the viscous effect can be estimated with a simple method in some provided hydrodynamic models.

  17. Correlated Photon Dynamics in Dissipative Rydberg Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Emil; Gullans, Michael J.; Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-07-01

    Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of a large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of nonperturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is able to capture the many-body dynamics of bright, coherent pulses through these strongly interacting media. We compare our model with available experimental data in this regime and find good agreement. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

  18. Ultralow-Dissipation Superfluid Micromechanical Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souris, F.; Rojas, X.; Kim, P. H.; Davis, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Micro- and nanomechanical resonators with ultralow dissipation have great potential as useful quantum resources. The superfluid micromechanical resonators presented here possess several advantageous characteristics: s