WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid effective trace-back

  1. Barriers to Trace-back in a Salad-associated EHEC Outbreak, Sweden, June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Michael; Sundborger, Camilla; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Ivarsson, Sofie; Dryselius, Rikard; Insulander, Mona; Jernberg, Cecilia; Hutin, Yvan; Wallensten, Anders

    2014-06-06

    In June-July 2013, six counties notified the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control of enterohaemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) infections among attendees at a hotel in Dalarna, Sweden. An outbreak control team investigated to identify the source and implement control measures. We included individuals who attended the hotel between June 19th-25th in a cohort. We asked them about animal contact, swimming, and consumption of food items during this time using a questionnaire. A confirmed case was an EHEC O157:H7 outbreak strain positive individual who developed abdominal pain or diarrhoea between June 20th-July 2nd. We described the outbreak in time, place and person, calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We investigated the kitchen, tested and traced back implicated food items. 172 individuals responded. We identified 19 confirmed cases (Median age: 17 years, 64% female) with symptom onset between June 22nd-27th. Eating green salad on June 20th was associated with illness (RR:3.7;CI:1.3-11). The kitchen mixed green salads without records and destroyed leftovers immediately. Hence we could not conduct trace-back or obtain microbiological confirmation. Green salad contaminated before entering the kitchen was the likely outbreak source. We recommended early collaboration with food agencies and better restaurant records to facilitate future investigations.

  2. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin A Weiser

    Full Text Available FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  3. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  4. Functional PMS2 hybrid alleles containing a pseudogene-specific missense variant trace back to a single ancient intrachromosomal recombination event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Christina; Wernstedt, Annekatrin; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Messiaen, Ludwine; Schmidt, Konrad; Rahner, Nils; Heinimann, Karl; Fonatsch, Christa; Zschocke, Johannes; Wimmer, Katharina

    2010-05-01

    Sequence exchange between PMS2 and its pseudogene PMS2CL, embedded in an inverted duplication on chromosome 7p22, has been reported to be an ongoing process that leads to functional PMS2 hybrid alleles containing PMS2- and PMS2CL-specific sequence variants at the 5'-and the 3'-end, respectively. The frequency of PMS2 hybrid alleles, their biological significance, and the mechanisms underlying their formation are largely unknown. Here we show that overall hybrid alleles account for one-third of 384 PMS2 alleles analyzed in individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. Depending on the population, 14-60% of hybrid alleles carry PMS2CL-specific sequences in exons 13-15, the remainder only in exon 15. We show that exons 13-15 hybrid alleles, named H1 hybrid alleles, constitute different haplotypes but trace back to a single ancient intrachromosomal recombination event with crossover. Taking advantage of an ancestral sequence variant specific for all H1 alleles we developed a simple gDNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can be used to identify H1-allele carriers with high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 99%, respectively). Because H1 hybrid alleles harbor missense variant p.N775S of so far unknown functional significance, we assessed the H1-carrier frequency in 164 colorectal cancer patients. So far, we found no indication that the variant plays a major role with regard to cancer susceptibility. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  6. Standardized reporting for rapid relative effectiveness assessments of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Pasternack, Iris; Van de Casteele, Marc; Rossi, Bernardette; Cangini, Agnese; Di Bidino, Rossella; Jelenc, Marjetka; Abrishami, Payam; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Seyfried, Hans; Wildbacher, Ingrid; Goettsch, Wim G

    2014-11-01

    Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals. Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model. The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report. The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.

  7. Effects of simulated packing house operating conditions on pathogen internalization in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  8. Effects of temperature differential and immersion time on internalization of Salmonella Newport in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  9. Ultra rapid object categorization: effects of level, animacy and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praß, Maren; Grimsen, Cathleen; König, Martina; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    It is widely agreed that in object categorization bottom-up and top-down influences interact. How top-down processes affect categorization has been primarily investigated in isolation, with only one higher level process at a time being manipulated. Here, we investigate the combination of different top-down influences (by varying the level of category, the animacy and the background of the object) and their effect on rapid object categorization. Subjects participated in a two-alternative forced choice rapid categorization task, while we measured accuracy and reaction times. Subjects had to categorize objects on the superordinate, basic or subordinate level. Objects belonged to the category animal or vehicle and each object was presented on a gray, congruent (upright) or incongruent (inverted) background. The results show that each top-down manipulation impacts object categorization and that they interact strongly. The best categorization was achieved on the superordinate level, providing no advantage for basic level in rapid categorization. Categorization between vehicles was faster than between animals on the basic level and vice versa on the subordinate level. Objects in homogenous gray background (context) yielded better overall performance than objects embedded in complex scenes, an effect most prominent on the subordinate level. An inverted background had no negative effect on object categorization compared to upright scenes. These results show how different top-down manipulations, such as category level, category type and background information, are related. We discuss the implications of top-down interactions on the interpretation of categorization results.

  10. Environmental effects of the Big Rapids dam remnant removal, Big Rapids, Michigan, 2000-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Denis F.; Rheaume, Stephen J.; Simpson, J. Alan

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Big Rapids, investigated the environmental effects of removal of a dam-foundation remnant and downstream cofferdam from the Muskegon River in Big Rapids, Mich. The USGS applied a multidiscipline approach, which determined the water quality, sediment character, and stream habitat before and after dam removal. Continuous water-quality data and discrete water-quality samples were collected, the movement of suspended and bed sediment were measured, changes in stream habitat were assessed, and streambed elevations were surveyed. Analyses of water upstream and downstream from the dam showed that the dam-foundation remnant did not affect water quality. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations downstream from the dam remnant were depressed for a short period (days) during the beginning of the dam removal, in part because of that removal effort. Sediment transport from July 2000 through March 2002 was 13,800 cubic yards more at the downstream site than the upstream site. This increase in sediment represents the remobilized sediment upstream from the dam, bank erosion when the impoundment was lowered, and contributions from small tributaries between the sites. Five habitat reaches were monitored before and after dam-remnant removal. The reaches consisted of a reference reach (A), upstream from the effects of the impoundment; the impoundment (B); and three sites below the impoundment where habitat changes were expected (C, D, and E, in downstream order). Stream-habitat assessment reaches varied in their responses to the dam-remnant removal. Reference reach A was not affected. In impoundment reach B, Great Lakes and Environmental Assessment Section (GLEAS) Procedure 51 ratings went from fair to excellent. For the three downstream reaches, reach C underwent slight habitat degradation, but ratings remained good; reach D underwent slight habitat degradation with ratings changing from excellent to good; and, in an area

  11. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Oh, Sang-gyun; Ha, Juyoung; Monteiro, Paulo M.

    2012-01-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-15

    May 15, 2009 ... A range of bioprobes and biosensors have recently been developed for the rapid, direct and in situ .... maximum absorbance of 4 mOD (milli optical density). ..... FIKSDAL L and TRYLAND I (2008) Application of rapid enzyme.

  14. Extreme air pollution events in Hokkaido, Japan, traced back to early snowmelt and large-scale wildfires over East Eurasia: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J; Kim, Kyu-Myong; da Silva, Arlindo M; Hayasaki, Masamitsu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Murao, Naoto

    2018-04-25

    To identify the unusual climate conditions and their connections to air pollutions in a remote area due to wildfires, we examine three anomalous large-scale wildfires in May 2003, April 2008, and July 2014 over East Eurasia, as well as how products of those wildfires reached an urban city, Sapporo, in the northern part of Japan (Hokkaido), significantly affecting the air quality. NASA's MERRA-2 (the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2) aerosol re-analysis data closely reproduced the PM 2.5 variations in Sapporo for the case of smoke arrival in July 2014. Results show that all three cases featured unusually early snowmelt in East Eurasia, accompanied by warmer and drier surface conditions in the months leading to the fires, inducing long-lasting soil dryness and producing climate and environmental conditions conducive to active wildfires. Due to prevailing anomalous synoptic-scale atmospheric motions, smoke from those fires eventually reached a remote area, Hokkaido, and worsened the air quality in Sapporo. In future studies, continuous monitoring of the timing of Eurasian snowmelt and the air quality from the source regions to remote regions, coupled with the analysis of atmospheric and surface conditions, may be essential in more accurately predicting the effects of wildfires on air quality.

  15. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  16. The thermospheric effects of a rapid polar cap expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available In a previous publication we used results from a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model to illustrate a new mechanism for the formation of a large-scale patch of ionisation arising from a rapid polar cap expansion. Here we describe the thermospheric response to that polar cap expansion, and to the ionospheric structure produced. The response is dominated by the energy and momentum input at the dayside throat during the expansion phase itself. These inputs give rise to a large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD that propagates both antisunward across the polar cap and equatorward at speeds much greater than both the ion drifts and the neutral winds. We concentrate only on the initially poleward travelling disturbance. The disturbance is manifested in the neutral temperature and wind fields, the height of the pressure level surfaces and in the neutral density at fixed heights. The thermospheric effects caused by the ionospheric structure produced during the expansion are hard to discern due to the dominating effects of the TAD.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interaction; modeling and forecasting; plasma convection.

  17. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, J. Del; de La Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process.

  18. When rapid adaptation paradigm is not too rapid: Evidence of face-sensitive N170 adaptation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Feng, Chunliang; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that N170 adaptation effects evoked by face adaptors are general to face and non-face tests, implicating adaptor-locked interferences in the rapid adaptation paradigm. Here we examined the extent to which adaptor-locked interferences confound N170 adaptation effects in different experimental parameters by manipulating the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) duration and jitter between adaptors and tests. In the short SOA, those interferences were well visible for the grand-average ERP waveforms evoked by tests, and they are likely to render rapid adaptation paradigm with short SOA unreliable. The adaptor-locked interferences were attenuated by appropriately increasing SOA duration, such that face-sensitive adaptation effects were evident in the long SOA for both baseline-to-peak and peak-to-peak N170 measurements. These findings suggest that the rapid adaptation paradigm may work with a relative long SOA. Our findings provide useful information for future studies regarding the choosing of appropriate experimental parameters and measurements for the rapid adaptation paradigm. In addition, future studies are needed to investigate how to objectively subtract the overlaps of adaptors from tests and to validate the N170 adaptation effect with appropriate behavioral performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizing company specialists for rapid and effective response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, G.M.; McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The staff needed for the support of cleanup operations can be large even for moderately sized spills. Marshallng sufficient and qualified people to respond on short notice at locations throughout the world can tax even the largest corporations. This paper describes how Chevron has prepared for this important aspect of spill response. Basically, Chevron has formed 13 separate teams covering specially areas such as safety, finance, public relations, and legal. Each team is organized and managed by people who regularly work within that function. Members of each team are regular employees of the various Chevron companies throughout the world. The incident command system and coordinated plans are the common threads which allow these groups to work together effectively. Drills and self-audits are used to keep the plans current and team members prepared. The organization and activities of the Safety, Fire and Health (SF ampersand H) Functional Team is described in detail as an illustrated example of the functional team approach. This team consists of about 50 professionals in related fields. To facilitate rapid mobilization worldwide, each member has been medically qualified and has a current passport and selected evaluations. The team plan outlines the responsibilities of each professional group, the call-out procedure and telephone lists, and information on pre-identified SF ampersand H contractors that can be called upon if additional resources are needed. The plan is flexible so that it can be used by one or two people to handle alI SF ampersand H functions at a small spill or by many persons within each specialty for larger incidents

  20. Effect of isopregnanolone on rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debatin Thaize

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: It has been shown that neurosteroids can either block or stimulate the development of chronic and rapid tolerance to the incoordination and hypothermia caused by ethanol consumption. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of isopregnanolone on the development of rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol in mice. METHOD: Male Swiss mice were pretreated with isopregnanolone (0.05, 0.10 or 0.20 mg/kg 30 min before administration of ethanol (1.5 g/kg. Twenty-four hours later, all animals we tested using the plus-maze apparatus. The first experiment defined the doses of ethanol that did or did not induce rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol. In the second, the influence of pretreatment of mice with isopregnanolone (0.05, 0.10 or 0.20 mg/kg on rapid tolerance to ethanol (1.5 g/kg was studied. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that pretreatment with isopregnanolone interfered with the development of rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol.

  1. Effects of Gas Dynamics on Rapidly Collapsing Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Spenser; Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rapidly collapsing bubbles are of great interest due to the high degree of energy focusing that occurs withing the bubble. Molecular dynamics provides a way to model the interior of the bubble and couple the gas dynamics with the equations governing the bubble wall. While much theoretical work has been done to understand how a bubble will respond to an external force, the internal dynamics of the gas system are usually simplified greatly in such treatments. This paper shows ho...

  2. Mechanisms underlying rapid aldosterone effects in the kidney.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte transport in the kidney and contributes to both homeostatic whole-body electrolyte balance and the development of renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Aldosterone exerts its action principally through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor in target tissues. Aldosterone also stimulates the activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signaling cascades that act independently on specific molecular targets in the cell membrane and also modulate the transcriptional action of aldosterone through MR. This review describes current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and targets of rapid aldosterone action in the nephron and how aldosterone integrates these responses into the regulation of renal physiology.

  3. Mechanisms underlying rapid aldosterone effects in the kidney.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2011-03-17

    The steroid hormone aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte transport in the kidney and contributes to both homeostatic whole-body electrolyte balance and the development of renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Aldosterone exerts its action principally through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor in target tissues. Aldosterone also stimulates the activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signaling cascades that act independently on specific molecular targets in the cell membrane and also modulate the transcriptional action of aldosterone through MR. This review describes current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and targets of rapid aldosterone action in the nephron and how aldosterone integrates these responses into the regulation of renal physiology.

  4. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  5. Rapid multiplication of Bambool (Bambusa heterostachya): the effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of age and length of bamboo culms on sprouting of culm cuttings was studied in a field experiment at the Oil Palm Research Institute (OPRI), Kusi. The study was conducted as a factorial combination of four age groups (<6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 year to 2 years and 2 years to 3 years) and three lengths (1 ...

  6. Rapid bioassessment of the effects of repeated rotenone treatments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential collateral effects of eradicating invasive fishes in streams necessitate the monitoring of invertebrate communities during treatment. In an environmental rehabilitation programme, non-native smallmouth bass were removed from the lower reaches of the Rondegat River, Western Cape, South Africa, in 2012 and ...

  7. Rapid effects of estrogens on short-term memory: Possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Pietro; Sheppard, Paul A S; Matta, Richard; Ervin, Kelsy S J; Choleris, Elena

    2018-06-01

    Estrogens affect learning and memory through rapid and delayed mechanisms. Here we review studies on rapid effects on short-term memory. Estradiol rapidly improves social and object recognition memory, spatial memory, and social learning when administered systemically. The dorsal hippocampus mediates estrogen rapid facilitation of object, social and spatial short-term memory. The medial amygdala mediates rapid facilitation of social recognition. The three estrogen receptors, α (ERα), β (ERβ) and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) appear to play different roles depending on the task and brain region. Both ERα and GPER agonists rapidly facilitate short-term social and object recognition and spatial memory when administered systemically or into the dorsal hippocampus and facilitate social recognition in the medial amygdala. Conversely, only GPER can facilitate social learning after systemic treatment and an ERβ agonist only rapidly improved short-term spatial memory when given systemically or into the hippocampus, but also facilitates social recognition in the medial amygdala. Investigations into the mechanisms behind estrogens' rapid effects on short term memory showed an involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) kinase pathways. Recent evidence also showed that estrogens interact with the neuropeptide oxytocin in rapidly facilitating social recognition. Estrogens can increase the production and/or release of oxytocin and other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and acetylcholine. Therefore, it is possible that estrogens' rapid effects on short-term memory may occur through the regulation of various neurotransmitters, although more research is need on these interactions as well as the mechanisms of estrogens' actions on short-term memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  9. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression.

  10. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  11. The Effects of Surgical Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SRME) on Vowel Formants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Emel; Kilic, Mehmet Akif

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surgical rapid maxillary expansion (SRME) on vowel production. The subjects included 12 patients, whose speech were considered perceptually normal, that had undergone surgical RME for expansion of a narrow maxilla. They uttered the following Turkish vowels, ([a], [[epsilon

  12. The Effects of a Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon on Vehicle Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal…

  13. Heterogeneity of Rapid Sand Filters and Its Effect on Contaminant Transport and Nitrification Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose; Galaj, Zofia; Delpont, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory and full-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the development and effect of heterogeneity caused by filter media nonuniformity, biofilm, particles, precipitates, and gas bubbles in rapid sand filters used for drinking-water treatment. Salt tracer experiments were conducted...

  14. The ion-sensitive field effect transistor in rapid acid-base titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Bergveld, Piet; van Veen-Blaauw, A.M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) are used as the pH sensor in rapid acid—base titrations. Titration speeds at least five times greater than those with glass electrodes are possible for accuracies better than ±1%.

  15. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  16. Using multiple schedules during functional communication training to promote rapid transfer of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Fuhrman, Ashley M; Querim, Angie C

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and therapists. With 2 children, we conducted FCT in the context of mixed (baseline) and multiple (treatment) schedules introduced across settings or therapists using a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that when the multiple schedules were introduced, the functional communication response came under rapid discriminative control, and problem behavior remained at near-zero rates. We extended these findings with another individual by using a more traditional baseline in which problem behavior produced reinforcement. Results replicated those of the previous participants and showed rapid reductions in problem behavior when multiple schedules were implemented across settings. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  18. Effect of TEMPO-oxidization and rapid cooling on thermo-structural properties of nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhd Haniffa, Mhd Abd Cader; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Yong Ching, Kuan; Nazri, Nik; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Nai-Shang, Liou

    2017-10-01

    Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD. A posteriori knowledge of the FTIR and TGA-DTG analysis revealed that the rapid cooling treatment enhanced the hydrogen bond energy and thermal stability of the TEMPO-oxidized NCC compared to other nanocelluloses. XRD analysis exhibits the effect of rapid cooling on pseudo 2 I helical conformation. This was the first investigation performed on the effect of rapid cooling on structural properties of the nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea K; Bright, Lauren A; Marx, James O; Andersen, Robert P; Mullins, Mary C; Carty, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method. Zebrafish at 3, 4, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 28, 60, and 90 d postfertilization (dpf) were placed into an ice water bath for 5, 10, 30, 45, or 60 min (n = 12 to 40 per group). In addition, zebrafish were placed in ice water for 12 h (age ≤14 dpf) or 30 s (age ≥14 dpf). After rapid cooling, fish were transferred to a recovery tank and the number of fish alive at 1, 4, and 12-24 h after removal from ice water was documented. Euthanasia was defined as a failure when evidence of recovery was observed at any point after removal from ice water. Results showed that younger fish required prolonged exposure to rapid cooling for effective euthanasia, with the required exposure time decreasing as fish age. Although younger fish required long exposure times, animals became immobilized immediately upon exposure to the cold water, and behavioral indicators of pain or distress rarely occurred. We conclude that zebrafish 14 dpf and younger require as long as 12 h, those 16 to 28 dpf of age require 5 min, and those older than 28 dpf require 30 s minimal exposure to rapid cooling for reliable euthanasia.

  20. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  1. Effects of sequential and discrete rapid naming on reading in Japanese children with reading difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamiya, Eiji; Okumura, Tomohito; Nakanishi, Makoto; Takeshita, Takashi; Mizuta, Mekumi; Kurimoto, Naoko; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    To clarify whether rapid naming ability itself is a main underpinning factor of rapid automatized naming tests (RAN) and how deep an influence the discrete decoding process has on reading, we performed discrete naming tasks and discrete hiragana reading tasks as well as sequential naming tasks and sequential hiragana reading tasks with 38 Japanese schoolchildren with reading difficulty. There were high correlations between both discrete and sequential hiragana reading and sentence reading, suggesting that some mechanism which automatizes hiragana reading makes sentence reading fluent. In object and color tasks, there were moderate correlations between sentence reading and sequential naming, and between sequential naming and discrete naming. But no correlation was found between reading tasks and discrete naming tasks. The influence of rapid naming ability of objects and colors upon reading seemed relatively small, and multi-item processing may work in relation to these. In contrast, in the digit naming task there was moderate correlation between sentence reading and discrete naming, while no correlation was seen between sequential naming and discrete naming. There was moderate correlation between reading tasks and sequential digit naming tasks. Digit rapid naming ability has more direct effect on reading while its effect on RAN is relatively limited. The ratio of how rapid naming ability influences RAN and reading seems to vary according to kind of the stimuli used. An assumption about components in RAN which influence reading is discussed in the context of both sequential processing and discrete naming speed. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of the Integration of Computing Technology in a Science Curriculum on Female Students' Self-Efficacy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Donna; Terrell, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Females are underrepresented in technology-related careers and educational programs; many researchers suggest this can be traced back to negative feelings of computer self-efficacy developed as early as the age of 10. This study investigated the effect of embedding technology into a 5th grade science classroom and measuring its effect on…

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong; Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated Rapid

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong; Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E; Huq, M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients' treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated RapidArc therapy. Varied results were

  5. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  6. Techniques for rapid determination of effects of synergy between radionuclides and pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors present a number of chromatographic techniques for rapid determination of synergy between radionuclides and various compounds in water. The first technique consists in studying how the chemical equilibrium of iodine varies in the presence of various organic and mineral compounds. The second makes it possible to define the effects of synergy within a given hydrographic basin. A third technique deals with the effects of synergy in ground water in the presence of various types of irrigation water. Finally, to complete this set of techniques, the authors define the mobility potential of a radionuclide in a given aqueous effluent

  7. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I.; Oluwasegun, K.M.; Olorunniwo, O.E.; Atanda, P.O.; Aigbodion, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  8. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I., E-mail: popoolaapi@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Oluwasegun, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Olorunniwo, O.E., E-mail: segun_nniwo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Atanda, P.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-05-05

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  9. Preclinical evidence of rapid-onset antidepressant-like effect in Radix Polygalae extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im-Joon Shin

    Full Text Available Radix Polygalae (the root of Polygala tenuifolia is a herb widely used in traditional Asian medicine that is thought to exert a variety of neuropsychiatric effects. Radix Polygalae extract can protect against N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA neurotoxicity and induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression, suggesting modulatory roles at glutamatergic synapses and possible antidepressant action. In accordance with this hypothesis, Radix Polygalae extract demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice by decreasing behavioral despair in the forced swim and tail suspension tasks and increasing hedonic-like behavior in the female urine sniffing test 30 minutes after a single oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg. Reduced latency to acquire a food pellet in the novely suppressed feeding paradigm, without change in anxiety-like behaviors suggested a rapid-onset nature of the antidepressant-like effect. In addition, it decreased the number of failed escapes in the learned helplessness paradigm after two oral administrations 24 hours and 30 minutes before the first test. Finally, it reversed anhedonia as measured by saccharin preference in mice exposed to the chronic stress model after two administrations of 0.1 mg/kg, in contrast to the repeated administration generally needed for similar effect by monoamergic antidepressants. Immobility reduction in tail suspension task was blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX, a pattern previously demonstrated by ketamine and other ketamine-like rapid-onset antidepressants. Also similarly to ketamine, Radix Polygalae appeared to acutely decrease phosphorylation of GluR1 serine-845 in the hippocampus while leaving the phosphorylation of hippocampal mTOR serine 2448 unchanged. These findings serve as preclinical evidence that Radix Polygalae extract exerts rapid-onset antidepressant effects by modulating glutamatergic synapses in

  10. Effect of autolysis on the specificity of bovine spongiform encephalopathy rapid tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caramelli Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine rapid testing for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE has highlighted some problems with BSE rapid test performance, the most significant being the number of initially reactive samples and the false positive results on autolyzed tissue. This point is important for BSE active surveillance in risk populations, because tissue autolysis is often unavoidable in routine cases. A robust test suitable for use on field material is therefore needed. To date, very limited information regarding the effect of autolysis on the robustness of rapid tests has been documented; therefore, the National Reference Centre for Animal Encephalopathies (CEA rapid test laboratory selected 450 autolyzed and negative brain stem samples from fallen stock bovines older than 24 months to assess the specificity of four tests approved for BSE active surveillance: Biorad TeSeE, Enfer TSE version 2.0, Prionics® Check LIA, and IDEXX Herd Check BSE Antigen Kit EIA. The samples were graded according to the degree of autolysis and then dissected into five portions, four of which randomly assigned to processing by rapid tests and one to be available for confirmatory Western blot analysis. Findings The specificity of the four systems was 100% for all three grades of autolysis, while the percentage of initially reactive results was 0.00 (95%CI 0.00-0.82, 0.22 (95%CI 0.006-1.23, 0.44 (95%CI 0.05-1.60, and 0.89 (95%CI 0.24-2.26 for the Biorad TeSeE, the Prionics® Check LIA, the IDEXX Herd Check BSE and the Enfer TSE tests, respectively. No association with the degree of autolysis could be drawn. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the four rapid tests can be considered well-running diagnostic tools regardless of tissue quality; nevertheless, the number of initial reactive samples reported for some systems must not be underestimated in routine testing. Furthermore the compliance with the reported performance can be guaranteed only when an ongoing

  11. Cost-effectiveness of malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests versus presumptive diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2011-01-01

    .9) than in low transmission setting (US$1.78). At a willingness to pay of US$2.8, RDT remained cost effective up to a threshold value of the cost of treatment of US$4.7. CONCLUSION: RDT was cost effective in both low and high transmission settings. With a global campaign to reduce the costs of AL and RDT......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...... departments were enrolled from March 2010 to February 2011. Of these, a random sample of 1,627 was selected to measure additional socio-economic characteristics. Costing was performed following the standard step-down cost allocation and the ingredients approach. Effectiveness was measured as the number...

  12. Age-Dependent Effects of Topiramate on the Acquisition and the Retention of Rapid Kindling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarati, Andréy; Shin, Don; Auvin, Stéphane; Sankar, Raman

    2008-01-01

    Summary Purpose To examine antiepileptogenic, disease-modifying, and anticonvulsant effects of topiramate under conditions of rapid kindling at different stages of development. Methods Afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and duration (ADD) were examined in two-, three-, and five-week old Wistar rats before and after administration of topiramate (200 mg/kg). Animals underwent a rapid kindling protocol (sixty 10 second trains, bipolar 20 Hz square wave pulses delivered every five minutes). The progression of behavioral and electrographic seizures, and responses to test stimulations 24 hours after the protocol were compared between topiramate and vehicle treated control rats. In addition, rats that were previously given vehicle only prior to kindling, were then given topiramate to examine the effect on established kindled seizures. Results In two-week old animals, topiramate affected neither the baseline afterdischarge, nor the progression of kindled seizures. In three-week old rats, topiramate did not modify the baseline afterdischarge, but significantly delayed the occurrence of full motor seizures in response to repeated stimulations. Topiramate treatment of five-week old rats increased baseline ADT, shortened ADD, and delayed the progression of kindled seizures. Twenty four hours after the last kindling stimulation, animals of all ages exhibited a decreased ADT, an increase ADD, and developed behavioral seizures in response to threshold stimulation. Vehicle treated kindled rats that were then given topiramate displayed significantly attenuated behavioral seizures induced by the threshold stimulation. Conclusions Topiramate exhibited age-dependent disease-modifying effects under conditions of rapid kindling, but failed to block epileptogenesis. Topiramate also inhibited kindled seizures with equal efficacy across the three ages. PMID:17319916

  13. Erratum to: The blocking effect in associative learning involves learned biases in rapid attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Luque, D., Vadillo, M, A., Gutiérrez-Cobo, M, J., Le Pelley, M, E. (2018). The blocking effect in associative learning involves learned biases in rapid attentional capture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 522-544. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1262435. The above article is part of the Special Issue on Associative Learning (in honour of Nick Mackintosh) and was inadvertently published in the February 2018 issue of Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. After publication of the Special Issue, an online collection on Associative Learning will be created on SAGE Journals and this paper will be included in that collection. The Publisher apologises for this error.

  14. The effects of curvature on the flow field in rapidly rotating gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, H.G.; Jordan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of curvature on the fluid dynamics of rapidly rotating gas centrifuges are studied. A governing system of a linear partial differential equation and boundary conditions is derived based on a linearization of the equations for viscous compressible flow. This system reduces to the Onsager pancake model if the effects of curvature are neglected. Approximations to the solutions of the governing equations with and without curvature terms are obtained via a finite-element method. Two examples are considered: first where the flow is driven by a thermal gradient at the wall of the centrifuge, and then for the flow being driven by the introduction and removal of mass through the ends of the centrifuge. Comparisons of the results obtained show that, especially for the second example, the inclusion of the terms due to curvature in the model can have an appreciable effect on the solution. (author)

  15. Neural evidence reveals the rapid effects of reward history on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Mary H; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2015-05-05

    Selective attention is often framed as being primarily driven by two factors: task-relevance and physical salience. However, factors like selection and reward history, which are neither currently task-relevant nor physically salient, can reliably and persistently influence visual selective attention. The current study investigated the nature of the persistent effects of irrelevant, physically non-salient, reward-associated features. These features affected one of the earliest reliable neural indicators of visual selective attention in humans, the P1 event-related potential, measured one week after the reward associations were learned. However, the effects of reward history were moderated by current task demands. The modulation of visually evoked activity supports the hypothesis that reward history influences the innate salience of reward associated features, such that even when no longer relevant, nor physically salient, these features have a rapid, persistent, and robust effect on early visual selective attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hemodynamic effects of rapid and slow infusions of manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.A.; Peterson, T.; Strich, G.; Brown, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of two paramagnetic contrast materials, manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA, were examined in dogs using ultrasonic dimension gauge crystals. Slow infusions (more than 15 minutes) of MnCl 2 or Gd-DTPA via an infusion pump had no significant hemodynamic effects. When given in just over 1 minute, Gd-DTPA produced elevated left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure and minor dilation of the ventricle and slowed diastolic filling. MnCl 2 , given rapidly, reduced systemic vascular resistance, resulting in hypotension. With both agents, these side effects waned after 5-10 minutes. It is concluded that both Gd-DTPA and MnCl 2 can be given safely in 0.1-mm/kg doses when administered as a slow, continuous infusion. Slow, intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA or MnCl 2 is likely to be tolerated well by even severely ill individuals

  17. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  18. Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human influenza: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Ana LP; Otete, Harmony E; Beck, Charles R; Dolan, Gayle P; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of internal and international travel restrictions in the rapid containment of influenza. Methods We conducted a systematic review according to the requirements of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-care databases and grey literature were searched and screened for records published before May 2014. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were undertaken by two researchers independently. Results were synthesized in a narrative form. Findings The overall risk of bias in the 23 included studies was low to moderate. Internal travel restrictions and international border restrictions delayed the spread of influenza epidemics by one week and two months, respectively. International travel restrictions delayed the spread and peak of epidemics by periods varying between a few days and four months. Travel restrictions reduced the incidence of new cases by less than 3%. Impact was reduced when restrictions were implemented more than six weeks after the notification of epidemics or when the level of transmissibility was high. Travel restrictions would have minimal impact in urban centres with dense populations and travel networks. We found no evidence that travel restrictions would contain influenza within a defined geographical area. Conclusion Extensive travel restrictions may delay the dissemination of influenza but cannot prevent it. The evidence does not support travel restrictions as an isolated intervention for the rapid containment of influenza. Travel restrictions would make an extremely limited contribution to any policy for rapid containment of influenza at source during the first emergence of a pandemic virus. PMID:25552771

  19. A rapid evidence review on the effectiveness of institutional health partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ema; Doyle, Vicki; Weakliam, David; Schönemann, Yvonne

    2015-12-14

    Institutional Health Partnerships are long-term, institution to institution partnerships between high income and low and middle income countries which seek to build capacity and strengthen health institutions in order to improve health service delivery and outcomes. Funding for Institutional Health Partnerships has increased in recent years. This paper outlines a rapid evidence review on the effectiveness of this modality. A rapid evidence review of published and grey literature was conducted. Content relating to the effectiveness of working in partnership and methods and frameworks used were extracted and analysed. The results of this analysis were used to structure a discussion regarding the next steps to strengthen the evidence base for the effectiveness of institutional health partnerships. The evidence review, including citation mapping, returned 27 published papers and 17 grey literature documents that met all of the inclusion criteria. Most of the literature did not meet the high standards of formal academic rigour and there was no original research amongst this literature that specifically addressed the effectiveness of institutional health partnerships. This was not surprising given institutional health partnerships do not lend themselves easily to case control studies and randomised control trials due to their high level of diversity and operation in complex social systems. There was, however, a body of practice based knowledge and experience. Evidence for the effectiveness of Institutional Health Partnerships is thin both in terms of quantity and academic rigour. There is a need to better define and differentiate Institutional Health Partnerships in order to measure and compare effectiveness across such a diverse group. Effectiveness needs to be measured at the level of individual partnerships, the bodies that facilitate partnership programmes and the level of health service delivery. There is a need to develop indicators and frameworks that specifically

  20. Salmon tracing: Genotyping to trace back escapees from salmon aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, R.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to assign an escaped salmon back to the farm responsible for the escape with near 100% accuracy. In this report, the potential of a set of genetic markers to assign an escaped salmon was determined for a set of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers, provided

  1. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38\\/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  2. Effects of rapid digitalization on total and regional myocardial performance in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlinz, J; DelVicario, M; Aronow, W S

    1978-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of rapid digitalization on LV volumes, ejection fraction, and asynergy, 21 patients without heart failure were studied with a combination of hemodynamic and angiographic techniques before and after administration of intravenous ouabain (0.007 mg./Kg.). Seven patients had no CAD and served as normal (control) subjects (Group I), while 14 patients had extensive coronary disease (Group II). All pre-ouabain parameters were within the normal limits in Group I. After ouabain infusion, all indices of LV contractility: dP/dt, VCF, and ejection fraction rose significantly in the normal group, while LV filling pressure and end-diastolic volume remained unchanged. The baseline hemodynamic and volumetric values for Group II patients corresponded closely to their normal (Group I) counterparts, and exhibited similar changes after ouabain administration. Eight patients in Group II also had regional disorders of LV contractility, delineated by 23 abnormal hemiaxes of shortening. After ouabain, 15 out of 23 asynergic segments (65 per cent) improved, seven remained unchanged, and one worsened. It is therefore concluded that rapid digitalization not only enhances LV performance in normal subjects and in patients with CAD, but can also markedly reduce the extent of LV asynergy.

  3. Delayed Effect of Blood-Flow-Restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    of knee extensor exercise (20%1RM) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9±3.0 years) trained without BFR (CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal slow and fast knee joint velocity muscle strength......PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets...... and rapid force capacity (e.g. RTD) as well as evoked twitch contractile parameters was assessed before (Pre) and 5 and 12 days after training (Post5, Post12). Muscle biopsies were obtained Pre, after 8 days (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days post training (Post3, Post10) to examine changes in myofiber area...

  4. Anchorage onto deciduous teeth: effectiveness of early rapid maxillary expansion in increasing dental arch dimension and improving anterior crowding

    OpenAIRE

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Manfredi, Mario; Guiducci, Antonio; Denotti, Gloria; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Anchorage onto permanent dentition is a common procedure in rapid maxillary expansion. However, replacing first permanent molars with the second deciduous molars seems to be an option to reduce some negative side effects during orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental effect of rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage exclusively onto deciduous teeth performed in the first period of transition. Methods Twenty patients with a lateral cross-bite tre...

  5. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  6. Topical perfluorodecalin resolves immediate whitening reactions and allows rapid effective multiple pass treatment of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavitha K; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Bernstein, Leonard; Brightman, Lori; Hale, Elizabeth; Karen, Julie; Weiss, Elliot; Geronemus, Roy G

    2013-02-01

    Laser tattoo removal using multiple passes per session, with each pass delivered after spontaneous resolution of whitening, improves tattoo fading in a 60-minute treatment time. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical perfluorodecalin (PFD) in facilitating rapid effective multiple-pass tattoo removal. In a randomized, controlled study using Q-switched ruby or Nd:YAG laser, 22 previously treated tattoos were treated with 3 passes using PFD to resolve whitening after each pass ("R0 method"). In previously untreated symmetric tattoos, seven were treated over half of the tattoo with the R20 method, and the opposite half with 4 passes using PFD (R0 method); two were treated over half with a single pass and the opposite half with 4 passes using PFD (R0 method); and six treated over half with a single pass followed by PFD and the opposite half with a single pass alone. Blinded dermatologists rated tattoo fading at 1-3 months. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of whitening was performed in two tattoos. Topical PFD clinically resolved immediate whitening reactions within a mean 5 seconds (range 3-10 seconds). Tattoos treated with the R0 method demonstrated excellent fading in an average total treatment time of 5 minutes. Tattoo areas treated with the R0 method demonstrated equal fading compared to the R20 method, and improved fading compared to a single pass method. OCT imaging of whitening demonstrated epidermal and dermal hyper-reflective "bubbles" that dissipated until absent at 9-10 minutes after PFD application, and at 20 minutes without intervention. Multiple-pass tattoo removal using PFD to deliver rapid sequential passes (R0 method) appears equally effective as the R20 method, in a total treatment time averaging 5 minutes, and more effective than single pass treatment. OCT-visualized whitening-associated "bubbles," upon treatment with PFD, resolve twice as rapidly as spontaneous resolution. Copyright © 2012 Wiley

  7. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  8. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  9. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  10. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...

  11. Effect of moulding sand on statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solution for zinc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rupinder [Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana (India)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of the present investigations is to study the effect of moulding sand on decreasing shell wall thickness of mould cavities for economical and statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solutions (combination of three dimensional printing and conventional sand casting) for zinc alloys. Starting from the identification of component/ benchmark, technological prototypes were produced at different shell wall thicknesses supported by three different types of sands (namely: dry, green and molasses). Prototypes prepared by the proposed process are for assembly check purpose and not for functional validation of the parts. The study suggested that a shell wall with a less than recommended thickness (12mm) is more suitable for dimensional accuracy. The best dimensional accuracy was obtained at 3mm shell wall thickness with green sand. The process was found to be under statistical control

  12. Cost-effective and rapid blood analysis on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. We evaluated the performance of this cell-phone based blood analysis platform using anonymous human blood samples and achieved comparable results to a standard bench-top hematology analyser. Test results can either be stored on the cell-phone memory or be transmitted to a central server, providing remote diagnosis opportunities even in field settings.

  13. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  14. The Charlie Sheen Effect on Rapid In-home Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Leas, Eric C; Caputi, Theodore L; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M; Noar, Seth M; Ayers, John W

    2017-07-01

    One in eight of the 1.2 million Americans living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unaware of their positive status, and untested individuals are responsible for most new infections. As a result, testing is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy and must be accelerated when opportunities are presented. Web searches for HIV spiked around actor Charlie Sheen's HIV-positive disclosure. However, it is unknown whether Sheen's disclosure impacted offline behaviors like HIV testing. The goal of this study was to determine if Sheen's HIV disclosure was a record-setting HIV prevention event and determine if Web searches presage increases in testing allowing for rapid detection and reaction in the future. Sales of OraQuick rapid in-home HIV test kits in the USA were monitored weekly from April 12, 2014, to April 16, 2016, alongside Web searches including the terms "test," "tests," or "testing" and "HIV" as accessed from Google Trends. Changes in OraQuick sales around Sheen's disclosure and prediction models using Web searches were assessed. OraQuick sales rose 95% (95% CI, 75-117; p sales than expected around Sheen's disclosure, surpassing World AIDS Day by a factor of about 7. Moreover, Web searches mirrored OraQuick sales trends (r = 0.79), demonstrating their ability to presage increases in testing. The "Charlie Sheen effect" represents an important opportunity for a public health response, and in the future, Web searches can be used to detect and act on more opportunities to foster prevention behaviors.

  15. Effects of rapid calcination on properties of calcium-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Chang-Feng; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim

    2010-01-01

    The calcination process may influence subsequent fragmentation, sintering and swelling when CaO derived from limestone acts as a CO 2 or SO 2 -sorbent in combustion, gasification and reforming. Sorbent properties are affected by CO 2 partial pressure, total pressure, temperature, heating rate, impurities and sample size. In this study, the effect of calcination heating rate was investigated based on an electrically heated platinum foil. The effects of heating rate (up to 800 C/s), calcination temperature (700-950 C), particle size (90-180 μm) and sweep gas velocity were investigated. Higher initial heating rates led to lower extents of limestone calcination, but the extents of carbonation of the resulting CaO were similar to each other. Calcium utilization declined markedly during carbonation or sulphation of CaO after calcination by rapid heating. Experimental results show that carbonation and calcium utilization were most effective for carbonation temperatures between 503 and 607 C. Increasing the extent of calcination is not the best way to improve overall calcium utilization due to the vast increase in energy consumption. (author)

  16. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  17. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.).

  18. Effect of a Real-Time Electronic Dashboard on a Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grant S; Aaronson, Barry A; White, Andrew A; Julka, Reena

    2017-11-20

    A rapid response system (RRS) may have limited effectiveness when inpatient providers fail to recognize signs of early patient decompensation. We evaluated the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based alerting dashboard on outcomes associated with RRS activation. We used a repeated treatment study in which the dashboard display was successively turned on and off each week for ten 2-week cycles over a 20-week period on the inpatient acute care wards of an academic medical center. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) dashboard displayed all hospital patients in a single view ranked by severity score, updated in real time. The dashboard could be seen within the EMR by any provider, including RRT members. The primary outcomes were the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of all RRT activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests and deaths on general medical-surgical wards (wards). We conducted an exploratory analysis of first RRT activations. There were 6736 eligible admissions during the 20-week study period. There was no change in overall RRT activations (IRR = 1.14, p = 0.07), but a significant increase in first RRT activations (IRR = 1.20, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in unexpected ICU transfers (IRR = 1.15, p = 0.25), cardiopulmonary arrests on general wards (IRR = 1.46, p = 0.43), or deaths on general wards (IRR = 0.96, p = 0.89). The introduction of the RRT dashboard was associated with increased initial RRT activations but not overall activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests, or death. The RRT dashboard is a novel tool to help providers recognize patient decompensation and may improve initial RRT notification.

  19. Effects of Rapid Intravenous Rehydration in Children With Mild-to-Moderate Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet, Sophie; Molina, Juan Carlos; Marañón, Rafael; García-Ros, Marta

    2015-08-01

    New guidelines for "rapid or ultrarapid" intravenous rehydration are being developed in different emergency departments. These new guidelines propose a faster administration of fluids and electrolytes than in traditional protocols. However, there is still insufficient evidence to establish a standard protocol. Our objective was to determine the effects of an outpatient rapid intravenous rehydration regimen based on the administration of 0.9% saline + 2.5% dextrose, at a rate of 20 mL/kg per hour for 2 hours, in children with mild-to-moderate isonatremic dehydration resulting from acute gastroenteritis. We performed a 2-institution, prospective, observational, descriptive study. Eighty-three patients were included in the study. All patients underwent a first evaluation, including physical examination, laboratory tests, and assessment of clinical degree of dehydration. After this initial evaluation, all children received our intravenous rehydration regimen. A second evaluation including the same items as in the first one was made after in all the children. Intravenous rehydration was successful in 69 patients (83.1%). It failed in 14 patients (16.8%), who required hospitalization because of persistent vomiting in 9 patients and poor general appearance in 5 patients. After intravenous rehydration, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of ketonemia and uremia and in the Gorelick scale score. However, no significant changes were observed in sodium, chloride, potassium, and osmolarity values. We conclude that, in children with mild-to-moderate dehydration, the administration of 20 mL/kg per hour for 2 hours of 0.9% saline solution + 2.5% glucose improved clinical scores and may be used as an alternative and safe way for intravenous rehydration.

  20. Founder effects and the evolution of asymmetrical sexual isolation in a rapidly-speciating clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P. OH, Gina L. CONTE, Kerry L. SHAW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual isolation resulting from differences in mate choice behaviors is a hallmark of rapidly-speciating lineages. When present, asymmetrical sexual isolation may provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for the evolutionary change in mate signaling traits. In particular, Kaneshiro’s hypothesis suggests that divergence in sexual characters between populations may arise in allopatry when ‘derived’ founding populations are subject to severe population bottlenecks, accompanied by a relaxation of sexual selection relative to ‘ancestral’ source populations. In the present study, we tested predictions of asymmetrical sexual isolation between two allopatric species of Hawaiian Laupala crickets, representing ‘ancestral’ (L. makaio and ‘derived’ (L. nigra taxa. While crickets in this genus are notable for rapid divergence of male courtship songs, these species share similar song types, thus suggesting that patterns of sexual isolation are likely due to other mating cues. Analysis of behavioral responses in conspecific and heterospecific ‘no-choice’ mating trials revealed pronounced asymmetrical isolation in the direction predicted by Kaneshiro’s hypothesis, wherein we observed a significant reduction in mating success for crosses involving ‘derived’ males paired with ‘ancestral’ females, compared to the reciprocal heterospecific and both conspecific pairings. Further dissection of courtship behaviors suggested this difference did not reflect male mate choice, but rather, marked reduced spermatophore acceptance rates by ‘ancestral’ females paired with ‘derived’ males. The results are discussed with respect to founder effect models of speciation and the potential role of chemosensory signals in mate choice in these species [Current Zoology 59 (2: 230-238, 2013].

  1. Comparative effectiveness of single and dual rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis and HIV in antenatal care services in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Newman, Lori; Laverty, Maura; Habib, Ndema Abu; González-Gordon, Lina María; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Abella, Catleya; Barros, Esther Cristina; Rincón, Carlos; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Bertha; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dual rapid test compared to a single rapid test for syphilis and HIV screening. A cluster-randomized open-label clinical trial was performed in 12 public antenatal care (ANC) centers in the cities of Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. Pregnant women who were over 14 years of age at their first antenatal visit and who had not been previously tested for HIV and syphilis during the current pregnancy were included. Pregnant women were randomized to single HIV and single syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm A) or to dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm B). The four main outcomes measured were: (1) acceptability of the test, (2) uptake in testing, (3) treatment on the same day (that is, timely treatment), and (4) treatment at any time for positive rapid test cases. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were calculated to adjust for the clustering effect and the period. A total of 1 048 patients were analyzed in Arm A, and 1 166 in Arm B. Acceptability of the rapid tests was 99.8% in Arm A and 99.6% in Arm B. The prevalence of positive rapid tests was 2.21% for syphilis and 0.36% for HIV. Timely treatment was provided to 20 of 29 patients (69%) in Arm A and 16 of 20 patients (80%) in Arm B (relative risk (RR), 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.00 -1.20). Treatment at any time was given to 24 of 29 patients (83%) in Arm A and to 20 of 20 (100%) in Arm B (RR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). There were no differences in patient acceptability, testing and timely treatment between dual rapid tests and single rapid tests for HIV and syphilis screening in the ANC centers. Same-day treatment depends also on the interpretation of and confidence in the results by the health providers.

  2. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone Pascual, A

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effects of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of different scalp positions on mood. Ten normal volunteers rated themselves before and after rTMS on five analog scales labeled "Tristeza" (Sadness), "Ansiedad" (Anxiety), "Alegria" (Happiness), "Cansancio" (Tiredness), and "Dolor/Malestar" (Pain/Discomfort). rTMS was applied to the right lateral prefrontal, left prefrontal, or midline frontal cortex in trains of 5 seconds' duration at 10 Hz and 110% of the subject's motor threshold intensity. Each stimulation position received 10 trains separated by a 25-second pause. No clinically apparent mood changes were evoked by rTMS to any of the scalp positions in any subject. However, left prefrontal rTMS resulted in a significant increase in the Sadness ratings (Tristeza) and a significant decrease in the Happiness ratings ("Alegria") as compared with right prefrontal and midfrontal cortex stimulation. These results show differential effects of rTMS of left and right prefrontal cortex stimulation on mood and illustrate the lateralized control of mood in normal volunteers.

  3. Long-term reclaimed water application effects on phosphorus leaching potential in rapid infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Daniel R; Silveira, Maria L; O'Connor, George A; Wise, William R

    2011-09-01

    Rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) are effective tools for wastewater treatment and groundwater recharge, but continuous application of wastewater can increase soil P concentrations and subsequently impact groundwater quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of reclaimed water infiltration rate and "age" of RIBs on soil P concentrations at various depths, and (2) estimate the degree (percentage) of sorption equilibrium reached between effluent P and soil attained during reclaimed water application to different RIBs. The study was conducted in four contrasting cells of a RIB system with up to a 25 year history of secondary wastewater application. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 300 cm depth at 30 cm intervals and analyzed for water extractable phosphorus (WEP) and oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe concentrations. Water extractable P and P saturation ratio (PSR) values were generally greater in the cells receiving reclaimed water compared to control soils, suggesting that reclaimed water P application can increase soil P concentrations and the risk of P movement to greater depths. Differences between treatment and control samples were more evident in cells with longer histories of reclaimed water application due to greater P loading. Data also indicated considerable spatial variability in WEP concentrations and PSR values, especially within cells from RIBs characterized by fast infiltration rates. This occurs because wastewater-P flows through surface soils much faster than the minimum time required for sorption equilibrium to occur. Studies should be conducted to investigate soil P saturation at deeper depths to assess possible groundwater contamination.

  4. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion in cleft patients resulting from the use of two different expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Fonseca Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME in cleft patients using two types of expanders. Methods: Twenty unilateral cleft lip and palate patients were randomly divided into two groups, according to the type of expander used: (I modified Hyrax and (II inverted Mini-Hyrax. A pretreatment cone-beam computed tomographic image (T0 was taken as part of the initial orthodontic records and three months after RME as need for bone graft planning (T1. Results: In general, there was no significant difference among groups (p > 0.05. Both showed significant transverse maxillary expansion (p 0.05. There was greater crown than apical expansion. Maxillary posterior expansion tended to be larger than anterior opening (p 0.05. Conclusions: The appliances tested are effective for transverse expansion of the maxilla. However, these appliances should be better indicated to cleft cases also presenting posterior transverse discrepancy, since there was greater expansion in the posterior maxillary region than in the anterior one.

  5. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-12-07

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system.

  6. Danger and usefulness: an alternative framework for understanding rapid evaluation effects in perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Lee H

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have shown effects of rated danger and usefulness on lexical access. All of them have used stimuli selected for connotations of danger and/or usefulness. Stimuli for the present lexical decision study were all of the nouns, verbs, and adjectives from the Balota et al. (2002) English Lexicon Project (subject to constraints relating to experimental control; none had anything to do with danger or usefulness). The interaction between danger and usefulness ratings previously demonstrated (Wurm & Vakoch, 2000; Wurm, Vakoch, Seaman, & Buchanan, 2004; Wurm, Whitman, Seaman, Hill, & Ulstad, 2007) was found for nouns, even when age of acquisition was controlled. It was also found for verbs and adjectives. The interaction is believed to reflect competing pressures to (1) avoid dangerous objects/events and (2) approach valuable resources. It may be a manifestation of the rapid evaluation effects pervasive in the literature. Post hoc analyses showed that danger and usefulness explain as much variance as valence and arousal, or evaluation, potency, and activity.

  7. The effect of rapid response teams on end-of-life care: A retrospective chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Benjamin; Salib, Mary; Fox-Robichaud, Alison

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill patients have end-of-life (EOL) goals that are unclear. Rapid response teams (RRTs) may aid in the identification of these patients and the delivery of their EOL care. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of RRT discussion on EOL care, and to examine how a preprinted order (PPO) set for EOL care influenced EOL discussions and outcomes. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective chart review of all RRT calls (January 2009 to December 2010) was performed. The effect of RRT EOL discussions and the effect of a hospital-wide PPO set on EOL care was examined. Charts were from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care Critical Care Information Systemic database, and were interrogated by two reviewers. RESULTS: In patients whose EOL status changed following RRT EOL discussion, there were fewer intensive care unit (ICU) transfers (8.4% versus 17%; PEOL status following the introduction of an EOL PPO, from 20% (before) to 31% (after) (PEOL status following RRT-led EOL discussion was associated with reduced ICU transfers and enhanced access to palliative care services. Further study is required to identify and deconstruct barriers impairing timely and appropriate EOL discussions. PMID:25299222

  8. Rapid and Longer-Term Antidepressant Effects of Repeated Ketamine Infusions in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murrough, James W.; Perez, Andrew M.; Pillemer, Sarah; Stern, Jessica; Parides, Michael K.; aan het Rot, Marije; Collins, Katherine A.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Charney, Dennis S.; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ketamine is reported to have rapid antidepressant effects; however, there is limited understanding of the time-course of ketamine effects beyond a single infusion. A previous report including 10 participants with treatment-resistant major depression (TRD) found that six ketamine

  9. Infrared spectrophotometry, a rapid and effective tool for characterization of direct distillation naphthas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich Ferrer, Carlos A; Novoa Mantilla, Luz Angela

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of naphtha obtained by direct distillation of medium and heavy crude oils is often limited by the low yield of these fractions. Gas chromatography is a technique that allows a complete determination of the chemical composition of this fraction. However, the prediction of properties such as octane rating and RVP from chromatographic data is a difficult task because there are not adequate models to predict the interaction of the different components, and particularly in the case of heavier fractions, there are some problems for the complete separation of components under the gas chromatographic conditions. The IR technology constitutes a rapid and effective tool to predict several properties of naphtha from the correlation of the spectrum in the infrared area and the properties. In this study, prediction models were developed in a Petrospec Cetane 2000 analyzer, in order to predict in a fast and simple way, the density, the antiknock index and the aromatic content of straight run naphtha obtained in a standard crude oil distillation unit. The equipment used was designed in the factory for the exclusive characterization of medium distillation and not for lighter fractions therefore this work constitutes an innovation given the extensive applications of this type of analyzers

  10. Age dependence of the rapid antidepressant and synaptic effects of acute NMDA receptor blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eNosyreva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a NMDA receptor antagonist that produces rapid antidepressant responses in individuals with major depressive disorder. The antidepressant action of ketamine has been linked to blocking NMDA receptor activation at rest, which inhibits eukaryotic elongation factor2 kinase leading to desuppression of protein synthesis and synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated ketamine mediated antidepressant response and the resulting synaptic potentiation in juvenile animals. We found that ketamine did not produce an antidepressant response in juvenile animals in the novelty suppressed feeding or the forced swim test. In addition ketamine application failed to trigger synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile animals, unlike its action in slices from older animals (6-9 weeks old. The inability of ketamine to trigger an antidepressant response or subsequent synaptic plasticity processes suggests a developmental component to ketamine mediated antidepressant efficacy. We also show that the NMDAR antagonist AP5 triggers synaptic potentiation in mature hippocampus similar to the action of ketamine, demonstrating that global competitive blockade of NMDA receptors is sufficient to trigger this effect. These findings suggest that global blockade of NMDA receptors in developmentally mature hippocampal synapses are required for the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine.

  11. The Seneca effect why growth is slow but collapse is rapid

    CERN Document Server

    Bardi, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    The essence of this book can be found in a line written by the ancient Roman Stoic Philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca: "Fortune is of sluggish growth, but ruin is rapid". This sentence summarizes the features of the phenomenon that we call "collapse," which is typically sudden and often unexpected, like the proverbial "house of cards." But why are such collapses so common, and what generates them? Several books have been published on the subject, including the well-known "Collapse" by Jared Diamond (2005), "The collapse of complex societies" by Joseph Tainter (1998) and "The Tipping Point," by Malcom Gladwell (2000). Why The Seneca Effect? This book is an ambitious attempt to pull these various strands together by describing collapse from a multi-disciplinary viewpoint. The reader will discover how collapse is a collective phenomenon that occurs in what we call today "complex systems," with a special emphasis on system dynamics and t he concept of "feedback." From this foundation, Bardi applies the...

  12. Rapid Application of Space Effects for the Small Satellites Systems and Services Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsairides, Demosthenes; Finley, Charles; Moretti, George

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has engaged Military Branches, the Department of Defense, and other Government Agencies in successful partnerships to design, develop, deliver and support various space effects capabilities and space vehicles on timeline of need. Contracts with Industry are in place to execute operational and enabler missions using physical and informational infrastructures including Responsive Manufacturing capabilities and Digital Assurance. The intent is to establish a secure, web-enabled "store front" for ordering and delivering any capabilities required as defined by the users and directed by NASA ARC and Partner Organizations. The capabilities are envisioned to cover a broad range and include 6U CubeSats, 50-100 kg Space Vehicles, Modular Space Vehicle architecture variations, as well as rapid payload integration on various Bus options. The paper will discuss the efforts underway to demonstrate autonomous manufacturing of low-volume, high-value assets, to validate the ability of autonomous digital techniques to provide Mission Assurance, and to demonstrate cost savings through the identification, characterization, and utilization of Responsive Space components. The culmination of this effort will be the integration of several 6U satellites and their launch in 2016.

  13. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  14. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  15. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  16. The effectiveness of electromagnetic terahertz radiation use in the treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenova A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to increase the efficiency of treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP using electromagnetic radiation at terahertz frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide 150,176-150,664 GHz. Material and methods. The study involved 50 patients with RPP, which according to the method of therapy were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients receiving conventional therapy, group 2 consisted of patients who, along with traditional therapy received EHF-therapy device "Orbit" YAKUL.941526.001. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects with intact periodontium. For the non-invasive study of tissue blood flow in the periodontal tissue Doppler ultrasound was used MiniMax-Doppler-Phono. The study of the microvasculature of periodontitis has been conducted. To determine the reactivity of microvascular periodontal tissue reflex functional tests on the indirect effect of the cold were performed. Results. Reductions achieved values of periodontal indices, especially important index PMA, a significant increase in the linear blood flow indices, decreased pulse pressure gradient and the index followed appropriate reduction to their cold test. Conclusion. The proposed complex therapy can accelerate the relief of inflammation in the periodontal tissues of the complex, to improve the elastic properties of blood vessels, reduce their tone and restore microcirculation in periodontal tissues.

  17. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  18. Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jørgensen, E.C.B.; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential antiandrog......Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential...... antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were...... calcium phosphate transfection method, this method has the advantage of being more feasible, as the assay can be scaled down to the microtiter plate format. Furthermore, the transfection reagent is noncytotoxic, allowing its addition together with the test compounds thereby reducing the hands...

  19. Comparative Effectiveness Research, Genomics-Enabled Personalized Medicine, and Rapid Learning Health Care: A Common Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Kuderer, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite stunning advances in our understanding of the genetics and the molecular basis for cancer, many patients with cancer are not yet receiving therapy tailored specifically to their tumor biology. The translation of these advances into clinical practice has been hindered, in part, by the lack of evidence for biomarkers supporting the personalized medicine approach. Most stakeholders agree that the translation of biomarkers into clinical care requires evidence of clinical utility. The highest level of evidence comes from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). However, in many instances, there may be no RCTs that are feasible for assessing the clinical utility of potentially valuable genomic biomarkers. In the absence of RCTs, evidence generation will require well-designed cohort studies for comparative effectiveness research (CER) that link detailed clinical information to tumor biology and genomic data. CER also uses systematic reviews, evidence-quality appraisal, and health outcomes research to provide a methodologic framework for assessing biologic patient subgroups. Rapid learning health care (RLHC) is a model in which diverse data are made available, ideally in a robust and real-time fashion, potentially facilitating CER and personalized medicine. Nonetheless, to realize the full potential of personalized care using RLHC requires advances in CER and biostatistics methodology and the development of interoperable informatics systems, which has been recognized by the National Cancer Institute's program for CER and personalized medicine. The integration of CER methodology and genomics linked to RLHC should enhance, expedite, and expand the evidence generation required for fully realizing personalized cancer care. PMID:23071236

  20. Rapidly Simultaneous Determination of Six Effective Components in Cistanche tubulosa by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of multiple effective components in a given plant usually requires a very large amount of authentic natural products. In this study, we proposed a rapid and non-destructive method for the simultaneous determination of echinacoside, verbascoside, mannitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose in Cistanche tubulosa by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were conducted on 116 batches of C. tubulosa samples. The DRS data were processed using standard normal variety (SNV and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC methods. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was utilized to build calibration models for components-of-interest in C. tubulosa. All models were then assessed by calculating the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, correlation coefficient of calibration (r. The r values of all six calibration models were determined to be greater than 0.94, suggesting each model is reliable. Therefore, the quantitative NIR models reported in this study can be qualified to accurately quantify the contents of six medicinal components in C. tubulosa.

  1. [Effects of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current in HEK293 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Lin, Kun; Wei, Zhixiong; Chen, Qian; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Yang

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) in HEK293 cell line. HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with HERG channel cDNA plasmid pcDNA3.1 via Lipofectamine. Allitridum was added to the extracellular solution by partial perfusion after giga seal at the final concentration of 30 µmol/L. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the HERG currents and gating kinetics before and after allitridum exposure at room temperature. The amplitude and density of IHERG were both suppressed by allitridum in a voltage-dependent manner. In the presence of allitridum, the peak current of IHERG was reduced from 73.5∓4.3 pA/pF to 42.1∓3.6 pA/pF at the test potential of +50 mV (P<0.01). Allitridum also concentration-dependently decreased the density of the IHERG. The IC50 of allitridum was 34.74 µmol/L with a Hill coefficient of 1.01. Allitridum at 30 µmol/L caused a significant positive shift of the steady-state activation curve of IHERG and a markedly negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of IHERG, and significantly shortened the slow time constants of IHERG deactivation. Allitridum can potently block IHERG in HEK293 cells, which might be the electrophysiological basis for its anti-arrhythmic action.

  2. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Fernandes, Mariana dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years) were obtained at treatment onset (T1), three months after SARME (T2) and 6 months after expansion (T3). The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards. PMID:26154457

  3. Effect of rapid thermal treatment on optical properties of porous silicon surface doped lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Ikbel, E-mail: haded.ikbel@yahoo.fr; Slema, Sonia Ben; Amor, Sana Ben; Bousbih, Rabaa; Bardaoui, Afrah; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of porous silicon layers doped with lithium (Li/PS). Surface modification of As-deposited Li/PS samples through thermal annealing were investigated by varying the temperature from 100 °C to 800 °C in an infrared (IR) heated belt furnace. A decrease in the reflectivity to about 6% for Li/PS annealed at 200 °C was obtained. From Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a blue-shift of the gap was observed when the temperature is increased to 800 °C; we correlate these results to the change in chemical composition of the layers in order to find the optimized conditions for a potential application in silicon solar cells. - Highlights: • We have varied the annealing temperature of PS doped with Li. • PL intensity shows significant variation as function of temperature. • We observe reduce of Si–O–Li bands with increasing temperature. • Concurrent with the loss of Li we observe a decrease of the PL.

  4. Comparison of the effects of sedation and general anesthesia in surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satilmis, Tulin; Ugurlu, Faysal; Garip, Hasan; Sener, Bedrettin C; Goker, Kamil

    2011-06-01

    To compare the effects of sedation and general anesthesia for surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). This randomized prospective study included 30 patients who were scheduled for SARPE, and was performed between January 2008 to February 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were allocated into Group S - midazolam + fentanyl sedation (n=15), and Group G - general anesthesia (n=15). Hemodynamic parameters, duration of anesthesia, surgery, recovery time, time to discharge, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores at 30 minutes (min), one hour (hr), 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, first consumption of analgesic time, total amount of consumption of analgesics, patient and surgeon satisfaction, nausea, and vomiting were recorded. Analgesic time was significantly longer in Group S (p=0.008), and total analgesic consumption was significantly lower in Group S than in Group G (p=0.031). Patient satisfaction was statistically higher in Group S (p=0.035). At 30 min, one hr, and 12 hrs, VAS satisfaction scores in Group S were statistically lower than those in Group G, and at 4 hrs and 24 hrs there was no statistical difference in VAS scores for both groups. The use of sedation for outpatient SARPE resulted in lower pain scores at discharge, lower analgesic consumption, and greater patient satisfaction.

  5. Flash-sourcing or the rapid detection and characterisation of earthquake effects through clickstream data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Frobert, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid characterisation of earthquake effects is essential for a timely and appropriate response in favour of victims and/or of eyewitnesses. In case of damaging earthquakes, any field observations that can fill the information gap characterising their immediate aftermath can contribute to more efficient rescue operations. This paper presents the last developments of a method called "flash-sourcing" addressing these issues. It relies on eyewitnesses, the first informed and the first concerned by an earthquake occurrence. More precisely, their use of the EMSC earthquake information website (www.emsc-csem.org) is analysed in real time to map the area where the earthquake was felt and identify, at least under certain circumstances zones of widespread damage. The approach is based on the natural and immediate convergence of eyewitnesses on the website who rush to the Internet to investigate cause of the shaking they just felt causing our traffic to increase The area where an earthquake was felt is mapped simply by locating Internet Protocol (IP) addresses during traffic surges. In addition, the presence of eyewitnesses browsing our website within minutes of an earthquake occurrence excludes the possibility of widespread damage in the localities they originate from: in case of severe damage, the networks would be down. The validity of the information derived from this clickstream analysis is confirmed by comparisons with EMS98 macroseismic map obtained from online questionnaires. The name of this approach, "flash-sourcing", is a combination of "flash-crowd" and "crowdsourcing" intending to reflect the rapidity of the data collation from the public. For computer scientists, a flash-crowd names a traffic surge on a website. Crowdsourcing means work being done by a "crowd" of people; It also characterises Internet and mobile applications collecting information from the public such as online macroseismic questionnaires. Like crowdsourcing techniques, flash-sourcing is a

  6. Cumulative effects of rapid climate and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Forbes, B. C.; Epstein, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Our principal goal is to develop better, more far-looking tools to predict the cumulative effects of resource development, climate-change, and traditional land use. Here we use remote sensing, climate-change analyses, socio-economic analyses, and vegetation-change models to examine the cumulative effects of climate change, gas development, and reindeer herding on the Yamal Peninsula in northwest Siberia as part of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). We find: 1. Direct (planned) impacts of industrial activities on the Yamal Peninsula are currently local and limited in extent, but this is changing rapidly as extensive gas fields are developed and land and sea transportation corridors are developed to get the gas to market. Indirect impacts of the development at Bovanenkovo, the largest gas field, exceed the direct impacts by a factor of three, and the total area of influence of the development on the reindeer pasturelands (e.g., area where migration routes and access to pasturelands is affected) exceeds the direct impacts by a factor of about 40. 2. The trend in land-surface temperatures has co-varied with the trend in sea-ice. Low sea ice in the preceding December-March period is correlated to warmer land temperature the following summer. The sea- ice trends in the Kara Sea-Yamal region are tied to variation in the North Atlantic Oscillation index. 4. Only a small greening response to warming has been detected on the Yamal in comparison with some other areas in the Arctic (e.g. Northern Alaska). The actual effects of climate-change on vegetation are currently hard to document at the ground level because of lack of baseline and long-term ground observations and difficulty of excluding reindeer in these studies. 5. There is high potential for extensive landscape effects due to unstable sandy soils, and extremely ice-rich permafrost near the surface on slopes. 6. Two different vegetation modeling approaches are being used to predict

  7. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  8. Comparison of the effect of Haas and Hyrax rapid palatal expanders on nasal cavity dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini F.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In treatment of posterior crossbite awareness of the effects of Haas and Hyrax rapid maxillary expanders (RME on nasal cavity will help the clinician to select the better appliance. This study was carried out to compare the effects of Haas and Hyrax expanders on the nasal cavity of patients treated for posterior crossbite. "nMaterials and Methods: A clinical trial study was designed on posteroanterior (PA cephalograms of 30 subjects to evaluate the nasal cavity width of 14 subjects (8 female & 6 male with mean chronological age of 12± 2years who received RME with Hyrax type and 16 subjects (9 female & 7 male with mean chronological age of 11±1.6 years who received Haas type palatal expander. Paired t-test was used to analyze the outcomes of expansion in each group. Student t-test was used to compare Haas and Hyrax groups. "nResults: The mean value of screw expansion was 9±2 mm in both groups. In Hyrax group nasal cavity width"n(Nc-cN increased from 29.2 ±1.94 mm to 31.7 ±1.93mm (p= 0.001 and In Haas group it was increased from 27.75± 2.21 mm to 29.35 ± 2.26 mm(p= 0.043. When two groups were compared to each other, statistically this increase was more significant in Hyrax than in the Haas group (p=0.038. "nConclusion: In this study RME affected geometry of the nasal cavity by increasing the nasal cavity width. However In our sample, Hyrax appliance demonstrated better performance over the Haas appliance in all variables.

  9. A multichannel magnetic β-ray spectrometer for rapid measurements of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Komyo; Morikawa, Kaoru.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make the magnetic β-ray spectrometer suitable for rapid measurements of electron spectra with short-lived nuclides, twelve small GM counters have been arrayed along the focal plane of a 180deg focusing flat type design. All the signal pulses from each one of these detectors are mixed together onto a single cable. By means of multichannel PHA, each pulse can be traced back to the specific detector which sent it out. In order to avoid time consuming evacuation procedures, the sample source is placed outside a thin window of the preevacuated analyzer chamber. By the use of this multichannel spectrometer a β-ray spectrum with maximum energy up to about 10 MeV can be measured within 1 min or so. Electron spectra measured with 113m In, 119m In and 144 Pr source are shown. (author)

  10. Effect of iron and cerium additions on rapidly solidified Al-TM-Ce alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalcová, A.; Vojtěch, D.; Schumacher, G.; Novák, P.; Pližingrová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 757-761 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : rapid solidification * aluminium * quasicrystals Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.555, year: 2013

  11. Effects of Bepridil on Atrial Electrical Remodeling in Short-Term Rapid Pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Tsuchiya, MD

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Bepridil prevented the shortening of the ERP and MAPD90 induced by rapid atrial pacing in the acute phase. The results of this study might explain the efficacy of bepridil for preventing the recurrence of paroxysmal AF.

  12. Integrating unmanned aerial systems and LSPIV for rapid, cost-effective stream gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Quinn W.; Lindroth, Evan M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying flow in rivers is fundamental to assessments of water supply, water quality, ecological conditions, hydrological responses to storm events, and geomorphological processes. Image-based surface velocity measurements have shown promise in extending the range of discharge conditions that can be measured in the field. The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in image-based measurements of surface velocities has the potential to expand applications of this method. Thus far, few investigations have assessed this potential by evaluating the accuracy and repeatability of discharge measurements using surface velocities obtained from UAS. This study uses large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) derived from videos captured by cameras on a UAS and a fixed tripod to obtain discharge measurements at ten different stream locations in Illinois, USA. Discharge values are compared to reference values measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler, a propeller meter, and established stream gauges. The results demonstrate the effects of UAS flight height, camera steadiness and leveling accuracy, video sampling frequency, and LSPIV interrogation area size on surface velocities, and show that the mean difference between fixed and UAS cameras is less than 10%. Differences between LSPIV-derived and reference discharge values are generally less than 20%, not systematically low or high, and not related to site parameters like channel width or depth, indicating that results are relatively insensitive to camera setup and image processing parameters typically required of LSPIV. The results also show that standard velocity indices (between 0.85 and 0.9) recommended for converting surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities yield reasonable discharge estimates, but are best calibrated at specific sites. The study recommends a basic methodology for LSPIV discharge measurements using UAS that is rapid, cost-efficient, and does not require major preparatory work at a

  13. Rapid and simple method for quantitative evaluation of neurocytotoxic effects of radiation on developing medaka brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takako; Maeda, Keiko; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Maruyama, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Yoshimoto, Masami

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel method for rapid and quantitative evaluation of the degree of radiation-induced apoptosis in the developing brain of medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos at stage 28 were irradiated with 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 Gy x-ray. Living embryos were stained with a vital dye, acridine orange (AO), for 1-2 h, and whole-mount brains were examined under an epifluorescence microscope. From 7 to 10 h after irradiation with 5 Gy x-ray, we found two morphologically different types of AO-stained structures, namely, small single nuclei and rosette-shaped nuclear clusters. Electron microscopy revealed that these two distinct types of structures were single apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and aggregates of apoptotic cells, respectively. From 10 to 30 h after irradiation, a similar AO-staining pattern was observed. The numbers of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters and AO-stained single nuclei increased in a dose-dependent manner in the optic tectum. We used the number of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum as an index of the degree of radiation-induced brain cell death at 20-24 h after irradiation. The results showed that the number of rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum in irradiated embryos exposed to 2 Gy or higher doses was highly significant compared to the number in nonirradiated control embryos, whereas no difference was detected at 1 Gy. Thus, the threshold dose for brain cell death in medaka embryos was taken as being between 1-2 Gy, which may not be so extraordinarily large compared to those for rodents and humans. The results show that medaka embryos are useful for quantitative evaluation of developmental neurocytotoxic effects of radiation. (author)

  14. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  15. Repair effect on patterned CoFeB-based magnetic tunneling junction using rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.-M.; Wang, Y.-H.; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Yang, S.-Y.; Shen, Kuei-Hung; Kao, M.-J.; Tsai, M.-J.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Wu, J.-C.; Horng, Lance

    2007-01-01

    Rapid thermal treatment without applying magnetic field reconstructing magnetic property of Co 60 Fe 20 B 20 was studied through magnetoresistance (R-H) measurement. In this paper, we report that the switching behaviors of CoFeB were obviously improved through rapid thermal annealing for only a brief 5 min. The squareness and reproduction of minor R-H loops were enhanced from 100 deg. C to 250 deg. C . Tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) that is about 35% in the as-etched cells increases up to 44% after 250 deg. C rapid annealing and still shows about 25% TMR even after 400 deg. C treating. Therefore, repair purpose annealing is some what different from crystallizing purpose annealing. Applying magnetic field during repair annealing was not necessary. Brief thermal treatment improves CoFeB switching behavior indeed, and causes less damage at high temperature

  16. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...... operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal...... rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot...

  17. Rapid, low-cost prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic devices for effective implementation of various microfluidic operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available can be achieved. This work provides a complete centrifugal microfluidic platform and the building blocks on which to develop a variety of microfluidic applications and potential products rapidly and at a low cost. ... stream_source_info Hugo_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1281 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Hugo_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Rapid Product Development...

  18. Comparative effectiveness of single and dual rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis and HIV in antenatal care services in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Guillermo Gaitán-Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effectiveness of a dual rapid test compared to a single rapid test for syphilis and HIV screening. Methods A cluster-randomized open-label clinical trial was performed in 12 public antenatal care (ANC centers in the cities of Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. Pregnant women who were over 14 years of age at their first antenatal visit and who had not been previously tested for HIV and syphilis during the current pregnancy were included. Pregnant women were randomized to single HIV and single syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm A or to dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm B. The four main outcomes measured were: (1 acceptability of the test, (2 uptake in testing, (3 treatment on the same day (that is, timely treatment, and (4 treatment at any time for positive rapid test cases. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were calculated to adjust for the clustering effect and the period. Results A total of 1 048 patients were analyzed in Arm A, and 1 166 in Arm B. Acceptability of the rapid tests was 99.8% in Arm A and 99.6% in Arm B. The prevalence of positive rapid tests was 2.21% for syphilis and 0.36% for HIV. Timely treatment was provided to 20 of 29 patients (69% in Arm A and 16 of 20 patients (80% in Arm B (relative risk (RR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: (1.00 −1.20. Treatment at any time was given to 24 of 29 patients (83% in Arm A and to 20 of 20 (100% in Arm B (RR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01−1.22. Conclusions There were no differences in patient acceptability, testing and timely treatment between dual rapid tests and single rapid tests for HIV and syphilis screening in the ANC centers. Same-day treatment depends also on the interpretation of and confidence in the results by the health providers.

  19. Effects of X irradiation and high field electron injection of the electrical properties of rapid thermal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, W.K.; Seager, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) is a promising tool for fabricating the thin gate oxides (5 to 15 nm) that will be needed in future submicron integrated circuits, because of its inherently superior time-temperature control when compared to conventional oxidation methods. It is important to demonstrate that RTO can be used without adversely affecting the radiation hardness or high field properties of the oxide. Beyond this demonstration, rapid thermal processing makes it possible to determine more precisely how the kinetics of oxidation and post oxidation annealing affect the device properties. Information of this type should prove useful in modeling relevant defect formation mechanisms. The present paper is part of a systematic study of the effect of rapid thermal processing on the radiation and high field response of thin oxides

  20. Spatial Pattern of Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Rapidly Urbanizing Chinese City and Its Mismatch Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities undergoing rapid urbanization are characterized by quick successions of spatiotemporal patterns, meaning that traditional methods cannot adequately assess carbon emissions from urban residential areas, which prevents the study of spatial mismatch. Therefore, this study utilizes night-time lights to construct a spatial emissions model that enables the analysis of the evolution of emissions patterns in China. The results indicate that, compared to the traditional method, the spatial modeling based on night-time lights reflects the spatial emissions trajectories in a more timely and accurate manner in rapidly urbanizing cities. Additionally, we found a relatively low degree of spatial match between emissions and economic activities, with the former, which are greatly affected by urbanization, having a larger dynamism and instability than the latter. Such spatial mismatch effect illustrates that policy makers should focus on factors beyond economics in order to reduce residential carbon emissions during China’s rapid urbanization process.

  1. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  2. Rapid Screening of Natural Plant Extracts with Calcium Diacetate for Differential Effects Against Foodborne Pathogens and a Probiotic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, William; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Shetty, Kalidas; Pometto, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on advancing a rapid turbidimetric bioassay to screen antimicrobials using specific cocktails of targeted foodborne bacterial pathogens. Specifically, to show the relevance of this rapid screening tool, the antimicrobial potential of generally recognized as safe calcium diacetate (DAX) and blends with cranberry (NC) and oregano (OX) natural extracts was evaluated. Furthermore, the same extracts were evaluated against beneficial lactic acid bacteria. The targeted foodborne pathogens evaluated were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus using optimized initial cocktails (∼10 8 colony-forming unit/mL) containing strains isolated from human food outbreaks. Of all extracts evaluated, 0.51% (w/v) DAX in ethanol was the most effective against all four pathogens. However, DAX when reduced to 0.26% and with added blends from ethanol extractions consisting of DAX:OX (3:1), slightly outperformed or was equal to same levels of DAX alone. Subculture of wells in which no growth occurred after 1 week indicated that all water and ethanol extracts were bacteriostatic against the pathogens tested. All the targeted antimicrobials had no effect on the probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of such rapid screening methods combined with the use of multistrain cocktails of targeted foodborne pathogens from outbreaks will allow rapid large-scale screening of antimicrobials and enable further detailed studies in targeted model food systems.

  3. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the rapid vascular effects of steroids: sorting out the receptors and the pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ross D; Gros, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Aldosterone, oestrogens and other vasoactive steroids are important physiological and pathophysiological regulators of cardiovascular and metabolic function. The traditional view of the cardiovascular actions of these vasoactive steroids has focused on their roles as regulators of transcription via activation of their 'classical' receptors [mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and oestrogen receptors (ER)]. However, based on a series of observations going back more than half a century, scientists have speculated that a range of steroids, including oestrogen and aldosterone, might have effects on regulation of smooth muscle contractility, cell growth and differentiation that are too rapid to be accounted for by transcriptional regulation. Recent studies performed in our laboratories (and those of others) have begun to elucidate the mechanism of rapid steroid-mediated cardiometabolic regulation. GPR30, now designated as GPER-1 (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyIntroductionForward?familyId=22), a newly characterized 'orphan receptor', has been implicated in mediating the rapid effects of estradiol and most recently those of aldosterone. Studies to date have taught us that to understand the rapid vascular mechanisms of steroids, one must (i) know which vascular 'compartment' the steroid is acting; (ii) know which receptor the steroid hormone is activating; and (iii) not assume the receptor specificity of a steroid receptor ligand based solely on its selectivity for its traditional 'transcriptional' steroid receptor. Our newfound appreciation of the rapid effects of steroids such as aldosterone and oestrogens opens up a new vista for advancing our understanding of the biology and pathobiology of vascular regulation. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical samples: methods, effectiveness and cost considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stürenburg, Enno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates is a serious public health problem whose ever-increasing rate is commensurate with the pressure it is exerting on the healthcare system. At present, more than 20% of clinical S. aureus isolates in German hospitals are methicillin resistant. Strategies from low-prevalence countries show that this development is not necessarily inevitable. In the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, thanks to a rigorous prevention programme, MRSA prevalence has been kept at an acceptably low level (<1–3%. Central to these ‘search and destroy’ control strategies is an admission screening using several MRSA swabs taken from mucocutaneous colonisation sites of high-risk patients (‘MRSA surveillance’. It has also been reported that the speed with which MRSA carriage is detected has an important role to play, as it is a key component of any effective strategy to prevent the pathogen from spreading. Since MRSA culturing involves a 2–3 day delay before the final results are available, rapid detection techniques (commonly referred to as ‘MRSA rapid tests’ using PCR methods and, most recently, rapid culturing methods have been developed. The implementation of rapid tests reduces the time of detection of MRSA carriers from 48–72 to 2–5 h. Clinical evaluation data have shown that MRSA can thus be detected with very high sensitivity. Specificity however is sometimes impaired due to false-positive PCR signals occurring in mixed flora specimens. In order to rule out any false-positive PCR results, a culture screen must always be carried out simultaneously.The data provide preliminary evidence that a PCR assay can reduce nosocomial MRSA transmission in high-risk patients or high-risk areas, whereas an approach that screens all patients admitted to the hospital is probably not effective. Information concerning the cost-effectiveness of rapid MRSA tests is still sparse and thus the issue remains

  5. The effect of rapid decompression on femur blood flow of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaoning; Tian Wuxun; Zhu Xiangqi

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the influence of regional blood flow in femur trochanter (FT) of rabbits' under rapid decompression after exposure to hyperbaric air. METHODS: Rabbits were placed in a hyperbaric chamber and exposed to the pressure of 0.5 MPa for 1.5 h, and the pressure was reduced to the atmosphere pressure at a uniform rate of 0.03 mPa/min. The regional blood flow of FT in rabbits were measured with 133 Xe washout methods. RESULTS: The normal average regional blood flow in left and right FT were 14.5 +- 1.7 and 14.1 +- 1.9 ml/(min·100g) respectively. After exposure to hyperbaric air with rapid decompression, the average regional blood flow of left and right FT were 11.1 +- 1.2 and 10.5 +- 1.6 ml/(min·100g) respectively. But the symptoms of dysbarism in these rabbits were various each other. CONCLUSIONS: After being exposed to hyperbaric air with rapid decompression, the blood flow of rabbits' femur trochanter were noticeably reduced

  6. Effect of rapid oxidation on optical and electrical properties of silicon nanowires obtained by chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyaoui, M.; Bardaoui, A.; Ben Rabha, M.; Harmand, J. C.; Amlouk, M.

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we report the investigation of passivated silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having an average radius of 3.7 μm, obtained by chemical etching of p-type silicon (p-Si). The surface passivation of the SiNWs was performed through a rapid oxidation conducted under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures and durations. The morphology of the SiNWs was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that revealed a wave-like structure of dense and vertically aligned one-dimensional silicon nanostructures. On the other hand, optical and electrical characterizations of the SiNWs were studied using a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and I-V measurements. The reflectance of SiNWs has been dropped to approximately 2% in comparison to that of bare p-Si. This low reflectance slightly increased after carrying out the rapid thermal annealing. The observed behavior was attributed to the formation of a SiO2 layer, as confirmed by FTIR measurements. Finally, the electrical measurements have shown that the rapid oxidation, at certain conditions, contributes to the improvement of the electrical responses of the SiNWs, which can be of great interest for photovoltaic applications.

  7. Rapid fuel switching from coal to natural gas through effective carbon pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I. A. Grant; Staffell, Iain

    2018-05-01

    Great Britain's overall carbon emissions fell by 6% in 2016, due to cleaner electricity production. This was not due to a surge in low-carbon nuclear or renewable sources; instead it was the much-overlooked impact of fuel switching from coal to natural gas generation. This Perspective considers the enabling conditions in Great Britain and the potential for rapid fuel switching in other coal-reliant countries. We find that spare generation and fuel supply-chain capacity must already exist for fuel switching to deliver rapid carbon savings, and to avoid further high-carbon infrastructure lock-in. More important is the political will to alter the marketplace and incentivize this switch, for example, through a stable and strong carbon price. With the right incentives, fuel switching in the power sector could rapidly achieve on the order of 1 GtCO2 saving per year worldwide (3% of global emissions), buying precious time to slow the growth in cumulative carbon emissions.

  8. Effects of storm waves on rapid deposition of sediment in the Yangtze Estuary channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fumin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on short-term topographic change in the Yangtze Estuary channel under storm surge conditions is briefly summarized. The mild-slope, Boussinesq and action balance equations are compared and analyzed. The action balance equation, SWAN, was used as a wave numerical model to forecast strong storm waves in the Yangtze Estuary. The spherical coordinate system and source terms used in the equation are described in this paper. The significant wave height and the wave orbital motion velocity near the bottom of the channel during 20 m/s winds in the EES direction were simulated, and the model was calibrated with observation data of winds and waves generated by Tropical Cyclone 9912. The distribution of critical velocity for incipient motion along the bottom was computed according to the threshold velocity formula for bottom sediment. The mechanism of rapid deposition is analyzed based on the difference between the root-mean-square value of the near-bottom wave orbital motion velocity and the bottom critical tractive velocity. The results show that a large amount of bottom sediments from Hengsha Shoal and Jiuduan Shoal are lifted into the water body when 20 m/s wind is blowing in the EES direction. Some of the sediments may enter the channel with the cross-channel current, causing serious rapid deposition. Finally, the tendency of the storm to induce rapid deposition in the Yangtze Estuary channel zone is analyzed.

  9. Rapid effects of hearing song on catecholaminergic activity in the songbird auditory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Matragrano

    Full Text Available Catecholaminergic (CA neurons innervate sensory areas and affect the processing of sensory signals. For example, in birds, CA fibers innervate the auditory pathway at each level, including the midbrain, thalamus, and forebrain. We have shown previously that in female European starlings, CA activity in the auditory forebrain can be enhanced by exposure to attractive male song for one week. It is not known, however, whether hearing song can initiate that activity more rapidly. Here, we exposed estrogen-primed, female white-throated sparrows to conspecific male song and looked for evidence of rapid synthesis of catecholamines in auditory areas. In one hemisphere of the brain, we used immunohistochemistry to detect the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the CA synthetic pathway. We found that immunoreactivity for TH phosphorylated at serine 40 increased dramatically in the auditory forebrain, but not the auditory thalamus and midbrain, after 15 min of song exposure. In the other hemisphere, we used high pressure liquid chromatography to measure catecholamines and their metabolites. We found that two dopamine metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, increased in the auditory forebrain but not the auditory midbrain after 30 min of exposure to conspecific song. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to a behaviorally relevant auditory stimulus rapidly induces CA activity, which may play a role in auditory responses.

  10. Effects of oncoming target velocities on rapid force production and accuracy of force production intensity and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of oncoming target velocities on the ability of rapid force production and accuracy and variability of simultaneous control of both force production intensity and timing. Twenty male participants (age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rapid gripping with a handgrip dynamometer to coincide with the arrival of an oncoming target by using a horizontal electronic trackway. The oncoming target velocities were 4, 8, and 12 m · s -1 , which were randomly produced. The grip force required was 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Although the peak force (Pf) and rate of force development (RFD) increased with increasing target velocity, the value of the RFD to Pf ratio was constant across the 3 target velocities. The accuracy of both force production intensity and timing decreased at higher target velocities. Moreover, the intrapersonal variability in temporal parameters was lower in the fast target velocity condition, but constant variability in 3 target velocities was observed in force intensity parameters. These results suggest that oncoming target velocity does not intrinsically affect the ability for rapid force production. However, the oncoming target velocity affects accuracy and variability of force production intensity and timing during rapid force production.

  11. Effectiveness of interventions to improve the health and housing status of homeless people: a rapid systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick-Lewis, D; Ganann, R; Krishnaratne, S; Ciliska, D; Kouyoumdjian, F; Hwang, SW

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on interventions to positively impact health and housing status of people who are homeless has received substantially increased attention over the past 5 years. This rapid review examines recent evidence regarding interventions that have been shown to improve the health of homeless people, with particular focus on the effect of these interventions on housing status. Methods A total of 1,546 articles were identified by a structured search of five electronic databas...

  12. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InN epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, G W; Wu, P F; Liu, Y W; Wang, J S; Shen, J L; Lin, T Y; Pong, P J; Chi, G C; Chang, H J; Chen, Y F; Lee, Y C

    2006-01-01

    We studied the optical and electrical properties of InN epilayers with rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) and the carrier mobility were found to increase as the temperature of RTA was increased. We suggest that the formation of compensating acceptors (indium vacancies) after RTA is responsible for the improvement of the quality in InN. The dependence of the PL emission peak on carrier concentration provides a possible method for estimating the carrier concentration in degenerate InN. (letter to the editor)

  14. Single pole rapid reclosing: effective damping of ehv switching surges through discharge resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, T

    1965-04-30

    The stability of interconnecting circuits is very important and loss of synchronism of a complete network due to a temporary single-phase fault is operationally and economically undesirable. The use of grounding resistors together with load-break isolators which can be electrically or mechanically coupled to the circuit-breakers yield interesting possibilities in extra-high-voltage networks. The three problems, i.e., discharging of charged lines, damping of switching surges, and single-pole rapid-reclosing, can be solved through the use of a number of similar resistors and load-break isolators connected in series according to the voltage. The thermal and electrical stresses of the resistors can be kept within permissible limits. The time required for arc extinction and the limits in respect of length of lines will have to be determined by actual tests. For single-pole rapid-reclosing during a single-phase earth fault the switching operations on both sides of the line must be simultaneous. Because of the very small divergence of the opening and making times of modern circuit-breakers it will be sufficient only to synchronise the operating impulse.

  15. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L −1 , with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L −1 . This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L −1 and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L −1

  16. Effect of zero-valent iron and trivalent iron on UASB rapid start-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Hongyan; Jia, Hui; Yang, Guang; Gao, Fei; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize the rapid start-up of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, the iron ion in different valence state was added to UASB. The results indicated that the start-up time of R3 (FeCl 3 ) was 48 h faster than that of R2 (zero-valent iron (ZVI)). It was because the FeCl 3 could rapidly promote granulation of sludge as a flocculant. However, ZVI released Fe 2+ through corrosion slowly, and then the Fe 2+ increased start-up speed by enhancing enzyme activity and enriching methanogens. In addition, the ZVI and FeCl 3 could promote hydrolysis acidification and strengthen the decomposition of long-chain fatty acids. The detection of iron ions showed that iron ions mainly existed in the sludge. Because the high concentration of Fe 2+ could inhibit anaerobic bacteria activity, excess Fe 3+ could be changed into iron hydroxide precipitation to hinder the mass transfer process of anaerobic bacteria under the alkaline condition. The FeCl 3 was suitable to be added at the initial stage of UASB start-up, and the ZVI was more fitted to be used in the middle stage of reactor start-up to improve the redox ability.

  17. Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.

  18. Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzari, A; Bourcier-Lucas, C; Freyssin, A; Abrous, D N; Haddjeri, N; Lucas, G

    2018-03-01

    Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats having undergone a successful LTP displayed a significant reduction of immobility when passed acutely 3 days thereafter in the forced swimming test (FST). Further, in a longitudinal paradigm using the pseudo-depressed Wistar-Kyoto rat strain, LTP elicited a decrease of FST immobility after only 2 days, whereas the AD desipramine was not effective before 16 days. In both models, the influence of LTP was transient, as it was no more observed after 8-9 days. No effects were observed on the locomotor activity or on anxiety-related behavior. Theta-burst stimulation of a brain region anatomically adjacent to the PP remained ineffective in the FST. Immunoreactivity of DG cells for phosphorylated histone H3 and doublecortin were not modified three days after LTP, indicating a lack of effect on both cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, depleting brain serotonin contents reduced the success rate of LTP but did not affect its subsequent AD-like effects. These results confirm the 'plastic DG' theory of rapid AD efficacy. Beyond, they point out stimulations of the entorhinal cortex, from which the PP originates, as putative new approaches in AD research.

  19. [Comparition of ecological security stress effects of artificial landscapes on natural landscapes in different rapid urban sprawl areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Xia; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quan Yi; Sun, Cai Ge; Deng, Fu Liang; Zhang, Guo Qin

    2017-04-18

    The expansion of built-up area will cause stress effect on the regional natural ecological security pattern during urbanization process. Taking rapid expanding regions of four inland and coastal cities as study areas, including Tongzhou in Beijing, Zhengding in Hebei, Tanggu in Tianjin and Xiamen in Fujian, we constructed regional landscape stress indexes according to the principle of landscape ecology and comparatively analyzed the landscape pattern characteristics of rapid expanding regions and the differences of stress effect of artificial landscapes on four natural landscapes ecological security pattern in the process of rapid urbanization. Results showed that landscape erosion indexes of Tongzhou, Zhengding, Tanggu and Xiamen in 2015 were 1.039, 0.996, 1.239 and 0.945, respectively, which indicated that the natural landscapes were eroded significantly. Natural landscape types of those four regions presented different threatened levels. Among all natural landscape types, unused land and waters were worst threatened in Tongzhou, Zhengding and Tanggu, while in Xiamen cultivated land and waters showed the highest threat levels. The waters threat indexes of those four areas were all more than 0.743. Landscape isolation indexes of waters and unused land of the inland cities were greater than those of coastal cities, which meant water distribution of inland cities in the space was less gathered than that of coastal cities. Besides, compared with the other natural landscape, unused land and waters suffered the largest stress from artificial landscapes.

  20. The evidence of the rugoscopy effectiveness as a human identification method in patients submitted to rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Ana A; Scoralick, Raquel A; Naressi, Suely C M; Moraes, Mari E L; Daruge, Eduardo; Daruge, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of rugoscopy as a human identification method, even when the patient is submitted to rapid palatal expansion, which in theory would introduce doubt. With this intent, the Rugoscopic Identity was obtained for each subject using the classification formula proposed by Santos based on the intra-oral casts made before and after treatment from patients who were subjected to palatal expansion. The casts were labeled with the patients' initials and randomly arranged for studying. The palatine rugae kept the same patterns in every case studied. The technical error of the intra-evaluator measurement provided a confidence interval of 95%, making rugoscopy a reliable identification method for patients who were submitted to rapid palatal expansion, because even in the presence of intra-oral changes owing to the use of palatal expanders, the palatine rugae retained the biological and technical requirements for the human identification process. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Formation of two-way shape memory effect in rapid-quenched TiNiCu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelyakov, A.V.; Bykovsky, Yu.A.; Matveeva, N.M.; Kovneristy, Yu.K.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have developed a number of devices for an optical radiation control based on the shape memory effect. A blind of rapid-quenched TiNiCu alloy having a two-way shape memory in bending was used as a basic element. So far as the rapid quenched alloy used is amorphous in initial state, it needs thermal annealing to form shape memory. This paper describes procedure of thermo-mechanical treatment, that allows to form desired two-way shape memory immediately during thermal annealing of amorphous alloy without training. It was shown that degree of two-way shape recovery depends critically on initial strain, temperature and duration of the annealing. It was experimentally determined optimum parameters of thermo-mechanical treatment to achieve maximum two-way shape memory. (orig.)

  2. Rapid, green synthesis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect of single-crystal silver nanocubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aiqin; Jin, Xia; Gu, Xiaolong; Wei, Xiaoqing; Yang, Guojing

    2012-08-01

    Single-crystal silver (Ag) nanocubes have been synthesized by a rapid and green method at room temperature by adding sodium hydroxide solution to the mixed solutions of silver nitrate, glucose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the phase composition and morphology. The results showed that the as-prepared particles were single-crystal Ag nanocubes with edge lengths of around 77 nm and a growing direction along {1 0 0} facets. As substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment on crystal violet (CV), the SERS enhancement factor of the as-prepared Ag nanocubes were measured to be 5.5 × 104, indicating potential applications in chemical and biological analysis.

  3. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and hierarchical regression methods to determine the connection among RAN, reading comprehension, and WM components. Results showed that WM played a significant mediating role in the RAN-reading relation and that auditory WM made stronger contributions than visual WM. Taking into account of the multi-component nature of WM and the specificity of Chinese reading processing, this study discussed the mediating powers of the WM components, particularly auditory WM, further clarifying the possible components involved in the RAN-reading relation and thus providing some insight into the complicated Chinese reading process.

  4. Effects for rapid conversion from abalone shell to hydroxyapaptite nanosheets by ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengnan; Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Li, Qian; Shi, Xuetao; Ding, Shinnjyh; Zhang, Qiqing

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used for repairing or substituting human hard tissues. In this paper, two typical ionic surfactants, cation hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were used for rapid conversion of HAP from abalone shell. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the prepared HAP is flake-like structure. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis, these samples contain a small amount of calcium carbonate whose content gradually increases by increasing the surfactants. The results showed that the HAP formed fast on the layer of abalone shell powder with the assistance of CTAB and SDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan, E-mail: nwang@hust.edu.cn; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-05-15

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1}, with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}. This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}.

  6. Dissociable effects of inter-stimulus interval and presentation duration on rapid face categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Talia L; Jiang, Fang; Webster, Michael A; Rossion, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    Fast periodic visual stimulation combined with electroencephalography (FPVS-EEG) has unique sensitivity and objectivity in measuring rapid visual categorization processes. It constrains image processing time by presenting stimuli rapidly through brief stimulus presentation durations and short inter-stimulus intervals. However, the selective impact of these temporal parameters on visual categorization is largely unknown. Here, we presented natural images of objects at a rate of 10 or 20 per second (10 or 20 Hz), with faces appearing once per second (1 Hz), leading to two distinct frequency-tagged EEG responses. Twelve observers were tested with three squarewave image presentation conditions: 1) with an ISI, a traditional 50% duty cycle at 10 Hz (50-ms stimulus duration separated by a 50-ms ISI); 2) removing the ISI and matching the rate, a 100% duty cycle at 10 Hz (100-ms duration with 0-ms ISI); 3) removing the ISI and matching the stimulus presentation duration, a 100% duty cycle at 20 Hz (50-ms duration with 0-ms ISI). The face categorization response was significantly decreased in the 20 Hz 100% condition. The conditions at 10 Hz showed similar face-categorization responses, peaking maximally over the right occipito-temporal (ROT) cortex. However, the onset of the 10 Hz 100% response was delayed by about 20 ms over the ROT region relative to the 10 Hz 50% condition, likely due to immediate forward-masking by preceding images. Taken together, these results help to interpret how the FPVS-EEG paradigm sets temporal constraints on visual image categorization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Gou, Jin-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Here we adapted Pro-Q ® Diamond (Pro-Q ® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain), a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q ® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1) on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  8. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze protein phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Results Here we adapted Pro-Q® Diamond (Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain, a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1 on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX, an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. Conclusion The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  9. Acute effects of Radiotherapy in patients with Head and Neck Cancer: IMRT vs RapidArcTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a standard treatment in the multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of head and neck carcinomas (HNC. The description and perception of the effects caused by the treatment in the normal tissues is important for the clinical evaluation of the patient because treatment is interrupted if the patient develops several acute side effects which directly affect their survival. This study involved 46 patients over 6 weeks of treatment and evaluated the observed acute effects of treatment in five different anatomical areas - skin, mucosa, salivary glands, pharynx /esophagus and larynx. This evaluation adopted the classification of the Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG. Data analysis revealed that the acute effects related to the RapidArcTM technique appeared earlier when compared to IMRT techniques. On the other hand, the IMRT technique showed more exacerbated high-grade effects.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of scrub management at the landscape scale using rapid field assessment and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, John; Cuevas-Gonzales, Maria; Smith, Geoffrey; Gerard, France; Pywell, Richard

    2012-04-30

    Controlling scrub encroachment is a major challenge for conservation management on chalk grasslands. However, direct comparisons of scrub removal methods have seldom been investigated, particularly at the landscape scale. Effective monitoring of grassland scrub is problematic as it requires simultaneous information on large scale patterns in scrub cover and fine-scale changes in the grassland community. This study addressed this by combining analysis of aerial imagery with rapid field surveys in order to compare the effectiveness of four scrub management strategies on Defence Training Estate Salisbury Plain, UK. Study plots were sited within areas undergoing management and in unmanaged controls. Controls showed dramatic increases in scrub cover, with encroachment of a mean 1096 m(2) per hectare over ten years. Whilst all management strategies were effective in reducing scrub encroachment, they differed in their ability to influence regeneration of scrub and grassland quality. There was a general trend, evident in both the floral community and scrub levels, of increased effectiveness with increasing management intensity. The dual methodology proved highly effective, allowing rapid collection of data over a range of variables and spatial scales unavailable to each method individually. The methodology thus demonstrates potential for a useful monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple, rapid, cost-effective and sensitive method for detection of Salmonella in environmental and pecan samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobhal, S; Zhang, G; Rohla, C; Smith, M W; Ma, L M

    2014-10-01

    PCR is widely used in the routine detection of foodborne human pathogens; however, challenges remain in overcoming PCR inhibitors present in some sample matrices. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, cost-effective and rapid method for processing large numbers of environmental and pecan samples for Salmonella detection. This study was also aimed at validation of a new protocol for the detection of Salmonella from in-shell pecans. Different DNA template preparation methods, including direct boiling, prespin, multiple washing and commercial DNA extraction kits, were evaluated with pure cultures of Salmonella Typhimurium and with enriched soil, cattle feces and in-shell pecan each spiked individually with Salmonella Typhimurium. PCR detection of Salmonella was conducted using invA and 16S rRNA gene (internal amplification control) specific primers. The effect of amplification facilitators, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and gelatin on PCR sensitivity, was also evaluated. Conducting a prespin of sample matrices in combination with the addition of 0·4% (w/v) BSA and 1% (w/v) PVP in PCR mix was the simplest, most rapid, cost-effective and sensitive method for PCR detection of Salmonella, with up to 40 CFU Salmonella per reaction detectable in the presence of over 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) of background micro-organisms from enriched feces soil or pecan samples. The developed method is rapid, cost-effective and sensitive for detection of Salmonella from different matrices. This study provides a method with broad applicability for PCR detection of Salmonella in complex sample matrices. This method has a potential for its application in different research arenas and diagnostic laboratories. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Effect of rapid intravenous administration of 50% dextrose solution on phosphorus homeostasis in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Walter; Morin, Dawn E; Drackley, James K; Constable, Peter D

    2006-01-01

    Dextrose is commonly administered to postparturient dairy cows, which often have low plasma phosphorus concentration ([P]) as a result of anorexia and sudden onset of lactation. Intravenous (IV) dextrose administration causes hypophosphatemia in other species. Bolus administration of dextrose to postparturient dairy cows results in a transient decrease in plasma [P]. Six healthy postparturient dairy cows. Using a crossover design, cows were administered 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution IV or a sham treatment. Plasma concentrations of glucose ([glucose]), immunoreactive insulin ([IRI]), and phosphorus were monitored for 12 hours after each treatment. Urine [P], [glucose], and volume and salivary [P] were also determined. Plasma [glucose], [IRI], and [P] were stable during sham treatment. Plasma [P] decreased rapidly after dextrose administration, dropping by 35% in 1 hour and remaining below baseline for 90 minutes. Salivary [P], urine [P], and urine volume per hour remained stable after dextrose administration, but glucose was detected in urine for up to 6 hours. The amount of glucose excreted in urine in 12 hours (11.9+/-4.5 g) was less than 5% of the administered dose. Regression analysis revealed a stronger association between plasma [P] and [IRI] than between plasma [P] and [glucose], suggesting that hyperinsulinemia drove the hypophosphatemia. Results indicate that low plasma [P] should be expected in cows that have received IV dextrose within 1 hour before blood sampling. Caution is advised when administering dextrose solution to cows already at risk of hypophosphatemia.

  13. Rapid maxillary expansion effects: An alternative assessment method by means of cone-beam tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop a method to assess the changes in palatal and lingual cross-sectional areas in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample comprised 31 Class I malocclusion individuals submitted to RME and divided into two groups treated with Haas (17 patients and Hyrax (14 patients expanders. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired at T0 (before expansion and T1 (six months after screw stabilization. Maxillary and mandibular cross-sectional areas were assessed at first permanent molars and first premolars regions and compared at T0 and T1. Mandibular occlusal area was also analyzed. RESULTS: Maxillary cross-sectional areas increased in 56.18 mm2 and 44.32 mm2 for the posterior and anterior regions. These values were smaller for the mandible, representing augmentation of 40.32 mm2 and 39.91 mm2 for posterior and anterior sections. No differences were found when comparing both expanders. Mandibular occlusal area increased 43.99mm2 and mandibular incisors proclined. Increments of 1.74 mm and 1.7 mm occurred in mandibular intermolar and interpremolar distances. These same distances presented increments of 5.5 mm and 5.57 mm for the maxillary arch. CONCLUSION: Occlusal and cross-sectional areas increased significantly after RME. The method described seems to be reliable and precise to assess intraoral area changes.

  14. 3’-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) Produces a Rapid and Robust Antidepressant Effect via Enhancing Prefrontal AMPA Receptor Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Hou, Yangyang; Zhu, Ming; Bao, Hongkun; Nie, Jun; Zhang, Grace Y.; Shan, Liping; Yao, Yao; Du, Kai; Yang, Hongju; Li, Meizhang; Zheng, Bingrong; Xu, Xiufeng; Xiao, Chunjie; Du, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of rapid and safe antidepressants for the treatment of major depression is in urgent demand. Converging evidence suggests that glutamatergic signaling seems to play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Methods: We studied the antidepressant effects of 3’-deoxyadenosine (3’-dA, Cordycepin) and the critical role of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor in male CD-1 mice via behavioral and biochemical experiments. After 3’-dA treatment, the phosphorylation and synaptic localization of the AMPA receptors GluR1 and GluR2 were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP). The traditional antidepressant imipramine was applied as a positive control. Results: We found that an injection of 3’-dA led to a rapid and robust antidepressant effect, which was significantly faster and stronger than imipramine, after 45min in tail suspension and forced swim tests. This antidepressant effect remained after 5 days of treatment with 3’-dA. Unlike the psycho-stimulants, 3’-dA did not show a hyperactive effect in the open field test. After 45min or 5 days of treatment, 3’-dA enhanced GluR1 S845 phosphorylation in both the PFC and HIP. In addition, after 45min of treatment, 3’-dA significantly up-regulated GluR1 S845 phosphorylation and GluR1, but not GluR2 levels, at the synapses in the PFC. After 5 days of treatment, 3’-dA significantly enhanced GluR1 S845 phosphorylation and GluR1, but not GluR2, at the synapses in the PFC and HIP. Moreover, the AMPA-specific antagonist GYKI 52466 was able to block the rapid antidepressant effects of 3’-dA. Conclusion: This study identified 3’-dA as a novel rapid antidepressant with clinical potential and multiple beneficial mechanisms, particularly in regulating the prefrontal AMPA receptor signaling pathway. PMID:26443809

  15. Effects of new bus and rail rapid transit systems – an international review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    areas surrounding the transit line with increasing property values. Such effects are traditionally associated with attractive rail-based public transport systems. However, a statistical comparison of 41 systems did not show significant deviations between effects on property values resulting from BRT...... time, ridership and modal shifts, and (ii) the indirect strategic effects in terms of effects on property values and urban development. The review confirms the existing literature suggesting that BRT can attract many passengers if travel time reductions are significantly high. This leads to attractive...

  16. [Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Kohda, Yukinao; Kudo, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

     For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When using food thickeners to aid tablet ingestion, it is therefore necessary to select a product that has little effect on drug disintegration, dissolution, and activity.

  17. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of strain-free quantum ring solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Strain-free GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum rings are fabricated by droplet epitaxy. Both photoresponse and photoluminescence spectra confirm optical transitions in quantum rings, suggesting that droplet epitaxial nanomaterials are applicable to intermediate band solar cells. The effects of post-growth annealing on the quantum ring solar cells are investigated, and the optical properties of the solar cells with and without thermal treatment are characterized by photoluminescence technique. Rapid thermal annealing treatment has resulted in the significant improvement of material quality, which can be served as a standard process for quantum structure solar cells grown by droplet epitaxy. PMID:23281811

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic tests for appropriate treatment of malaria at the community level in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian S; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) performed by CHWs in two areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. CHWs were trained to perform mRDTs and treat children with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT......) in the intervention arm while CHWs offered treatment based on presumptive diagnosis in the control arm. Data on the proportion of children with fever 'appropriately treated for malaria with ACT' were captured from a randomised trial. Health sector costs included: training of CHWs, community sensitisation, supervision...

  19. Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy with Stent Placement: Rapid and Effective Treatment for Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens with Impending Venous Gangrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Ozkan, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of acute deep vein thrombosis. It is an emergency and delay in treatment may cause death or loss of the patient's limb. Surgical thrombectomy is the recommended treatment in venous gangrene. Catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis has been reported as successful, but it may require a lengthy infusion. Manual aspiration thrombectomy may clear the entire thrombus with no need for thrombolytic administration and provide rapid and effective treatment for patients with phlegmasia cerulea dolens with impending venous gangrene

  20. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on InP1−xBix grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X Y; Wang, K; Pan, W W; Wang, P; Li, Y Y; Song, Y X; Gu, Y; Yue, L; Xu, H; Zhang, Z P; Cui, J; Gong, Q; Wang, S M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of InP 1−x Bi x thin films was investigated. InPBi shows good thermal stability up to 500 °C and a modest improvement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity with an unchanged PL spectral feature. Bismuth outdiffusion from InPBi and strain relaxation are observed at about 600 °C. The InPBi sample annealed at 800 °C shows an unexpected PL spectrum with different energy transitions. (paper)

  1. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm2. This lens

  2. Rapid Manufacturing of Durable, Cost-Effective Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hypersonic vehicles require durable and cost-effective hot structures that do not impose weight penalties such as those associated with the use of non-structural...

  3. Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring: A Rapid, Reliable, and Cost-Effective Method Following Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J Ryan; Camp, Christopher L; Stitz, Amber; Young, Ernest Y; Abdel, Matthew P; Taunton, Michael J; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-03-02

    Noninvasive hemoglobin (nHgb) monitoring was initially introduced in the intensive care setting as a means of rapidly assessing Hgb values without performing a blood draw. We conducted a prospective analysis to compare reliability, cost, and patient preference between nHgb monitoring and invasive Hgb (iHgb) monitoring performed via a traditional blood draw. We enrolled 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary or revision total hip or total knee arthroplasty. On postoperative day 1, nHgb and iHgb values were obtained within thirty minutes of one another. iHgb and nHgb values, cost, patient satisfaction, and the duration of time required to obtain each reading were recorded. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was utilized to evaluate the agreement of the two Hgb measurement methods. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were utilized to compare mean Hgb values, time, and pain for all readings. The mean Hgb values did not differ significantly between the two measurement methods: the mean iHgb value (and standard deviation) was 11.3 ± 1.4 g/dL (range, 8.2 to 14.3 g/dL), and the mean nHgb value was 11.5 ± 1.8 g/dL (range, 7.0 to 16.0 g/dL) (p = 0.11). The CCC between the two Hgb methods was 0.69. One hundred percent of the patients with an nHgb value of ≥ 10.5 g/dL had an iHgb value of >8.0 g/dL. The mean time to obtain an Hgb value was 0.9 minute for the nHgb method and 51.1 minutes for the iHgb method (p measurement, resulting in a savings of $26 per Hgb assessment when the noninvasive method is used. Noninvasive Hgb monitoring was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and preferred by patients compared with iHgb monitoring. Providers could consider screening total joint arthroplasty patients with nHgb monitoring and only order iHgb measurement if the nHgb value is protocol had been applied to the first blood draw in our 100 patients, approximately $2000 would have been saved. Extrapolated to the U.S. total joint arthroplasty practice

  4. Rapid adaptation of the stimulatory effect of CO2 on brain norepinephrine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A

    1983-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure of rats to elevated environmental levels of CO2 on norepinephrine metabolism in the hypothalamus and other regions of the brain. In confirmation of previous findings by others CO2 at 10 or 15% was found to elevate both dopa accumulation after dopa decarboxylase inhibition and norepinephrine utilization after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition. These effects however were found to be transient occurring only during the first 30 min of 2.5 h exposure. In this regard CO2 differs from another form of stress, restraint which produces a sustained 2.5 h increase of dopa accumulation and NE accumulation. Restraint was also more effective than CO2 in depleting endogenous stores of hypothalamic NE. The factor responsible for the adaptation of the catecholamine response to CO2 was not identified although it was shown not to be hypothermia and it was reversed by a 2 h CO2-free recovery period.

  5. Direct and rapid effects of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Maria; Giacco, Antonia; Di Munno, Celia; Goglia, Fernando

    2017-12-15

    A growing number of researchers are focusing their attention on the possibility that thyroid hormone metabolites, particularly 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2), may actively regulate energy metabolism at the cellular, rather than the nuclear, level. Due to their biochemical features, mitochondria have been the focus of research on the thermogenic effects of thyroid hormones. Indeed, mitochondrial activities have been shown to be regulated both directly and indirectly by T2-specific pathways. Herein, we describe the effects of T2 on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  7. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun

    2018-05-18

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  8. ScreenCube: A 3D Printed System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Chemical Screening in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2018-02-01

    Phenotype-based small molecule screens in zebrafish embryos and larvae have been successful in accelerating pathway and therapeutic discovery for diverse biological processes. Yet, the application of chemical screens to adult physiologies has been relatively limited due to additional demands on cost, space, and labor associated with screens in adult animals. In this study, we present a 3D printed system and methods for intermittent drug dosing that enable rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish. Using prefilled screening plates, the system enables dosing of 96 fish in ∼3 min, with a 10-fold reduction in drug quantity compared to that used in previous chemical screens in adult zebrafish. We characterize water quality kinetics during immersion in the system and use these kinetics to rationally design intermittent dosing regimens that result in 100% fish survival. As a demonstration of system fidelity, we show the potential to identify two known chemical inhibitors of adult tail fin regeneration, cyclopamine and dorsomorphin. By developing methods for rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish, this study expands the potential for small molecule discovery in postembryonic models of development, disease, and regeneration.

  9. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun; Shi, Yusuf; Chang, Jian; Li, Renyuan; Ong, Chi Siang; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  10. Carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor for rapid detection of DHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of DNA sensor based on a network carbon nanotubes field effect transistor (CNTFETs) for Escherichia coli bacteria detection. The DNA sequences were immobilized on single-walled carbon nanotubes of transistor CNTFETs by using absorption. The hybridization of the DNA probe sequences and complementary DNA strands was detected by electrical conductance change from the electron doping by DNA hybridization directly on the carbon nanotubes leading to the change in the metal-CNTs barrier energy through the modulation of the electrode work function of carbon nanotubes field effect transistor. The results showed that the response time of DNA sensor was approximately 1 min and the sensitivity of DNA sensor was at 0.565 μA/nM; the detection limit of the sensor was about 1 pM of E. coli bacteria sample. (author)

  11. A new rapid and effective method for treatment of unexplained infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelstam, G.; Sjosten, A.; Bjuresten, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Artificial insemination (intrauterine insemination by husband or artificial insemination by husband) is often tried as first treatment for couples with unexplained infertility. Perturbation has previously proved to increase the chance of achieving pregnancy for these couples. The effect...... and insemination cycles for couples with unexplained infertility. METHODS: In a prospective, open study, the patients were randomized, the day before ovulation, during a clomiphene citrate stimulated cycle to either perturbation with low-dose local anaesthetic or no perturbation before insemination. RESULTS......: The perturbation treatment significantly enhanced the clinical pregnancy rate and was well tolerated. No complications were noted. The combined treatment of clomiphene citrate, perturbation and insemination can be used as a cost-effective, first-line treatment for couples with unexplained infertility...

  12. Cost effectiveness of FDG-PET: rapid evaluation in recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, B.B.; Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Wong, D.C.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Intensive patient follow-up in assessments of the cost-effectiveness of a new imaging modality is associated with time-delays, ethical difficulties and increased costs. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer using Australian data whilst avoiding intensive patient follow-up. The study population comprised patients with recurrent colorectal under consideration for resection of apparently isolated hepatic metastasis in whom demonstration of extra-hepatic tumour would preclude surgery. The results of FDG-PET in a consecutive series of 75 such patients referred to the Wesley PET centre were used to determine the range of possible values for disease prevalence and specificity, assuming the value for PET sensitivity as reported in the federal government's PET review. These values, along with the diagnostic accuracy of CT and Australian costs for procedures (PET = $ 1200), were entered into decision trees modelling a diagnostic strategy comprising CT only and an alternative strategy where patients without extra-hepatic tumour on CT also undergo FDG-PET. The cost per patient, accuracy and Incremental Cost-Accuracy Ratio (ICAR) were determined for each strategy. The PET strategy is cheaper for all possible values of disease prevalence and PET specificity ($306-328/patient) and is more cost-effective for values of disease prevalence above 0.18 or PET specificity above 0.86. At a typical disease prevalence of 0.3 (PET specificity 0.92), the ICAR for the PET strategy is $9700 versus $11,200 for CT. PET remains cost saving even if the best reported values for sensitivity of CT and worse values for PET are used, FDG-PET for recurrent colorectal cancer in Australia would be cost-saving and most probably cost-effective. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A.; El-Keblawy, Ali; Najar, Atyat

    2017-04-01

    Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution Kareem A. Mosa, Ali El-Keblawy, Atyat Najar Department of Applied Biology, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, UAE Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of different heavy metals in natural resources like soil, water and air thus affecting their quality. Aluminum (Al) is a dominant heavy metal pollutant that causes serious toxic effects to living systems including plants. Therefore, it is critical to regularly monitor the changes in Al levels in natural resources. Living organisms could be used as bioindicators for monitoring and measuring the levels of heavy metals in environmental samples. The aim of this study was to develop a cost effective bioindicator for monitoring aluminum (Al) and assess the damage caused by Al bioaccumulation using the root system of Calotropis Procera seedlings. A hydroponic system was developed for growing C. Procera in four different concentrations of Al (20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm). Root length and shoot fresh and dry weights were assessed after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of Al treatment. The results showed remarkable sensitivity of C. Procera seedlings for the different concentrations of Al. There was gradual but significant decrease in C. Procera root length with the increase in the Al concentrations. X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF) analysis indicated a significant increase in Al concentration in C. Procera roots with the increase of both Al concentration in the hydroponic solution and the growing period. Moreover, electrical conductivity analysis showed that Al induced damage to C. Procera root plasma membrane as indicated by the increase in electrolyte leakages. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis confirmed the genotoxin effect of Al which induced C. Procera genomic DNA modification. Altogether, the result demonstrated that C. Procera could

  14. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.

  15. Rapid evaluation of the cost-effectiveness o FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Wong, D.C.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer using Australian data whilst avoiding the time delays, costs and ethical difficulties associated with intensive patient follow-up. A decision tree sensitivity analysis was used. The study population comprised patients with recurrent colorectal under consideration for resection of apparently isolated hepatic metastasis in whom demonstration of extra-hepatic tumour would preclude surgery.The results of FDG-PET in a consecutive series of 75 such patients referred to the Wesley PET centre were used to determine the range of possible values for disease prevalence and specificity, assuming the value for PET sensitivity as reported in the federal government's PET review. These values, along with the diagnostic accuracy of CT and Australian costs for procedures (PET = $1200), were entered into decision trees modelling a diagnostic strategy comprising CT only and an alternative strategy where patients without extrahepatic tumour on CT also undergo FDG-PET. The cost per patient, accuracy and Incremental Cost-Accuracy Ratio (ICAR) were determined for each strategy. The PET strategy is cheaper for all possible values of disease prevalence and PET specificity ($306-328 / patient) and is more cost-effective for values of disease prevalence above 0.18 or PET specificity above 0.86. At a typical disease prevalence of 0.3 (PET specificity 0.92), the ICAR for the PET strategy is $9700 versus $11,200 for CT. PET remains cost saving even if the best reported values for sensitivity of CT and worse values for PET are used. FDG-PET for recurrent colorectal cancer in Australia would be cost saving and most probably cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. A cost-effective device for the rapid transfer of gel-separated proteins onto membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Hann W; Huang, Yu-Chen; Tam, Ming F

    2009-03-01

    We describe here the fabrication of a cost-effective semi-dry blotting apparatus for the transfer of proteins onto membranes. Graphite sheets were used as electrodes. Protein mixtures were separated on NuPAGE 4% to 12% polyacrylamide gradient gels. With a Tris-bicine buffer, we demonstrated that close to 80% of the proteins with apparent molecular mass of 80kDa or less were removed from the gels after 8min of blotting. The process is much faster than the techniques reported previously in the literature.

  17. Flash sourcing, or rapid detection and characterization of earthquake effects through website traffic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Frobert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study presents the latest developments of an approach called ‘flash sourcing’, which provides information on the effects of an earthquake within minutes of its occurrence. Information is derived from an analysis of the website traffic surges of the European–Mediterranean Seismological Centre website after felt earthquakes. These surges are caused by eyewitnesses to a felt earthquake, who are the first who are informed of, and hence the first concerned by, an earthquake occurrence. Flash sourcing maps the felt area, and at least in some circumstances, the regions affected by severe damage or network disruption. We illustrate how the flash-sourced information improves and speeds up the delivery of public earthquake information, and beyond seismology, we consider what it can teach us about public responses when experiencing an earthquake. Future developments should improve the description of the earthquake effects and potentially contribute to the improvement of the efficiency of earthquake responses by filling the information gap after the occurrence of an earthquake.

  18. The effect of bright light on sleepiness among rapid-rotating 12-hour shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Aminian, Omid

    2011-01-01

    About 20% of workers in industrialized countries are shift workers and more than half of them work on night or rotating shifts. Most night workers complain of sleepiness due to lack of adjustment of the circadian rhythm. In simulated night-work experiments, scheduled exposure to bright light has been shown to reduce these complaints. Our study assessed the effects of bright light exposure on sleepiness during night work in an industrial setting. In a cross-over design, 94 workers at a ceramic factory were exposed to either bright (2500 lux) or normal light (300 lux) during breaks on night shifts. We initiated 20-minute breaks between 24.00 and 02.00 hours. Sleepiness ratings were determined using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale at 22.00, 24.00, 02.00 and 04.00 hours. Under normal light conditions, sleepiness peaked at 02:00 hours. A significant reduction (22% compared to normal light conditions) in sleepiness was observed after workers were exposed to bright light. Exposure to bright light may be effective in reducing sleepiness among night workers.

  19. Effects of Temporal Congruity Between Auditory and Visual Stimuli Using Rapid Audio-Visual Serial Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xingwei; Tang, Jiabei; Liu, Shuang; He, Feng; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Combining visual and auditory stimuli in event-related potential (ERP)-based spellers gained more attention in recent years. Few of these studies notice the difference of ERP components and system efficiency caused by the shifting of visual and auditory onset. Here, we aim to study the effect of temporal congruity of auditory and visual stimuli onset on bimodal brain-computer interface (BCI) speller. We designed five visual and auditory combined paradigms with different visual-to-auditory delays (-33 to +100 ms). Eleven participants attended in this study. ERPs were acquired and aligned according to visual and auditory stimuli onset, respectively. ERPs of Fz, Cz, and PO7 channels were studied through the statistical analysis of different conditions both from visual-aligned ERPs and audio-aligned ERPs. Based on the visual-aligned ERPs, classification accuracy was also analyzed to seek the effects of visual-to-auditory delays. The latencies of ERP components depended mainly on the visual stimuli onset. Auditory stimuli onsets influenced mainly on early component accuracies, whereas visual stimuli onset determined later component accuracies. The latter, however, played a dominate role in overall classification. This study is important for further studies to achieve better explanations and ultimately determine the way to optimize the bimodal BCI application.

  20. Rapid Determination of Enzyme Kinetics from Fluorescence: Overcoming the Inner Filter Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier, Mark O.; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence change is convenient for monitoring enzyme kinetics. Unfortunately, it looses linearity as the absorbance of the fluorescent substrate increases with concentration. When the sum of absorbance at excitation and emission wavelengths exceeds 0.08, this inner filtering effect (IFE) alters apparent initial velocities, Km, and kcat. The IFE distortion of apparent initial velocities can be corrected without doing fluorophore dilution assays. Using the substrate’s extinction coefficients at excitation and emission wavelengths, the inner filter effect can be modeled during curve fitting for more accurate Michaelis-Menten parameters. A faster and simpler approach is to derive kcat and Km from progress curves. Strategies to obtain reliable and reproducible estimates of kcat and Km from only two or three progress curves are illustrated using matrix metalloproteinase-12 and alkaline phosphatase. Accurate estimates of concentration of enzyme active sites and specificity constant kcat/Km (from one progress curve with [S] ≪ Km) confer accuracy, freedom of choices of [S], and robustness to kcat and Km globally fitted to a few progress curves. The economies of the progress curve approach make accurate kcat and Km more accessible from fluorescence measurements. PMID:17706587

  1. Effect of rapid thermal annealing observed by photoluminescence measurement in GaAs1-xN x layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbih, F.; Bouzid, S.B.; Hamdouni, A.; Chtourou, R.; Harmand, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    A set of GaAs 1-x N x samples with small nitrogen content were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurements as function of irradiance in order to investigate the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on photoluminescence (PL) properties. The analysis of PL spectra as function of irradiance and nitrogen content shows that the PL spectra associated to the GaAs 1- x N x layers are the result of the nitrogen localized state recombination. The results are examined as a consequence of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The variation of the emission band peak energy (E p ), at 10 K as a function of irradiance, is fitted by a theoretical model taking into account two types of nitrogen localized states. The variation of the PL intensity versus irradiance in the range from 1.59 to 159 W/cm 2 for different GaAs 1-x N x samples confirm that the PL spectra result from the nitrogen localized state recombination

  2. Rapid, sensitive and cost effective method for isolation of viral DNA from feacal samples of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for viral DNA extraction using chelex resin was developed. The method used was eco-friendly and cost effective compared to other methods such as phenol chloroform method which use health hazardous organic reagents. Further, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR based detection of canine parvovirus (CPV using primers from conserved region of VP2 gene was developed. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of reaction, nested PCR was designed. PCR reaction was optimized to amplify 747bp product of VP2 gene. The assay can be completed in few hours and doesn’t need hazardous chemicals. Thus, the sample preparation using chelating resin along with nested PCR seems to be a sensitive, specific and practical method for the detection of CPV in diarrhoeal feacal samples. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 105-106

  3. Anchorage onto deciduous teeth: effectiveness of early rapid maxillary expansion in increasing dental arch dimension and improving anterior crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Manfredi, Mario; Guiducci, Antonio; Denotti, Gloria; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage onto permanent dentition is a common procedure in rapid maxillary expansion. However, replacing first permanent molars with the second deciduous molars seems to be an option to reduce some negative side effects during orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental effect of rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage exclusively onto deciduous teeth performed in the first period of transition. Twenty patients with a lateral cross-bite treated exclusively by a Haas expander in early mixed dentition were retrospectively analyzed before treatment, at appliance removal, and at 21 months out of retention. The sagittal and transverse dimensions, together with the inter-canine arch and irregularity index, were digitally measured on scanned images of dental casts. The patients were compared with three balanced control groups (in total, 60 individuals) matched for gender. Two control groups had the same canine dental class as the treated group at T1, were in the inter-transitional period, and either had or lacked a lateral cross-bite. The last control group was comprised of adolescents in permanent dentition with a dental class I. The statistical analysis was performed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA for paired data and one-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Mann-Whitney test for independent measures (α-level p dentition), the dental arch dimensions of treated patients were similar to those of adolescents with a dental class I and significantly wider than those of patients with a lateral cross-bite. Also, the anterior irregularity index was lower among patients who had undergone expansion treatments than in all untreated study participants. The Haas expander anchored to the deciduous teeth is effective in increasing the dental arch width in patients with a lateral cross-bite. The dimensions of the dental arch were modified earlier toward the values of the permanent dentition.

  4. Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: Evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience. PMID:24190909

  5. Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J

    2013-11-04

    In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience.

  6. Temperature dependent rapid annealing effect induces amorphous aggregation of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hammad; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study represents an analysis of the thermal aggregation of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by novel rosin modified compounds. The aggregation process causes conformational alterations in the secondary and tertiary structures of the proteins. The conversion of globular protein to amorphous aggregates was carried out by spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic techniques to investigate the factors that are responsible for the structural, conformational and morphological alteration in the protein. Our outcome results show that the aggregation of HSA was dependent on the hydrophobicity, charge and temperature, because the formation of amorphous aggregates occurs in the presence of a novel cationic rosin compound, quaternary amine of rosin diethylaminoethyl ester (QRMAE), at 40°C and pH 7.4 (but at 25°C on similar pH value, there was no evidence of aggregate formation). In addition, the parent compound of QRMAE, i.e., abietic acid, and other derivatives such as nonionic rosin compounds [(RMPEG-750) and (RMA-MPEG-750)] do not shows the aggregating property. This work provides precise and necessary information that aid in the understanding the effects of rosin derivative compounds on HSA. This study also restrains important information for athletes, health providers, pharmaceutical companies, industries, and soft drink-processing companies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of cold and scarification on seeds germination of pistacia atlantica l. for rapid multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziou, C.; Merabet, A. [University of Boumerdes (Algeria). Dept. of Biology

    2014-03-15

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of mechanical scarification and cold treatment of seeds at + 4 degree C before sowing seed of Pistacia atlantica. In these cases, the durations at cold temperature, which have been taken into account, are successively 60, 50, 40, and 30 days. After these periods, the rate of germination and the speed of germination are calculated every 4 days. The rates of germinations concerning the not scarified seeds having undergone a cold treatment lasting 50 days are the most important that is a value of 39% from the 09-05-2010 until the 29-05-2010. The speed germination is maximum that is 89 germinated seeds /4 days. In addition this same rate reaches a maximum of 70%. Concerning the pistachio tree seeds of the atlas treated mechanically with duration of cold treatment at + 4 degree C during 30 days. For the same category of seed the speed of germination is maximum that is 214 seeds/4 days. Thus the scarification and the 30 days stay are the fastest means which allow to obtain the seedlings of pistachio tree in a rather short time. (author)

  8. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne's preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas

  9. Screening and rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis in prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission.We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR, and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF. Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31% and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%, and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69% and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%. Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics.In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone

  10. Rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. Recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of FMD virus (FMDV by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, real-time  reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and sequencing. RT-LAMP enables amplification of the FMDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D(pol gene at 63 °C (in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase for 1 h, whilst RT-qPCR amplifies the same gene in approximately 2 h 30 min. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and effectiveness of RT-LAMP against RT-qPCR for the detection of the FMDV 3D(pol gene in 179 oesophageal-pharyngeal scraping samples (collected by probang obtained from clinically healthy cattle and buffalo in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania in 2010. The FMDV detection rate was higher with RT-LAMP (30.2%; n = 54 than with RT-qPCR (17.3%; n = 31. All samples positive by RT-qPCR (Cq ≤ 32.0 were also positive for the RT-LAMP assay; and both assays proved to be highly specific for the FMDV target sequence. In addition, the VP1 sequences of 10 viruses isolated from positive samples corresponded to the respective FMDV serotypes and genotypes. Our findings indicate that the performance of RT-LAMP is superior to RT-qPCR. Accordingly, we consider this test to have great potential with regard to the specific detection and surveillance of infectious diseases of humans and animals in resource-compromised developing countries.

  11. Effect of processing on the microstructural development in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Ranganathan, S.; Ojha, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    An Al 80 Fe 10 Si 6 alloy has been rapidly solidified using melt spinning, gas atomization and spray forming processes. The effect of processing techniques on the microstructural characteristics of the alloy has ben evaluated. The melt spun alloy has shown an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase surrounded by a rational approximant structure of the icosahedral phase. The rational approximant structure has been identified as a crystalline cubic silicide phase. The atomized powders have exhibited cellular and dendritic morphology depending on the size of particles. In addition, the second phase particles of the silicide phase are observed to decorate the cell boundaries and interdendritic regions. In contrast, the alloy processed by spray deposition has revealed an equiaxed solidification morphology with a uniform dispersion of find silicon phase inside the grain. The origin of the microstructure in the alloy processed by these techniques is discussed. The results are compared wherever possible with the commercially available Al-Fe-V-Si alloys

  12. Rapid Access to β-Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Ketones: Harnessing Inductive Effects in Wacker-Type Oxidations of Internal Alkenes

    KAUST Repository

    Lerch, Michael M.; Morandi, Bill; Wickens, Zachary K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a practical trifluoromethyl-directed Wacker-type oxidation of internal alkenes that enables rapid access to β-trifluoromethyl-substituted ketones. Allylic trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes bearing a wide range of functional groups can be oxidized in high yield and regioselectivity. The distance dependence of the regioselectivity was established by systematic variation of the number of methylene units between the double bond and the trifluoromethyl group. The regioselectivity enforced by traditional directing groups could even be reversed by introduction of a competing trifluoromethyl group. Besides being a new powerful synthetic method to prepare fluorinated molecules, this work directly probes the role of inductive effects on nucleopalladation events. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rapid visual detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based on hydrophobic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, sensitive and low-cost colorimetric method for detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The quaternary ammonium surfactants induce the aggregation of Ag NPs through the hydrophobic effect, which is a novel aggregation mechanism of Ag NPs. The addition of cationic surfactant results in color change of Ag NPs solution from yellow to red and finally to colorless, which is due to the broadening of the surface plasmon band. The color change was monitored using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The LOD of different cationic surfactants was in the range of 0.5-5 µM. More importantly, this detection method was successfully utilized to the disinfectant residual sample. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Access to β-Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Ketones: Harnessing Inductive Effects in Wacker-Type Oxidations of Internal Alkenes

    KAUST Repository

    Lerch, Michael M.

    2014-07-18

    We present a practical trifluoromethyl-directed Wacker-type oxidation of internal alkenes that enables rapid access to β-trifluoromethyl-substituted ketones. Allylic trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes bearing a wide range of functional groups can be oxidized in high yield and regioselectivity. The distance dependence of the regioselectivity was established by systematic variation of the number of methylene units between the double bond and the trifluoromethyl group. The regioselectivity enforced by traditional directing groups could even be reversed by introduction of a competing trifluoromethyl group. Besides being a new powerful synthetic method to prepare fluorinated molecules, this work directly probes the role of inductive effects on nucleopalladation events. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  16. Effects of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration and myoplasmic [Ca2+] in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, R; Claflin, D R; Julian, F J

    1998-01-01

    The effect of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration (dF/dtR) was examined in single, intact frog (Rana temporaria) skeletal muscle fibres (3·0 °C). Step releases leading to unloaded shortening were applied after 500 ms of stimulation, during the plateau of an isometric tetanus. Initial mean sarcomere length ranged from 2·05 to 2·35 μm; force regeneration after shortening was at 2·00 μm.Values for dF/dtR following a 25 nm half-sarcomere−1 release were 3·17 ± 0·17 (mean ± s.e.m., n= 8) times greater than the initial rate of rise of force before release (dF/dtI). As release size was increased from 25 to 175 nm half-sarcomere−1, the relationship between release size and dF/dtR decreased sharply before attaining a plateau value that was 1·34 ± 0·09 times greater than dF/dtI. Despite wide variations in dF/dtR, the velocity of unloaded shortening remained constant (2·92 ± 0·08 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1; n= 8) for the different release amplitudes used in this study.To investigate its role in the attenuation of dF/dtR with increased shortening, the effects of rapid ramp (constant velocity) shortening on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were monitored using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye furaptra. Compared with an isometric contraction, rapid fibre shortening was associated with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i while force regeneration after shortening was associated with a transient reduction in [Ca2+]i. The greatest reductions in [Ca2+]i were associated with the largest amplitude ramps.Cross-bridge-mediated modifications of the Ca2+ affinity of troponin C (TnC) may explain the fluctuations in [Ca2+]i observed during and after ramps. Associated fluctuations in TnC Ca2+ occupancy could play a role in the reduction of dF/dtR with increasing release size. PMID:9679172

  17. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Mao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM. The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness.

  19. Effect of CT contrast on volumetric arc therapy planning (RapidArc and helical tomotherapy) for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Alan J.; Vora, Nayana [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States); Suh, Steve [Department of Radiation Physics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States); Liu, An, E-mail: aliu@coh.org [Department of Radiation Physics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Physics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast in the dosimetry of helical tomotherapy and RapidArc treatment for head and neck cancer and determine if it is acceptable during the computed tomography (CT) simulation to acquire only CT with contrast for treatment planning of head and neck cancer. Overall, 5 patients with head and neck cancer (4 men and 1 woman) treated on helical tomotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. For each patient, 2 consecutive CT scans were performed. The first CT set was scanned before the contrast injection and secondary study set was scanned 45 seconds after contrast. The 2 CTs were autoregistered using the same Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine coordinates. Tomotherapy and RapidArc plans were generated on 1 CT data set and subsequently copied to the second CT set. Dose calculation was performed, and dose difference was analyzed to evaluate the influence of intravenous contrast media. The dose matrix used for comparison included mean, minimum and maximum doses of planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose coverage, and V{sub 45} {sub Gy}, V{sub 30} {sub Gy}, and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} organ doses. Treatment planning on contrasted images generally showed a lower dose to both organs and target than plans on noncontrasted images. The doses for the points of interest placed in the organs and target rarely changed more than 2% in any patient. In conclusion, treatment planning using a contrasted image had insignificant effect on the dose to the organs and targets. In our opinion, only CT with contrast needs to be acquired during the CT simulation for head and neck cancer. Dose calculations performed on contrasted images can potentially underestimate the delivery dose slightly. However, the errors of planning on a contrasted image should not affect the result in clinically significant way.

  20. Effects of rapid urban sprawl on urban forest carbon stocks: integrating remotely sensed, GIS and forest inventory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yin; Yan, Jing; Wei, Xiaohua; Wang, Yajun; Yang, Yusheng; Hua, Lizhong; Xiong, Yongzhu; Niu, Xiang; Song, Xiaodong

    2012-12-30

    Research on the effects of urban sprawl on carbon stocks within urban forests can help support policy for sustainable urban design. This is particularly important given climate change and environmental deterioration as a result of rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of urban sprawl on dynamics of forest carbon stock and density in Xiamen, a typical city experiencing rapid urbanization in China. Forest resource inventory data collected from 32,898 patches in 4 years (1972, 1988, 1996 and 2006), together with remotely sensed data (from 1988, 1996 and 2006), were used to investigate vegetation carbon densities and stocks in Xiamen, China. We classified the forests into four groups: (1) forest patches connected to construction land; (2) forest patches connected to farmland; (3) forest patches connected to both construction land and farmland and (4) close forest patches. Carbon stocks and densities of four different types of forest patches during different urbanization periods in three zones (urban core, suburb and exurb) were compared to assess the impact of human disturbance on forest carbon. In the urban core, the carbon stock and carbon density in all four forest patch types declined over the study period. In the suburbs, different urbanization processes influenced forest carbon density and carbon stock in all four forest patch types. Urban sprawl negatively affected the surrounding forests. In the exurbs, the carbon stock and carbon density in all four forest patch types tended to increase over the study period. The results revealed that human disturbance played the dominant role in influencing the carbon stock and density of forest patches close to the locations of human activities. In forest patches far away from the locations of human activities, natural forest regrowth was the dominant factor affecting carbon stock and density. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic Review of the Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Laura K; Ghali, Sarah; Hill, Michael D; Danthurebandara, Vishva; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Noseworthy, Tom; Spackman, Eldon; Clement, Fiona

    2017-09-01

    Rapid endovascular therapy (EVT) is an emerging treatment option for acute ischemic stroke. Several economic evaluations have been published examining the cost-effectiveness of EVT, and many international bodies are currently making adoption decisions. The objective of this study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of EVT for ischemic stroke patients and to synthesize all the publicly available economic literature. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted to identify economic evaluations and cost analyses of EVT for acute ischemic stroke patients. Systematic review best practices were followed, and study quality was assessed. Four-hundred sixty-three articles were identified from electronic databases. After deduplication, abstract review, and full-text review, 17 studies were included. Seven of the studies were cost analyses, and 10 were cost-effectiveness studies. Generally, the cost analyses reported on the cost of the approach/procedure or the hospitalization costs associated with EVT. All of the cost-effectiveness studies reported a cost per quality-adjusted life year as the primary outcomes. Studies varied in regards to the costs considered, the perspective adopted, and the time horizon used. All the studies reported a cost per quality-adjusted life year of cost and cost-effectiveness of EVT. The cost analyses suggested that although EVT was associated with higher costs, it also resulted in improved patient outcomes. From the cost-effectiveness studies, EVT seems to be good value for money when a threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained is adopted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Rapid palatal expansion effects on mandibular transverse dimensions in unilateral posterior crossbite patients: a three-dimensional digital imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ugolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate indirect effects on mandibular arch dimensions, 1 year after rapid palatal expansion (RPE therapy. Methods Thirty-three patients in mixed dentition (mean age 8.8 years showing unilateral posterior crossbite and maxillary deficiency were treated with a RPE (Haas type cemented on the first permanent molars. Treatment protocol consisted of two turns per day until slight overcorrection of the molar transverse relationship occurred. The Haas expander was kept on the teeth as a passive retainer for an average of 6 months. Study models were taken prior (T1 and 15 months on average (T2 after expansion. A control group of 15 untreated subjects with maxillary deficiency (mean age 8.3 years was also recorded with a 12-month interval. Stone casts were digitized with a 3D scanner (3Shape, DK. Results In the treated group, both mandibular intermolar distance (+1.9 mm and mandibular molar angulation (+9° increased. Mandibular incisor angulation showed an increase of 1.9°. There was little effect on intercanine distance and canine angulation. Controls showed a reduction in transverse arch dimension and a decrease in molar and canine angulation values. Conclusions RPE protocol has indirect widening effects on the mandibular incisors and first molars.

  3. Effect of Trace Ce on Microstructure and Properties of Near-rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Gao-ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through using DSC, XRD, SEM, EDS, static tensile test and other analysis methods of materials, the effect of trace Ce on microstructure and properties of near-rapidly solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied in order to find out rational homogenizing heat treatment process. The results show that Ce plays a role of refining grain and purifying molten alloy. The addition of Ce reduces dendritic spacing, refines the grain structures, eliminates dispersed shrinkage. The addition of Ce reduces the initial melting point of low melting eutectic phases by 3℃, under the same homogenization conditions. Trace Ce promotes the dissolution of low melting eutectic phases into the matrix, which improves the effect of homogenization. Homogenization temperatures of alloy A should be lower than 480℃and alloy B should be lower than 470℃; the addition of Ce decreases the homogenization temperature and improves the homogenization effect. The addition of Ce also greatly increases the tensile strength of the alloys.

  4. Silver as a highly effective bonding layer for lead telluride thermoelectric modules assembled by rapid hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.; Drymiotis, F.; Liao, L.L.; Dai, M.J.; Liu, C.K.; Chen, C.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Kao, C.R.; Snyder, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag serves as a promising bonding material for PbTe operating at T Hot ⩽ 400 °C. • The Ag foils reacted vigorously with PbTe to form Ag 2 Te at 550 °C. • The Seebeck coefficient of Ag/PbTe/Ag is slightly higher than that of pure PbTe. • A cost-effective way for long-term operations at high temperature. - Abstract: We use the rapid hot-pressing method to bond Ag foil onto pure PbTe in order to assess its effectiveness as a bonding layer material for thermoelectric module applications. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are employed to examine intermetallic compound formation and microstructure evolution during isothermal aging at 400 °C and 550 °C. We find that Ag is a promising bonding material for PbTe modules operating at T Hot ⩽ 400 °C. Additionally, our approach highlights a highly effective and inexpensive method to metallize PbTe prior to module assembly

  5. Effect of the Cedar River on the quality of the ground-water supply for Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Surface Water Treatment Rule under the 1986 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that public-water supplies be evaluated for susceptibility to surface-water effects. The alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River is evaluated for biogenic material and monitored for selected water-quality properties and constituents to determine the effect of surface water on the water supply for the City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Results from monitoring of selected water-quality properties and constituents showed an inverse relation to river stage or discharge. Water-quality properties and constituents of the alluvial aquifer changed as water flowed from the river to the municipal well as a result of drawdown. The values of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen at observation well CRM-4 and municipal well Seminole 10 generally follow the trends of values for the Cedar River. Values at observation well CRM-3 and the municipal water-treatment plant showed very little correlation with values from the river. The traveltime of water through the aquifer could be an indication of the susceptibility of the alluvial aquifer to surface-water effects. Estimated traveltimes from the Cedar River to municipal well Seminole 10 ranged from 7 to 17 days.

  6. Impacts of dust aerosol and adjacency effects on the accuracy of Landsat 8 and RapidEye surface reflectances

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric correction of satellite data is challenging over desert agricultural systems, due to the relatively high aerosol optical thicknesses (τ550), bright soils, and a heterogeneous surface reflectance field. Indeed, the contribution of reflected radiation from adjacent pixels scattered into the field of view of a target pixel is considerable and can significantly affect the fidelity of retrieved reflectances. In this study, uncertainties and quantitative errors associated with the atmospheric correction of multi-spectral Landsat 8 and RapidEye data were characterized over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia. Surface reflectances were retrieved using an implementation of the 6SV atmospheric correction code, and validated against field collected spectroradiometer measurements over desert, cultivated soil, and vegetated surface targets. A combination of satellite and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data were used to parameterize aerosol properties and atmospheric state parameters. With optimal specification of τ550 and aerosol optical properties and correction for adjacency effects, the relative Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) for all bands combined was 5.4% for RapidEye and 6.8% for Landsat 8. However uncertainties associated with satellite-based τ550 retrievals were shown to introduce significant error into the reflectance estimates. With respect to deriving common vegetation indices from corrected reflectance data, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was associated with the smallest errors (3–8% MAD). Surface reflectance errors were highest for bands in the visible part of the spectrum, particularly the blue band (5–16%), while there was more consistency within the red-edge (~ 5%) and near-infrared (5–7%). Results were generally better constrained when a τ550-dependent aerosol model for desert dust particles, parameterized on the basis of nearby AERONET site data, was used in place of a generic rural or background

  7. Impacts of dust aerosol and adjacency effects on the accuracy of Landsat 8 and RapidEye surface reflectances

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2017-03-29

    The atmospheric correction of satellite data is challenging over desert agricultural systems, due to the relatively high aerosol optical thicknesses (τ550), bright soils, and a heterogeneous surface reflectance field. Indeed, the contribution of reflected radiation from adjacent pixels scattered into the field of view of a target pixel is considerable and can significantly affect the fidelity of retrieved reflectances. In this study, uncertainties and quantitative errors associated with the atmospheric correction of multi-spectral Landsat 8 and RapidEye data were characterized over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia. Surface reflectances were retrieved using an implementation of the 6SV atmospheric correction code, and validated against field collected spectroradiometer measurements over desert, cultivated soil, and vegetated surface targets. A combination of satellite and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data were used to parameterize aerosol properties and atmospheric state parameters. With optimal specification of τ550 and aerosol optical properties and correction for adjacency effects, the relative Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) for all bands combined was 5.4% for RapidEye and 6.8% for Landsat 8. However uncertainties associated with satellite-based τ550 retrievals were shown to introduce significant error into the reflectance estimates. With respect to deriving common vegetation indices from corrected reflectance data, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was associated with the smallest errors (3–8% MAD). Surface reflectance errors were highest for bands in the visible part of the spectrum, particularly the blue band (5–16%), while there was more consistency within the red-edge (~ 5%) and near-infrared (5–7%). Results were generally better constrained when a τ550-dependent aerosol model for desert dust particles, parameterized on the basis of nearby AERONET site data, was used in place of a generic rural or background

  8. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-01

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ~1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to

  9. Rapid effects of 17beta-estradiol on TRPV5 epithelial Ca2+ channels in rat renal cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-08-01

    The renal distal tubules and collecting ducts play a key role in the control of electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. The discovery of highly calcium selective channels, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) of the TRP superfamily, has clarified the nature of the calcium entry channels. It has been proposed that this channel mediates the critical Ca(2+) entry step in transcellular Ca(2+) re-absorption in the kidney. The regulation of transmembrane Ca(2+) flux through TRPV5 is of particular importance for whole body calcium homeostasis.In this study, we provide evidence that the TRPV5 channel is present in rat cortical collecting duct (RCCD(2)) cells at mRNA and protein levels. We demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) is involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) influx in these cells via the epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5. By combining whole-cell patch-clamp and Ca(2+)-imaging techniques, we have characterized the electrophysiological properties of the TRPV5 channel and showed that treatment with 20-50nM E(2) rapidly (<5min) induced a transient increase in inward whole-cell currents and intracellular Ca(2+) via TRPV5 channels. This rise was significantly prevented when cells were pre-treated with ruthenium red and completely abolished in cells treated with siRNA specifically targeting TRPV5.These data demonstrate for the first time, a novel rapid modulation of endogenously expressed TRPV5 channels by E(2) in kidney cells. Furthermore, the results suggest calcitropic effects of E(2). The results are discussed in relation to present concepts of non-genomic actions of E(2) in Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  10. Rapid effects of 17beta-estradiol on epithelial TRPV6 Ca2+ channel in human T84 colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    The control of calcium homeostasis is essential for cell survival and is of crucial importance for several physiological functions. The discovery of the epithelial calcium channel Transient Receptor Potential Vaniloid (TRPV6) in intestine has uncovered important Ca(2+) absorptive pathways involved in the regulation of whole body Ca(2+) homeostasis. The role of steroid hormone 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), in [Ca(2+)](i) regulation involving TRPV6 has been only limited at the protein expression levels in over-expressing heterologous systems. In the present study, using a combination of calcium-imaging, whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and siRNA technology to specifically knockdown TRPV6 protein expression, we were able to (i) show that TRPV6 is natively, rather than exogenously, expressed at mRNA and protein levels in human T84 colonic cells, (ii) characterize functional TRPV6 channels and (iii) demonstrate, for the first time, the rapid effects of E(2) in [Ca(2+)](i) regulation involving directly TRPV6 channels in T84 cells. Treatment with E(2) rapidly (<5 min) enhanced [Ca(2+)](i) and this increase was partially but significantly prevented when cells were pre-treated with ruthenium red and completely abolished in cells treated with siRNA specifically targeting TRPV6 protein expression. These results indicate that when cells are stimulated by E(2), Ca(2+) enters the cell through TRPV6 channels. TRPV6 channels in T84 cells contribute to the Ca(2+) entry\\/signalling pathway that is sensitive to 17beta-estradiol.

  11. Rapid expansion of T cells: Effects of culture and cryopreservation and importance of short-term cell recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Arian; Ullenhag, Gustav; Wagenius, Gunnar; Tötterman, Thomas H; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2013-06-01

    Successful cell therapy relies on the identification and mass expansion of functional cells for infusion. Cryopreservation of cells is an inevitable step in most cell therapies which also entails consequences for the frozen cells. This study assessed the impact of cryopreservation and the widely used protocol for rapid expansion of T lymphocytes. The effects on cell viability, immunocompetence and the impact on apoptotic and immunosuppressive marker expression were analyzed using validated assays. Cryopreservation of lymphocytes during the rapid expansion protocol did not affect cell viability. Lymphocytes that underwent mass expansion or culture in high dose IL-2 were unable to respond to PHA stimulation by intracellular ATP production immediately after thawing (ATP = 16 ± 11 ng/ml). However, their reactivity to PHA was regained within 48 hours of recovery (ATP = 356 ± 61 ng/ml). Analysis of mRNA levels revealed downregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 at all time points. Culture in high dose IL-2 led to upregulation of p73 and BCL-2 mRNA levels while FoxP3 expression was elevated after culture in IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. FoxP3 levels decreased after short-term recovery without IL-2 or stimulation. Antigen specificity, as determined by IFNγ secretion, was unaffected by cryopreservation but was completely lost after addition of high dose IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. In conclusion, allowing short-time recovery of mass expanded and cryopreserved cells before reinfusion could enhance the outcome of adoptive cell therapy as the cells regain immune competence and specificity.

  12. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-21

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ∼1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.

  13. The effects of interventions targeting multiple health behaviors on smoking cessation outcomes: a rapid realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; deRuiter, Wayne K; Lingam, Mathangee; Corrin, Tricia; Dragonetti, Rosa; Manson, Heather; Taylor, Valerie H; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ebnahmady, Arezoo; Melamed, Osnat C; Rodak, Terri; Hahn, Margaret; Selby, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Health behaviors directly impact the health of individuals, and populations. Since individuals tend to engage in multiple unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, and eating an unhealthy diet simultaneously, many large community-based interventions have been implemented to reduce the burden of disease through the modification of multiple health behaviors. Smoking cessation can be particularly challenging as the odds of becoming dependent on nicotine increase with every unhealthy behavior a smoker exhibits. This paper presents a protocol for a rapid realist review which aims to identify factors associated with effectively changing tobacco use and target two or more additional unhealthy behaviors. An electronic literature search will be conducted using the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts for relevant research, and the selected full papers will be used to extract data and assess the quality of evidence. Throughout this process, the rapid realist approach proposed by Saul et al., 2013 will be used to refine our initial program theory and identify contextual factors and mechanisms that are associated with successful multiple health behavior change. This review will provide evidence-based research on the context and mechanisms that may drive the success or failure of interventions designed to support multiple health behavior change. This information will be used to guide curriculum and program development for a government funded project on improving smoking cessation by addressing multiple health behaviors in people in Canada. PROSPERO CRD42017064430.

  14. Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: the effect of lower dose-frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna C; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of twice-weekly Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). ReST is an effective treatment at a frequency of four sessions a week for three consecutive weeks. In this study we used a multiple-baselines across participants design to examine treatment efficacy for four children with CAS, aged four to eight years, who received ReST treatment twice a week for six weeks. The children's ability to acquire new skills, generalize these skills to untreated items and maintain the skills after treatment was examined. All four children improved their production of the target items. Two of the four children generalized the treatment effects to similar untreated pseudo words and all children generalized to untreated real words. During the maintenance phase, all four participants maintained their skills to four months post-treatment, with a stable rather than rising profile. This study shows that ReST treatment delivered twice-weekly results in significant retention of treatment effects to four months post-treatment and generalization to untrained but related speech behaviors. Compared to ReST therapy four times per week, the twice-weekly frequency produces similar treatment gains but no ongoing improvement after the cessation of treatment. This implies that there may be a small but significant benefit of four times weekly therapy compared with twice-weekly ReST therapy. Readers will be able to define dose-frequency, and describe how this relates to overall intervention intensity. Readers will be able to explain the acquisition, generalization and maintenance effects in the study and describe how these compare to higher dose frequency treatments. Readers will recognize that the current findings give preliminary support for high dose-frequency CAS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia – Japan postmarketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio Medicine, 2Statistical Sciences, 3Post Marketing Study Management, 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings in Japan.Methods: In this multicenter, postmarketing surveillance (PMS study, patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia were treated with IM olanzapine daily in a daily clinical setting. The observational period ranged from 1 to 7 days, including the day of initial administration. Safety was assessed by reporting treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Excited Component (PANSS-EC score was used to evaluate effectiveness at baseline and at 2 hours (after each administration, 2 days, and 3 days (end of the observational period from the last administration of the IM olanzapine injection.Results: The safety analysis set included 999 patients, and the initial dose of 10 mg was administered to 955 patients. TEAEs were reported in 28 patients (36 events, the most common of which were dyslalia (5 patients, akathisia and somno­lence (4 patients each, hepatic function abnormal (3 patients, and constipation and dehydration (2 patients each. One serious adverse event of akathisia occurred during the observation period. The PANSS-EC score (mean ± standard deviation was 23.3±6.4 (n=625 at baseline, 16.9±7.0 (n=522 at 2 hours after initial injection, and 14.9±6.5 (n=650 at the last observation carried forward.Conclusion: The results of this Japanese PMS study demonstrated that IM olanzapine is safe and has a

  16. Direct action of aldosterone on transmembrane 22Na efflux from arterial smooth muscle. Rapid and delayed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, A.M.; Worcel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of aldosterone increases ex vivo 22 Na efflux from rat tail artery smooth muscle, which appears to be due to a specific action on mineralocorticoid receptors. Indeed, this effect is blocked by the antimineralocorticoid compounds RU 28318 [17 beta-hydroxy-3-oxo,7 alpha-propyl(17 alpha)-pregn 4-ene, 21 potassium carboxylate] and spironolactone. The specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 26988 does not modify 22 Na efflux. The authors show here that aldosterone has, at physiological concentrations, a mineralocorticoid specific stimulating effect on passive and sodium pump dependent transmembrane movements of sodium from the rat tail artery smooth muscle. Aldosterone exerts two types of action on sodium transport: 1) a delayed stimulation of ouabain-dependent 22 Na efflux and ouabain-independent 22 Na efflux, which are completely blocked by actinomycin D; and 2) a very rapid increase of passive 22 Na efflux, which is insensitive to actinomycin D and therefore does not seem to depend on transcription of genomic information

  17. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Nupur, E-mail: n1saxena@gmail.com; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO{sub 2} is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.

  18. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO 2 matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO 2 is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters

  19. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  20. Rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach after cone beam CT-guided lung biopsy: effect on pneumothorax rate in 1,191 consecutive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Im [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the effect of rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach on the incidence of pneumothorax and drainage catheter placement due to pneumothorax in C-arm Cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of lung lesions. From May 2011 to December 2012, 1227 PTNBs were performed in 1191 patients with a 17-gauge coaxial needle. 617 biopsies were performed without (conventional-group) and 610 with rapid-rollover approach (rapid-rollover-group). Overall pneumothorax rates and incidences of pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in overall pneumothorax rates between conventional and rapid-rollover groups (19.8 % vs. 23.1 %, p = 0.164). However, pneumothorax rate requiring drainage catheter placement was significantly lower in rapid-rollover-group (1.6 %) than conventional-group (4.2 %) (p = 0.010). Multivariate analysis revealed male, age > 60, bulla crossed, fissure crossed, pleura to target distance > 1.3 cm, emphysema along needle tract, and pleural punctures ≥ 2 were significant risk factors of pneumothorax (p < 0.05). Regarding pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement, fissure crossed, bulla crossed, and emphysema along needle tract were significant risk factors (p < 0.05), whereas rapid-rollover approach was an independent protective factor (p = 0.002). The rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach significantly reduced the rate of pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement after CBCT-guided PTNB. (orig.)

  1. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An approach for evaluating the repeatability of rapid wetland assessment methods: The effects of training and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple ob...

  3. MP-AzeFlu provides rapid and effective allergic rhinitis control: results of a non-interventional study in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agache, I; Doros, I C; Leru, P M; Bucur, I; Poenaru, M; Sarafoleanu, C

    2018-03-01

    Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the European Union (EU) recommend a shift to guide allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment decisions from symptom severity to disease control, using a simple visual analogue scale (VAS). Using this VAS we assessed, in a real-life study in Romania, the effectiveness of MP-AzeFlu nasal spray. In this multi-centre, prospective, non-interventional study, 253 patients (over 11 years old) with moderate-to-severe AR were prescribed MP-AzeFlu and assessed their symptoms on a VAS (0 (not at all bothersome) to 100 mm (very bothersome)) on Days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14. The proportion of patients who achieved a defined VAS score cut-off for well-controlled (38 mm) AR were also calculated. Patients perception of disease control was assessed on Day 3. MP-AzeFlu use was associated with a mean (standard deviation) VAS score reduction from 78.4 (15.1) mm at baseline to 14.7 (15.1) mm on the last day. Effectiveness was consistent irrespective of disease severity, phenotype or patient age. 83.4% of patients achieved the smaller than 39 mm well-controlled VAS score cut-off by last day and 95.2% considered their symptoms to be well- or partly controlled at Day 3. MP-AzeFlu provided rapid, effective and sustained AR symptom control in a real-life setting in Romania, irrespective of severity, phenotype or patient age, aligning with ARIA and EU recommendations and supporting the position of MP-AzeFlu as the drug of choice for the treatment of moderate-to-severe AR.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic test incentive schemes for informal private healthcare providers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ingrid T; Aung, Tin; Thant, Hnin Nwe Nwe; Sudhinaraset, May; Kahn, James G

    2015-02-05

    The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Southeast Asia threatens global malaria control efforts. One strategy to counter this problem is a subsidy of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) within the informal private sector, where the majority of malaria care in Myanmar is provided. A study in Myanmar evaluated the effectiveness of financial incentives vs information, education and counselling (IEC) in driving the proper use of subsidized malaria RDTs among informal private providers. This cost-effectiveness analysis compares intervention options. A decision tree was constructed in a spreadsheet to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) among four strategies: no intervention, simple subsidy, subsidy with financial incentives, and subsidy with IEC. Model inputs included programmatic costs (in dollars), malaria epidemiology and observed study outcomes. Data sources included expenditure records, study data and scientific literature. Model outcomes included the proportion of properly and improperly treated individuals with and without P. falciparum malaria, and associated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results are reported as ICERs in US dollars per DALY averted. One-way sensitivity analysis assessed how outcomes depend on uncertainty in inputs. ICERs from the least to most expensive intervention are: $1,169/DALY averted for simple subsidy vs no intervention, $185/DALY averted for subsidy with financial incentives vs simple subsidy, and $200/DALY averted for a subsidy with IEC vs subsidy with financial incentives. Due to decreasing ICERs, each strategy was also compared to no intervention. The subsidy with IEC was the most favourable, costing $639/DALY averted compared with no intervention. One-way sensitivity analysis shows that ICERs are most affected by programme costs, RDT uptake, treatment-seeking behaviour, and the prevalence and virulence of non

  5. Rapid assessment of the effect of ciprofloxacin on chromosomal DNA from Escherichia coli using an in situ DNA fragmentation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosalvez Jaime

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones are extensively used antibiotics that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs by trapping DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA. This effect is usually evaluated using biochemical or molecular procedures, but these are not effective at the single-cell level. We assessed ciprofloxacin (CIP-induced chromosomal DNA breakage in single-cell Escherichia coli by direct visualization of the DNA fragments that diffused from the nucleoid obtained after bacterial lysis in an agarose microgel on a slide. Results Exposing the E. coli strain TG1 to CIP starting at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0.012 μg/ml and at increasing doses for 40 min increased the DNA fragmentation progressively. DNA damage started to be detectable at the MIC dose. At a dose of 1 μg/ml of CIP, DNA damage was visualized clearly immediately after processing, and the DNA fragmentation increased progressively with the antibiotic incubation time. The level of DNA damage was much higher when the bacteria were taken from liquid LB broth than from solid LB agar. CIP treatment produced a progressively slower rate of DNA damage in bacteria in the stationary phase than in the exponentially growing phase. Removing the antibiotic after the 40 min incubation resulted in progressive DSB repair activity with time. The magnitude of DNA repair was inversely related to CIP dose and was noticeable after incubation with CIP at 0.1 μg/ml but scarce after 10 μg/ml. The repair activity was not strictly related to viability. Four E. coli strains with identified mechanisms of reduced sensitivity to CIP were assessed using this procedure and produced DNA fragmentation levels that were inversely related to MIC dose, except those with very high MIC dose. Conclusion This procedure for determining DNA fragmentation is a simple and rapid test for studying and evaluating the effect of quinolones.

  6. Effects of rapid urbanization on streamflow, erosion, and sedimentation in a desert stream in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Buckingham , Susan E.; Ehrenberg, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has resulted in a series of sequential effects on a desert stream in the American Southwest. Lower Las Vegas Wash was a dry wash characterized by infrequent flood deposition when Las Vegas, Nevada was established in 1905. Wastewater effluent was discharged into the wash in low volumes for over 3 decades. Wastewater volumes increased commensurably with accelerated population growth during the late 20th century and created a sequence of feedback effects on the floodplain. Initially slow saturation of the valley fill created a desert oasis of dense floodplain vegetation and wetlands. Annual streamflow began in 1958 and erosion began a decade later with shallow incision in discontinuous channel segments. Increasing baseflow gradually enlarged channels; headcutting was active during the 1970s to 1984. The incised channels concentrated storm runoff, which accelerated local channel erosion, and in 1984 the headcuts were integrated during a series of monsoon floods. Wetlands were drained and most floodplain vegetation destroyed. Channel erosion continued unabated until engineering interventions began in the 21st century. No natural channel recovery occurred after initial urbanization effects because streamflow never stabilized in the late 20th century. A 6.6 M m3 sediment slug, eroded from the wash in ∼25 years, was deposited in Las Vegas Bay in Lake Mead. Falling reservoir levels during the 21st century are responsible for sediment redistribution and infilling of the bay. Close monitoring of impacts is recommended when urban wastewater and storm runoff are discharged on a desert wash. Channel interventions, when necessary, are advised in order to prevent costly engineering schemes of channel stabilization, flood control, and floodplain restoration.

  7. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Ruskov, E; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N; Medley, S S; Berk, H L; Harvey, R W

    2006-01-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed

  8. Effect of Sn Composition in Ge1- x Sn x Layers Grown by Using Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Kang, Sukill; Jeong, Tae Soo; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jung; Choi, Yong-Dae; Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Taek Sung

    2018-05-01

    The Ge1- x Sn x layers were grown by using rapid thermal chemical-vapor deposition (RTCVD) on boron-doped p-type Si (100) substrates with Sn compositions up to x = 0.83%. In order to obtain effect of the Sn composition on the structural and the optical characteristics, we utilized highresolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), etch pit density (EPD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent (PC) spectra. The Sn compositions in the Ge1- x Sn x layers were found to be of x = 0.00%, 0.51%, 0.65%, and 0.83%. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the surface roughness of the Ge1- x Sn x layer increased from 2.02 nm to 3.40 nm as the Sn composition was increased from 0.51% to 0.83%, and EPD was on the order of 108 cm-2. The Raman spectra consist of only one strong peak near 300 cm-1, which is assigned to the Ge-Ge LO peaks and the Raman peaks shift to the wave number with increasing Sn composition. Photocurrent spectra show near energy band gap peaks and their peak energies decrease with increasing Sn composition due to band-gap bowing in the Ge1- x Sn x layer. An increase in the band gap bowing parameter was observed with increasing Sn composition.

  9. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W W [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Ruskov, E [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Gorelenkov, N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Medley, S S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Berk, H L [University of Texas, Austin, Texas (United States); Harvey, R W [CompX, Del Mar, California (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at {approx}2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power ({approx}<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.

  10. Weak effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on rapidly chirping beam-driven instabilities in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W W,Heidbrink; E,Ruskov; E D,Fredrickson; N,Gorelenkov; S S,Medley; H L,Berk; R W,Harvey

    2006-09-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ~2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50–100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10–20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (≤3MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.

  11. Transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex one year after rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention: A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Luz Baratieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT scans the transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME using Haas expander in comparison to untreated individuals. This prospective controlled clinical study assessed 30 subjects (18 boys and 12 girls with mixed dentition and during pubertal growth. The treated group was submitted to RME with Haas expander, retention for six months and a six-month follow-up after removal. The control group matched the treated group in terms of age and sex distribution. CBCT scans were taken at treatment onset and one year after the expander was activated. Maxillary first molars (U6 width, right and left U6 angulation, maxillary alveolar width, maxillary basal width, palatal alveolar width, palatal base width, right and left alveolar angulation, palatal area, nasal base width, nasal cavity width and inferior nasal cavity area on the posterior, middle and anterior coronal slices were measured with Dolphin Imaging Software(r 11.5, except for the first two variables which were performed only on the posterior slice. All transverse dimensions increased significantly (P 0.05. Results suggest that increase of molar, maxillary, palatal and nasal transverse dimensions was stable in comparison to the control group one year after treatment with RME.

  12. Rapid activation of catalase followed by citrate efflux effectively improves aluminum tolerance in the roots of chick pea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manorma; Sharma, Vinay; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the comparative response of two contrasting genotypes (aluminum (Al) tolerant and Al sensitive) of chick pea (Cicer arietinum) against Al stress. The Al-tolerant genotype (RSG 974) showed lesser inhibition of root growth as well as lower oxidative damages, measured in terms of the accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation compared to the Al-sensitive genotype (RSG 945). The accumulation of Al by roots of both genotypes was almost equal at 96 and 144 h after Al treatment; however, it was higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype at 48 h after Al treatment. Further, the Al-mediated induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was almost similar in both genotypes. Al treatment promptly activated catalase activity in Al-tolerant genotype, and it was remarkably higher than that of Al-sensitive genotype. As another important Al detoxification mechanism, citrate efflux was almost equal in both genotypes except at 1000 μM Al treatment for 96 and 144 h. Further, citrate carrier and anion channel inhibitor experiment confirmed the contribution of citrate efflux in conferring Al tolerance in Al-tolerant genotype. Based on the available data, the present study concludes that rapid activation of catalase (also SOD) activity followed by citrate efflux effectively improves Al tolerance in chick pea.

  13. Lack of Effect of Typical Rapid-Weight-Loss Practices on Balance and Anaerobic Performance in Apprentice Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; Dolan, Eimear; O Brien, Kate; McGoldrick, Adrian; Warrington, Giles

    2015-11-01

    Balance and anaerobic performance are key attributes related to horse-racing performance, but research on the impact of making weight for racing on these parameters remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss in preparation for racing on balance and anaerobic performance in a group of jockeys. Twelve apprentice male jockeys and 12 age- and gender-matched controls completed 2 trials separated by 48 h. In both trials, body mass, hydration status, balance, and anaerobic performance were assessed. Between the trials, the jockeys reduced body mass by 4% using weight-loss methods typically adopted in preparation for racing, while controls maintained body mass through typical daily dietary and physical activity habits. Apprentice jockeys decreased mean body mass by 4.2% ± 0.3% (P balance, on the left or right side, or in peak power, mean power, or fatigue index were reported between the trials in either group. Results from this study indicate that a 4% reduction in body mass in 48 h through the typical methods employed for racing, in association with an increase in dehydration, resulted in no impairments in balance or anaerobic performance. Further research is required to evaluate performance in a sport-specific setting and to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms involved.

  14. Effects of vacuum rapid thermal annealing on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of vacuum rapid thermal annealing (RTA on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin films. The a-IGZO films deposited by radiofrequency sputtering were subjected to vacuum annealing under various temperature and pressure conditions with the RTA system. The carrier concentration was evaluated by Hall measurement; the electron concentration of the a-IGZO film increased and the resistivity decreased as the RTA temperature increased under vacuum conditions. In a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs with a bottom-gate top-contact structure, the threshold voltage decreased and the leakage current increased as the vacuum RTA temperature increased. As the annealing pressure decreased, the threshold voltage decreased, and the leakage current increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated changes in the lattice oxygen and oxygen vacancies of the a-IGZO films after vacuum RTA. At higher annealing temperatures, the lattice oxygen decreased and oxygen vacancies increased, which suggests that oxygen was diffused out in a reduced pressure atmosphere. The formation of oxygen vacancies increased the electron concentration, which consequently increased the conductivity of the a-IGZO films and reduced the threshold voltage of the TFTs. The results showed that the oxygen vacancies and electron concentrations of the a-IGZO thin films changed with the vacuum RTA conditions and that high-temperature RTA treatment at low pressure converted the IGZO thin film to a conductor.

  15. Effects of vacuum rapid thermal annealing on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vacuum rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films. The a-IGZO films deposited by radiofrequency sputtering were subjected to vacuum annealing under various temperature and pressure conditions with the RTA system. The carrier concentration was evaluated by Hall measurement; the electron concentration of the a-IGZO film increased and the resistivity decreased as the RTA temperature increased under vacuum conditions. In a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate top-contact structure, the threshold voltage decreased and the leakage current increased as the vacuum RTA temperature increased. As the annealing pressure decreased, the threshold voltage decreased, and the leakage current increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated changes in the lattice oxygen and oxygen vacancies of the a-IGZO films after vacuum RTA. At higher annealing temperatures, the lattice oxygen decreased and oxygen vacancies increased, which suggests that oxygen was diffused out in a reduced pressure atmosphere. The formation of oxygen vacancies increased the electron concentration, which consequently increased the conductivity of the a-IGZO films and reduced the threshold voltage of the TFTs. The results showed that the oxygen vacancies and electron concentrations of the a-IGZO thin films changed with the vacuum RTA conditions and that high-temperature RTA treatment at low pressure converted the IGZO thin film to a conductor.

  16. The Effect of Substitution of Fe By Co on Rapidly Quenched (FeCoMoCuB Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Paluga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available (Fe1-xCox79Mo8Cu1B15 amorphous alloys ware prepared in the form of ribbons by rapid quenching for x=0. 0.25 and 0.5. The effect of variation of Co/Fe ratio is analyzed with respect to the formation of amorphous state and to transformation of the structure into nancrystalline phases formed after subsequent thermal treatment. Selected properties and atomic structure in as-quenched state are studied by TEM, AFM, XRD any by measurement of magnetoresistance characteristics. The influence of heat treatment on transport and magnetic properties is shown on temperature dependencies of electrical resistivity and magnetization. It was founf that while the increase of Co content leads to the increase of Curie temperature of as-quenched structure, transition to nanocrystalline state is not affected in a significant manner. The as-quenched state for alloy without Co was found to contain thin crystal-containing layer which, however, was observed, contary to general behavior, at the side of the ribbon exposed to higher quenching rates.

  17. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao SY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shuya Zhao,1,* Xuxia Wang,2,* Na Li,3 Yun Chen,1 Yuran Su,1 Jun Zhang1 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Stomatology, Shandong University; 3Department of Orthodontics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of strontium ranelate on bone regeneration in the mid-palatal suture in response to rapid maxillary expansion (RME.Methods: Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, ie, an expansion only (EO group, an expansion plus strontium ranelate (SE group, and a control group. An orthodontic appliance was set between the right and left upper molars of rats with an initial expansive force of 0.98 N. Rats in the SE group were administered strontium ranelate (600 mg/kg body weight and then euthanized in batches on days 4, 7, and 10. Morphological changes in the mid-palatal suture were investigated using micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining after RME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the suture was also examined to evaluate bone formation in the mid-palatal suture. Image-Pro Plus software was then used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation at the P<0.05 level.Results: With expansive force, the mid-palatal suture was expanded, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 between the SE and EO groups. The bone volume of the suture decreased after RME, but was higher in the SE group than in the EO group on days 7 and 10. Further, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the SE group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: Strontium ranelate may hasten new bone formation in the expanded mid-palatal suture, which may be therapeutically

  18. Effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio-Medicines, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 2Statistical Sciences, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Post Marketing Study Management, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine (RAIM in patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in a real-world clinical setting. Methods: The postmarketing surveillance study with a 3-day observational period after the last RAIM administration was conducted (original study. Following this, an extended study was added for patients who received oral olanzapine after RAIM administration during the original study period, in order to additionally observe them for 7 days after initial RAIM administration. Effectiveness and safety from initial RAIM administration were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, respectively. Results: The effectiveness and safety analysis set included a total of 521 and 522 patients, respectively. A majority of patients received 10 mg of RAIM (475/522 patients, 91.0%. The mean ± SD total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score was 23.6±6.2 (n=318 at baseline (before initial RAIM administration, 17.4±6.8 (n=280 at 2 hours after initial administration, 16.2±6.8 (n=246 2 days after final administration, 14.9±6.2 (n=248 3 days after final administration, 13.8±5.9 (n=242 4 days after final administration, 13.2±5.8 (n=221 7 days after initial

  19. Effect of annealing procedure on the bonding of ceramic to cobalt-chromium alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, Ayca

    2018-04-01

    An annealing procedure is a heat treatment process to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys. However, information is lacking about the effect of the annealing process on the bonding ability of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the fabrication techniques and the annealing procedure on the shear bond strength of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by different techniques. Ninety-six cylindrical specimens (10-mm diameter, 10-mm height) made of Co-Cr alloy were prepared by casting (C), milling (M), direct process powder-bed (LaserCUSING) with and without annealing (CL+, CL), and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) with annealing (EL+) and without annealing (EL). After the application of ceramic to the metal specimens, the metal-ceramic bond strength was assessed using a shear force test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Shear bond strength values were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05). Although statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups (M, 29.87 ±2.06; EL, 38.92 ±2.04; and CL+, 40.93 ±2.21; P=.002), no significant differences were found among the others (P>.05). The debonding surfaces of all specimens exhibited mixed failure mode. These results showed that the direct process powder-bed method is promising in terms of metal-ceramic bonding ability. The manufacturing technique of Co-Cr alloys and the annealing process influence metal-ceramic bonding. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of interventions to improve the health and housing status of homeless people: a rapid systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on interventions to positively impact health and housing status of people who are homeless has received substantially increased attention over the past 5 years. This rapid review examines recent evidence regarding interventions that have been shown to improve the health of homeless people, with particular focus on the effect of these interventions on housing status. Methods A total of 1,546 articles were identified by a structured search of five electronic databases, a hand search of grey literature and relevant journals, and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently screened the first 10% of titles and abstracts for relevance. Inter-rater reliability was high and as a result only one reviewer screened the remaining titles and abstracts. Articles were included if they were published between January 2004 and December 2009 and examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the health or healthcare utilization of people who were homeless, marginally housed, or at risk of homelessness. Two reviewers independently scored all relevant articles for quality. Results Eighty-four relevant studies were identified; none were of strong quality while ten were rated of moderate quality. For homeless people with mental illness, provision of housing upon hospital discharge was effective in improving sustained housing. For homeless people with substance abuse issues or concurrent disorders, provision of housing was associated with decreased substance use, relapses from periods of substance abstinence, and health services utilization, and increased housing tenure. Abstinent dependent housing was more effective in supporting housing status, substance abstinence, and improved psychiatric outcomes than non-abstinence dependent housing or no housing. Provision of housing also improved health outcomes among homeless populations with HIV. Health promotion programs can decrease risk behaviours among homeless populations. Conclusions These studies

  1. Effectiveness of interventions to improve the health and housing status of homeless people: a rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ganann, Rebecca; Krishnaratne, Shari; Ciliska, Donna; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Hwang, Stephen W

    2011-08-10

    Research on interventions to positively impact health and housing status of people who are homeless has received substantially increased attention over the past 5 years. This rapid review examines recent evidence regarding interventions that have been shown to improve the health of homeless people, with particular focus on the effect of these interventions on housing status. A total of 1,546 articles were identified by a structured search of five electronic databases, a hand search of grey literature and relevant journals, and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently screened the first 10% of titles and abstracts for relevance. Inter-rater reliability was high and as a result only one reviewer screened the remaining titles and abstracts. Articles were included if they were published between January 2004 and December 2009 and examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the health or healthcare utilization of people who were homeless, marginally housed, or at risk of homelessness. Two reviewers independently scored all relevant articles for quality. Eighty-four relevant studies were identified; none were of strong quality while ten were rated of moderate quality. For homeless people with mental illness, provision of housing upon hospital discharge was effective in improving sustained housing. For homeless people with substance abuse issues or concurrent disorders, provision of housing was associated with decreased substance use, relapses from periods of substance abstinence, and health services utilization, and increased housing tenure. Abstinent dependent housing was more effective in supporting housing status, substance abstinence, and improved psychiatric outcomes than non-abstinence dependent housing or no housing. Provision of housing also improved health outcomes among homeless populations with HIV. Health promotion programs can decrease risk behaviours among homeless populations. These studies provide important new evidence regarding

  2. Effectiveness of interventions to improve the health and housing status of homeless people: a rapid systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouyoumdjian Fiona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on interventions to positively impact health and housing status of people who are homeless has received substantially increased attention over the past 5 years. This rapid review examines recent evidence regarding interventions that have been shown to improve the health of homeless people, with particular focus on the effect of these interventions on housing status. Methods A total of 1,546 articles were identified by a structured search of five electronic databases, a hand search of grey literature and relevant journals, and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently screened the first 10% of titles and abstracts for relevance. Inter-rater reliability was high and as a result only one reviewer screened the remaining titles and abstracts. Articles were included if they were published between January 2004 and December 2009 and examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the health or healthcare utilization of people who were homeless, marginally housed, or at risk of homelessness. Two reviewers independently scored all relevant articles for quality. Results Eighty-four relevant studies were identified; none were of strong quality while ten were rated of moderate quality. For homeless people with mental illness, provision of housing upon hospital discharge was effective in improving sustained housing. For homeless people with substance abuse issues or concurrent disorders, provision of housing was associated with decreased substance use, relapses from periods of substance abstinence, and health services utilization, and increased housing tenure. Abstinent dependent housing was more effective in supporting housing status, substance abstinence, and improved psychiatric outcomes than non-abstinence dependent housing or no housing. Provision of housing also improved health outcomes among homeless populations with HIV. Health promotion programs can decrease risk behaviours among homeless populations

  3. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    , Basher A, Amin MR, Faiz MA. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:23-6.

  4. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  5. Onset and effectiveness of rocuronium for rapid onset of paralysis in patients with major burns: priming or large bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T.-H.; Martyn, J. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Burn injury leads to resistance to the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. We tested the hypothesis that a larger bolus dose is as effective as priming for rapid onset of paralysis after burns. Methods Ninety adults, aged 18–59 yr with 40 (2)% [mean (se)] burn and 30 (2) days after injury, received rocuronium as a priming dose followed by bolus (0.06+0.94 mg kg−1), or single bolus of either 1.0 or 1.5 mg kg−1. Sixty-one non-burned, receiving 1.0 mg kg−1 as a primed (0.06+0.94 mg kg−1) or full bolus dose, served as controls. Acceleromyography measured the onset times. Results Priming when compared with 1.0 mg kg−1 bolus in burned patients shortened the time to first appearance of twitch depression (30 vs 45 s, P<0.05) and time to maximum twitch inhibition (135 vs 210 s, P<0.05). The onset times between priming and higher bolus dose (1.5 mg kg−1) were not different (30 vs 30 s for first twitch depression and 135 vs 135 s for maximal depression, respectively). The onset times in controls, however, were significantly (P<0.05) faster than burns both for priming and for full bolus (15 and 15 s, respectively, for first twitch depression and 75 and 75 s for maximal depression). Priming caused respiratory distress in 10% of patients in both groups. Intubating conditions in burns were significantly better with 1.5 mg kg−1 than with priming or full 1.0 mg kg−1 bolus. Conclusions A dose of 1.5 mg kg−1 not only produces an initial onset of paralysis as early as 30 s, which we speculate could be a reasonable onset time for relief of laryngospasm, but also has an onset as fast as priming with superior intubating conditions and no respiratory side-effects. PMID:19029093

  6. Rapid detection of single E. coli bacteria using a graphene-based field-effect transistor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Bhawana; Zhou, Guihua; Chang, Jingbo; Pu, Haihui; Jin, Bing; Sui, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Xiaochen; Yang, Ching-Hong; Magruder, Matthew; Chen, Junhong

    2018-07-01

    Contamination of surface and drinking water due to the presence of Escherichia coli bacteria is a major cause of water-borne disease outbreak. To address unmet challenges for practical pathogen detection in contaminated samples, we report fabrication of thermally reduced graphene oxide-based field-effect transistor (rGO FET) passivated with an ultrathin layer of Al 2 O 3 for real-time detection of E. coli bacteria. The sensor could detect a single E. coli cell within 50 s in a 1 µL sample volume. The ultrathin layer of Al 2 O 3 acted as a barrier between rGO and potential interferents present in the sample. E. coli specific antibodies anchored on gold nanoparticles acted as probes for selective capture of E. coli. The high density of negative charge on the surface of E. coli cells strongly modulates the concentration of majority charge carriers in the rGO monolayer, thereby allowing real-time monitoring of E. coli concentration in a given sample. With a low detection limit of single cell, the FET sensor had a linear range of 1-100 CFU in 1 µL volume of sample (i.e., 10 3 to 10 5 CFU/ mL). The biosensor with good selectivity and rapid detection was further successfully demonstrated for E. coli sensing in river water. The rGO-based FET sensor provides a low cost and label-free approach, and can be mass produced for detection of a broad spectrum of pathogens in water or other liquid media. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B0 field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachowicz, K.; De Zanche, N.; Yip, E.; Volotovskyy, V.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B 0 . This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B 0 that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B 0 -dependant relaxation for various tumor and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B 0 field (specifically the T 1 time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B 0 fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T 1 contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B 0 reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.

  8. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  9. Thin-plate spline analysis of the short- and long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Cameron, Christopher G; Kutcipal, Elizabeth A; McNamara, James A

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the shape of the maxillary and circummaxillary structures by means of thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. The sample consisted of 42 patients who were compared with a control sample of 20 subjects. The treated subjects underwent Haas-type RME, followed by fixed appliance therapy. Postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms were analysed for each treated subject at T1 (pre-treatment), T2 (immediate post-expansion), and T3 (long-term observation), and were available at T1 and T3 for the control group (CG). The mean age at T1 was 11 years and 10 months for both groups. The mean chronological ages at T3 were 20 years, 6 months for the treated group (TG) and 17 years, 8 months for the control group. The study focused on shape changes in the maxillary, nasal, zygomatic, and orbital regions. TPS analysis revealed significant shape changes in the TG. They consisted of an upward and lateral displacement of the two halves of the naso-maxillary complex as a result of active expansion in the short-term, and normalization of maxillary shape in the transverse dimension in the long-term (the initial transverse deficiency of the maxilla in the treated group was eliminated by RME therapy both in the short- and long-term). At the end of the observation period, the nasal cavities were larger when compared with both their pre-expansion configuration and the final configuration in the controls. RME with the Haas appliance appears to be an efficient therapeutic means to induce permanent favourable changes in the shape of the naso-maxillary complex.

  10. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  11. [Effect of sandblasting particle sizes on bonding strength between porcelain and titanium fabricated by rapid laser forming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jun; Wang, Zhong-yi; Gao, Bo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Chun-bao

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sandblasting particle sizes of Al2O3 on the bonding strength between porcelain and titanium fabricated by laser rapid forming (LRF). The thermal expansion coefficient, roughness (Ra), contact angle, surface morphology of titanium surface and the bonding strength between titanium and porcelain were evaluated after the titanium surface being sandblasted using different sizes of Al2O3 (50 microm, 120 microm, 250 microm) at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The cast titanium specimens were used as control, and were sandblasted with 50 microm Al2O3 at the same pressure. The thermal expansion coefficient of cast titanium [(9.84 +/- 0.42) x 10(-6)/ degrees C] and LRF Ti [(9.79 +/- 0.31) x 10(-6)/ degrees C) matched that of Noritake Ti-22 dentin porcelain [(8.93 +/- 0.36) x 10(-6)/ degrees C). When larger size of Al2O3 was used, the value of Ra and contact angle increased as well. There was no significant difference in bonding strength between the LRF Ti-50 microm [(25.91 +/- 1.02) MPa] and cast titanium [(26.42 +/- 1.65) MPa]. Significantly lower bonding strength was found in LRF Ti-120 microm [(21.86 +/- 1.64) MPa] and LRF Ti-250 microm [(19.96 +/- 1.03) MPa]. The bond strength between LRF Ti and Noritake Ti-22 dentin porcelain was above the lower limit value in the ISO 9693 (25 MPa) after using 50 microm Al2O3 sandblasting in 0.5MPa air pressure.

  12. Quantitative cytochemical analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in living isolated hepatocytes of European flounder for rapid analysis of xenobiotic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, K.; van Noorden, C. J.; Köhler, A.

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid but reliable assays to determine quantitatively effects of xenobiotics on biological systems in environmental research. Hepatocytes of European flounder are sensitive to low-dose toxic stress. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the major source of NADPH in

  13. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  14. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qinglin; Xu, Wenlai; Yan, Zhijiao; Qian, Lei

    2018-04-04

    A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO₃) to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO₃ to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO₃ had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO₃ in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the shortcut

  15. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  16. Quantitative effects of rapid heating on soot-particle sizing through analysis of two-pulse LII

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre

    2017-02-27

    During the rapid laser pulse heating and consecutive cooling in laser-induced incandescence (LII), soot particles may undergo thermal annealing and sublimation processes which lead to a permanent change in its optical properties and its primary particle size, respectively. Overall, effects of these two processes on soot and LII model-based particle sizing are investigated by measuring the two-color time-resolved (2C-TiRe) LII signal decay from in-flame soot after two consecutive laser pulses at 1064-nm wavelength. Experiments are carried out on a non-premixed laminar ethylene/air flame from a Santoro burner with both low and moderate laser fluences suitable for particle sizing. The probe volume is set to a radial position close to the flame axis where the soot particles are known to be immature or less graphitic. With the first pulse, soot is pre-heated, and the LII signal after the consecutive second pulse is used for analysis. The two-color incandescence emission technique is used for the pyrometric determination of the LII-heated peak soot temperature at the second pulse. A new LII simulation tool is developed which accounts for particle heating via absorption and annealing, and cooling via sublimation, conduction, and radiation with various existing sub-models from the literature. The same approach of using two laser pulses is implemented in the simulations. Measurements indicate that thermal annealing and associated absorption enhancement becomes important at laser fluences above 0.17 J/cm2 for the immature in-flame soot. After a heating pulse at 0.33 J/cm2, the increase of the soot absorption function is calculated as 35% using the temperature measured at the second pulse and an absorption model based on the Rayleigh approximation. Present annealing model, on the other hand, predicts graphitization of soot even in the absence of laser heating at typical flame temperatures. Recorded experimental LII signal decays and LII-heated peak soot temperature

  17. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Fang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO3 to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO3 to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO3 had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO3 in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the

  18. Dopamine D2/D3 but not dopamine D1 receptors are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Zhuo R; Ou, Bao C; Wang, Ya Q; Tan, Zhou B; Deng, Chang M; Gao, Yi Y; Tang, Ming; So, Ji H; Mu, Yang L; Zhang, Lan Q

    2015-02-15

    Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses. The traditional antidepressants often take several weeks, even months, to obtain clinical effects. However, recent clinical studies have shown that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects within 2h and are long-lasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dopaminergic system was involved in the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. The acute administration of ketamine (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), the more selective NMDA antagonist, also exerted rapid antidepressant-like effects. In contrast, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) did not significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test after 30 min administration. Notably, pretreatment with haloperidol (0.15 mg/kg, a nonselective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg, a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), significantly prevented the effects of ketamine or MK-801. Moreover, the administration of sub-effective dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) in combination with pramipexole (0.3 mg/kg, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist) exerted antidepressant-like effects compared with each drug alone. In conclusion, our results indicated that the dopamine D2/D3 receptors, but not D1 receptors, are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modular Rapid E-Learning Framework (MORELF) in Desktop Virtualization Environment: An Effective Hybrid Implementation in Nurse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlakkilic, Alattin

    2015-01-01

    Generally it is not easy for an instructor to prepare and deliver electronic courses via e-learning. Therefore it is necessary to work and develop an easy system. In this context module technology was used to for provide modularity in conducting educational development of e-learning course. Then, rapid e-learning was used for more quick and easy…

  20. The Effect of Orthographic Depth on Letter String Processing: The Case of Visual Attention Span and Rapid Automatized Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzaka, Alexia; Martin, Clara; Caffarra, Sendy; Schlöffel, Sophie; Carreiras, Manuel; Lallier, Marie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated whether orthographic depth can increase the bias towards multi-letter processing in two reading-related skills: visual attention span (VAS) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). VAS (i.e., the number of visual elements that can be processed at once in a multi-element array) was tested with a visual 1-back task and RAN…

  1. The Effects of Rapid Weight Loss and Attempted Rehydration on Strength and Endurance of the Handgripping Muscles in College Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfass, Robert C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Because of the continued prevalence of rapid weight reduction by wrestlers, this study attempted to determine if college wrestlers' strength and muscular endurance were affected by either rehydration or dehydration. Results showed that a loss of five percent of body weight over three days did not affect strength or endurance levels. (JMK)

  2. A rapid, sensitive, reproducible and cost-effective method for mutation profiling of colon cancer and metastatic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, Debora; Gavin, Patrick G; Taniyama, Yusuke; Kim, Seung-Il; Choi, Hyun-Joo; Paik, Soonmyung; Pogue-Geile, Katherine L

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of studies show that genetic markers can aid in refining prognostic information and predicting the benefit from systemic therapy. Our goal was to develop a high throughput, cost-effective and simple methodology for the detection of clinically relevant hot spot mutations in colon cancer. The Maldi-Tof mass spectrometry platform and OncoCarta panel from Sequenom were used to profile 239 colon cancers and 39 metastatic lymph nodes from NSABP clinical trial C-07 utilizing routinely processed FFPET (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue). Among the 238 common hot-spot cancer mutations in 19 genes interrogated by the OncoCarta panel, mutations were detected in 7 different genes at 26 different nucleotide positions in our colon cancer samples. Twenty-four assays that detected mutations in more than 1% of the samples were reconfigured into a new multiplexed panel, termed here as ColoCarta. Mutation profiling was repeated on 32 mutant samples using ColoCarta and the results were identical to results with OncoCarta, demonstrating that this methodology was reproducible. Further evidence demonstrating the validity of the data was the fact that the mutation frequencies of the most common colon cancer mutations were similar to the COSMIC (Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer) database. The frequencies were 43.5% for KRAS, 20.1% for PIK3CA, and 12.1% for BRAF. In addition, infrequent mutations in NRAS, AKT1, ABL1, and MET were detected. Mutation profiling of metastatic lymph nodes and their corresponding primary tumors showed that they were 89.7% concordant. All mutations found in the lymph nodes were also found in the corresponding primary tumors, but in 4 cases a mutation was present in the primary tumor only. This study describes a high throughput technology that can be used to interrogate DNAs isolated from routinely processed FFPET and identifies the specific mutations that are common to colon cancer. The development of this technology and the Colo

  3. Effects of Optogenetic inhibition of BLA on Sleep Brief Optogenetic Inhibition of the Basolateral Amygdala in Mice Alters Effects of Stressful Experiences on Rapid Eye Movement Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Mayumi; Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick Bs, Mairen E; Hallum Bs, Olga; Sutton Bs, Amy M; Lonart, György; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-04-01

    Stressful events can directly produce significant alterations in subsequent sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep (REM); however, the neural mechanisms underlying the process are not fully known. Here, we investigated the role of the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) in regulating the effects of stressful experience on sleep. We used optogenetics to briefly inhibit glutamatergic cells in BLA during the presentation of inescapable footshock (IS) and assessed effects on sleep, the acute stress response, and fear memory. c-Fos expression was also assessed in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both regions involved in coping with stress, and in brain stem regions implicated in the regulation of REM. Compared to control mice, peri-shock inhibition of BLA attenuated an immediate reduction in REM after IS and produced a significant overall increase in REM. Moreover, upon exposure to the shock context alone, mice receiving peri-shock inhibition of BLA during training showed increased REM without altered freezing (an index of fear memory) or stress-induced hyperthermia (an index of acute stress response). Inhibition of BLA during REM under freely sleeping conditions enhanced REM only when body temperature was high, suggesting the effect was influenced by stress. Peri-shock inhibition of BLA also led to elevated c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and mPFC and differentially altered c-Fos activity in the selected brain stem regions. Glutamatergic cells in BLA can modulate the effects of stress on REM and can mediate effects of fear memory on sleep that can be independent of behavioral fear. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  6. Treating Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with a Rapid-Acting Analog Insulin Regimen vs. Regular Human Insulin in Germany: A Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, William J; Van Brunt, Kate; Boye, Kristina S; Pollock, Richard F

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rapid-acting analog insulin relative to regular human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Germany. The PRIME Diabetes Model, a patient-level, discrete event simulation model, was used to project long-term clinical and cost outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes from the perspective of a German healthcare payer. Simulated patients had a mean age of 21.5 years, duration of diabetes of 8.6 years, and baseline glycosylated hemoglobin of 7.39%. Regular human insulin and rapid-acting analog insulin regimens reduced glycosylated hemoglobin by 0.312 and 0.402%, respectively. Compared with human insulin, hypoglycemia rate ratios with rapid-acting analog insulin were 0.51 (non-severe nocturnal) and 0.80 (severe). No differences in non-severe diurnal hypoglycemia were modeled. Discount rates of 3% were applied to future costs and clinical benefits accrued over the 50-year time horizon. In the base-case analysis, rapid-acting analog insulin was associated with an improvement in quality-adjusted life expectancy of 1.01 quality-adjusted life-years per patient (12.54 vs. 11.53 quality-adjusted life-years). Rapid-acting analog insulin was also associated with an increase in direct costs of €4490, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €4427 per quality-adjusted life-year gained vs. human insulin. Sensitivity analyses showed that the base case was driven predominantly by differences in hypoglycemia; abolishing these differences reduced incremental quality-adjusted life expectancy to 0.07 quality-adjusted life-years, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €74,622 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Rapid-acting analog insulin is associated with beneficial outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes and is likely to be considered cost effective in the German setting vs. regular human insulin.

  7. “Basically... porn is everywhere”: a rapid evidence assessment on the effects that access and exposure to pornography has on children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, M.; Alys, L.; Massey, K.; Pina, A.; Scally, M.; Adler, J.

    2013-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) as part of its Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG). It was conducted by a consortium led by Middlesex University, to explore the effects that exposure and access to pornography have on children and young people. The CSEGG Inquiry was launched in October 2011 to better understand the scale, scope, extent and nature of child sexual exploitation in gangs and gro...

  8. Effect of Rapid Solidification and Addition of Cu3P on the Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Rosales,Miguel Ángel; Pinto-Segura,Raúl; Palacios-Beas,Elia Guadalupe; Hernández-Herrera,Alfredo; Chávez-Alcalá,José Federico

    2016-01-01

    The combined processes; rapid solidification, addition of Cu3P compound and heat treatments to improve the mechanical properties of the hypereutectic Al-13Si, Al-20Si and Al-20Si-1.5Fe-0.7Mn alloys (in wt. %) was studied. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the microstructures. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile tests. It was found that the cooling rate (20-50°C/s) used to solidify the alloys plus the addition of Cu3P compound favored...

  9. Effects of cooling rate on particle rearrangement statistics: Rapidly cooled glasses are more ductile and less reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Wang, Minglei; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2017-02-01

    Amorphous solids, such as metallic, polymeric, and colloidal glasses, display complex spatiotemporal response to applied deformations. In contrast to crystalline solids, during loading, amorphous solids exhibit a smooth crossover from elastic response to plastic flow. In this study, we investigate the mechanical response of binary Lennard-Jones glasses to athermal, quasistatic pure shear as a function of the cooling rate used to prepare them. We find several key results concerning the connection between strain-induced particle rearrangements and mechanical response. We show that the energy loss per strain dU_{loss}/dγ caused by particle rearrangements for more rapidly cooled glasses is larger than that for slowly cooled glasses. We also find that the cumulative energy loss U_{loss} can be used to predict the ductility of glasses even in the putative linear regime of stress versus strain. U_{loss} increases (and the ratio of shear to bulk moduli decreases) with increasing cooling rate, indicating enhanced ductility. In addition, we characterized the degree of reversibility of particle motion during a single shear cycle. We find that irreversible particle motion occurs even in the linear regime of stress versus strain. However, slowly cooled glasses, which undergo smaller rearrangements, are more reversible during a single shear cycle than rapidly cooled glasses. Thus, we show that more ductile glasses are also less reversible.

  10. A rapid-mix study on the effect of lipophilicity of nitroimidazoles on the radiosensitization of mammalian cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.E.; Hodgkiss, R.J.; Jones, N.R.; Sehmi, D.S.; Woodcock, M.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid flow rapid-mixing apparatus has been used to study the role of lipophilicity (octanol: water partition coefficient, P) in the sensitization of hypoxic V79 cells by nitroimidazoles. Sensitization by seven neutral 2-nitroimidazoles of similar reduction potential but widely differing partition (0.11-77) and one basic 2-nitroimidazole (pKsub(a) = 8.9; p = 8.5 (of free base)) was studied as a function of pre-irradiated contact time ca. 3-40 ms. With increasing P, sensitization occurs at increasingly shorter pre-irradiated contact times. The results suggest that even though factors other than passive diffusion control the sensitization observed with the base Ro 03-8799 it is able to diffuse to the target site faster than misonidazole. (author)

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Comparative study of efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of potassium hydroxide, calcofluor white, and Chicago sky blue stains in the diagnosis of dermatophytoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Prashanth, Hosakere Veerappa; Ragunatha, Shivanna; Kapoor, Meenakshi; Anitha, T K; Krishnamurthy, Veena

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of superficial mycosis such as dermatophytosis is often done clinically. However, in difficult cases, a rapid test with high sensitivity and specificity helps in the immediate confirmation and administration of treatment. The efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of KOH preparation, calcofluor white (CW) stain, and Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain in the identification of fungal elements were assessed in patients with dermatophytoses attending the dermatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. All three tests were performed on each sample collected from 73 patients according to standard procedure. The slides were examined after 5 and 30 minutes in × 10 and × 40 magnifications. The sensitivity and specificity of CW and CSB at 5 and 30 minutes were calculated using KOH preparation as the standard test. CSB stain showed highest positivity (94.5%) within 5 minutes when compared to KOH (75.3%) and CW (83.5%). After 30 minutes, positivity increased in KOH (84.9%) and CW stains (89%), but it remained the same in CSB stain. Both CW and CSB stains when compared to 10% KOH are equally sensitive (100%), but CW was more specific (72.7%), particularly at 30 minutes. When cost of performing tests on 100 specimens is considered, KOH, CW, and CSB stains cost Rs 5, 100, and 15, respectively. CSB stain is a better stain for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytoses because of ease of performance, rapidity of detection, better appreciation of morphology of fungal elements, and cost effectiveness. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Effect of short-term rapid ventricular pacing followed by pacing interruption on arterial blood pressure in healthy pigs and pigs with tachycardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, P; Zyśko, D; Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Janiszewski, A; Gajek, J; Nicpoń, J; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Zacharski, M; Tomaszek, A; Jankowska, E A; Ponikowski, P; Witkiewicz, W

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia may lead to haemodynamic deterioration and, in the case of long term persistence, is associated with the development of tachycardiomyopathy. The effect of ventricular tachycardia on haemodynamics in individuals with tachycardiomyopathy, but being in sinus rhythm has not been studied. Rapid ventricular pacing is a model of ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapid ventricular pacing on blood pressure in healthy animals and those with tachycardiomyopathy. A total of 66 animals were studied: 32 in the control group and 34 in the study group. The results of two groups of examinations were compared: the first performed in healthy animals (133 examinations) and the second performed in animals paced for at least one month (77 examinations). Blood pressure measurements were taken during chronic pacing--20 min after onset of general anaesthesia, in baseline conditions (20 min after pacing cessation or 20 min after onset of general anaesthesia in healthy animals) and immediately after short-term rapid pacing. In baseline conditions significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in healthy animals than in those with tachycardiomyopathy. During an event of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in both groups of animals. In the group of chronically paced animals the blood pressure was lower just after restarting ventricular pacing than during chronic pacing. Cardiovascular adaptation to ventricular tachycardia develops with the length of its duration. Relapse of ventricular tachycardia leads to a blood pressure decrease more pronounced than during chronic ventricular pacing.

  15. Predictive value and cost-effectiveness analysis of a rapid polymerase chain reaction for preoperative detection of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Shermock, Kenneth M; Gordon, Steven M; Tuohy, Marion J; Wilson, Deborah A; Cwynar, Roberta E; Banbury, Michael K; Longworth, David L; Isada, Carlos M; Mawhorter, Steven D; Procop, Gary W

    2003-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical specimens. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: This occurred in a tertiary-care hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, and included 239 consecutive patients who were scheduled for a cardiothoracic surgical procedure. Conventional cultures and a PCR for S. aureus from nasal swabs were used as measurements. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS: Data sources were market prices and Bureau of Labor Statistics. The time horizon was the maximum period for availability of culture results (3 days). Interventions included universal mupirocin therapy without testing; initial therapy, with termination if PCR negative (treat-PCR); initial therapy, with termination if culture negative (treat-culture); treat PCR-positive carriers (PCR-guided treatment); and treat culture-positive carriers (culture-guided treatment). The perspective was institutional and costs and the length of time to treatment were outcome measures. Sixty-seven (28%) of the 239 swabs grew S. aureus. Rapid PCR was 97.0% sensitive and 97.1% specific for the detection of S. aureus. For populations with prevalences of nasal S. aureus carriage of up to 50%, the PCR assay had negative predictive values of greater than 97%. PCR-guided treatment had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (1.93 dollars per additional day compared with the culture strategy). Among immediate treatment strategies, treat-PCR was most cost-effective. The universal therapy strategy cost 38.19 dollars more per additional day gained with carrier identification compared with the PCR strategy. Rapid real-time PCR is an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method for identifying S. aureus carriers for preoperative intervention.

  16. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women. PMID:22289043

  17. The protective effect of rapid cold-hardening develops more quickly in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2013-10-15

    During the austral summer, larvae of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) experience highly variable and often unpredictable thermal conditions. In addition to remaining freeze tolerant year-round, larvae are capable of swiftly increasing their cold tolerance through the rapid cold-hardening (RCH) response. The present study compared the induction of RCH in frozen versus supercooled larvae. At the same induction temperature, RCH occurred more rapidly and conferred a greater level of cryoprotection in frozen versus supercooled larvae. Furthermore, RCH in frozen larvae could be induced at temperatures as low as -12°C, which is the lowest temperature reported to induce RCH. Remarkably, as little as 15 min at -5°C significantly enhanced larval cold tolerance. Not only is protection from RCH acquired swiftly, but it is also quickly lost after thawing for 2 h at 2°C. Because the primary difference between frozen and supercooled larvae is cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration of body fluids, we also compared the effects of acclimation in dehydrated versus frozen larvae. Because slow dehydration without chilling significantly increased larval survival to a subsequent cold exposure, we hypothesize that cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration promotes the rapid acquisition of cold tolerance in frozen larvae.

  18. Effect of rapid quenching on the magnetism and magnetocaloric effect of equiatomic rare earth intermetallic compounds RNi (R = Gd, Tb and Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajivgandhi, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Arout Chelvane, J. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K. [Departamento de F’ısica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970 (Brazil); Nirmala, R., E-mail: nirmala@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Melt-spinning yields microcrystalline RNi (R = Gd, Tb and Ho) samples with texture. • The texture-induced anisotropy affects magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. • Melt-spinning helps one engineer magnetocaloric effect in rare-earth compounds. - Abstract: Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in RNi (where R = Gd, Tb and Ho) compounds has been studied in their arc-melted and melt-spun forms. The compound GdNi has the orthorhombic CrB-type structure (Space group Cmcm, No. 63) and the compound HoNi has the orthorhombic FeB-type structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62) at room temperature regardless of their synthesis condition. However, arc-melted TbNi orders in a monoclinic structure (Space group P2{sub 1}/m, No. 11) and when it is rapidly quenched to a melt-spun form, it crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Space group Pnma, No. 62). The arc-melted GdNi, TbNi and HoNi compounds order ferromagnetically at ∼69 K, ∼67 K and ∼36 K (T{sub C}) respectively. While the melt-spun GdNi shows about 6 K increase in T{sub C}, the ordering temperature of TbNi remains nearly the same in both arc-melted and melt-spun forms. In contrast, a reduction in T{sub C} by about 8 K is observed in melt-spun HoNi, when compared to its arc-melted counterpart. Isothermal magnetic entropy change, ∆S{sub m}, calculated from the field dependent magnetization data indicates an enhanced relative cooling power (RCP) for melt-spun GdNi for field changes of 20 kOe and 50 kOe. A lowered RCP value is observed in melt-spun TbNi and HoNi. These changes could have resulted from the competing shape anisotropy and the granular microstructure induced by the melt-spinning process. Tailoring the MCE of rare earth intermetallic compounds by suitably controlled synthesis techniques is certainly one of the directions to go forward in the search of giant magnetocaloric materials.

  19. Effects of mora deletion, nonword repetition, rapid naming, and visual search performance on beginning reading in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maya Shiho; Haynes, Charles W; Macaruso, Paul; Hook, Pamela E; Kato, Junko

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which mora deletion (phonological analysis), nonword repetition (phonological memory), rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual search abilities predict reading in Japanese kindergartners and first graders. Analogous abilities have been identified as important predictors of reading skills in alphabetic languages like English. In contrast to English, which is based on grapheme-phoneme relationships, the primary components of Japanese orthography are two syllabaries-hiragana and katakana (collectively termed "kana")-and a system of morphosyllabic symbols (kanji). Three RAN tasks (numbers, objects, syllabary symbols [hiragana]) were used with kindergartners, with an additional kanji RAN task included for first graders. Reading measures included accuracy and speed of passage reading for kindergartners and first graders, and reading comprehension for first graders. In kindergartners, hiragana RAN and number RAN were the only significant predictors of reading accuracy and speed. In first graders, kanji RAN and hiragana RAN predicted reading speed, whereas accuracy was predicted by mora deletion. Reading comprehension was predicted by kanji RAN, mora deletion, and nonword repetition. Although number RAN did not contribute unique variance to any reading measure, it correlated highly with kanji RAN. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tracing back resonances to families of Regge trajectories. New finite energy sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbrojt, Jacques.

    1975-04-01

    An amplitude is supposed to be expressed for large enough energies as a sum of contributions of Regge poles. Calling family of trajectories the set of trajectories which differ by integers from one of them, a correspondance, such that the energy and width of a given resonance depend on only family of trajectories, is established between resonances of the amplitude and families of trajectories. The contribution to the amplitude of each family of trajectories is shown to satisfy the same finite energy sum rules as does the amplitude itself. In these sum rules the resonance approximation can be made where the only resonances that will appear are those which are in correspondence with the family [fr

  2. The dream-lag effect: selective processing of personally significant events during Rapid Eye Movement sleep, but not during Slow Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, E.; Eichenlaub, J.-B.; Lewis, Penelope A.; Walker, M.P.; Gaskell, M.G.; Malinowski, J.E.; Blagrove, M.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the night after, and then 5-7 nights after events (termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects). In experiment 1, 44 participants kept a daily log for 10. days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs), and major concerns (MCs). Dream reports were collected from REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in the laboratory, or from ...

  3. How Big Data, Comparative Effectiveness Research, and Rapid-Learning Health-Care Systems Can Transform Patient Care in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jason C; Showalter, Timothy N

    2018-01-01

    Big data and comparative effectiveness research methodologies can be applied within the framework of a rapid-learning health-care system (RLHCS) to accelerate discovery and to help turn the dream of fully personalized medicine into a reality. We synthesize recent advances in genomics with trends in big data to provide a forward-looking perspective on the potential of new advances to usher in an era of personalized radiation therapy, with emphases on the power of RLHCS to accelerate discovery and the future of individualized radiation treatment planning.

  4. A Rapid Screen for Host-Encoded miRNAs with Inhibitory Effects against Ebola Virus Using a Transcription- and Replication-Competent Virus-Like Particle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs may become efficient antiviral agents against the Ebola virus (EBOV targeting viral genomic RNAs or transcripts. We previously conducted a genome-wide search for differentially expressed miRNAs during viral replication and transcription. In this study, we established a rapid screen for miRNAs with inhibitory effects against EBOV using a tetracistronic transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP system. This system uses a minigenome comprising an EBOV leader region, luciferase reporter, VP40, GP, VP24, EBOV trailer region, and three noncoding regions from the EBOV genome and can be used to model the life cycle of EBOV under biosafety level (BSL 2 conditions. Informatic analysis was performed to select up-regulated miRNAs targeting the coding regions of the minigenome with the highest binding energy to perform inhibitory effect screening. Among these miRNAs, miR-150-3p had the most significant inhibitory effect. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot, and double fluorescence reporter experiments demonstrated that miR-150-3p inhibited the reproduction of trVLPs via the regulation of GP and VP40 expression by directly targeting the coding regions of GP and VP40. This novel, rapid, and convenient screening method will efficiently facilitate the exploration of miRNAs against EBOV under BSL-2 conditions.

  5. Grain refining effect of magnetic field on Mg2Ni0.8Mn0.2 hydrogen storage alloys during rapid quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chenxi; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Xiangrong; Tang, Yougen; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Yazhi; Liu, Zuming

    2013-01-01

    The effect of static magnetic field treatment for synthesis of Mg 2 Ni 0.8 Mn 0.2 alloys during rapid quenching was investigated in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that the transversal static magnetic field can effectively refine the grain size, producing nanocrystalline inside. This distinct phenomenon is probably attributed to the Lorentz force suppressing the crystallization of the hydrogen storage alloys and the thermoelectric effect. Mainly due to the grain refinement, the discharge capacity of Mg 2 Ni 0.8 Mn 0.2 alloy is raised from 79 to about 200 mA h g −1 . It is confirmed that Mg 2 Ni 0.8 Mn 0.2 alloy by magnetic field assisted approach possesses enhanced electrochemical kinetics and relatively high corrosion resistance against the alkaline solution, thus resulting in higher electrochemical properties

  6. Sex differences in the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in stress-naïve and "depressed" mice exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, A; Sens, J; Herchick, S; Thelen, C; Pitychoutis, P M

    2015-04-02

    During the past decade, one of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the clinical finding that a single infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces a rapid (i.e. within a few hours) and long-lasting (i.e. up to two weeks) antidepressant effect in both treatment-resistant depressed patients and in animal models of depression. Notably, converging clinical and preclinical evidence support that responsiveness to antidepressant drugs is sex-differentiated. Strikingly, research regarding the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Herein we report that female C57BL/6J stress-naïve mice are more sensitive to the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test (FST). In particular, female mice responded to lower doses of ketamine (i.e. 3mg/kg at 30 min and 5mg/kg at 24h post-injection), doses that were not effective in their male counterparts. Moreover, tissue levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate, as well as serotonergic activity, were affected in a sex-dependent manner in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, at the same time-points. Most importantly, a single injection of ketamine (10mg/kg) induced sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice subjected to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Intriguingly, female mice were more reactive to the earlier effects of ketamine, as assessed in the open field and the FST (at 30 min and 24h post-treatment, respectively) but the antidepressant potential of the drug proved to be longer lasting in males, as assessed in the splash test and the FST (days 5 and 7 post-treatment, respectively). Taken together, present data revealed that ketamine treatment induces sex-dependent rapid and sustained neurochemical and behavioral antidepressant-like effects in stress-naïve and CMS-exposed C57BL/6J mice. Copyright © 2015 IBRO

  7. Rapid assessment of Schistosoma mansoni: the validity, applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Myatt, Mark; Russell Stothard, J; Fenwick, Alan

    2005-07-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis is key for sustainable control. Although school questionnaires can effectively and inexpensively identify communities with a high prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, parasitological screening remains the preferred option for S. mansoni. To help reduce screening costs, we investigated the validity of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) in classifying schools according to categories of S. mansoni prevalence in Uganda, and explored its applicability and cost-effectiveness. First, we evaluated several sampling plans using computer simulation and then field tested one sampling plan in 34 schools in Uganda. Finally, cost-effectiveness of different screening and control strategies (including mass treatment without prior screening) was determined, and sensitivity analysis undertaken to assess the effect of infection levels and treatment costs. In identifying schools with prevalences > or =50%, computer simulations showed that LQAS had high levels of sensitivity and specificity (>90%) at sample sizes LQAS where 15 children were sampled had excellent diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 96.4%, positive predictive value: 85.7% and negative predictive value: 92.3%). Screening using LQAS was more cost-effective than mass treating all schools (US$218 vs. US$482/high prevalence school treated). Threshold analysis indicated that parasitological screening and mass treatment would become equivalent for settings where prevalence > or =50% in 75% of schools and for treatment costs of US$0.19 per schoolchild. We conclude that, in Uganda, LQAS provides a rapid, valid and cost-effective method for guiding decision makers in allocating finite resources for the control of schistosomiasis.

  8. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Feizi, Alborz

    2016-09-24

    Monitoring yeast cell viability and concentration is important in brewing, baking and biofuel production. However, existing methods of measuring viability and concentration are relatively bulky, tedious and expensive. Here we demonstrate a compact and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm2. This lens-free microscope weighs 70 g and utilizes a partially-coherent illumination source and an opto-electronic image sensor chip. A touch-screen user interface based on a tablet-PC is developed to reconstruct the holographic shadows captured by the image sensor chip and use a support vector machine (SVM) model to automatically classify live and dead cells in a yeast sample stained with methylene blue. In order to quantify its accuracy, we varied the viability and concentration of the cells and compared AYAP\\'s performance with a fluorescence exclusion staining based gold-standard using regression analysis. The results agree very well with this gold-standard method and no significant difference was observed between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells per mL, providing a dynamic range suitable for various applications. This lensfree computational imaging technology that is coupled with machine learning algorithms would be useful for cost-effective and rapid quantification of cell viability and density even in field and resource-poor settings.

  9. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring yeast cell viability and concentration is important in brewing, baking and biofuel production. However, existing methods of measuring viability and concentration are relatively bulky, tedious and expensive. Here we demonstrate a compact and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm 2 . This lens-free microscope weighs 70 g and utilizes a partially-coherent illumination source and an opto-electronic image sensor chip. A touch-screen user interface based on a tablet-PC is developed to reconstruct the holographic shadows captured by the image sensor chip and use a support vector machine (SVM) model to automatically classify live and dead cells in a yeast sample stained with methylene blue. In order to quantify its accuracy, we varied the viability and concentration of the cells and compared AYAP's performance with a fluorescence exclusion staining based gold-standard using regression analysis. The results agree very well with this gold-standard method and no significant difference was observed between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 10 5 to 1.4 × 10 6 cells per mL, providing a dynamic range suitable for various applications. This lensfree computational imaging technology that is coupled with machine learning algorithms would be useful for cost-effective and rapid quantification of cell viability and density even in field and resource-poor settings.

  10. Effect of Bi-content on hardness and micro-creep behavior of Sn-3.5Ag rapidly solidified alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, M. [Metal Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Egypt); Gouda, El Said [Metal Physics Laboratory, Department of Solid State Physics, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Marei, L.K. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2009-12-15

    In the present paper, the influence of 1, 3, 5 and 10 % Bi (weight %) as ternary additions on structure, melting and mechanical properties of rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag alloy has been investigated. The effect of Bi was discussed based on the experimental results. The experimental results showed that the alloys of Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.5Ag-1Bi and Sn-3.5Ag-3Bi are composed of two phases; Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC embedded in Sn matrix phase, which indicated that the solubility of Bi phase in Sn-matrix was extended to 3 % as a result of rapid solidification. Bi precipitation in Sn matrix was only observed in Sn-3.5Ag-5Bi and Sn-3.5Ag-10Bi alloys. Also, addition of Bi decreased continuously the melting point of the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag alloy to 202.6 C at 10 % Bi. Vickers hardness of Sn-3.5Ag rapidly solidified alloy increased with increasing Bi content up to 3 % due to supersaturated solid solution strengthening hardening mechanism of Bi phase in Sn matrix, while the alloys contain 5 and 10 % Bi exhibited lower values of Vickers hardness. The lower values can be attributed to the precipitation of Bi as a secondary phase which may form strained regions due to the embrittlement of Bi atom. In addition, the effect of Bi addition on the micro-creep behavior of Sn-3.5Ag alloy as well as the creep rate have been described and has been calculated at room temperature. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. COHORT EFFECTS OF SUICIDE MORTALITY ARE SEX SPECIFIC IN THE RAPIDLY DEVELOPED HONG KONG CHINESE POPULATION, 1976-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Yip, Benjamin H K; Chan, Sandra S M; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2016-06-01

    To examine temporal variations of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality rate in Hong Kong (HK) from 1976 to 2010, and speculate the macroenvironmental mechanisms of the observed trends. Poisson age-period-cohort modeling was used to delineate the effects of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality. Analysis by sex was also conducted to examine if gender difference exists for suicidal behaviours. Age-cohort model provides the best fit to the mortality data, implying that the cohort effect is likely to explain more of the contributions to HK's suicide mortality pattern than the period effect. Risk of suicide mortality increases nonlinearly with age and accelerates after age 65-69 for both sexes. Moreover, the cohort effects differ between the sexes-risk of mortality increases continually for men born after 1961, but no change is observed for women since the 1941 cohort. With increased risk of suicide mortality in younger cohorts and the age effect of suicide mortality, we may see future increase in suicide mortality as these younger cohorts age. Further studies are needed to clarify plausible associations between broader sociohistorical changes in the population impacting psychological risk factors and suicidal behaviour to better inform suicide prevention strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Thin layer agar represents a cost-effective alternative for the rapid diagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sarmiento, José M; Martínez-Negrete, Milton A; Castrillón-Velilla, Diana M; Mejía-Espinosa, Sergio A; Mejía-Mesa, Gloria I; Zapata-Fernández, Elsa M; Rojas-Jiménez, Sara; Marín-Castro, Andrés E; Robledo-Restrepo, Jaime A

    2014-01-01

    Using cost-benefit analysis for comparing the thin-layer agar culture method to the standard multiple proportion method used in diagnosing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). A cost-benefit evaluation of two diagnostic tests was made at the Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB) in Medellín, Colombia. 100 patients were evaluated; 10.8% rifampicin resistance and 14.3% isoniazid resistance were found. A computer-based decision tree model was used for cost-effectiveness analysis (Treeage Pro); the thin-layer agar culture method was most cost-effective, having 100% sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance. The multiple proportion method value was calculated as being US$ 71 having an average 49 day report time compared to US$ 18 and 14 days for the thin-layer agar culture method. New technologies have been developed for diagnosing tuberculosis which are apparently faster and more effective; their operating characteristics must be evaluated as must their effectiveness in terms of cost-benefit. The present study established that using thin-layer agar culture was cheaper, equally effective and could provide results more quickly than the traditional method. This implies that a patient could receive MDR TB treatment more quickly.

  13. Quantitative effects of rapid heating on soot-particle sizing through analysis of two-pulse LII

    KAUST Repository

    Cenker, Emre; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    particle size, respectively. Overall, effects of these two processes on soot and LII model-based particle sizing are investigated by measuring the two-color time-resolved (2C-TiRe) LII signal decay from in-flame soot after two consecutive laser pulses

  14. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne Dorthe; Krause, Tyra Grove; Nielsen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 wa...

  15. Effects of rapid versus slow infusion of sodium bicarbonate on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in preterm infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is often used for correction of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. The effects of NaHCO3 administration on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation are not well known. Furthermore, there is no consensus on infusion rate of NaHCO3. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and syndromic approach in the diagnosis of malaria in Nigeria: implications for scaling-up deployment of ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of malaria is often based on syndromic presentation (presumptive treatment and microscopic examination of blood films. Treatment based on syndromic approach has been found to be costly, and contributes to the development of drug resistance, while microscopic diagnosis of malaria is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Also, there is lack of trained microscopists and reliable equipment especially in rural areas of Nigeria. However, although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have improved the ease of appropriate diagnosis of malaria diagnosis, the cost-effectiveness of RDTs in case management of malaria has not been evaluated in Nigeria. The study hence compares the cost-effectiveness of RDT versus syndromic diagnosis and microscopy. Methods A total of 638 patients with fever, clinically diagnosed as malaria (presumptive malaria by health workers, were selected for examination with both RDT and microscopy. Patients positive on RDT received artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and febrile patients negative on RDT received an antibiotic treatment. Using a decision tree model for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 patients, the diagnostic alternatives considered were presumptive treatment (base strategy, RDT and microscopy. Costs were based on a consumer and provider perspective while the outcome measure was deaths averted. Information on costs and malaria epidemiology were locally generated, and along with available data on effectiveness of diagnostic tests, adherence level to drugs for treatment, and drug efficacy levels, cost-effectiveness estimates were computed using TreeAge programme. Results were reported based on costs and effects per strategy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The cost-effectiveness analysis at 43.1% prevalence level showed an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 221 per deaths averted between RDT and presumptive treatment, while microscopy is dominated

  17. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  18. The transgenerational effects of heat stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei are negative and rapidly eliminated under direct selection for increased stress resistance in larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkink, Kristin L; Ituarte, Catherine M; Reynolds, Rose M; Cresko, William A; Phillips, Patrick C

    2014-12-01

    Parents encountering stress environments can influence the phenotype of their offspring in a form of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity that has the potential to be adaptive if offspring are thereby better able to deal with future stressors. Here, we test for the existence of anticipatory parental effects in the heat stress response in the highly polymorphic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Rather providing an anticipatory response, parents subject to a prior heat stress actually produce offspring that are less able to survive a severe heat shock. Selection on heat shock resistance within the larvae via experimental evolution leads to a loss of sensitivity (robustness) to environmental variation during both the parental and larval periods. Whole genome transcriptional analysis of both ancestor and selected lines shows that there is weak correspondence between genetic pathways induced via temperature shifts during parental and larval periods. Parental effects can evolve very rapidly via selection acting directly on offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kozos Karolina; Ochmian Ireneusz; Chełpiński Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours) and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage) on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight l...

  20. The Effect of Masculinity/Femininity and Pupil Size on Rapid, Unconscious Appraisals of Male Facial Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Olsen and Marshuetz (2005) claim that attractiveness is such an important attribute that it can be appraised within 13ms, at an unconscious level. The current study aimed to replicate Olsen and Marshuetz's (2005) findings whilst introducing two previously reported cues of attractiveness as variables; facial masculinity/femininity and pupil size. If Olsen and Marshuetz's (2005) claims were correct, what effect would a variation in the masculinity/femininity or pupil size of a ...

  1. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arokiyaraj S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,1 Mariadhas Valan Arasu,2 Savariar Vincent,3 Nyayirukannaian Udaya Prakash,4 Seong Ho Choi,5 Young-Kyoon Oh,1 Ki Choon Choi,2 Kyoung Hoon Kim1,61Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea; 3Center for Environmental Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai, India; 4Research and Development, Vel Tech Dr RR and Dr SR Technical University, Chennai, India; 5Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Animal Science, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm. The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo

  2. A rapid culture system uninfluenced by an inoculum effect increases reliability and convenience for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Sangyeop; Kim, Suyeoun; Jo, EunJi; Kim, Eun-Geun; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Ryoo, Sungweon; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The Disc Agarose Channel (DAC) system utilizes microfluidics and imaging technologies and is fully automated and capable of tracking single cell growth to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug susceptibility testing (DST) results within 3~7 days. In particular, this system can be easily used to perform DSTs without the fastidious preparation of the inoculum of MTB cells. Inoculum effect is one of the major problems that causes DST errors. The DAC system was not influenced by the inoculum effect and produced reliable DST results. In this system, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the first-line drugs were consistent regardless of inoculum sizes ranging from ~10 3 to ~10 8 CFU/mL. The consistent MIC results enabled us to determine the critical concentrations for 12 anti-tuberculosis drugs. Based on the determined critical concentrations, further DSTs were performed with 254 MTB clinical isolates without measuring an inoculum size. There were high agreement rates (96.3%) between the DAC system and the absolute concentration method using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. According to these results, the DAC system is the first DST system that is not affected by the inoculum effect. It can thus increase reliability and convenience for DST of MTB. We expect that this system will be a potential substitute for conventional DST systems.

  3. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P gas exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P water deficit (ΨLwater availability, i.e. due to higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P water deficit in trees grown under increased air humidity. The experiment supported the hypothesis that physiological traits in trees acclimated to higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic dysfunction on the plants, grown under high atmospheric humidity, in case of sudden weather fluctuations, and might represent a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. There is no trade-off between plant hydraulic capacity and photosynthetic water-use efficiency on short time scale.

  4. The effect of rapid detoxification method with Naltrexone on drug abuse quitting in drug abusers referred to Khorramabad Psychiatric hospital during the first half of the year 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hedayat Nazari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 8 percent of Iranian adult population are illicit drug abusers. Affected persons grow more each day. Ominous consequences such as divorce, prostitution, murder and other crimes and infectious diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis take place following drug abuse, as well as a loss equall to 29% of national income for our country. Traditional treatment methods wasted too much time and cost. professional inpatient clinics are not adequate for admission of all care seekers. Rapid detoxification methods are supposed to be better alternatives. Materials and Methods: 140 male drug abusers in two matched groups were assessed from March to September, 2005. They used heroin or opium. Both groups were scheduled for detoxification and were closely observed for 3 months thereafter. First group received Clonidine, Benzodiazepine and Naltrexone besides symptom relieving modalities in first 4 days of treatment. Naltrexone was continued in maintenance dose for one month. Second group received Methadone for one month. Results: Clients age was between 18 to 73 years, with mean age 34 years old. Their intelligence quotients were above the lower limit of normal range. There was no significant difference according to these parameters between two groups. Success rate in rapid detoxification group was 55 % and in Methadone group was 50 %. Relapse in rapid detoxification method occurred less frequent and slower (45 % vs. 50%. In Naltrexone group, better success rate was due to less duration of drug abuse and heroin dependency. In Methadone group, therapy had better results in patients with longer drug abuse history and opium addiction. There was no significant difference between success rate and either drug kind or job, marital status or education level. The most serious adverse effect in both groups was hypotension (10% in Naltrexone and 5 % in Methadone groups.

  5. Human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cells for rapid in vitro determination of effects on steroidogenesis: Hormone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Markus; Newsted, John L.; Murphy, Margaret B.; Higley, Eric B.; Jones, Paul D.; Wu, Rudolf; Giesy, John P.

    2006-01-01

    To identify and prioritize chemicals that may alter steroidogenesis, an in vitro screening assay based on measuring alterations in hormone production was developed using the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Previous studies indicated that this cell line was useful to screen for effects on gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes. This study extended that work to measure the integrated response on production of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and progesterone/pregnenolone (P) using an ELISA. Under optimized culture and experimental conditions, the basal release of P, T and E2 into the medium was 7.0 ± 1.2 ng/ml, 1.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml, and 0.51 ± 0.13 ng/ml, respectively. Model chemicals with different modes of action on steroidogenic systems were tested. Exposure to forskolin resulted in dose-dependent increases in all three hormones with the greatest relative increase being observed for E2. This differed from cells exposed to prochloraz or ketoconazole where P concentrations increased while T and E2 concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In cells exposed to fadrozole, E2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner while T and P only decreased at the greatest dose tested. Aminoglutethimide decreased P and E2 concentrations but increased T concentrations. Vinclozolin reduced both P and T but resulted in a slight increase in E2. The alteration in the patterns of hormone production in the H295R assay was consistent with the modes of action of the chemicals and was also consistent with observed effects of these chemicals in animal models. Based on these results, the H295R in vitro system has potential for high throughput screening to not only characterize the effects of chemicals on endocrine systems but also to prioritize chemicals for additional testing

  6. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors potentiate the rapid antidepressant-like effects of serotonin4 receptor agonists in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lucas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that serotonin(4 (5-HT(4 receptor agonists have a promising potential as fast-acting antidepressants. Here, we assess the extent to which this property may be optimized by the concomitant use of conventional antidepressants.We found that, in acute conditions, the 5-HT(4 agonist prucalopride was able to counteract the inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI fluvoxamine and citalopram on 5-HT neuron impulse flow, in Dorsal Raphé Nucleus (DRN cells selected for their high (>1.8 Hz basal discharge. The co-administration of both prucalopride and RS 67333 with citalopram for 3 days elicited an enhancement of DRN 5-HT neuron average firing rate, very similar to what was observed with either 5-HT(4 agonist alone. At the postsynaptic level, this translated into the manifestation of a tonus on hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT(1A receptors, that was two to three times stronger when the 5-HT(4 agonist was combined with citalopram. Similarly, co-administration of citalopram synergistically potentiated the enhancing effect of RS 67333 on CREB protein phosphorylation within the hippocampus. Finally, in the Forced Swimming Test, the combination of RS 67333 with various SSRIs (fluvoxamine, citalopram and fluoxetine was more effective to reduce time of immobility than the separate administration of each compound.These findings strongly suggest that the adjunction of an SSRI to a 5-HT(4 agonist may help to optimize the fast-acting antidepressant efficacy of the latter.

  7. A rapid and effective method for screening, sequencing and reporter verification of engineered frameshift mutations in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Prykhozhij

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas-based adaptive immunity against pathogens in bacteria has been adapted for genome editing and applied in zebrafish (Danio rerio to generate frameshift mutations in protein-coding genes. Although there are methods to detect, quantify and sequence CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations, identifying mutations in F1 heterozygous fish remains challenging. Additionally, sequencing a mutation and assuming that it causes a frameshift does not prove causality because of possible alternative translation start sites and potential effects of mutations on splicing. This problem is compounded by the relatively few antibodies available for zebrafish proteins, limiting validation at the protein level. To address these issues, we developed a detailed protocol to screen F1 mutation carriers, and clone and sequence identified mutations. In order to verify that mutations actually cause frameshifts, we created a fluorescent reporter system that can detect frameshift efficiency based on the cloning of wild-type and mutant cDNA fragments and their expression levels. As proof of principle, we applied this strategy to three CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations in pycr1a, chd7 and hace1 genes. An insertion of seven nucleotides in pycr1a resulted in the first reported observation of exon skipping by CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations in zebrafish. However, of these three mutant genes, the fluorescent reporter revealed effective frameshifting exclusively in the case of a two-nucleotide deletion in chd7, suggesting activity of alternative translation sites in the other two mutants even though pycr1a exon-skipping deletion is likely to be deleterious. This article provides a protocol for characterizing frameshift mutations in zebrafish, and highlights the importance of checking mutations at the mRNA level and verifying their effects on translation by fluorescent reporters when antibody detection of protein loss is not possible.

  8. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozos Karolina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight loss.

  9. Simple, rapid and cost-effective method for high quality nucleic acids extraction from different strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyuk Kim

    Full Text Available This study deals with an effective nucleic acids extraction method from various strains of Botryococcus braunii which possesses an extensive extracellular matrix. A method combining freeze/thaw and bead-beating with heterogeneous diameter of silica/zirconia beads was optimized to isolate DNA and RNA from microalgae, especially from B. braunii. Eukaryotic Microalgal Nucleic Acids Extraction (EMNE method developed in this study showed at least 300 times higher DNA yield in all strains of B. braunii with high integrity and 50 times reduced working volume compared to commercially available DNA extraction kits. High quality RNA was also extracted using this method and more than two times the yield compared to existing methods. Real-time experiments confirmed the quality and quantity of the input DNA and RNA extracted using EMNE method. The method was also applied to other eukaryotic microalgae, such as diatoms, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. resulting in higher efficiencies. Cost-effectiveness analysis of DNA extraction by various methods revealed that EMNE method was superior to commercial kits and other reported methods by >15%. This method would immensely contribute to area of microalgal genomics.

  10. The Psychological Effects of Rapid Aeromedical Evacuation in a Predator Exposure Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Brad; Harre, Joseph; Shaak, Thomas; Francis, Joseph; McLaughlin, Leslie D

    2016-11-01

    Recent conflicts have contributed to an escalation in combat-related psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although technological advances have increased the speed from which battlefield injuries reach definitive care, mental health conditions have continued to rise. This study sought to analyze the effects of flight stressors and the lack of a postcombat decompression period on stress-related behavior. We hypothesized that a 1-week decompression period before flight would attenuate stress-related behavior compared to no decompression. PTSD-like effects were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were placed in cages with a cat on two occasions during the 31-day stress regimen. PTSD rats were also subjected to daily cage cohort changes. At the conclusion of the stress regimen, the animals were flown on a military aircraft (WC-130J) for 4 hours. They were subsequently tested via elevated plus-maze and fear conditioning system. The PTSD animals that experienced a decompression period demonstrated decreased anxiety as compared to the no decompression group. In contrast, no difference was noted between the non-PTSD decompression and no decompression flight and no flight groups. The decrease in anxiety between the PTSD flight groups suggests that a decompression period before evacuation may minimize the potential for PTSD development. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Rapid MCNP simulation of DNA double strand break (DSB) relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for photons, neutrons, and light ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert D; Streitmatter, Seth W; Argento, David C; Kirkby, Charles; Goorley, John T; Moffitt, Greg; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Sandison, George A

    2015-11-07

    To account for particle interactions in the extracellular (physical) environment, information from the cell-level Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) for DNA double strand break (DSB) induction has been integrated into the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) radiation transport code system. The effort to integrate these models is motivated by the need for a computationally efficient model to accurately predict particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in cell cultures and in vivo. To illustrate the approach and highlight the impact of the larger scale physical environment (e.g. establishing charged particle equilibrium), we examined the RBE for DSB induction (RBEDSB) of x-rays, (137)Cs γ-rays, neutrons and light ions relative to γ-rays from (60)Co in monolayer cell cultures at various depths in water. Under normoxic conditions, we found that (137)Cs γ-rays are about 1.7% more effective at creating DSB than γ-rays from (60)Co (RBEDSB  =  1.017) whereas 60-250 kV x-rays are 1.1 to 1.25 times more efficient at creating DSB than (60)Co. Under anoxic conditions, kV x-rays may have an RBEDSB up to 1.51 times as large as (60)Co γ-rays. Fission neutrons passing through monolayer cell cultures have an RBEDSB that ranges from 2.6 to 3.0 in normoxic cells, but may be as large as 9.93 for anoxic cells. For proton pencil beams, Monte Carlo simulations suggest an RBEDSB of about 1.2 at the tip of the Bragg peak and up to 1.6 a few mm beyond the Bragg peak. Bragg peak RBEDSB increases with decreasing oxygen concentration, which may create opportunities to apply proton dose painting to help address tumor hypoxia. Modeling of the particle RBE for DSB induction across multiple physical and biological scales has the potential to aid in the interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide useful information to advance the safety and effectiveness of hadron therapy in the treatment of cancer.

  12. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  13. Phase formation kinetics, hardness and magnetocaloric effect of sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during isothermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuting; Xu, Zhishuai; Luo, Zhiping; Han, Ke; Zhai, Qijie; Zheng, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    High-temperature phase transition behavior and intrinsic brittleness of NaZn13-type τ1 phase in La-Fe-Si magnetocaloric materials are two key problems from the viewpoint of materials production and practical applications. In the present work, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation was introduced to quantitatively characterize the formation kinetics of τ1 phase in sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plates during the isothermal annealing process. Avrami index was estimated to be 0.43 (∼0.5), which suggests that the formation of τ1 phase is in a diffusion-controlled one-dimensional growth mode. Meanwhile, it is found that the Vickers hardness as a function of annealing time for sub-rapidly solidified plates also agrees well with the JMAK equation. The Vickers hardness of τ1 phase was estimated to be about 754. Under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy change was about 22.31 J/(kg·K) for plates annealed at 1323 K for 48 h, and the effective magnetic refrigeration capacity reached 191 J/kg.

  14. Rapid Determination of Ractopamine Residues in Edible Animal Products by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: Development and Investigation of Matrix Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver, we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an IC50 of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2 μg/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC (R2>0.95, which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.

  15. Measurement of Rapid Amiloride-Dependent pH Changes at the Cell Surface Using a Proton-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Daniel; Fine, Michael; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Miyahara, Yuji

    2016-03-30

    We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was capable of recording rapid changes in pH at the cells' surface induced by intervals of ammonia loading and unloading, even when using highly buffered solutions. Furthermore, the system was able to isolate physiologically relevant signals by not only detecting the transients caused by ammonia loading and unloading, but display steady-state signals as would be expected by a proton transport-mediated influence on the extracellular proton-gradient. Proof of concept was demonstrated through the use of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a small molecule inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE). As the primary transporter responsible for proton balance during cellular regulation of pH, non-electrogenic NHE transport is notoriously difficult to detect with traditional methods. Using the NHE positive cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and NHE3-reconstituted mouse skin fibroblasts (MSF), the sensor exhibited a significant response to EIPA inhibition, whereas NHE-deficient MSF cells were unaffected by application of the inhibitor.

  16. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV–vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350–550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition.

  17. Rapid determination of ractopamine residues in edible animal products by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: development and investigation of matrix effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengxia; Fang, Li; Wang, Shuo; Fang, Guozhen

    2009-01-01

    To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver), we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an IC(50) of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2 mug/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride) ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC (R(2) > 0.95), which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.

  18. Effect of immunomodulators and cytostatics in 125I-deoxyuridine and tumor catabolism (a rapid method of antitumour immunomodulators screening)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernikhin, S.S.; Fuks, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    E1-4 and P-815 murine tumor cells labelled by 125 I-deoxyuridine or 51 Cr were administered in 7-day subcutaneous syngeneic tumors or subcutaneosly. At the same time different groups of mice were treated by immunomodulators and cytostatics. It was shown that cytostatics and immunomodulators significantly delayed catabolism and withdrawing of 125 I-deoxyuridine (that has not been incorporated in DNA) from tumor cells. This delay was correlated with the inhibition of tumor nodes growth rate. It is concluded that influence of cytostatics and immunomodulators on catabolism and withdrawing rate of 125 I-deoxyuridine from tumor cells relates to their cytostatic effect and may be used at the earliest screening step of immunomodulator analysis

  19. Effect of rapid solidification on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-pressed Al-20Si-5Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, M.; Vahidi, M.; Simchi, A.; Davami, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of cooling rate and subsequent hot consolidation on the microstructural features and mechanical strength of Al-20Si-5Fe-2X (X = Cu, Ni and Cr) alloys. Powder and ribbons were produced by gas atomization and melt spinning processes at two different cooling rates of 1 x 10 5 K/s and 5 x 10 7 K/s. The microstructure of the products was examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The particles were consolidated by hot pressing at 400 deg. C/250 MPa/1 h under a high purity argon atmosphere and the microstructure, hardness and compressive strength of the compacts were evaluated. Results showed a profound effect of the cooling rate, consolidation stage, and transition metals on the microstructure and mechanical strength of Al-20Si-5Fe alloys. While microstructural refining was obtained at both cooling rates, the microstructure of the atomized powder exhibited the formation of fine primary silicon (∼ 1 μm), eutectic Al-Si phase with eutectic spacing of ∼ 300 nm, and δ-iron intermetallic. Supersaturated Al matrix containing 5-7 at.% silicon and nanometric Si precipitates (20-40 nm) were determined in the microstructure of the melt-spun ribbons. The hot consolidation resulted in coarsening of Si particles in the atomized particles, and precipitation of Si and Fe-containing intermetallics from the supersaturated Al matrix in the ribbons. The consolidated ribbons exhibited higher mechanical strength compared to the atomized powders, particularly at elevated temperatures. The positive influence of the transition metals on the thermal stability of the Al-20Si-5Fe alloy was noticed, particularly in the Ni-containing alloy.

  20. Effect of Nb and Cr incorporation on the structural and magnetic properties of rapidly quenched FeCoSiB microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Partha; Roy, R.K.; Mitra, A. [NDE and Magnetic Materials Group, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Panda, A.K., E-mail: akpanda@nmlindia.org [NDE and Magnetic Materials Group, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Churyukanova, Margarita; Kaloshkin, Sergey [National University of Science and Technology, MISIS, Leninsky Prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    Rapidly quenched microwires with a nominal composition of Fe{sub 39}Co{sub 39}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} (A{sub O}), Fe{sub 37}Co{sub 37}Nb{sub 4}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} (A{sub N}) and Fe{sub 36}Co{sub 36}Nb{sub 4}Cr{sub 2}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} (A{sub NC}) have been investigated. Devitrification of as-quenched microwires showed that crystallization temperatures increased with simultaneous incorporation of Nb and Cr as in A{sub NC} alloy. Addition of these elements also contributed to an increase in activation energy in A{sub N} and A{sub NC} alloys. Nb addition reduced the particle size, which became much finer in the case of the Cr-containing alloy. Although Nb addition did not have much effect on lowering the Curie temperature T{sub C} of the amorphous phase, Cr substitution lowered T{sub C} to 698 K from high values of 785 K and 787 K observed in the no. A{sub O} and A{sub NC} alloys, respectively. However, the Cr addition revealed a better Giant magneto-impedance (GMI) response compared to the other alloys. Such improved GMI properties in the Cr-containing alloy are attributed to lower values of the coercivity and magnetostriction in the alloy containing both Nb and Cr. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FeCoSiB based rapidly quenched microwires prepared by in-rotating-water quenching system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Nb and Cr on the thermal and GMI behavior of FeCoSiB microwires has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Nb and Cr on magnetic properties has also been investigated.

  1. A rapid three-dimensional vortex micromixer utilizing self-rotation effects under low Reynolds number conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Che Hsin, Lin; Lung Ming, Fu; 10.1088/0960-1317/15/5/006

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) vortex micromixer for micro-total-analysis-systems ( mu TAS) applications which utilizes self-rotation effects to mix fluids in a circular chamber at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The microfluidic mixer is fabricated in a three-layer glass structure for delivering fluid samples in parallel. The fluids are driven into the circular mixing chamber by means of hydrodynamic pumps from two fluid inlet ports. The two inlet channels divide into eight individual channels tangent to a 3D circular chamber for the purpose of mixing. Numerical simulation of the microfluidic dynamics is employed to predict the self-rotation phenomenon and to estimate the mixing performance under various Reynolds number conditions. Experimental flow visualization by mixing dye samples is performed in order to verify the numerical simulation results. A good agreement is found to exist between the two sets of results. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 9...

  2. Effect of Ce on Casting Structure of Near-rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Gao-ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through using XRD,DSC,SEM,EDS and other modern analysis methods, the effects of rare earth element Ce on microstructure and solidification temperature of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu under different cooling rates were studied, the principle of Ce on grain refining and melt cleaning of alloys was analyzed and discussed. The results show that MgZn2 phase and α-Al matrix are the main precipitations, Al,Cu,Mg and other elements dissolve in MgZn2 phase, a new phase Mg(Zn, Cu, Al2 is formed, solute elements in the grain boundary have higher concentration, eutectic reaction takes place between MgZn2 and α-Al, lamellar eutectic structure is generated. The addition of Ce decreases the dendritic arm spacing,reduces the layer spacing between eutectic phases and refines the eutectic structure and the grain significantly, and inhibits the appearance of the impurity phase Al7Cu2Fe in aluminum alloys. The addition of Ce also reduces the precipitation temperature of α-Al matrix and eutectic phase by 6.4℃ and 5.6℃ respectively.

  3. Temperature Effect Study on Growth and Survival of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Jinjiang Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis with Rapid Count Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus in oysters during postharvest storage increases the possibility of its infection in humans. In this work, to investigate the growth or survival profiles in different media, pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in APW, Jinjiang oyster (JO, Crassostrea rivularis slurry, and live JO were studied under different temperatures. All the strain populations were counted through our double-layer agar plate (DLAP method. In APW, the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus showed continuous growth under 15, 25, and 35°C, while a decline in behavior was displayed under 5°C. The similar survival trend of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in JO slurry and live JO was observed under 5, 25, and 35°C, except the delayed growth or decline profile compared to APW. Under 15°C, they displayed decline and growth profile in JO slurry and live JO, respectively. These results indicate the different sensitivity of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in these matrices to temperature variation. Furthermore, nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus displayed little difference in survival profiles when inoculated in live JO under corresponding temperatures. The results indicate that inhibition or promotion effect could be regulated under different storage temperature for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Besides, the DLAP method showed the obvious quickness and efficiency during the bacteria count.

  4. Effect of titanium on structure and martensitic transformation in rapidly solidified Cu-Al-Ni-Mn-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutkiewicz, J.; Czeppe, T.; Morgiel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Alloys of composition Cu-(11.8-13.5)%Al-(3.2-4)%Ni-(2-3)%Mn and 0-1%Ti (wt.%) were cast using the melt spinning method in He atmosphere. Ribbons obtained in this process showed grains from 0.5 to 30 μm depending on the type of alloy and wheel speed. Bulk alloys and most of the ribbons contained mixed 18R and 2H type martensite at room temperature (RT). Some ribbons, crystallizing at the highest cooling rate, retained also β phase due to a drop of M s below RT. The M s temperatures in ribbons were strongly lowered with increasing wheel speed controlling the solidification rate. This drop of M s shows a linear relationship with d -1/2 , where d is grain size. The strongest decrease of M s and smallest grains were found in the ribbons containing titanium due to its grain refinement effect. The cubic Ti rich precipitates, present in both Cu-Al-Ni-Ti and Cu-Al-Ni-Mn-Ti bulk, were dispersed in ribbons cast with intermediate cooling rates of up to 26 m s -1 , but suppressed for higher cooling rates. The transformation hysteresis loop was much broader in ribbons due to presence of coherent Ti rich precipitates and differences in grain size which is particularly important in the ultra small grain size range. (orig.)

  5. Rapid Onset of the Effects of Combined Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Electroacupuncture on Primary Depression: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Qu, Shan-shan; Zhang, Ji-ping; Sun, Ya-ling; Liu, Wei-lu; Xie, Ling; Huang, Yong; Chen, Jun-qi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and electroacupuncture therapies for the early treatment of primary depression. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed to compare therapy combining SSRIs and electroacupuncture to SSRI therapy alone. The RCTs were identified by searching, among others, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, WANFANG DATA, and the Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database. Scores from Self-Rated Depression Scale (SDS), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Side Effect Rating Scale (SERS), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were analyzed and coded by two independent investigators and used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Six RCTs were analyzed. The meta-analysis revealed that the combined therapy of SSRIs and electroacupuncture were associated with superior scores on the HAMD, SDS, and SERS measures compared with SSRIs alone after 1-4 weeks of treatment: HAMD scores, mean difference (MD)(1 week), 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI](1 week), 1.47-3.16, p(1 week)electroacupuncture therapies is more efficient than treatments with SSRIs alone and leads to a better and earlier control of depressive symptoms.

  6. Menthol-induced bleaching rapidly and effectively provides experimental aposymbiotic sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) for symbiosis investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jennifer L; Sproles, Ashley E; Oakley, Clinton A; Grossman, Arthur R; Weis, Virginia M; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Experimental manipulation of the symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is crucial to advancing the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in host-symbiont interactions, and overall coral reef ecology. The anemone Aiptasia sp. is a model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, and notably it can be rendered aposymbiotic (i.e. dinoflagellate-free) and re-infected with a range of Symbiodinium types. Various methods exist for generating aposymbiotic hosts; however, they can be hugely time consuming and not wholly effective. Here, we optimise a method using menthol for production of aposymbiotic Aiptasia. The menthol treatment produced aposymbiotic hosts within just 4 weeks (97-100% symbiont loss), and the condition was maintained long after treatment when anemones were held under a standard light:dark cycle. The ability of Aiptasia to form a stable symbiosis appeared to be unaffected by menthol exposure, as demonstrated by successful re-establishment of the symbiosis when anemones were experimentally re-infected. Furthermore, there was no significant impact on photosynthetic or respiratory performance of re-infected anemones. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Effect of Hf underlayer on structure and magnetic properties of rapid thermal annealed FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.Y.; Yuan, F.T.; Chang, H.W.; Lin, M.C.; Su, C.C.; Chang, S.T.; Wang, C.R.; Mei, J.K.; Hsiao, S.N.; Chen, C.C.; Shih, C.W.; Chang, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    FePt(20 nm) and FePt(20 nm)/Hf(10 nm) thin films prepared on the glass substrates by sputtering and post annealing are studied. For both samples, the as deposited films are disordered and L1 0 -ordering is triggered by a 400 °C-annealing. At T a ≥600 °C, Hf–Pt intermetallic compound forms with increasing T a , which consumes Pt in FePt layer and results in the formation of Fe 3 Pt phase. The film becomes soft magnetic at T a =800 °C. The optimized condition of FePt/Hf film is in the T a range of 500 to 600 °C where the interdiffusion between Hf and FePt layer is not extensive. The value of H c is 8.9 kOe and M r is 650–670 emu/cm 3 . Unlike FePt films, the Hf-undelayered samples show significantly reduced out-of-plane remanent and coercivity. The values for both are around 50% smaller than that of the FePt films. Additionally, Hf underlayer markedly reduces the FePt grain size and narrows the distribution, which enhances magnetic intergrain coupling. Good in-plane magnetic properties are preferred for the uses like a hard biasing magnet in a spintronic device. - Highlights: • Effect of Hf underlayer on structure and magnetic properties of FePt films are studied. • Hf underlayer reduces size, narrows the distribution of grains and thus enhances intergrain coupling. • Higher T a ≥600 °C makes Hf–Pt intermetallic compound and thus Fe 3 Pt phase form. • Good in-plane magnetic property is proper for uses in hard biasing magnet in spintronic devices

  8. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  9. Thin-plate spline analysis of treatment effects of rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy in early Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; McNamara, J A

    1999-06-01

    An effective morphometric method (thin-plate spline analysis) was applied to evaluate shape changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 23 children with Class III malocclusions in the early mixed dentition treated with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy, and compared with a sample of 17 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. Significant treatment-induced changes involved both the maxilla and the mandible. Major deformations consisted of forward displacement of the maxillary complex from the pterygoid region and of anterior morphogenetic rotation of the mandible, due to a significant upward and forward direction of growth of the mandibular condyle. Significant differences in size changes due to reduced increments in mandibular dimensions were associated with significant shape changes in the treated group.

  10. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhiji, Betime; Attard, Darren; Thorogood, Gordon; Hanley, Tracey; Magniez, Kevin; Bungur, Jenny; Fox, Bronwyn

    2013-01-01

    The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E) catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%. PMID:28811457

  11. Phase II trial in China of a new, rapidly-acting and effective oral antimalarial, CGP 56697, for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, X; Liu, G Y; Shan, C O; Zhao, X; Li, X W; Gathmann, I; Royce, C

    1997-09-01

    One hundred and two Chinese out-patients with naturally acquired, previously untreated, falciparum malaria were selected to evaluate the efficacy of a new combination anti-malaria therapy, CGP 56697 (artemether plus benflumetol). In this open non-comparative trial each patient received a combination of 80 mg artemether and 480 mg benflumetol given orally at 0, 8, 24 and 48 hours (total: 320 mg artemether, 1,920 mg benflumetol). Patients were kept for 28 days in a transmission-free hospital in an area with chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria to prevent reinfection and to aid diagnosis of recrudescence. Progress and possible adverse effects were monitored by blood film parasitology, blood biochemistry assays, urinalysis, ECG and X-ray. Ninety-eight of the 102 patients were shown to be free of infection at 28 days, a 96.1% cure rate. Parasite reduction at 24 hours was 99.4%. Time to effect complete parasite clearance ranged from 24 to 54 hours (median 30 hours). Time for fever clearance ranged from 6 to 78 hours (median 18 hours). Recrudescence was low (3.9%). No significant adverse side-effects were encountered. It is concluded that CGP 56697, a combination anti-malaria therapy of artemether with benflumetol, offered a rapid and highly effective treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an area of chloroquine-resistant malaria in China.

  12. Diminished central nervous 5-HT neurotransmission and mood self-ratings in children and adolescents with ADHD: no clear effect of rapid tryptophan depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Florian Daniel; Holtmann, Martin; Stadler, Christina; Magnus, Sophie; Wöckel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz

    2009-03-01

    Research on 5-HT-functioning in adult patients and healthy subjects using rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) has indicated weak but stable effects on mood ratings. Altered mood in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can confound the differential diagnosis between severe ADHD and mood disorders such as pediatric bipolar disorder. The present study investigated the effects of RTD induced lowered central nervous 5-HT-levels on mood self-ratings in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD participated in the study in a double-blind within-subject crossover-design. They were administered RTD within an amino acid drink lacking tryptophan, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT-synthesis. On another day they received a placebo. Self-rated mood was assessed on both days at baseline conditions and at three different post-drink time-points. RTD had no clear effect on mood within the whole sample. Low scorers on venturesomeness were more strongly affected by RTD in terms of feelings of inactivity and negative feelings compared to high venture patients. Our data did not show a significant effect of RTD on mood self-ratings. However, the findings must be considered as preliminary and require further replication, in particular as they could be due to sampling bias.

  13. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  17. A prospective study of the short-term treatment effects of the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander combined with the lower Schwarz appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Lisa K; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated the short-term treatment effects of acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander in conjunction with lower Schwarz appliance (RME-Sz) therapy to the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expansion alone (RME-only group). Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed for 25 RME patients and 19 RME-Sz patients. The average time between films ranged between nine and 12 months. Statistical comparisons of the treatment changes in the RME-only and RME-Sz groups were performed by means of independent sample t-tests (P < .05). The largest difference between the two groups was in lower anterior facial height (LAFH). The normally occurring increase in LAFH was not observed in the RME-only group during the treatment period, indicating that the acrylic-splint expander had a posterior "bite block effect" on the developing craniofacial complex. LAFH increased by 1.7 mm in the RME-Sz group, a value similar to that observed in untreated individuals. Slight forward displacement of the maxilla was observed when RME was used alone, and the sagittal position of the maxilla remained unchanged in the RME-Sz group. A significant amount of intrusion of the maxillary molars (-0.8 mm) was noted in the RME-only group, whereas the maxillary molars were prevented from erupting in the RME-Sz group. The lower dentition showed a significantly greater amount of extrusion in the RME-Sz group than in the RME-only group. Finally, the Sz appliance prevented the mesial movement of the lower molars during the treatment period.

  18. Rapid onset of treatment effects on psychosis, depression, and mania in patients with acute exacerbation of schizoaffective disorder following treatment with oral extended-release paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Bossie, Cynthia A; Patel, Hiren; Alphs, Larry

    2016-03-15

    Patients with schizoaffective disorder (SCA) experience complicated interplays of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms. Paliperidone extended-release (pali ER) tablets have been shown to be efficacious in these patients, but treatment response has not been studied relative to the onset of effects for these symptom domains. In a pooled analysis of data from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, the onset of treatment effects with oral pali ER was evaluated by symptom domain (psychosis, depression, mania) in patients with an acute SCA exacerbation. Subjects were categorized as having prominent psychotic (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score >70), depressive (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 score ≥16), or manic (Young Mania Rating Scale score ≥16) symptoms at baseline. Of the 614 patients in these analyses, 597 (97.2%), 411 (66.9%), and 488 (79.5%) had prominent psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms at baseline, respectively. Pali ER treatment was associated with rapid and significant improvement of all three symptom domains versus placebo within 1 week of initiation, regardless of whether treatment was given as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. Adverse events were similar to those reported in the original published studies. This post hoc analysis of two phase 3 trials requires confirmation in prospective studies. This pooled analysis suggests that treatment with pali ER is associated with rapid control of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms in patients with SCA. Its findings support the benefit of pali ER as a primary treatment for the management of SCA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Rapid Thermal Processing on Light-Induced Degradation of Carrier Lifetime in Czochralski p-Type Silicon Bare Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhlane, Y.; Bouhafs, D.; Khelifati, N.; Belhousse, S.; Menari, H.; Guenda, A.; Khelfane, A.

    2016-11-01

    The electrical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) p-type boron-doped bare wafers have been investigated after rapid thermal processing (RTP) with different peak temperatures. Treated wafers were exposed to light for various illumination times, and the effective carrier lifetime ( τ eff) measured using the quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) technique. τ eff values dropped after prolonged illumination exposure due to light-induced degradation (LID) related to electrical activation of boron-oxygen (BO) complexes, except in the sample treated with peak temperature of 785°C, for which the τ eff degradation was less pronounced. Also, a reduction was observed when using the 830°C peak temperature, an effect that was enhanced by alteration of the wafer morphology (roughness). Furthermore, the electrical resistivity presented good stability under light exposure as a function of temperature compared with reference wafers. Additionally, the optical absorption edge shifted to higher wavelength, leading to increased free-carrier absorption by treated wafers. Moreover, a theoretical model is used to understand the lifetime degradation and regeneration behavior as a function of illumination time. We conclude that RTP plays an important role in carrier lifetime regeneration for Cz-Si wafers via modification of optoelectronic and structural properties. The balance between an optimized RTP cycle and the rest of the solar cell elaboration process can overcome the negative effect of LID and contribute to achievement of higher solar cell efficiency and module performance.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the plasma membrane of suspension-cultured apple cells. Rapid irreversible inhibition of H+-ATPase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.-Z.; Montillet, J.-L.; Triantaphylides, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation, used in post-harvest treatment of fruit and vegetables. were investigated on cultured apple cells (Pyrus malus L. cv. Royal Red) on a short-term period. Irradiation (2 kGy) induced an increase of passive ion effluxes from cells and a decrease of cell capacity to regulate external pH. These alterations are likely due to effects on plasma membrane structure and function and were further investigated by studying the effects of irradiation on plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity. Plasma membrane-enriched vesicles were prepared and the H + -ATPase activity was characterized. Irradiation of the vesicles induced a dose dependent inhibition of H + -ATPase activity. The loss of enzyme activity was immediate, even at low doses (0.5 kGy), and was not reversed by the addition of 2mM dithiothreitol. This inhibition may be the result of an irreversible oxidation of enzyme sulfhydryl moieties and/or the result of changes induced within the lipid bilayer affecting the membrane-enzyme interactions. Further analysis of the H + -ATPase activity was carried out on vesicles obtained from irradiated cells confirming the previous results. In vivo recovery of activity was not observed within 5 h following the treatment, thus explaining the decrease of cell capacity to regulate external pH. This rapid irreversible inhibition of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase must be considered as one of the most important primary biochemical events occurring in irradiated plant material. (author)

  1. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children: effects of age, receptive vocabulary, and high-frequency amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, A L; Lewis, D E; Hoover, B M; Stelmachowicz, P G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined rapid word-learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that (1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, (2) word-learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and (3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Before testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word-learning scores suggested that although word-learning was reduced in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase in performance for both

  2. A Rapid Global Effects Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of Attitudes and Values Between West Point Cadets and College Students. Westminister , MD: Western Maryland College, as published in the...Comments by Mr. Christopher Ingraham, Senior Legislative Assistant, Congressman Jim Bridenstine. Washington D.C., 5 May 2016. Secure World

  3. Pulse-Driven Capacitive Lead Ion Detection with Reduced Graphene Oxide Field-Effect Transistor Integrated with an Analyzing Device for Rapid Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Sui, Xiaoyu; Tarman, Chad R; Pu, Haihui; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Ren, Ren; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong

    2017-11-22

    Rapid and real-time detection of heavy metals in water with a portable microsystem is a growing demand in the field of environmental monitoring, food safety, and future cyber-physical infrastructure. Here, we report a novel ultrasensitive pulse-driven capacitance-based lead ion sensor using self-assembled graphene oxide (GO) monolayer deposition strategy to recognize the heavy metal ions in water. The overall field-effect transistor (FET) structure consists of a thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO) channel with a thin layer of Al 2 O 3 passivation as a top gate combined with sputtered gold nanoparticles that link with the glutathione (GSH) probe to attract Pb 2+ ions in water. Using a preprogrammed microcontroller, chemo-capacitance based detection of lead ions has been demonstrated with this FET sensor. With a rapid response (∼1-2 s) and negligible signal drift, a limit of detection (LOD) water stabilization followed by lead ion testing and calculation is much shorter than common FET resistance/current measurements (∼minutes) and other conventional methods, such as optical and inductively coupled plasma methods (∼hours). An approximate linear operational range (5-20 ppb) around 15 ppb (the maximum contaminant limit by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for lead in drinking water) makes it especially suitable for drinking water quality monitoring. The validity of the pulse method is confirmed by quantifying Pb 2+ in various real water samples such as tap, lake, and river water with an accuracy ∼75%. This capacitance measurement strategy is promising and can be readily extended to various FET-based sensor devices for other targets.

  4. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilong; Zhao, Guoqun; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, T cs , in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different T cs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of T cs on mechanical properties

  5. Rapid quantitative estimation of chlorinated methane utilizing bacteria in drinking water and the effect of nanosilver on biodegradation of the trichloromethane in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Isaac; Bouzari, Majid; Emtiazi, Giti; Fanaei, Maryam

    2015-03-01

    Halomethanes are toxic and carcinogenic chemicals, which are widely used in industry. Also they can be formed during water disinfection by chlorine. Biodegradation by methylotrophs is the most important way to remove these pollutants from the environment. This study aimed to represent a simple and rapid method for quantitative study of halomethanes utilizing bacteria in drinking water and also a method to facilitate the biodegradation of these compounds in the environment compared to cometabolism. Enumeration of chlorinated methane utilizing bacteria in drinking water was carried out by most probable number (MPN) method in two steps. First, the presence and the number of methylotroph bacteria were confirmed on methanol-containing medium. Then, utilization of dichloromethane was determined by measuring the released chloride after the addition of 0.04 mol/L of it to the growth medium. Also, the effect of nanosilver particles on biodegradation of multiple chlorinated methanes was studied by bacterial growth on Bushnell-Haas Broth containing chloroform (trichloromethane) that was treated with 0.2 ppm nanosilver. Most probable number of methylotrophs and chlorinated methane utilizing bacteria in tested drinking water were 10 and 4 MPN Index/L, respectively. Chloroform treatment by nanosilver leads to dechlorination and the production of formaldehyde. The highest growth of bacteria and formic acid production were observed in the tubes containing 1% chloroform treated with nanosilver. By combining the two tests, a rapid approach to estimation of most probable number of chlorinated methane utilizing bacteria is introduced. Treatment by nanosilver particles was resulted in the easier and faster biodegradation of chloroform by bacteria. Thus, degradation of these chlorinated compounds is more efficient compared to cometabolism.

  6. The effects of micro-implant assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) on the nasomaxillary complex--a finite element method (FEM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnis, Matt; Chu, Howard; Youssef, George; Wu, Kimberley W; Machado, Andre Wilson; Moon, Won

    2014-08-29

    Orthodontic palatal expansion appliances have been widely used with satisfactory and, most often, predictable clinical results. Recently, clinicians have successfully utilized micro-implants with palatal expander designs to work as anchors to the palate to achieve more efficient skeletal expansion and to decrease undesired dental effects. The purpose of the study was to use finite element method (FEM) to determine the stress distribution and displacement within the craniofacial complex when simulated conventional and micro-implant-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) expansion forces are applied to the maxilla. The simulated stress distribution produced within the palate and maxillary buttresses in addition to the displacement and rotation of the maxilla could then be analyzed to determine if micro-implants aid in skeletal expansion. A three-dimensional (3D) mesh model of the cranium with associated maxillary sutures was developed using computed tomography (CT) images and Mimics modeling software. To compare transverse expansion stresses in rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and MARPE, expansion forces were distributed to differing points on the maxilla and evaluated with ANSYS simulation software. The stresses distributed from forces applied to the maxillary teeth are distributed mainly along the trajectories of the three maxillary buttresses. In comparison, the MARPE showed tension and compression directed to the palate, while showing less rotation, and tipping of the maxillary complex. In addition, the conventional hyrax displayed a rotation of the maxilla around the teeth as opposed to the midpalatal suture of the MARPE. This data suggests that the MARPE causes the maxilla to bend laterally, while preventing unwanted rotation of the complex. In conclusion, the MARPE may be beneficial for hyperdivergent patients, or those that have already experienced closure of the midpalatal suture, who require palatal expansion and would worsen from buccal tipping of the teeth

  7. The dream-lag effect: Selective processing of personally significant events during Rapid Eye Movement sleep, but not during Slow Wave Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, E; Eichenlaub, J-B; Lewis, P A; Walker, M P; Gaskell, M G; Malinowski, J E; Blagrove, M

    2015-07-01

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the night after, and then 5-7 nights after events (termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects). In experiment 1, 44 participants kept a daily log for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs), and major concerns (MCs). Dream reports were collected from REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in the laboratory, or from REM sleep at home. The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation of PSEs into REM dreams collected at home, but not for MDAs or MCs. No dream-lag effect was found for SWS dreams, or for REM dreams collected in the lab after SWS awakenings earlier in the night. In experiment 2, the 44 participants recorded reports of their spontaneously recalled home dreams over the 10 nights following the instrumental awakenings night, which thus acted as a controlled stimulus with two salience levels, high (sleep lab) and low (home awakenings). The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation into home dreams of references to the experience of being in the sleep laboratory, but only for participants who had reported concerns beforehand about being in the sleep laboratory. The delayed incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, an alternative emotion processing or emotional impact of events account, distinct from memory consolidation, is supported by the finding that SWS dreams do not evidence the dream-lag effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  9. A systematic review of the clinical, public health and cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests for the detection and identification of bacterial intestinal pathogens in faeces and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, I; Irvine, L; Aldus, C F; Wyatt, G M; Fordham, R; Schelenz, S; Shepstone, L; Howe, A; Peck, M; Hunter, P R

    2007-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial food poisoning in clinical and public health practice and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of these assays in a hypothetical population in order to inform policy on the use of these tests. Studies evaluating diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests were retrieved using electronic databases and handsearching reference lists and key journals. Hospital laboratories and test manufacturers were contacted for cost data, and clinicians involved in the care of patients with food poisoning were invited to discuss the conclusions of this review using the nominal group technique. A systematic review of the current medical literature on assays used for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial food poisoning was carried out. Specific organisms under review were Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus. Data extraction was undertaken using standardised data extraction forms. Where a sufficient number of studies evaluating comparable tests were identified, meta-analysis was performed. A decision analytic model was developed, using effectiveness data from the review and cost data from hospitals and manufacturers, which contributed to an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of rapid tests in a hypothetical UK population. Finally, diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness results were presented to a focus group of GPs, microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control, to assess professional opinion on the use of rapid tests in the diagnosis of food poisoning. Good test performance levels were observed with rapid test methods, especially for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The estimated levels of diagnostic accuracy using the area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was very high. Indeed, although traditional culture is the natural reference test to use for comparative statistical

  10. The formation of the two-way shape memory effect in rapidly quenched TiNiCu alloy under laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelyakov, A V; Sitnikov, N N; Borodako, K A; Menushenkov, A P; Fominski, V Yu; Sheyfer, D V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 248 nm, τ = 20 ns) on structural properties and shape memory behavior of the rapidly quenched Ti 50 Ni 25 Cu 25 alloy ribbon was studied. The radiation energy density was varied from 2 to 20 mJ mm −2 . The samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurements and shape memory bending tests. It was ascertained that the action of the laser radiation leads to the formation of a structural composite material due to amorphization or martensite modification in the surface layer of the ribbon. Two methods are proposed which allow one to generate the pronounced two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a local area of the ribbon by using only a single pulse of the laser radiation. With increasing energy density of laser treatment, the magnitude of the reversible angular displacement with realization of the TWSME increases. The developed techniques can be used for the creation of various micromechanical devices. (paper)

  11. The effects of nicardipine or esmolol on the onset time of rocuronium and intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction: a randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Heui; Kim, Yunkwang; Lee, Kye Hyeok; Rim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong

    2015-06-01

    The main aims of rapid sequence induction (RSI) are prompt and adequate muscle relaxation for tracheal intubation and hemodynamic stability during and after intubation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of nicardipine and esmolol on the action of rocuronium and intubation conditions during RSI. Adult patients (n = 82) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. One minute prior to the induction of sevoflurane-based general anesthesia, patients received 20 μg/kg of nicardipine (N group; n = 27) or 0.5 mg/kg of esmolol (E group; n = 27), or 5 ml of saline (C group; n = 28). Patients were assessed according to intubation conditions, the onset time of rocuronium, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) during RSI. The intubation conditions and score were significantly better in the C and N groups than in the E group (P rocuronium was shortened in the N group and prolonged in the E group when compared to the C group (P rocuronium and attenuated changes in MAP after intubation. Esmolol may disturb intubation conditions and the onset of action of rocuronium, despite being effective in alleviating responses of HR after RSI.

  12. Safety and Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate in the Treatment of Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia Utilizing a Rapid Point-of-Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ponemone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the end stage of lower extremity peripheral vascular disease (PVD in which severe obstruction of blood flow results in ischemic rest pain, ulcers and/or gangrene, and a significant risk of limb loss. This open-label, single-arm feasibility study evaluated the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of autologous bone marrow cell (aBMC concentrate in revascularization of CLI patients utilizing a rapid point-of-care device. Seventeen (17 no-option CLI patients with ischemic rest pain were enrolled in the study. Single dose of aBMC, prepared utilizing an intraoperative point-of-care device, the Res-Q™ 60 BMC system, was injected intramuscularly into the afflicted limb and patients were followed up at regular intervals for 12 months. A statistically significant improvement in Ankle Brachial Index (ABI, Transcutaneous Oxygen Pressure (TcPO2, mean rest pain and intermittent claudication pain scores, wound/ ulcer healing, and 6-minute walking distance was observed following aBMC treatment. Major amputation-free survival (mAFS rate and amputation-free rates (AFR at 12 months were 70.6% and 82.3%, respectively. In conclusion, aBMC injections were well tolerated with improved tissue perfusion, confirming the safety, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of aBMC treatment in CLI patients.

  13. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  14. SU-F-T-284: The Effect of Linear Accelerator Output Variation On the Quality of Patient Specific Rapid Arc Verification Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, G; Cao, F; Szpala, S; Kohli, K [Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of machine output variation on the delivery of the RapidArc verification plans. Methods: Three verification plans were generated using Eclipse™ treatment planning system (V11.031) with plan normalization value 100.0%. These plans were delivered on the linear accelerators using ArcCHECK− device, with machine output 1.000 cGy/MU at calibration point. These planned and delivered dose distributions were used as reference plans. Additional plans were created in Eclipse− with normalization values ranging 92.80%–102% to mimic the machine output ranging 1.072cGy/MU-0.980cGy/MU, at the calibration point. These plans were compared against the reference plans using gamma indices (3%, 3mm) and (2%, 2mm). Calculated gammas were studied for its dependence on machine output. Plans were considered passed if 90% of the points satisfy the defined gamma criteria. Results: The gamma index (3%, 3mm) was insensitive to output fluctuation within the output tolerance level (2% of calibration), and showed failures, when the machine output exceeds ≥3%. Gamma (2%, 2mm) was found to be more sensitive to the output variation compared to the gamma (3%, 3mm), and showed failures, when output exceeds ≥1.7%. The variation of the gamma indices with output variability also showed dependence upon the plan parameters (e.g. MLC movement and gantry rotation). The variation of the percentage points passing gamma criteria with output variation followed a non-linear decrease beyond the output tolerance level. Conclusion: Data from the limited plans and output conditions showed that gamma (2%, 2mm) is more sensitive to the output fluctuations compared to Gamma (3%,3mm). Work under progress, including detail data from a large number of plans and a wide range of output conditions, may be able to conclude the quantitative dependence of gammas on machine output, and hence the effect on the quality of delivered rapid arc plans.

  15. Indirect rapid prototyping of sol-gel hybrid glass scaffolds for bone regeneration - Effects of organic crosslinker valence, content and molecular weight on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Stephan; Kascholke, Christian; Flath, Tobias; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2016-04-15

    We present a series of organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel derived glasses, made from a tetraethoxysilane-derived silica sol (100% SiO2) and oligovalent organic crosslinkers functionalized with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane. The material was susceptible to heat sterilization. The hybrids were processed into pore-interconnected scaffolds by an indirect rapid prototyping method, described here for the first time for sol-gel glass materials. A large panel of polyethylene oxide-derived 2- to 4-armed crosslinkers of molecular weights ranging between 170 and 8000Da were incorporated and their effect on scaffold mechanical properties was investigated. By multiple linear regression, 'organic content' and the 'content of ethylene oxide units in the hybrid' were identified as the main factors that determined compressive strength and modulus, respectively. In general, 3- and 4-armed crosslinkers performed better than linear molecules. Compression tests and cell culture experiments with osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells showed that macroporous scaffolds can be produced with compressive strengths of up to 33±2MPa and with a pore structure that allows cells to grow deep into the scaffolds and form mineral deposits. Compressive moduli between 27±7MPa and 568±98MPa were obtained depending on the hybrid composition and problems associated with the inherent brittleness of sol-gel glass materials could be overcome. SaOS-2 cells showed cytocompatibility on hybrid glass scaffolds and mineral accumulation started as early as day 7. On day 14, we also found mineral accumulation on control hybrid glass scaffolds without cells, indicating a positive effect of the hybrid glass on mineral accumulation. We produced a hybrid sol-gel glass material with significantly improved mechanical properties towards an application in bone regeneration and processed the material into macroporous scaffolds of controlled architecture by indirect rapid prototyping. We were able to produce macroporous materials

  16. Twice-daily dosing of esomeprazole effectively inhibits acid secretion in CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers compared with twice-daily omeprazole, rabeprazole or lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, S; Sugimoto, M; Uotani, T; Ichikawa, H; Yamade, M; Iwaizumi, M; Yamada, T; Osawa, S; Sugimoto, K; Umemura, K; Miyajima, H; Furuta, T

    2013-11-01

    Twice-daily dosing of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is used to treat Helicobacter pylori or acid-related diseases, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to standard dose of a PPI. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 are involved to different extents in the metabolism of four kinds of PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole) available in Japan. To compare acid-inhibitory effects of the four PPIs dosed twice daily in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. We performed 24-h pH monitoring studies on Day 7 of PPI treatment for 40 Japanese H. pylori-negative volunteers [15 CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers (RMs), 15 intermediate metabolisers (IMs) and 10 poor metabolisers (PMs)] using a randomised four-way crossover design: omeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg and rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily. Although median pH values with esomeprazole, omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole were 5.7 (3.5-7.2), 5.5 (2.4-7.2), 5.5 (3.7-7.3) and 5.2 (2.5-7.3), respectively (no statistically significant differences), CYP2C19 genotype-dependent differences were smaller for esomeprazole and rabeprazole compared with values for omeprazole and lansoprazole. In CYP2C19 RMs, the median pH with esomeprazole [5.4 (3.5-6.8)] was significantly higher than those with omeprazole [5.0 (2.4-5.9), P = 0.018], lansoprazole [4.7 (3.7-5.5), P = 0.017] or rabeprazole [4.8 (2.5-6.4), P = 0.002]. In IMs and PMs, the median pH was >5.0 independent of the PPI. In intermediate and rapid metabolisers of CYP2C19, PPIs dosed twice daily could attain sufficient acid suppression, while in CYP2C19 RMs, esomeprazole 20 mg twice daily caused the strongest inhibition of the four PPIs. Therefore, esomeprazole may be effective in Japanese population when dosed twice daily. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The rapid evolution of X-linked male-biased gene expression and the large-X effect in Drosophila yakuba, D. santomea, and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopart, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The X chromosome has a large effect on hybrid dysfunction, particularly on hybrid male sterility. Although the evidence for this so-called large-X effect is clear, its molecular causes are not yet fully understood. One possibility is that, under certain conditions, evolution proceeds faster in X-linked than in autosomal loci (i.e., faster-X effect) due to both natural selection and their hemizygosity in males, an effect that is expected to be greatest in genes with male-biased expression. Here, I study genome-wide variation in transcript abundance between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea, within these species and in their hybrid males to evaluate both the faster-X and large-X effects at the level of expression. I find that in X-linked male-biased genes (MBGs) expression evolves faster than in their autosomal counterparts, an effect that is accompanied by a unique reduction in expression polymorphism. This suggests that Darwinian selection is driving expression differences between species, likely enhanced by the hemizygosity of the X chromosome in males. Despite the recent split of the two sister species under study, abundant changes in both cis- and trans-regulatory elements underlie expression divergence in the majority of the genes analyzed, with significant differences in allelic ratios of transcript abundance between the two reciprocal F(1) hybrid males. Cis-trans coevolution at molecular level, evolved shortly after populations become isolated, may therefore contribute to explain the breakdown of the regulation of gene expression in hybrid males. Additionally, the X chromosome plays a large role in this hybrid male misexpression, which affects not only MBG but also, to a lesser degree, nonsex-biased genes. Interestingly, hybrid male misexpression is concentrated mostly in autosomal genes, likely facilitated by the rapid evolution of sex-linked trans-acting factors. I suggest that the faster evolution of X-linked MBGs, at both protein and expression levels

  18. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  19. Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Schweizer, Julian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-10

    Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N=1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of symmetries of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson lines as Goldstone bosons.

  20. The Effects of Disruption on Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Anders

    2017-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in Disruption these days even though the concept itself is still under formation. Disruption can be traced back to the idea of disruptive technological change and the late 1990s but has reemerged in the public eye in current years under guises such as Big Data......, Digitalization, Globalization and much more. Furthermore, the effects of disruption are now being felt by organizations and industries all over the world. In this paper, we will try to outline and illustrate some of those effects using the case-study of an international, Danish, SME. The case company has been...... forced to face some challenges caused by disruption and in the process of doing so has changed its strategy process significantly towards a more learning based approach to strategic management. Keywords: disruption; case- study; SME; strategy process....

  1. Cost-Effectiveness and Validity Assessment of Cyscope Microscope, Quantitative Buffy Coat Microscope, and Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Malaria Diagnosis among Clinic Attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Ogunniyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unavailability of accurate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective malaria diagnostic instruments constitutes major a challenge to malaria elimination. We validated alternative malaria diagnostic instruments and assessed their comparative cost-effectiveness. Method. Using a cross-sectional study design, 502 patients with malaria symptoms at selected health facilities in Ibadan between January and April 2014 were recruited consecutively. We examined malaria parasites using Cyscope®, QBC, and CareStart™ and results were compared to light microscopy (LM. Validity was determined by assessing sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV. Costs per hour of use for instruments and turnaround time were determined. Result. Sensitivity of the instruments was 76.0% (CareStart, 95.0% (Cyscope, and 98.1% (QBC. Specificity was 96.0% (CareStart, 87.3% (Cyscope, and 85.5% (QBC. PPV were 65.2%, 67.5%, and 84.7%, while NPV were 93.6%, 98.6%, and 99.4% for CareStart, Cyscope, and QBC with Kappa values of 0.75 (CI = 0.68–0.82 for CareStart, 0.72 (CI = 0.65–0.78 for Cyscope, and 0.71 (CI = 0.64–0.77 for QBC. Average cost per hour of use was the lowest ($2.04 with the Cyscope. Turnaround time was the fastest with Cyscope (5 minutes. Conclusion. Cyscope fluorescent microscope had the shortest turnaround time and is the most cost-effective of all the malaria diagnostic instruments evaluated.

  2. Rapid Screening of Active Components with an Osteoclastic Inhibitory Effect in Herba epimedii Using Quantitative Pattern–Activity Relationships Based on Joint-Action Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening of bioactive components is important for modernization and quality control of herbal medicines, while the traditional bioassay-guided phytochemical approach is time-consuming and laborious. The presented study proposes a strategy for rapid screening of active components from herbal medicines. As a case study, the quantitative pattern–activity relationship (QPAR between compounds and the osteoclastic inhibitory effect of Herba epimedii, a widely used herbal medicine in China, were investigated based on joint models. For model construction, standard mixtures data showed that the joint-action models are better than the partial least-squares (PLS model. Then, the Good2bad value, which could reflect components’ importance based on Monte Carlo sampling, was coupled with the joint-action models for screening of active components. A compound (baohuoside I and a component composed of compounds with retention times in the 6.9–7.9 min range were selected by our method. Their inhibition rates were higher than icariin, the key bioactive compound in Herba epimedii, which could inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in a previous study. Meanwhile, the half-maximal effective concentration, namely, EC50 value of the selected component was 7.54 μg/mL, much smaller than that of baohuoside I—77 μg/mL—which indicated that there is synergistic action between compounds in the selected component. The results clearly show our proposed method is simple and effective in screening the most-bioactive components and compounds, as well as drug-lead components, from herbal medicines.

  3. Initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV at a patient's first clinic visit: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the rapid initiation of treatment randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lawrence C; Maskew, Mhairi; Brennan, Alana T; Mongwenyana, Constance; Nyoni, Cynthia; Malete, Given; Sanne, Ian; Fox, Matthew P; Rosen, Sydney

    2017-07-17

    Determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of single-visit (same-day) antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation compared to standard of care initiation. Cost-effectiveness analysis of individually randomized (1 : 1) pragmatic trial of single-visit initiation, which increased viral suppression at 10 months by 26% [relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.26 (1.05-1.50)]. Primary health clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. HIV positive, adult, nonpregnant patients not yet on ART or known to be eligible who presented at the clinic 8 May 2013 to 29 August 2014. Same-day ART initiation using point-of-care laboratory instruments and accelerated clinic procedures to allow treatment-eligible patients to receive antiretroviral medications at the same visit as testing HIV positive or having an eligible CD4 cell count. Comparison was to standard of care ART initiation, which typically required three to five additional clinic visits. Average cost per patient enrolled and per patient achieving the primary outcome of initiated 90 days or less and suppressed 10 months or less, and production cost per patient achieving primary outcome (all costs per primary outcome patients). The average cost per patient enrolled, per patient achieving the primary outcome, and production cost were $319, $487, and $738 in the standard arm and $451, $505, and $707 in the rapid arm. Same-day treatment initiation was more effective than standard initiation, more expensive per patient enrolled, and less expensive to produce a patient achieving the primary outcome. Omitting point-of-care laboratory tests at initiation and focusing on high-volume clinics have the potential to reduce costs substantially and should be evaluated in routine settings.

  4. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion and transpalatal arch treatment associated with deciduous canine extraction on the eruption of palatally displaced canines: A 2-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano; McNamara, James A

    2011-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of rapid maxillary expansion and transpalatal arch therapy combined with deciduous canine extraction on the eruption rate of palatally displaced canines (PDCs) in patients in the late mixed dentition in a 2-center prospective study. Seventy subjects were enrolled based on PDCs diagnosed on panoramic radiographs. The treatment group (TG, 40 subjects) underwent RME followed by TPA therapy and extraction of the deciduous canines. The control group (CG, 30 subjects) received no orthodontic treatment. At the start of the trial, panoramic radiographs and dental casts were compared between the TG and the CG with the Mann-Whitney U test (P anomalies was reported. No statistically significant difference was found for any measurement at the start of the trial between the 2 groups. The prevalence rates of eruption of the maxillary canines were 80% for the TG and 28% in the CG, a statistically significant difference (chi-square =16.26, P mixed dentition with PDCs. Pretreatment variables indicating success of treatment on the eruption of PDCs were less severe sectors of displacement, prepubertal stages of skeletal maturity, and open root apices of PDCs. Several dental anomalies were associated significantly with PDCs, thus confirming the genetic etiology of this eruption disturbance. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rabi oscillations and rapid-passage effects in the molecular-beam CO2-laser Stark spectroscopy of CH3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.G.; Gough, T.E.; Isenor, N.R.; Scoles, G.

    1985-01-01

    sub-Doppler molecular-beam laser Stark spectroscopy has been employed to produce high-contrast Rabi oscillations in the ν 3 band of CH 3 F. By varying the intensity of the cw CO 2 laser, up to five complete oscillations were observed before the phenomenon was washed out by rapid-passage effects and damping mechanisms. Besides being useful in clarifying key features of coherent ir molecular-beam spectroscopy, the observation of Rabi oscillations provides one of the most accurate means of directly measuring transition dipole moments. Analysis of the present data on three rovibrational transitions, Q(1,1) -1reverse arrow0, P(1,0) 0reverse arrow0, and R(1,1) 0reverse arrow1, has yielded a rotationless transition dipole moment of 0.21 +- 0.01 D for the ν 3 = 1reverse arrow0 vibration. This result is in agreement with values estimated from both band-intensity and absorption-coefficient data in the literature

  6. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the Mo back contact properties for Cu_2ZnSnSe_4 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placidi, Marcel; Espindola-Rodriguez, Moises; Lopez-Marino, Simon; Sanchez, Yudania; Giraldo, Sergio; Acebo, Laura; Neuschitzer, Markus; Alcobé, Xavier; Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Saucedo, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a rapid thermal process (RTP) on the molybdenum (Mo) back contact for Cu_2ZnSnSe_4 (CZTSe) solar cells is here investigated. It is shown that the annealing of the Mo layer during 5 min at 550 °C, not only improves the crystalline quality of the back contact (avoiding the absorber decomposition at this region because Mo becomes more resistant to the selenization), but also helps achieving higher crystalline quality of the absorber with bigger grains, reducing the current leakage through the heterojunction. We demonstrate that this is related to the relaxation of the compressive stress of the CZTSe absorber, when synthesized on the RTP annealed substrates. CZTSe solar cells prepared on annealed Mo films exhibited higher short circuit current densities and higher open circuit voltages, resulting in 10% and 33% higher fill factors and efficiencies. - Highlights: • An RTP annealing applied for the first time on Mo for CZTSe solar cells. • Clear improvement of the efficiency from 5.7 to 7.6% with RTP treatment. • Discussion of this improvement with adequate material/device characterizations. • Stress-induced defects responsible of the electrical leakage are revealed.

  7. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the Mo back contact properties for Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, Marcel, E-mail: mplacidi@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, pl.2, 08930 St Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Espindola-Rodriguez, Moises; Lopez-Marino, Simon; Sanchez, Yudania; Giraldo, Sergio; Acebo, Laura; Neuschitzer, Markus [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, pl.2, 08930 St Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Alcobé, Xavier [Centres Científics i Tecnològics (CCiTUB), Lluis Solé i Sabarís 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, pl.2, 08930 St Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); IN2UB, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Saucedo, Edgardo [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, pl.2, 08930 St Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-05

    The effect of a rapid thermal process (RTP) on the molybdenum (Mo) back contact for Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) solar cells is here investigated. It is shown that the annealing of the Mo layer during 5 min at 550 °C, not only improves the crystalline quality of the back contact (avoiding the absorber decomposition at this region because Mo becomes more resistant to the selenization), but also helps achieving higher crystalline quality of the absorber with bigger grains, reducing the current leakage through the heterojunction. We demonstrate that this is related to the relaxation of the compressive stress of the CZTSe absorber, when synthesized on the RTP annealed substrates. CZTSe solar cells prepared on annealed Mo films exhibited higher short circuit current densities and higher open circuit voltages, resulting in 10% and 33% higher fill factors and efficiencies. - Highlights: • An RTP annealing applied for the first time on Mo for CZTSe solar cells. • Clear improvement of the efficiency from 5.7 to 7.6% with RTP treatment. • Discussion of this improvement with adequate material/device characterizations. • Stress-induced defects responsible of the electrical leakage are revealed.

  8. Amino-Functionalized Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework Test Paper for Rapid and Selective Sensing of SO2 Gas and Its Derivatives by Luminescence Turn-On Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Guo, Lin; Cao, Dapeng

    2018-03-06

    Rapid and selective sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas has attracted more and more attention because SO 2 not only causes environmental pollution but also severely affects the health of human beings. Here we report an amino-functionalized luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) material (i.e., MOF-5-NH 2 ) and further investigate its sensing property for SO 2 gas and its derivatives as a luminescent probe. The results indicate that the MOF-5-NH 2 probe can selectively and sensitively sense SO 2 derivatives (i.e., SO 3 2- ) in real time by a luminescence turn-on effect with a lower detection limit of 0.168 ppm and a response time of less than 15 s. Importantly, the luminescence turn-on phenomenon can be observed by the naked eye. We also assembled MOF-5-NH 2 into a test paper to achieve the aim of portable detection, and the lower-limit concentration of the test paper for sensing SO 2 in real time was found to be about 0.05 ppm. Moreover, MOF-5-NH 2 also shows good anti-interference ability, strong luminescence stability, and reusability, which means that this material is an excellent sensing candidate. The amino functionalization may also provide a modification strategy to design luminescent sensors for other atmospheric pollutants.

  9. Assessment of the dental and skeletal effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion screw and Hyrax screw on craniofacial structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the skeletal and dental effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion (RME appliance and Hyrax RME appliance on the craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods: The sample of the study included 12 patients with constricted maxillary arches. Acrylic bonded type of attachment was used for both groups. Changes in sagittal, vertical, and transverse relationship were assessed with lateral and frontal cephalograms, respectively. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured with stone models. Pre- and immediate post-treatment records were statistically analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Since the data pertaining to intercanine width and intermolar width were normally distributed, parametric test of signifi cance (unpaired t-test was used to compare them. Results: Results showed that Hyrax presented with signifi cantly greater increments for both nasal cavity width and maxillary width when compared to fan-type RME. Both groups had retroclination of incisors. The increase in the intercanine width was almost similar in both groups. Conclusion: Fan-type RME caused only minimal expansion of the intermolar width when compared to the Hyrax. The ratio between the intercanine and intermolar width expansion was nearly 4:1 in the fan-type RME and 0.75:1 in Hyrax.

  10. Tropical Andean Forests Are Highly Susceptible to Nutrient Inputs—Rapid Effects of Experimental N and P Addition to an Ecuadorian Montane Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeier, Jürgen; Hertel, Dietrich; Camenzind, Tessa; Cumbicus, Nixon L.; Maraun, Mark; Martinson, Guntars O.; Poma, L. Nohemy; Rillig, Matthias C.; Sandmann, Dorothee; Scheu, Stefan; Veldkamp, Edzo; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wullaert, Hans; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Tropical regions are facing increasing atmospheric inputs of nutrients, which will have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of these systems. Here, we show that Neotropical montane rainforests respond rapidly to moderate additions of N (50 kg ha−1 yr−1) and P (10 kg ha−1 yr−1). Monitoring of nutrient fluxes demonstrated that the majority of added nutrients remained in the system, in either soil or vegetation. N and P additions led to not only an increase in foliar N and P concentrations, but also altered soil microbial biomass, standing fine root biomass, stem growth, and litterfall. The different effects suggest that trees are primarily limited by P, whereas some processes—notably aboveground productivity—are limited by both N and P. Highly variable and partly contrasting responses of different tree species suggest marked changes in species composition and diversity of these forests by nutrient inputs in the long term. The unexpectedly fast response of the ecosystem to moderate nutrient additions suggests high vulnerability of tropical montane forests to the expected increase in nutrient inputs. PMID:23071734

  11. Effects of Test Paper Drying and Reaction Periods on Silver Ion-Arsine Complex Colour Development for a Simple and Rapid Arsenic (V) Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khim, O.K.; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Abdul Ghapor Hussin; Mansor Ahmad; Ahmad Farid Mohd Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that exists in different forms in nature and can be accumulated by various biota and environmental media. Current techniques for the environmental monitoring of arsenic are usually sophisticated, time consuming and inappropriate for on-site analyses. We are developing a simple and rapid colorimetric quantitative method based on a colour complex formed by silver ion impregnated on a filter paper with arsine gas produced from arsenic ion reduction by hydrogen generated from zinc and sulfamic acid reaction in the sample. In this report we describe effects of drying of the silver ion impregnated filter paper and exposing period of this test paper to the arsine gas. The data obtained are digitized and used to develop a model for arsenic (V) ion estimation. The study reveals that when 4.0 g of sulfamic acid and 2.0 g of zinc powder are used to reduce 50 ml of arsenic solution sample, the drying and exposure periods needed are 20 seconds and 10 minutes, respectively. The best fitted model that relates arsenic (V) concentration (Ac) and the red colour intensity value (R) is Ac =120.1 - 1.071R. This model can accurately estimate the arsenic (V) concentration from 0 to 100 μg/l. (author)

  12. The Effect of Rapid Antigen Detection Test on Antibiotic Prescription Decision of Clinicians and Reducing Antibiotic Costs in Children with Acute Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Engin; Sirin Kose, Seda; Akca, Deniz; Yildiz, Kerem; Elmas, Cengizhan; Baris, Mustafa; Anil, Murat

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, its impact on antibiotic prescription decision of pediatricians and influence on reduction of antibiotic treatment costs in children with pharyngitis. The study group consisted of 223 patients who were diagnosed with pharyngitis by pediatricians. The sensitivity and specificity of RADT were 92.1% (95% Cl: 78.6-98.3%) and 97.3% (95% Cl: 93.8-99.1%), respectively. In the first assessment, before performing RADT, pediatricians decided to prescribe antibiotics for 178 (79.8%) patients with pharyngitis. After learning RADT results, pediatricians finally decided to prescribe antibiotics for 83 (37.2%) patients with pharyngitis, and antibiotic prescription decreased by 42.6%. Antibiotic costs in non-Group A streptococcus pharyngitis, Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and all subjects groups decreased by 80.8%, 48%, and 76.4%, respectively. Performing RADT in children with pharyngitis has an important impact on treatment decision of clinicians, reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic costs. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  15. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M.; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. Methods: An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). Results: The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be

  16. Effectiveness of psychological interventions to improve quality of life in people with long-term conditions: rapid systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Niall; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2018-03-27

    Long-term conditions may negatively impact multiple aspects of quality of life including physical functioning and mental wellbeing. The rapid systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of psychological interventions to improve quality of life in people with long-term conditions to inform future healthcare provision and research. EBSCOhost and OVID were used to search four databases (PsychInfo, PBSC, Medline and Embase). Relevant papers were systematically extracted by one researcher using the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria based on titles, abstracts, and full texts. Randomized controlled trial psychological interventions conducted between 2006 and February 2016 to directly target and assess people with long-term conditions in order to improve quality of life were included. Interventions without long-term condition populations, psychological intervention and/or patient-assessed quality of life were excluded. From 2223 citations identified, 6 satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. All 6 studies significantly improved at least one quality of life outcome immediately post-intervention. Significant quality of life improvements were maintained at 12-months follow-up in one out of two studies for each of the short- (0-3 months), medium- (3-12 months), and long-term (≥ 12 months) study duration categories. All 6 psychological intervention studies significantly improved at least one quality of life outcome immediately post-intervention, with three out of six studies maintaining effects up to 12-months post-intervention. Future studies should seek to assess the efficacy of tailored psychological interventions using different formats, durations and facilitators to supplement healthcare provision and practice.

  17. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wong-McSweeney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350 near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors.

  18. Study of small-cell lung cancer cell-based sensor and its applications in chemotherapy effects rapid evaluation for anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guohua, Hui; Hongyang, Lu; Zhiming, Jiang; Danhua, Zhu; Haifang, Wan

    2017-11-15

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a smoking-related cancer disease. Despite improvement in clinical survival, SCLC outcome remains extremely poor. Cisplatin (DDP) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for SCLC, but the choice of second-line chemotherapy drugs is not clear. In this paper, a SCLC cell-based sensor was proposed, and its applications in chemotherapy effects rapid evaluation for anticancer drugs were investigated. SCLC cell lines lung adenocarcinoma cell (LTEP-P) and DDP-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell (LTEP-P/DDP-1.0) are cultured on carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE) to fabricate integrated cell-based sensor. Several chemotherapy anticancer drugs, including cisplatin, ifosmamide, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, etoposide, camptothecin, and topotecan, are selected as experimental chemicals. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) tests are conducted to evaluate chemotherapy drug effects on LTEP-P and LTEP-P/DDP-1.0 cell lines. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) responses to anti-tumor chemicals are measured and processed by double-layered cascaded stochastic resonance (DCSR). Cisplatin solutions in different concentrations measurement results demonstrate that LTEP-P cell-based sensor presents quantitative analysis abilities for cisplatin and topotecan. Cisplatin and its mixtures can also be discriminated. Results demonstrate that LTEP-P cell-based sensor sensitively evaluates chemotherapy drugs' apoptosis function to SCLC cells. LTEP-P/DDP-1.0 cell-based sensor responses demonstrate that gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and camptothecin are ideal second-line drugs for clinical post-cisplatin therapy than other drugs according to MTT test results. This work provides a novel way for SCLC second-line clinical chemotherapy drug screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific ionic effect for simple and rapid colorimetric sensing assays of amino acids using gold nanoparticles modified with task-specific ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Tao, Zhihao; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle (TSIL-GNP) was successfully prepared and applied in the recognition of amino acids. Particularly, the surface of GNP was modified with the ionic liquid containing carbamido and ester group via thiol, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of this material in aqueous solution improves apparently and can remain unchanged for more than three months. The effect of pH was also discussed in this study. Attractive ionic interaction would effectively weaken intensity of the covalent coupling between the metal ion and the functional groups of amino acids. Thus, TSIL-GNP was successfully applied to recognizing serine, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, and histidine in the presence of Cu"2"+ through distinctive color changes. Suspension would be generated once a spot of cysteine was added into the GNPs solution. Results indicated that it had a good linear relationship between extinction coefficients and concentration of amino acids in a wide range of 10"−"3–10"−"6 M. Moreover, the proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in urinary samples. In brief, TSIL-GNP is a suitable substrate for discrimination of five amino acids in a rapid and simple way without sophisticated instruments. - Highlights: • A novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle was successfully prepared. • This material was successfully applied to recognizing five amino acids with Cu(II) through distinctive color changes. • The proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in real samples.

  20. Specific ionic effect for simple and rapid colorimetric sensing assays of amino acids using gold nanoparticles modified with task-specific ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Tao, Zhihao; Pan, Yuanjiang, E-mail: panyuanjiang@zju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle (TSIL-GNP) was successfully prepared and applied in the recognition of amino acids. Particularly, the surface of GNP was modified with the ionic liquid containing carbamido and ester group via thiol, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of this material in aqueous solution improves apparently and can remain unchanged for more than three months. The effect of pH was also discussed in this study. Attractive ionic interaction would effectively weaken intensity of the covalent coupling between the metal ion and the functional groups of amino acids. Thus, TSIL-GNP was successfully applied to recognizing serine, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, and histidine in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} through distinctive color changes. Suspension would be generated once a spot of cysteine was added into the GNPs solution. Results indicated that it had a good linear relationship between extinction coefficients and concentration of amino acids in a wide range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −6} M. Moreover, the proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in urinary samples. In brief, TSIL-GNP is a suitable substrate for discrimination of five amino acids in a rapid and simple way without sophisticated instruments. - Highlights: • A novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle was successfully prepared. • This material was successfully applied to recognizing five amino acids with Cu(II) through distinctive color changes. • The proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in real samples.

  1. Effect of cooling rate and Mg addition on the structural evaluation of rapidly solidified Al-20wt%Cu-12wt%Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaköse, Ercan, E-mail: ekarakose@karatekin.edu.tr [Çankırı Karatekin University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 18100 Çankırı (Turkey); Çolak, Hakan [Çankırı Karatekin University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 18100 Çankırı (Turkey)

    2016-11-15

    The present work examines the effect of Mg contents and cooling rate on the morphology and mechanical properties of Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 12}Fe quasicrystalline alloy. The microstructure of the alloys was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and the phase composition was identified by X-ray diffractometry. The melting characteristics were studied by differential thermal analysis under an Ar atmosphere. The mechanical features of the melt-spun and conventionally solidified alloys were tested by tensile-strength test and Vickers micro-hardness test. It was found that the final microstructure of the Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 12}Fe samples mainly depends on the cooling rate and Mg contents, which suggests that different cooling rates and Mg contents produce different microstructures and properties. The average grain sizes of the melt spun samples were about 100–300 nm at 35 m/s. The nanosize, dispersed, different shaped quasicrystal particles possessed a remarkable effect to the mechanical characteristics of the rapidly solidified ribbons. The microhardness values of the melt spun samples were approximately 18% higher than those of the conventionally counterparts. - Highlights: •Quasicrystal-creating materials have high potential for applications. •Different shaped nanosize quasicrystal particles were observed. •The addition of Mg has an important impact on the mechanical properties. •H{sub V} values of the MS0, MS3 and MS5 samples at 35 m/s were 8.56, 8.66 and 8.80 GPa. •The volume fraction of IQC increases with increasing cooling rates.

  2. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to study the effects of jieduquyuziyin prescription on systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinghong; Hu, Jinbo; Wen, Chengping; Ding, Zhishan; Yao, Li; Fan, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Jieduquyuziyin prescription (JP), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used for the clinical treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the complex chemical constituents of JP and the multifactorial pathogenesis of SLE make research on the therapeutic mechanism of JP in SLE challenging. In this paper, a serum metabolomics approach based on rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF/MS) was employed to acquire the metabolic characteristics of serum samples obtained from mice in the SLE model group, JP-treated group, prednisone acetate (PA)-treated group and control group. The orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) was applied to recognize metabolic patterns, and an obvious separation of groups was obtained. Thirteen metabolites, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE 20:3), hepoxilin B3, lyso- phosphatidylethanolamine (lyso-PE 22:6), 12S-hydroxypentaenoic acid (12S-HEPE), traumatic acid, serotonin, platelet-activating factor (PAF), phosphatidylcholine (PC 20:5),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 12(S)-hydroxyei- cosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), 14-hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid (14-HDOHE), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC 20:4), and indole acetaldehyde, were identified and characterized as differential metabolites involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. After treatment with JP, the relative content of 12(S)-HETE, PAF, 12(S)-HEPE, EPA, PE (20:3), Lyso-PE(22:6), and 14-HDOHE were effectively regulated, which suggested that the therapeutic effects of JP on SLE may involve regulating disturbances to the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acid, tryptophan and phospholipid. This research also demonstrated that metabolomics is a powerful tool for researching complex disease mechanisms and evaluating the mechanism of action of TCM.

  3. Rapid evidence review of the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment versus usual care for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kimberly; Dieperink, Eric; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Ferguson, Lauren; Helfand, Mark

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to conduct an evidence review of the effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder. We searched MEDLINE®, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO through February 2017. We used prespecified criteria to select studies, abstract data, and rate internal validity and strength of the evidence (PROSPERO number CRD42016036358). We included two randomized trials (RCT), five controlled cohort studies, and six modeling studies of mostly women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities. CNSDose (ABCB1, ABCC1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1) is the only pharmacogenomics test that significantly improved remission (one additional remitting patient in 12 weeks per three genotyped, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.5) and reduced intolerability in an RCT. ABCB1 genotyping leads to one additional remitting patient in 5 weeks per three genotyped (95% CI 3 to 20), but tolerability was not reported. In an RCT, GeneSight (CYP2D6, CYPC19, CYP1A2, SLC6A4, HTR2A) did not statistically significantly improve remission, and evidence is inconclusive about its tolerability. Evidence is generally low strength because RCTs were few and underpowered. Cost-effectiveness is unclear due to lack of directly observed cost-effectiveness outcomes. We found no studies that evaluated whether pharmacogenomics shortens time to optimal treatment, whether improvements were due to switches to genetically congruent medication, or whether effectiveness varies based on test and patient characteristics. Certain pharmacogenomics tools show promise of improving short-term remission rates in women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities. But, important evidence limitations preclude recommending their widespread use and indicate a need for further research.

  4. On the mechanism of rapid postirradiation recovery of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid postirradiation recovery of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is equally effective both in water and in a liquid nutrition medium. In the haploid strains, rapid recovery occurs more readily in the log phase than in the stationary phase of growth. In the diploid strains, rapid recovery is more effective in the log phase than in the stationary phase. Rapid recovery of yeast does not require an additional protein synthesis. Damages induced by UV-light are not sub ected to rapid recovery

  5. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David C. White

    2005-01-01

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  6. Use of HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test for Plasmodium falciparum malaria: assessing accuracy and cost-effectiveness in the villages of Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trape Jean-François

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and, in 2007, mandated testing for all suspected cases of malaria with a Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT(Paracheck®. Given the higher cost of ACT compared to earlier anti-malarials, the objectives of the present study were i to study the accuracy of Paracheck® compared to the thick blood smear (TBS in two areas with different levels of malaria endemicity and ii analyse the cost-effectiveness of the strategy of the parasitological confirmation of clinically suspected malaria cases management recommended by the NMCP. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Dielmo and Ndiop (Senegal nested in a cohort study of about 800 inhabitants. For all the individuals consulting between October 2008 and January 2009 with a clinical diagnosis of malaria, a questionnaire was filled and finger-prick blood samples were taken both for microscopic examination and RDT. The estimated costs and cost-effectiveness analysis were made considering five scenarios, the recommendations of the NMCP being the reference scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed assuming that all the RDT-positive patients and 50% of RDT-negative patients were treated with ACT. Results A total of 189 consultations for clinically suspected malaria occurred during the study period. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were respectively 100%, 98.3%, 80.0% and 100%. The estimated cost of the reference scenario was close to 700€ per 1000 episodes of illness, approximately twice as expensive as most of the other scenarios. Nevertheless, it appeared to us cost-effective while ensuring the diagnosis and the treatment of 100% of malaria attacks and an adequate management of 98.4% of episodes

  7. Use of HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test for Plasmodium falciparum malaria: assessing accuracy and cost-effectiveness in the villages of Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Alioune Badara; Tall, Adama; Perry, Robert; Baril, Laurence; Badiane, Abdoulaye; Faye, Joseph; Rogier, Christophe; Touré, Aissatou; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François; Michel, Rémy

    2010-06-04

    In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and, in 2007, mandated testing for all suspected cases of malaria with a Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT(Paracheck). Given the higher cost of ACT compared to earlier anti-malarials, the objectives of the present study were i) to study the accuracy of Paracheck compared to the thick blood smear (TBS) in two areas with different levels of malaria endemicity and ii) analyse the cost-effectiveness of the strategy of the parasitological confirmation of clinically suspected malaria cases management recommended by the NMCP. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Dielmo and Ndiop (Senegal) nested in a cohort study of about 800 inhabitants. For all the individuals consulting between October 2008 and January 2009 with a clinical diagnosis of malaria, a questionnaire was filled and finger-prick blood samples were taken both for microscopic examination and RDT. The estimated costs and cost-effectiveness analysis were made considering five scenarios, the recommendations of the NMCP being the reference scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed assuming that all the RDT-positive patients and 50% of RDT-negative patients were treated with ACT. A total of 189 consultations for clinically suspected malaria occurred during the study period. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were respectively 100%, 98.3%, 80.0% and 100%. The estimated cost of the reference scenario was close to 700 euros per 1000 episodes of illness, approximately twice as expensive as most of the other scenarios. Nevertheless, it appeared to us cost-effective while ensuring the diagnosis and the treatment of 100% of malaria attacks and an adequate management of 98.4% of episodes of illness. The present study also demonstrated

  8. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  9. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  10. Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Shannon C K; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Liston, Aaron; Livshultz, Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way polytomy, leaving ambiguous the homology of aggregated pollen in two major lineages, the Periplocoideae, which possess pollen tetrads, and the milkweeds (Secamonoideae plus Asclepiadoideae), which possess pollinia. To assess whether greatly increased character sampling would resolve these relationships, a plastome sequence data matrix was assembled for 13 taxa of Apocynaceae, including nine newly generated complete plastomes, one partial new plastome, and three previously reported plastomes, collectively representing all primary crown clade lineages and outgroups. The effects of phylogenetic noise, long-branch attraction, and model selection (linked versus unlinked branch lengths among data partitions) were evaluated in a hypothesis-testing framework based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Discrimination among alternative crown clade resolutions was affected by all three factors. Exclusion of the noisiest alignment positions and topologies influenced by long-branch attraction resulted in a trichotomy along the spine of the crown clade consisting of Rhabdadenia+the Asian clade, Baisseeae+milkweeds, and Periplocoideae+the New World clade. Parsimony reconstruction on all optimal topologies after noise exclusion unambiguously supports parallel evolution of aggregated pollen in Periplocoideae (tetrads) and milkweeds (pollinia). Our phylogenomic approach has greatly advanced the resolution of one of the most perplexing radiations in Apocynaceae, providing the

  11. Clinician Perspectives of Barriers to Effective Implementation of a Rapid Response System in an Academic Health Centre: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rihari-Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Systemic and structural issues of rapid response system (RRS models can hinder implementation. This study sought to understand the ways in which acute care clinicians (physicians and nurses experience and negotiate care for deteriorating patients within the RRS. Methods Physicians and nurses working within an Australian academic health centre within a jurisdictional-based model of clinical governance participated in focus group interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Thirty-four participants (21 physicians and 13 registered nurses [RNs] participated in six focus groups over five weeks in 2014. Implementing the RRS in daily practice was a process of informal communication and negotiation in spite of standardised protocols. Themes highlighted several systems or organisational-level barriers to an effective RRS, including (1 responsibility is inversely proportional to clinical experience; (2 actions around system flexibility contribute to deviation from protocol; (3 misdistribution of resources leads to perceptions of inadequate staffing levels inhibiting full optimisation of the RRS; and (4 poor communication and documentation of RRS increases clinician workloads. Conclusion Implementing a RRS is complex and multifactorial, influenced by various inter- and intra-professional factors, staffing models and organisational culture. The RRS is not a static model; it is both reflexive and iterative, perpetually transforming to meet healthcare consumer and provider demands and local unit contexts and needs. Requiring more than just a strong initial implementation phase, new models of care such as a RRS demand good governance processes, ongoing support and regular evaluation and refinement. Cultural, organizational and professional factors, as well as systems-based processes, require consideration if RRSs are to achieve their intended outcomes in dynamic healthcare settings.

  12. A novel approach for rapidly and cost-effectively assessing toxicity of toxic metals in acidic water using an acidophilic iron-oxidizing biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental and health concern. Acidic wastewaters are often associated with toxic metals which may enter and spread into agricultural soils. Several biological assays have been developed to detect toxic metals; however, most of them can only detect toxic metals in a neutral pH, not in an acidic environment. In this study, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) Strain Y10 was isolated, characterized, and used to detect toxic metals toxicity in acidic water at pH 2.5. The colorimetric acidophilic IOB biosensor was based on the inhibition of the iron oxidizing ability of Strain Y10, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, by metals toxicity. Our results showed that Strain Y10 is acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium. Thiobacillus caldus medium (TCM) (pH 2.5) supplied with both S 4 O 6 2- and glucose was the optimum growth medium for Strain Y10. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of Strain Y10 was 45 °C and pH 2.5, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the color-based acidophilic IOB biosensor can be semi-quantitatively observed by eye or quantitatively measured by spectrometer to detect toxicity from multiple toxic metals at pH 2.5 within 45 min. Our study shows that monitoring toxic metals in acidic water is possible by using the acidophilic IOB biosensor. Our study thus provides a novel approach for rapid and cost-effective detection of toxic metals in acidic conditions that can otherwise compromise current methods of chemical analysis. This method also allows for increased efficiency when screening large numbers of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the laser and light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on midpalatal suture bone formation after rapid maxilla expansion: a Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Cristiane Becher; Habib, Fernando Antonio Lima; de Araújo, Telma Martins; Aragão, Juliana Silveira; Gomes, Rafael Soares; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Silveira, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of laser or light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on the bone formation at the midpalatal suture after rapid maxilla expansion. Twenty young adult male rats were divided into four groups with 8 days of experimental time: group 1, no treatment; group 2, expansion; group 3, expansion and laser irradiation; and group 4, expansion and LED irradiation. In groups 3 and 4, light irradiation was in the first, third, and fifth experimental days. In all groups, the expansion was accomplished with a helicoid 0.020" stainless steel orthodontic spring. A diode laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW, spot of 0.04 cm(2), t = 257 s, spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) of 18 J/cm(2)) or a LED (λ850 nm, 150 mW ± 10 mW, spot of 0.5 cm(2), t = 120 s, SAEF of 18 J/cm(2)) were used. The samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy carried out at midpalatal suture and at the cortical area close to the suture. Two Raman shifts were analyzed: ∼ 960 (phosphate hydroxyapatite) and ∼ 1,450 cm(-1) (lipids and protein). Data was submitted to statistical analysis. Significant statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found in the hydroxyapatite (CHA) peaks among the expansion group and the expansion and laser or LED groups. The LED group presented higher mean peak values of CHA. No statistical differences were found between the treated groups as for collagen deposition, although LED also presented higher mean peak values. The results of this study using Raman spectral analysis indicate that laser and LED light irradiation improves deposition of CHA in the midpalatal suture after orthopedic expansion.

  14. Effect of rare-earth elements and quenching wheel speed on the structure, mechanical and thermal properties of rapidly solidified AZ91 Mg melt-spun ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekrami, A. [Iran University of Industries & Mines, Faculty of Engineering & High-Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahri, F., E-mail: fshahri@irost.ir [Iranian Research Organization for Science & Technology, Department of Advanced Materials & Renewable Energy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirak, A. [Iran University of Industries & Mines, Faculty of Engineering & High-Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-27

    In this work, an attempt is made to study the effects of rare-earth elements as an additive (2 wt% of Ce base misch-metal) and various quenching wheel speeds (10–40 m/s) on the microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties of rapidly solidified AZ91 alloy prepared by single roller melt-spinning process. In this respect, all of the samples were studied using various techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical properties such as microhardness and tensile tests. The finding bore witness to proposed hypothesis in this study illustrating due to high affinity between Al and RE by adding 2 wt% rare-earth elements in the AZ91alloy, thermally stable Al{sub x}RE{sub y} intermetallic compounds are precipitated and the formation of β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phases is reduced. DSC results revealed that by adding RE to AZ91 alloy, AlRE phases got stable up to 500 °C, while for the AZ91 sample, β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase was formed at temperature about 180 °C and then with increasing of temperature dissolved at 410 °C in the α-Mg matrix. Further it has been observed that the higher was the quenching wheel speed, the smaller was the grain size which in turn gives rise to a higher tensile properties (from 406 MPa for quenching wheel speed of 10 m/s to 510 MPa for 40 m/s) for the MM-added alloys. Tensile strength of 386 MPa was obtained for the AZ91 pure alloy which is prepared at wheel speed of 40 m/sec.

  15. Combined effect of rapid nitriding and plastic deformation on the surface strength, toughness and wear resistance of steel 38CrMoAlA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B.; Lv, Z.A.; Zhou, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    The combined treatment of pressurized gas nitriding and cold rolling is proposed as a new approach to rapid preparation of a strong and tough nitrided layer for steel 38CrMoAlA. The microstructural characteristics and properties of the modified surface layer in comparison with those of the conven......The combined treatment of pressurized gas nitriding and cold rolling is proposed as a new approach to rapid preparation of a strong and tough nitrided layer for steel 38CrMoAlA. The microstructural characteristics and properties of the modified surface layer in comparison with those...

  16. Effectiveness of a Rapid Lumbar Spine MRI Protocol Using 3D T2-Weighted SPACE Imaging Versus a Standard Protocol for Evaluation of Degenerative Changes of the Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Anousheh; Jay, Ann K; Toaff, Jacob S; Makariou, Erini V; Berkowitz, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Reducing lumbar spine MRI scanning time while retaining diagnostic accuracy can benefit patients and reduce health care costs. This study compares the effectiveness of a rapid lumbar MRI protocol using 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast with different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) sequences with a standard MRI protocol for evaluation of lumbar spondylosis. Two hundred fifty consecutive unenhanced lumbar MRI examinations performed at 1.5 T were retrospectively reviewed. Full, rapid, and complete versions of each examination were interpreted for spondylotic changes at each lumbar level, including herniations and neural compromise. The full examination consisted of sagittal T1-weighted, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), and STIR sequences; and axial T1- and T2-weighted TSE sequences (time, 18 minutes 40 seconds). The rapid examination consisted of sagittal T1- and T2-weighted SPACE sequences, with axial SPACE reformations (time, 8 minutes 46 seconds). The complete examination consisted of the full examination plus the T2-weighted SPACE sequence. Sensitivities and specificities of the full and rapid examinations were calculated using the complete study as the reference standard. The rapid and full studies had sensitivities of 76.0% and 69.3%, with specificities of 97.2% and 97.9%, respectively, for all degenerative processes. Rapid and full sensitivities were 68.7% and 66.3% for disk herniation, 85.2% and 81.5% for canal compromise, 82.9% and 69.1% for lateral recess compromise, and 76.9% and 69.7% for foraminal compromise, respectively. Isotropic SPACE T2-weighted imaging provides high-quality imaging of lumbar spondylosis, with multiplanar reformatting capability. Our SPACE-based rapid protocol had sensitivities and specificities for herniations and neural compromise comparable to those of the protocol without SPACE. This protocol fits within a 15-minute slot, potentially reducing costs and discomfort for a large subgroup of

  17. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  19. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  1. Land use impacts of bus rapid transit : phase II -- effects of BRT station proximity on property values along the Boston silver line Washington Street Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the U.S.; however, several systems are operating and many : more are being planned. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land uses and BRT systems is need...

  2. Behavioral and psychosocial effects of rapid genetic counseling and testing in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients: Design of a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, Marijke R; Rutgers, Emiel JTh; Aaronson, Neil K; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline MA; Hahn, Daniela EE; Hogervorst, Frans BL; Luijt, Rob B van der; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Hillegersberg, Richard van

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that between 5% and 10% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a hereditary form of the disease, primarily caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. Such women have an increased risk of developing a new primary breast and/or ovarian tumor, and may therefore opt for preventive surgery (e.g., bilateral mastectomy, oophorectomy). It is common practice to offer high-risk patients genetic counseling and DNA testing after their primary treatment, with genetic test results being available within 4-6 months. However, some non-commercial laboratories can currently generate test results within 3 to 6 weeks, and thus make it possible to provide rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) prior to primary treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of RGCT on treatment decisions and on psychosocial health. In this randomized controlled trial, 255 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with at least a 10% risk of carrying a BRCA gene mutation are being recruited from 12 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either a RGCT intervention group (the offer of RGCT directly following diagnosis with tests results available before surgical treatment) or to a usual care control group. The primary behavioral outcome is the uptake of direct bilateral mastectomy or delayed prophylactic contralateral mastectomy. Psychosocial outcomes include cancer risk perception, cancer-related worry and distress, health-related quality of life, decisional satisfaction and the perceived need for and use of additional decisional counseling and psychosocial support. Data are collected via medical chart audits and self-report questionnaires administered prior to randomization, and at 6 month and at 12 month follow-up. This trial will provide essential information on the impact of RGCT on the choice of primary surgical treatment among women with breast cancer with an increased risk of hereditary cancer. This study will also provide

  3. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was ∼64% higher (P < 0.001) after isomaltulose ingestion, which results in an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P < 0.001) compared with sucrose. The cumulative amount of systemic glucose appearance was ∼35% lower after isomaltulose than after sucrose (P = 0.003) because of the reduction in orally derived and endogenously produced glucose and a higher first-pass splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU). Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  4. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B{sub 0} field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachowicz, K., E-mail: keith.wachowicz@albertahealthservices.ca; De Zanche, N.; Yip, E. [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Volotovskyy, V. [Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B{sub 0}. This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B{sub 0} that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B{sub 0}-dependant relaxation for various tumor and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B{sub 0} field (specifically the T{sub 1} time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B{sub 0} fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T{sub 1} contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B{sub 0} reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.

  5. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  6. The effect of rapid and sustained decompression on barotrauma in juvenile brook lamprey and Pacific lamprey: implications for passage at hydroelectric facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Brauner, Colin J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.

    2012-10-01

    Fish passing downstream through hydroelectric facilities may pass through hydroturbines where they experience a rapid decrease in barometric pressure as they pass by turbine blades, which can lead to barotraumas including swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, emboli, and hemorrhaging. In juvenile Chinook salmon, the main mechanism for injury is thought to be expansion of existing gases (particularly those present in the swim bladder) and the rupture of the swim bladder ultimately leading to exopthalmia, emboli and hemorrhaging. In fish that lack a swim bladder, such as lamprey, the rate and severity of barotraumas due to rapid decompression may be reduced however; this has yet to be extensively studied. Another mechanism for barotrauma can be gases coming out of solution and the rate of this occurrence may vary among species. In this study, juvenile brook and Pacific lamprey acclimated to 146.2 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 4.6 m) were subjected to rapid (<1 sec; brook lamprey only) or sustained decompression (17 minutes) to a very low pressure (13.8 kPa) using a protocol previously applied to juvenile Chinook salmon. No mortality or evidence of barotraumas, as indicated by the presence of hemorrhages, emboli or exopthalmia, were observed during rapid or sustained decompression, nor following recovery for up to 120 h following sustained decompression. In contrast, mortality or injury would be expected for 97.5% of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to a similar rapid decompression to these very low pressures. Additionally, juvenile Chinook salmon experiencing sustained decompression died within 7 minutes, accompanied by emboli in the fins and gills and hemorrhaging in the tissues. Thus, juvenile lamprey may not be susceptible to barotraumas associated with hydroturbine passage to the same degree as juvenile salmonids, and management of these species should be tailored to their specific morphological and physiological characteristics.

  7. Liquid Phase Separation and the Aging Effect on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Laser Rapidly Solidified Cu100−xCrx Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hua Si

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duplex structure Cu-Cr alloys are widely used as contact materials. They are generally designed by increasing the Cr content for the hardness improvement, which, however, leads to the unfavorable rapid increase of the electrical resistivity. The solidification behavior of Cu100−xCrx (x = 4.2, 25 and 50 in wt.% alloys prepared by laser rapid solidification is studied here, and their hardness and electrical conductivity after aging are measured. The results show that the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy has the most desirable combination of hardness and conductive properties after aging in comparison with Cu-25%Cr and Cu-50%Cr alloys. Very importantly, a 50% improvement in hardness is achieved with a simultaneous 70% reduction in electrical resistivity. The reason is mainly attributed to the liquid phase separation occurring in the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy, which introduces a large a

  8. Effectiveness of transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange versus traditional preoxygenation followed by apnoeic oxygenation in delaying desaturation during apnoea: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Rajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE during apnoea has shown to delay desaturation. The primary objective was to compare time to desaturate to 200 mmHg even at 12 min of apnoea with a significant rise in PaCO2along with fall in pH after 6 min. Conclusion: During apnoeic periods time to desaturate to <90% was significantly prolonged with use of THRIVE.

  9. Quantification of whey proteins by reversed phase-HPLC and effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy for their rapid prediction in sweet whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, Alba; De Marchi, Massimo; Masi, Antonio; Cassandro, Martino

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, membrane filtration is used to reduce the amount of whey waste and, simultaneously, to recover whey proteins (WP). The composition of WP can strongly affect the filtration treatment of whey, and rapid determination of WP fractions would be of interest for dairy producers to monitor WP recovery. This study aimed to develop mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) prediction models for the rapid quantification of protein in sweet whey, using a validated rapid reversed phase (RP)-HPLC as a reference method. Quantified WP included α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) A and B, bovine serum albumin, caseinomacropeptides, and proteose peptone. Validation of RP-HPLC was performed by calculating the relative standard deviation (RSD) in repeatability and reproducibility tests for WP retention time and peak areas. Samples of liquid whey (n=187) were analyzed by RP-HPLC and scanned through MIRS to collect spectral information (900 to 4,000 cm(-1)); statistical analysis was carried out through partial least squares regression and random cross-validation procedure. Retention times in RP-HPLC method were stable (RSD between 0.03 and 0.80%), whereas the RSD of peak area (from 0.25 to 8.48%) was affected by WP relative abundance. Higher coefficients of determination in validation for MIRS model were obtained for protein fractions present in whey in large amounts, such as β-LG (0.58), total identified WP (0.58), and α-LA (0.56). Results of this study suggest that MIRS is an easy method for rapid quantification of detail protein in sweet whey, even if better resolution was achieved with the method based on RP-HPLC. The prediction of WP in sweet whey by MIRS might be used for screening and for classifying sweet whey according to its total and individual WP contents. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A rapid method for measuring maximum density temperatures in water and aqueous solutions for the study of quantum zero point energy effects in these liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, F A; O'Leary, J P

    2008-01-01

    The connection between quantum zero point fluctuations and a density maximum in water and in liquid He 4 has recently been established. Here we present a description of a simple and rapid method of determining the temperatures at which maximum densities in water and aqueous solutions occur. The technique is such as to allow experiments to be carried out in one session of an undergraduate laboratory thereby introducing students to the concept of quantum zero point energy

  11. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  12. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the composition of Au/Ti/Al/Ti ohmic contacts for GaN-based microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Ynsa, M.D.; Romero, M.F.; Alves, L.C.; Muñoz, E.

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of Au/Ti/Al/Ti ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN devices was analyzed as a function of the thickness of the Ti barrier (30 nm 50 nm, although several compositional deficiencies were identified in the distribution maps obtained with the ion microprobe, including the formation of craters. A clear interplay between Ti and Au was found, suggesting the relevance of lateral flows during the rapid thermal annealing

  13. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  14. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  15. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  16. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  17. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however......, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market...... policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...

  18. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  19. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    No dataset associated with this publication.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Augustine, S. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, 56(7): 1-2, (2016).

  20. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  1. Rapid MRI using a modified Dixon technique: a non-invasive and effective method for detection and monitoring of fatty metamorphosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbein, M.H.; Stevens, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are frequently associated with obesity. Weight loss is the mainstay of therapy for these conditions. In this case report, we used a modification of the Dixon method to demonstrate normalization of hepatic fat content in an obese individual with fatty liver following weight reduction. This technique involves fast gradient echo instead of spin echo, which has been utilized previously, as the former provides an accurate and more rapid means of assessing hepatic fat content. This technique is recommended for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in at-risk subjects. (orig.)

  2. Rapid MRI using a modified Dixon technique: a non-invasive and effective method for detection and monitoring of fatty metamorphosis of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, M.H. [Pediatric Gastroenterology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Springfield, IL (United States); Stevens, W.R. [St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are frequently associated with obesity. Weight loss is the mainstay of therapy for these conditions. In this case report, we used a modification of the Dixon method to demonstrate normalization of hepatic fat content in an obese individual with fatty liver following weight reduction. This technique involves fast gradient echo instead of spin echo, which has been utilized previously, as the former provides an accurate and more rapid means of assessing hepatic fat content. This technique is recommended for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in at-risk subjects. (orig.)

  3. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  9. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  10. Effects of weak nonlinearity on dispersion relations and frequency band-gaps of periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    of these for nonlinear problems is impossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable for linear systems only. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applica-tions may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response to be accounted for....... The present work deals with analytically predicting dynamic responses for nonlinear continuous elastic periodic structures. Specifically, the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion re-lation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam performing bending os-cillations are analyzed......The analysis of the behaviour of linear periodic structures can be traced back over 300 years, to Sir Isaac Newton, and still attracts much attention. An essential feature of periodic struc-tures is the presence of frequency band-gaps, i.e. frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate...

  11. Time-resolved photoluminescence of Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum wells grown on Si substrate: Effects of rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woscholski, R., E-mail: ronja.woscholski@physik.uni-marburg.de; Shakfa, M.K.; Gies, S.; Wiemer, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Zimprich, M.; Reinhard, S.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Heimbrodt, W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.

    2016-08-31

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties and carrier dynamics in Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates. TR-PL measurements reveal an enhancement in the PL efficiency when the RTA temperature is increased up to 925 °C. Then, the PL intensity dramatically decreases with the annealing temperature. This behavior is explained by the variation of the disorder degree in the studied structures. The analysis of the low-temperature emission-energy-dependent PL decay time enables us to characterize the disorder in the Ga(NAsP) MQWHs. The theoretically extracted energy-scales of disorder confirm the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates • Impact of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties and carrier dynamics • Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied. • PL transients became continuously faster with increasing annealing temperature. • Enhancement in the PL efficiency with increasing annealing temperature up to 925 °C.

  12. Time-resolved photoluminescence of Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum wells grown on Si substrate: Effects of rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woscholski, R.; Shakfa, M.K.; Gies, S.; Wiemer, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Zimprich, M.; Reinhard, S.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Heimbrodt, W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties and carrier dynamics in Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates. TR-PL measurements reveal an enhancement in the PL efficiency when the RTA temperature is increased up to 925 °C. Then, the PL intensity dramatically decreases with the annealing temperature. This behavior is explained by the variation of the disorder degree in the studied structures. The analysis of the low-temperature emission-energy-dependent PL decay time enables us to characterize the disorder in the Ga(NAsP) MQWHs. The theoretically extracted energy-scales of disorder confirm the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates • Impact of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties and carrier dynamics • Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied. • PL transients became continuously faster with increasing annealing temperature. • Enhancement in the PL efficiency with increasing annealing temperature up to 925 °C

  13. Effect of component substitution on the magnetic properties of Zr2Co11 phase and rapidly quenched Zr2Co11 - based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaj, A.M.; Shchegoleva, N.N.; Gaviko, V.S.; Ivanova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic properties of homogenized ingots and rapidly quenched ribbons of (Zr 1-x M x ) 16.4 Co 83.6 with M=Ti, Nb, Y, Gd and Zr 16.4 (Co 1-y M* y ) 83.6 with M*= Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, Si are studied. The phase composition of the alloys is determined with the help of thermomagnetic analysis and, in specific cases, with the use of X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopical data. It is ascertained that a part of zirconium in a phase Zr 2 Co 11 can be replaced by titanium and niobium. The solubility of rare earth elements is noted to be not revealed. Cobalt is partially replaced by Al, Cu, Ga, Si, Ni and Fe in a 2:11 phase, and Mn stabilizes the structure of a Laves phase with unexpectedly strong ferromagnetic properties. For magnetic hardness of the rapidly quenched alloys the introduction of Ti is appeared to be most beneficial. This element enhances noticeably the coercive force and hysteresis loop rectangularity and, as it takes place, it does not change practically magnetic properties of a 2:11 phase but suppresses the formation of dendrites on its crystallization. A small increase of the coercive force is also observed on addition of Cu and Al [ru

  14. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  15. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  16. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  17. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  18. Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.

    1984-07-01

    The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.

  19. A note on Lorentz transformation and pseudo-rapidity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.

    1980-07-01

    It is shown that although rapidity and pseudo-rapidity are almost equivalent variables, their difference may in pratice become quite remarkable. Non Lorentz invariance of pseudo-rapidity distributions may cause appearance of strange effects at first sight, such as deformation of a perfectly symmetric particle distribution into an asymmetric one when going to another frame. (Author) [pt

  20. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Rensberger

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals.Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  1. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, John M; Martínez, Ricardo N

    2015-01-01

    Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals. Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered) bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha) than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  2. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  3. Fission-fragment and neutron data traced back to the macroscopic and microscopic properties of the fissioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K.-H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new model description of fission-fragment yields and prompt neutron emission is developed. The yields of the different fission channels and their properties are attributed to the number of relevant states above the potential-energy landscape on the fission path at the moment of dynamical freeze-out, which is specific to the collective coordinate considered. The model combines well established ideas with novel concepts. The separability principle of macroscopic properties of the compound nucleus and microscopic properties of the fragments strongly reduces the number of model parameters and assures a high predictive power. The recently discovered energy-sorting mechanism in superfluid nuclear dynamics determines the sharing of intrinsic excitation energy at scission and the enhancement of even-odd structure in asymmetric splits.

  4. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  5. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael F; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  6. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  8. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  10. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  16. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  19. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  20. STORYTELLING IN EARLY-STAGE STARTUP FUNDING ACQUISITION : Case: GOOROO Education

    OpenAIRE

    Phat Tram, Gia

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling is a human activity that could be traced back to time immemorial. It was discovered to be a human adaptation that played an important role in the survival of human beings, and that our predilection for and dependence on stories for eons have come to reshape our mind, making us process information delivered via story structure more rapidly, flexibly and precisely. In addition, the past decades have witnessed numerous neurological findings that elucidate the effects that telling an...

  1. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  2. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  3. Rapid learning: a breakthrough agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2014-07-01

    A "rapid-learning health system" was proposed in a 2007 thematic issue of Health Affairs. The system was envisioned as one that uses evidence-based medicine to quickly determine the best possible treatments for patients. It does so by drawing on electronic health records and the power of big data to access large volumes of information from a variety of sources at high speed. The foundation for a rapid-learning health system was laid during 2007-13 by workshops, policy papers, large public investments in databases and research programs, and developing learning systems. Challenges now include implementing a new clinical research system with several hundred million patients, modernizing clinical trials and registries, devising and funding research on national priorities, and analyzing genetic and other factors that influence diseases and responses to treatment. Next steps also should aim to improve comparative effectiveness research; build on investments in health information technology to standardize handling of genetic information and support information exchange through apps and software modules; and develop new tools, data, and information for clinical decision support. Further advances will require commitment, leadership, and public-private and global collaboration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Effect of Thermal Annealing and Second Harmonic Generation on Bulk Damage Performance of Rapid-Growth KDP Type I Doublers at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, M; Maricle, S; Torres, R; Auerbach, J; Floyd, R; Hawley-Fedder, R; Burnham, A K

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of thermal annealing and in-situ second harmonic generation (SHG) damage tests performed on six rapid growth KDP type 1 doubler crystals at 1064 nm (1 ω) on the Zeus automated damage test facility. Unconditioned (S/1) and conditioned (R/1) damage probability tests were performed before and after thermal annealing, then with and without SHG on six doubler crystals from the NIF-size, rapid growth KDP boule F6. The tests revealed that unannealed, last-grown material from the boule in either prismatic or pyramidal sectors exhibited the highest damage curves. After thermal annealing at 160 C for seven days, the prismatic sector samples increased in performance ranging from 1.6 to 2.4X, while material from the pyramidal sector increased only modestly, ranging from 1.0 to 1.4X. Second harmonic generation decreased the damage fluence by an average of 20 percent for the S/1 tests and 40 percent for R/1 tests. Conversion efficiencies under test conditions were measured to be 20 to 30 percent and compared quite well to predicted behavior, as modeled by LLNL frequency conversion computer codes. The damage probabilities at the 1 ω NIF redline fluence (scaled to 10 ns via t 0.5 ) for S/1 tests for the unannealed samples ranged from 20 percent in one sample to 90-100 percent for the other 5 samples. Thermal annealing reduced the damage probabilities to less than 35 percent for 3 of the poor-performing crystals, while two pyramidal samples remained in the 80 to 90 percent range. Second harmonic generation in the annealed crystal increased the S/1 damage probabilities on all the crystals and ranged from 40 to 100 percent. In contrast, R/1 testing of an unannealed crystal resulted in a damage probability at the NIF redline fluence of 16%. Annealing increased the damage performance to the extent that all test sites survived NIF redline fluences without damage. Second harmonic generation in the R/1 test yielded a damage probability of less than 2

  5. The Effects of Rapid Sedimentation upon Continental Breakup: Kinematic and Thermal Modeling of the Salton Trough, Southern California, Based upon Recent Seismic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) illuminated crustal and upper mantle structure of the Salton Trough, the northern-most rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary. The crust is 17-18 km thick and homogeneous for 100 km in the plate motion direction. New crust is being created by distributed rift magmatism, Colorado River sedimentation, and metamorphism of the sediment. A 5 km thick pre-existing crustal layer may still exist. The crust has not broken apart to enable initiation of seafloor spreading. A one-dimensional time-dependent kinematic and thermal model was developed to simulate these observations. We assume that all crustal layers are stretched uniformly during extension. Distributed mafic magmatism and sedimentation are added simultaneously to compensate for the crustal thinning. The ratio of magmatism to sedimentation is constrained by the seismic observations. Heat is transported by thermal conduction and by advection due to stretching of the crust. A constant temperature boundary at the Moho is used to represent partial melting in the upper mantle. Assuming a constant plate motion rate, the zone of active rifting extends linearly with time. The crustal thickness and internal structure also evolve with time. The model constraints are the observed seismic structure and heat flow. The model rapidly reaches quasi-steady state, and could continue for many millions of years. The observed seismic structure and heat flow are reproduced after 3 Myr. The yield strength profile calculated from lithology and model temperature indicates that ductile deformation in the middle and lower crust dominates the crustal rheology. Rapid sedimentation delays crustal breakup and the initiation of seafloor spreading by maintaining the thickness of the crust and keeping it predominantly ductile. This process probably occurs wherever a large river flows into an active rift driven by far-field extension. It may have built passive margins in many locations

  6. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  7. Centrality, Rapidity And Transverse-Momentum Dependence of Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/Psi Production in D Au, Cu Cu And Au Au Collisions at S(NN)**(1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-11

    We have carried out a wide study of Cold Nuclear Matter (CNM) effects on J/{Psi} = production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parameterizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/{Psi} is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2 {yields} 2 process, namely g + g {yields} J/{psi} + g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its anti-shadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parameterization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of a 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of RCP in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  8. A drop in the pond: the effect of rapid mass-loss on the dynamics and interaction rate of collisionless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoyre, Zephyr; Haiman, Zoltán

    2018-01-01

    In symmetric gravitating systems experiencing rapid mass-loss, particle orbits change almost instantaneously, which can lead to the development of a sharply contoured density profile, including singular caustics for collisionless systems. This framework can be used to model a variety of dynamical systems, such as accretion discs following a massive black hole merger and dwarf galaxies following violent early star formation feedback. Particle interactions in the high-density peaks seem a promising source of observable signatures of these mass-loss events (i.e. a possible EM counterpart for black hole mergers or strong gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation around young galaxies), because the interaction rate depends on the square of the density. We study post-mass-loss density profiles, both analytic and numerical, in idealized cases and present arguments and methods to extend to any general system. An analytic derivation is presented for particles on Keplerian orbits responding to a drop in the central mass. We argue that this case, with initially circular orbits, gives the most sharply contoured profile possible. We find that despite the presence of a set of singular caustics, the total particle interaction rate is reduced compared to the unperturbed system; this is a result of the overall expansion of the system dominating over the steep caustics. Finally, we argue that this result holds more generally, and the loss of central mass decreases the particle interaction rate in any physical system.

  9. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (Al6(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  10. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (Al-5Mg-Mn alloy with low Fe content (Al₆(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al-5Mg-Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  11. Rapid and cost-effective identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia directly from blood-culture fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarikou, Christina; Altieri, Anna; Bossa, Maria Cristina; Minelli, Silvia; Dolfa, Camilla; Piperno, Micol; Favalli, Cartesio

    2018-03-01

    Rapid pathogen identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in bacteremia cases or sepsis could improve patient prognosis. Thus, it is important to provide timely reports, which make it possible for clinicians to set up appropriate antibiotic therapy during the early stages of bloodstream infection (BSI). This study evaluates an in-house microbiological protocol for early ID as well as AST on Gram negative bacteria directly from positive monomicrobial and polymicrobial blood cultures (BCs). A total of 102 non-duplicated positive BCs from patients with Gram-negative bacteremia were tested. Both IDs and ASTs were performed from bacterial pellets extracted directly from BCs using our protocol, which was applied through the combined use of a MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek2 automated system. The results of our study showed a 100% agreement in bacterial ID and 98.25% categorical agreement in AST when compared to those obtained by routine conventional methods. We recorded only a 0.76% minor error (mE), 0.76% major error (ME) and a 0.20% very major error (VME). Moreover, the turnaround time (TAT) regarding the final AST report was significantly shortened (ΔTAT = 8-20 h, p patient management, by early and appropriate antimicrobial treatment and could potentially optimize antimicrobial stewardship programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-12-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples.

  13. Comparison of the effect of rocuronium dosing based on corrected or lean body weight on rapid sequence induction and neuromuscular blockade duration in obese female patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakızcı-Uyar, Bahar; Çelik, Şeref; Postacı, Aysun; Bayraktar, Yeşim; Dikmen, Bayazit; Özkoçak-Turan, Işıl; Saçan, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare onset time, duration of action, and tracheal intubation conditions in obese patients when the intubation dose of rocuronium was based on corrected body weight (CBW) versus lean body weight (LBW) for rapid sequence induction. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey between August 2013 and May 2014. Forty female obese patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups. Group CBW (n=20) received 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium based on CBW, and group LBW (n=20) received 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium based on LBW. Endotracheal intubation was performed 60 seconds after injection of muscle relaxant, and intubating conditions were evaluated. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored using acceleromyography of the adductor pollicis. Onset time, defined as time to depression of the twitch tension to 95% of its control value, and duration of action, defined as time to achieve one response to train-of-four stimulation (T1) were recorded. Results: No significant differences were observed between the groups in intubation conditions or onset time (50-60 seconds median, 30-30 interquartile range [IQR]). Duration of action was significantly longer in the CBW group (60 minutes median, 12 IQR) than the LBW group (35 minutes median, 16 IQR; procuronium based on LBW provides excellent or good tracheal intubating conditions within 60 seconds after administration and does not lead to prolonged duration of action. PMID:26739976

  14. Synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) using a rapid microwave irradiation method and investigation of the effect of copper (Cu) doping on the optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, M., E-mail: m.molaei@vru.ac.ir; Khezripour, A.R.; Karimipour, M.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized using a rapid microwave method. • Synthesized ZnSe NCs indicated an emission with two peaks. • For ZnSe:Cu NCs band edge emission of the ZnSe was completely disappeared. • Synthesized NCs can be dispersed in water therefore they are proper for biological applications. - Abstract: ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized using a microwave activated method. Synthesized NCs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible (UV–vis) optical spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis demonstrated cubic zinc blende NCs. TEM image indicated round shape NCs and most of the particles had diameters of about 3 nm. Band gap of the NCs was obtained about 3.15 eV and PL spectra indicates a broad emission with two peaks located about 415 and 500 nm related to band edge and trap state respectively. For ZnSe:Cu NCs, PL intensity of band gap emission of ZnSe NCs at 415 nm decreased gradually with the increase in the concentration of Cu dopant ions and for precursor ratio of Cu:Zn 1% band gap emission at 415 nm disappeared completely. At the same conditions, PL QY was obtained about 2% and 8% for ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu (1%) NCs, respectively.

  15. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  16. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  17. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  18. A national survey of the impact of rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy on health-care workers in Malawi: effects on human resources and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makombe, Simon D; Jahn, Andreas; Tweya, Hannock; Chuka, Stuart; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung; Hochgesang, Mindy; Aberle-Grasse, John; Pasulani, Olesi; Schouten, Erik J; Kamoto, Kelita; Harries, Anthony D

    2007-11-01

    To assess the human resources impact of Malawis rapidly growing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme and balance this against the survival benefit of health-care workers who have accessed ART themselves. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of the human resource allocation in all public-sector health facilities providing ART in mid-2006. We also undertook a survival analysis of health-care workers who had accessed ART in public and private facilities by 30 June 2006, using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system. By 30 June 2006, 59 581 patients had accessed ART from 95 public and 28 private facilities. The public sites provided ART services on 2.4 days per week on average, requiring 7% of the clinician workforce, 3% of the nursing workforce and 24% of the ward clerk workforce available at the facilities. We identified 1024 health-care workers in the national ART-patient cohort (2% of all ART patients). The probabilities for survival on ART at 6 months, 12 months and 18 months were 85%, 81% and 78%, respectively. An estimated 250 health-care workers lives were saved 12 months after ART initiation. Their combined work-time of more than 1000 staff-days per week was equivalent to the human resources required to provide ART at the national level. A large number of ART patients in Malawi are managed by a small proportion of the health-care workforce. Many health-care workers have accessed ART with good treatment outcomes. Currently, staffing required for ART balances against health-care workers lives saved through treatment, although this may change in the future.

  19. From optics to superconductivity. Many body effects in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesner, Malte; Schoenhoff, Gunnar; Wehling, Tim [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Bremen Center for Computational Material Sciences, University of Bremen (Germany); Steinhoff, Alexander; Jahnke, Frank; Gies, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Haas, Stephan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We discuss many body effects in MoS{sub 2} ranging from optical properties to the emergence superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave phases (CDW). Combining ab-initio theory and semiconductor Bloch equations we show that excited carriers cause a redshift of the excitonic ground-state absorption line, while higher excitonic lines disappear successively due to a huge Coulomb-induced band gap shrinkage of more than 500 meV and concomitant exciton binding-energy reductions. Upon strong charge doping, we observe a succession of semiconducting, metallic, SC, and CDW regimes. Both, the SC and the CDW instabilities trace back to a Kohn anomaly and related softening of Brillouin zone boundary phonons.

  20. Effect of rapid weight loss and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression of combat athletes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritto, Aline C C; Amano, Mariane T; De Cillo, Maria E; Oliveira, Vinicius A; Mendes, Sandro H; Yoshioka, Caroline; Roschel, Hamilton; Camara, Niels Olsen S; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme G

    2018-02-01

    The role of plasma glutamine concentration and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression was investigated in combat athletes. Twenty-three male athletes were randomly assigned to receive glutamine (21 g/day, n=12) or placebo (ovalbumin, n=11) for 10 days. Six athletes who did not lose weight served as controls. Athletes were assessed 21 days before (-21d), 1 day before (-1d) and 5 days after (+5d) a competition. Weight reduction was similar between glutamine (-8.2%± 4.1%) and placebo (-8.5%±2.4%) and negligible in control (-0.6%±1.4%). In both weight-loss groups, the majority of athletes reported symptoms of upper respiratory symptoms, as assessed by the Wisconsin upper respiratory symptom survey questionnaire. Only two athletes reported symptoms in the control group. Immune cell function remained unchanged throughout the study except for an increase in neutrophil phagocytic activi