WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid economic transition

  1. Economic impacts of bus rapid transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has generated great interest across the United States. There are more than 20 BRT : systems in existence, and more are in the planning stage (including in Detroit). Within the next few years, BRT will be plann...

  2. Economic Benefit of Introducing a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Kano State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. A.; Afolabi, S.; Nda, M.; Daura, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to know the variables use in quantifying economic benefits of public transport project, contribution of public transport to economic productivity This paper attempts to provide a Road User Cost (RUC) comparison of current usage of Buses and Cars in three different stages which are the present time, do nothing and the introduction of new modes. Vehicle operating cost (VOC), value of time (VOT), pollution cost, accident cost and environmental cost are calculated in other to know the benefits for their abilities to ensure accessibility and mobility, reduce accidents and reduce environmental loss. The study stretch involves an 11.1 km of 2-lane divided carriageway road connecting Kabuga bus stop to Janguza market. Social costs which included accident costs, accident cost of cars (private modes) were found to be 50 times the accident cost of bus accidents. California Air Resource Board (CARB) model was adopted to evaluate Environmental costs. The total road user costs were then obtained to provide comparative evaluation among the study modes. Furthermore, the multiple future scenarios were created to provide understanding about the need for inclusion of other modes. In this regard, this paper provided a framework for the cost evaluation for an urban area and results indicate that buses are more cost-effective in transportation of equivalent number of passengers.

  3. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  4. STYLIZED ECONOMIC FACTS OF TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASHA TRAJKOVA-NAJDOVSKA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of transition, former socialistic countries moved from planned to market economy. This journey typically started with sharp falls in economic activity in all transition countries, accompanied by deterioration of various social indicators. Hence, their main objective was the recovery of economic activity, i.e. increasing the economic growth rate, which in addition was supposed to enable catching up with the European developed economies. This growth movement is usually described by famous U-curve of transition. However, in spite of the efforts and reforms, all transition economies recorded various paces of recovery. This study discusses that difference, through various GDP indicators, - real GDP path, GDP growth rates path, the height of the GDP index achieved and the volatility of growth rates. Analysed in concert, these indicators suggest several other variations of the transition Ucurve, such as: the rapid-J group, the wide-U group and the L-curve group. Namely, almost three decades after the start of the transition, the differences persist, suggesting that some transition economies has not moved significantly towards catching up with the successful transition countries, or with the developed economies.

  5. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Economic Growth Models Transition

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    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  7. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  8. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  9. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  10. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, IOL; Schooling, CM; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM

    2013-01-01

    Background:With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong.Methods:Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups) to 2020 in Hong Kong using Po...

  11. Assessing the economic impact of public investment in Malaysia: a case study on MyRapid Transit project using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Meenachi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis is the question of whether public investment in transport infrastructure contributes positively to Malaysia’s economic growth and welfare. Although there are strong analytical reasons to believe that public investment spending is one of the important variables that influence growth, there remains significant uncertainty about its actual degree of influence. In Malaysia, whenever there is a collapse in domestic demand, government spending becomes an important m...

  12. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men. The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  13. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

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    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  14. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

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    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  15. Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.

  16. Short-term economic indicators. Transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This quarterly publication complements the OECD Main Economic Indicators. It presents a wide range of monthly, quarterly, and annual economic indicators covering such topics as industrial production, business surveys, construction, employment, earnings, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates and domestic and foreign trade for the following 21 transition countries: Bulgaria, Poland, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Republic of Slovenia, Belarus, Estonia, Romania, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Latvia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Armenia, Uzbekistan. (author)

  17. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    A recent six month investigation focused on: "Determining the benefits of propelling a scientific spacecraft by an 'Electric Sail' propulsion system to the edge of our solar system (the Heliopause), a distance of 100 to 120 AU, in ten years or less" has recently been completed by the Advance Concepts Office at NASA's MSFC. The concept investigated has been named the Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) by the MSFC team. The HERTS is a revolutionary propellant-less propulsion concept that is ideal for deep space missions to the Outer Planets, Heliopause, and beyond. It is unique in that it uses momentum exchange from naturally occurring solar wind protons to propel a spacecraft within the heliosphere. The propulsion system consists of an array of electrically positively-biased wires that extend outward 20 km from a rotating (one revolution per hour) spacecraft. It was determined that the HERTS system can accelerate a spacecraft to velocities as much as two to three times that possible by any realistic extrapolation of current state-of-the-art propulsion technologies- including solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems. The data produced show that a scientific spacecraft could reach distances of 100AU in less than 10 years. Moreover, it can be reasonably expected that this system could be developed within a decade and provide meaningful Heliophysics Science and Outer Planetary Science returns in the 2025-2035 timeframe.

  18. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  19. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J

    1998-05-01

    Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.

  20. Impacts of bus rapid transit (BRT) on surrounding residential property values : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the modes impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher ...

  1. Economic System and Transition Mode : A Comparative Research on Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    This passage mainly deals with the problem of why different transition countries have different transition mode and different economic performance. According to this research, it has been found that the economic system of the traditional socialist countries played an important role in their process of reform and transition. The socialist countries with their different economic systems had determined the economic performance, the space, as well as the environment of the transition. All of this...

  2. Capacity building in economics : education and research in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Pleskovic, Boris*Aslund, Anders*Bader, William*C

    2002-01-01

    The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need-and constraint-in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding in market-based economics. This requires strengthening economics education and providing support for quali...

  3. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  4. Capacity Building in Economics : Education and Research in Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Pleskovic, Boris; Aslund, Anders; Bader, William; Campbell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need-and constraint-in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding i...

  5. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  6. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  7. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  8. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

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    Heyuan You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

  9. Political and economic factors of late transition in Serbia

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    Josifidis Kosta L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition in Serbia is late, from the aspects of both its start and course. The initial conditionality, strategy, sequentially, prospects and results shape transition profile. Key factors of the late transition are grouped within a complex of political and economic factors, which are themselves ambivalent - their external and internal effects are evident. An institutional vacuum is especially limiting complex, with a significant influence on the political and economic aspects of the transition. An analysis of the two groups of intertwined factors serves as a basis for making a projection of future course and reform dynamics in Serbia. Different scenarios are present. An increase or decrease in the transition dynamics is conditioned by elimination of negative impacts of political and economic factors, i.e. by promotion of positive aspects of the solutions.

  10. Bus rapid transit and development : policies and practices that affect development around transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and...

  11. The Impact of the Tiananmen Crisis on China's Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The social and economic model that emerged out of the Tiananmen crisis was profoundly different from that contemplated on the eve of Tiananmen. China made a firm transition to a high-input, high investment, high growth model of development. The broad but vague social consensus in favour of political and economic reforms that underlay the Tiananmen protests crumbled, while the economy boomed and some people became much better off. In the post- Tiananmen period a strong economic logic and a str...

  12. Economic History in Times of Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    This issue coincides with my retirement as one of the (co-)editors of the Scandinavian Economic History Review. It has been a great pleasure and a real privilege to work for this journal over the last six years, and I am grateful that Jari Ojala, editor-in-chief since 2015, invited me to reflect...... interesting (the short answer is ‘red’ – relevance, engagement, debate). And finally, I introduce to the articles appearing in this number of the Journal. A journal is teamwork. Many people, from the authors who submit their papers to the publisher’s copyeditors, contribute to the success of a journal. Most...

  13. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  14. Kajian Implementasi Graph Database pada Rute Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panji Wisnu Wirawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT merupakan salah satu sarana transportasi publik yang memiliki rute perjalanan tertentu atau disebut sebagai koridor. Satu koridor BRT dengan koridor yang lain bukanlah koridor yang terpisah, melainkan saling terhubung. Dalam melakukan perjalanan, penumpang BRT boleh jadi melakukan perpindahan koridor melalui shelter. Informasi tersebut perlu didapatkan seorang calon penumpang sebelum melakukan perjalanan supaya tidak terjadi perpindahan koridor yang salah. Teknologi informasi memungkinkan representasi informasi pencarian koridor yang tepat ketika penumpang akan melakukan sebuah perjalanan, terlebih dengan hadirnya graph database. Graph Database memungkinkan representasi BRT yang baik karena sifat graph yang secara standar telah menunjukkan node dan relationship. Artikel ini mengkaji penerapan graph database untuk data pada BRT. Selain itu, artikel ini mendesain sebuah algoritma pencarian koridor BRT. Harapannya, algoritma tersebut dapat digunakan untuk membangun aplikasi yang memanfaatkan data pada graph database. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa graph database dapat diterapkan untuk data BRT dan algoritma yang dibangun dapat digunakan untuk menyajikan informasi rute sekaligus menyampaikan informasi perpindahan koridor.

  15. eRME - Rapid Maxillary Expansion in the economic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Mahadevia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Rapid Maxillary Expansion constitutes a routine clinical procedure in orthodontics, involving separation of mid-palatine suture which is usually done with help of the Hyrax screw. However, because of its high cost, the use has been limited, especially in institutions. So, the purpose of this study was to construct an economical device which can expand the maxillary arch in growing patients. Materials and Methods: Six patients having constricted maxilla and posterior skeletal crossbite were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics. A unique, easy and simple alternative device for expanding the maxillary arch called economic Rapid Maxillary Expander (eRME has been fabricated at about one-tenth the cost of the conventional Hyrax. Pre- and post-treatment effects were statistically tested by using paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results and Conclusion: The study results showed an average expansion in canine, premolar and molar regions of 4.4 mm, 6.8 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, having significant difference pre-and post-treatment. Thus, it shows that maxillary expansion is efficiently possible with the application of this newly constructed device named eRME. This appliance also acts as a fixed retainer to avoid relapse, hence negating the need for a separate retainer.

  16. Managing Transit Ridership with Short-Term Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    It is the purpose of this booklet to give the reader an overview of the variety, : type, and nature of short-term economic incentive programs that have been : introduced by transit properties over the past few years. 3054k, 55p.

  17. THE CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION TO INNOVATIVE TYPE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    D. E. Sorokin

    2010-01-01

    Article is devoted theoretical-methodological problems of transition of the Russian economy to innovative type of economic growth. Realization of the problems set forth above are possible only in case of a support of the Russian economy on the fifth technological way and its abilities to pass to the sixth technological way.

  18. IMPACTS OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Bosanac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis raises many questions and the most important imperative is to find solutions and recover the world economy. Neoliberalism as a cause of the crisis has shown fundamental shortcomings and proved that the market is an imperfect self-regulating system. At the present time in the media, politicians and some economists mention foreign direct investment (FDI as a life-saving solution for economic problems and economic growth. The analysis of the economic indicators proved that FDI cannot be, to the necessary extent, a generator of economic growth and that development of each country should be based on endogenous components. The development of critical thinking and questioning of the neoliberal concept, especially with today's time distance through comparisons of indicators such as economic growth, absence of inflation, employment and the export-import ratio, has revealed major systemic defects of the market fundamentalist policies. A strong indicator and argument to this thesis is particularly evident in the industrial production indexes, in the number of industrial workers and in the share of industry in GDP of transition countries.

  19. Impact of Nutrition Transition and Resulting Morbidities on Economic and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Rajagopal; Ruchi, Vaidya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition transition is an adverse outcome of rapid economic development and globalization. The present review documents the pattern of nutrition and health transition among different food groups leading to the growing global and national epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Studies published in various national and international journals were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines from the year 2000 to 2015. Literature was reviewed to gather data pertaining to nutrition and health transition and economic burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Diets are changing globally towards higher intakes of simple and refined carbohydrates (including sugar), fat and lower intake of complex carbohydrates. The upsurge of co-morbidities arising from nutrition transition is a serious threat worldwide especially in developing countries like India, which in turn poses a huge impact on economic development of the nation. Better awareness and encouragement of using healthier diet option can help to combat the epidemic of NCDs in the developing world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  1. The Double Burden of Malnutrition in Countries Passing through the Economic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2018-01-01

    Undernutrition in both its acute and chronic forms (wasting and stunting) is strongly inversely correlated with the wealth of nations. Consequently, as many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) achieve economic advancement and pass through the so-called "nutrition transition," their rates of undernutrition decline. Many countries successfully achieved the Millennium Development Goal of halving undernutrition and whole continents have been transformed in recent decades. The exception is Africa where the slower rates of decline in the prevalence of undernutrition has been overtaken by population growth so that the absolute number of stunted children is rising. In many regions, economic transition is causing a rapid increase in the number of overweight and obese people. The rapidity of this rise is such that many nations bear the simultaneous burdens of under- and overnutrition; termed the "double burden" of malnutrition. This double burden, accompanied as it is by the unfinished agenda of high levels of infectious diseases, is crippling the health systems of many LMICs and thus requires urgent attention. Although the prognosis looks threatening for many poor countries, they have the advantage of being able to learn from the mistakes made by other nations that have passed through the transition before them. Concerted action across many arms of government would achieve huge future dividends in health and wealth for any nations that can grasp the challenge. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paga, Enrique; Birol, Fatih

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  3. Rapid transitions between defect configurations in a block copolymer melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarkova, Larisa; Knoll, Armin; Magerle, Robert

    2006-07-01

    With in situ scanning force microscopy, we image the ordering of cylindrical microdomains in a thin film of a diblock copolymer melt. Tracking the evolution of individual defects reveals elementary steps of defect motion via interfacial undulations and repetitive transitions between distinct defect configurations on a time scale of tens of seconds. The velocity of these transitions suggests a cooperative movement of clusters of chains. The activation energy for the opening/closing of a connection between two cylinders is estimated.

  4. The Economic Foundations of Cohabiting Couples' Union Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    In recent decades, cohabitation has become an increasingly important relationship context for U.S. adults and their children, a union status characterized by high levels of instability. To understand why some cohabiting couples marry but others separate, researchers have drawn on theories emphasizing the benefits of specialization, the persistence of the male breadwinner norm, low income as a source of stress and conflict, and rising economic standards associated with marriage (the marriage bar). Because of conflicting evidence and data constraints, however, important theoretical questions remain. This study uses survival analysis with prospective monthly data from nationally representative panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation from 1996-2013 to test alternative theories of how money and work affect whether cohabiting couples marry or separate. Analyses indicate that the economic foundations of cohabiting couples' union transitions do not lie in economic specialization or only men's ability to be good providers. Instead, results for marriage support marriage bar theory: adjusting for couples' absolute earnings, increases in wealth and couples' earnings relative to a standard associated with marriage strongly predict marriage. For dissolution, couples with higher and more equal earnings are significantly less likely to separate. Findings demonstrate that within-couple earnings equality promotes stability, and between-couple inequalities in economic resources are critical in producing inequalities in couples' relationship outcomes.

  5. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  6. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  7. Economic transition as continuity (on the transition from feudalism to capitalism in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the common features of the transition process from feudalism to the capitalist economic system in Slovenia. In the processes of the transition to the capitalist economy, Slovenia was on the European periphery. The export demand was the driving force of structural changes in the regional economy, as the weak internal demand was not in the position to foster economic development. Slovenian economy and society entered these processes with a delay of decades as well as with some discontinuity in the form of re-agrarization and de-industrialization, as it is outlined in the concept of proto-industrialization. During the periods of re-agrarization the model of distribution of the existing resources was predominant. It manifested itself in the form of the fragmentation of agricultural ownership structure, which was the most significant factor of the relative economic backwardness of the Slovenian territory. The Slovenian economic subjects were small, under-capitalized, and with outdated technology, and therefore uncompetitive on the interregional markets. So the prime instigators of the economic changes were foreign entrepreneurs with their know-how, capital, technology, and international markets. In the period before World War II the role of foreign investments was crucial for the process of the transformation into the capitalist economy. The most significant historical feature of the Slovenian economic development is the fact that the existing 'islands of modernization', which were more or less in line with European trends, remained 'islands' until their power to stimulate structural changes and new institutional forms in economy vanished completely in the predominantly agrarian economic and social environment.

  8. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing ... has been extensively used to understand various system- .... states. This understanding supports the previous inter- ..... Financial support from the Ministry of Human Resource.

  9. Land use impacts of rapid transit: implications of recent experience. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.L.; Trygg, L.L.

    1977-08-01

    Evidence of land use impacts of recent major rapid transit improvements are reviewed and conclusions drawn concerning the extent and nature of such impacts and the conditions under which they have occurred. Transit improvements studied are primarily post-World War II in origin. American and Canadian examples are stressed, although European experience is teated briefly. Virtually all major modern American and Canadian rapid transit investments are included, covering conventional rapid rail, commuter rail, light rail and bus/busway. In addition to conclusions on general patterns of land use impact and causes, research recommendations and Federal policy implications are drawn.

  10. Modeling and evaluation of characteristics for on-street Rapid Transit systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    to obtain the main objective of introducing a Rapid Transit System. to increase the number of passengers. Variations in the system characteristics have a direct impact on ridership. However, it is difficult to predict the impact of implementing or altering the characteristics. A Rapid Transit system should...... display sufficient service already in the planning phase. That is why pre-acquired knowledge of the impact of the characteristics on the system performance is valuable. Such knowledge could provide a firm basis for planning the service and operation of a Rapid Transit system. This article focuses....... It focuses on the following characteristics for Rapid Transit systems: rail factor, travel time, headway and capacity. It evaluates how the implementation and variation of these characteristics affected the ridership of a case project. It evaluates the magnitude of the impacts for the various characteristics...

  11. City of Fresno peer exchange on bus rapid transit : a TPCB peer exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), held on May 21 and May 22, 2013, in Fresno, California. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning Capacity Buildin...

  12. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  13. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  14. Telehealth Delivery of Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna C.; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment uses pseudo-word targets with varying lexical stress to target simultaneously articulation, prosodic accuracy and coarticulatory transitions in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The treatment is efficacious for the acquisition of imitated pseudo-words, and generalization of skill to…

  15. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  16. State of the Art in Economics Education and Research in Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Pleskovic; Anders Åslund; William Bader; Robert Campbell

    2000-01-01

    The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need—and constraint—in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding in market-based economics. This requires strengthening economics education and providing support for quali...

  17. Environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit (BRT in the Metropolitan City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit is an innovative, high capacity, lower cost public transit solution in metropolitan cities. Idea is to dedicate lanes for quick and efficient transport of passengers to their destinations. In the present investigation the environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit  in Tehran metropolitan city is brought out. For this purpose bus rapid transit Lane No. 10 is investigated. The bus rapid transit Lane No.10 is about 10 km in distance that moves up and down between Azadi and Simon Bolivar Squares. About 77500 passengers using 50 buses are transited per day in lane No. 10. These 50 buses cover a distance of 9600 km/day. The results of present study showed that about 6.5 million liters of fuel is saved annually. It should be pointed out that environmental costs are also reduced for about US$ 1.7 million/yr. The overall score of environmental impact assessment stands at +10 that is indicative of Lane No. 10 compatibility with the environmental considerations.

  18. Biological costs of economic transition: Stress levels during the transition from communism to capitalism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Anna; Szklarska, Alicja; Mitas, Andrzej W

    2016-05-01

    At the end of the 1980s, Poland began the transformation from an essentially one-party communist system to a politically pluralistic democratic system. These political and economic changes had major social consequences, among others unemployment and a sharp decrease in real personal income. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible relationship between stress in adult men, measured by the Allostatic Load, and the socio-economic deterioration during the first part of the economic transition. The Allostatic Load included eleven markers assessing adverse nutritional intake, cardiovascular activity, inflammatory processes, and lung, hepatic and renal functions. The results indicate a significantly higher risk of metabolic dysregulation in men examined after 1990, compared to men from previous years. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables and lifestyle variables, men examined in 1991 had a 31% greater risk of higher Allostatic Load compared with men examined in 1985 (OR=1.31; p=0.0541), in 1992, this risk was 50% greater (OR=1.50; p<0.01), and in 1993, the risk was 66% greater (OR=1.66; p<0.05). The conclusion is drawn that significantly more stressogenic factors for men were those directly connected with the financial situation of their families, than a sudden but short increase of prices for goods and services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transit climate change adaptation assessment/asset management pilot for the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Public transit agencies play an important role in the provision of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation for the communities they serve. With the growing intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes Irene and Sand...

  20. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  1. Socio-economic status by rapid appraisal is highly correlated with mortality risks in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to

  2. Health impacts of rapid economic changes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Harnvoravongchai, P; Pitayarangsarit, S; Kasemsup, V

    2000-09-01

    The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major social implications for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, changing expenditure patterns, and child abandonment. The crisis increased poverty incidence by 1 million, of whom 54% were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-term health impact of the crisis, using existing data and some special surveys and interviews for 2 years during 1998-99. The health impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household health expenditure reduced by 24% in real terms; among the poorer households, institutional care was replaced by self-medication. The pre-crisis rising trend in expenditure on alcohol and tobacco consumption was reversed. Immunization spending and coverage were sustained at a very high level after the crisis, but reports of increases in diphtheria and pertussis indicate declining programme quality. An increase in malaria, despite budget increases, had many causes but was mainly due to reduced programme effectiveness. STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward trend. Rates of HIV risky sexual behaviour were higher among conscripts than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower condom use with casual partners. HIV serosurveillance showed a continuation of the pre-crisis downward trend among commercial sex workers (CSW, both brothel and non-brothel based), pregnant women and donated blood; this trend was slightly reversed among male STD patients and more among intravenous drug users. Condom coverage among brothel based CSW continued to increase to 97.5%, despite a 72% budget cut in free condom distribution. Poverty and lack of insurance coverage are two major determinants of absence of or inadequate antenatal care, and low birthweight. The Low Income Scheme could not adequately cover the poor but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a health safety net role for maternal and child health. Low birthweight and

  3. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... to be realized. This work demonstrates that different physical means, such as the Korean taxi system, can be used to perform the same highest-level functional requirement, satisfy the same constraints, and provide many of the benefits that are expected of a city-scale personal rapid transit system. Thus, Korean...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...

  4. Life Expectancy and Economic Growth : The Role of the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Cervellati, Matteo; Sunde, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the causal effect of life expectancy on economic growth by explicitly accounting for the role of the demographic transition. In addition to focusing on issues of empirical identification, this paper emphasizes the role of the econometric specification. We present a simple theory of the economic and demographic transition where individuals' education and fertility decisions depend on their life expectancy. The theory predicts that before the demographic transition ...

  5. Rapid Deceleration-Driven Wetting Transition during Pendant Drop Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2011-01-01

    A hitherto unknown mechanism for wetting transition is reported. When a pendant drop settles upon deposition, there is a virtual “collision” where its center of gravity undergoes rapid deceleration. This induces a high water hammer-type pressure that causes wetting transition. A new phase diagram shows that both large and small droplets can transition to wetted states due to the new deceleration driven and the previously known Laplace mechanisms, respectively. It is explained how the attainment of a nonwetted Cassie-Baxter state is more restrictive than previously known.

  6. Smooth and Controlled Recovery Planning of Disruptions in Rapid Transit Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadarso, L.; Marin, A.; Maroti, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the disruption management problem of rapid transit rail networks. We consider an integrated model for the recovery of the timetable and the rolling stock schedules. We propose a new approach to deal with large-scale disruptions: we limit the number of simultaneous schedule changes

  7. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  8. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias mountains, Alaska

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gulick, S.P.S.; Jaeger, J.M.; Mix, A.C.; Asahi, H.; Bahlburg, H.; Belanger, C.L.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Childress, L.; Cowan, E.; Drab, L.; Forwick, M.; Fukumura, A.; Ge, S.; Gupta, S.M.; Kioka, A.; Konno, S.; LeVay, L.J.; Marz, C.; Matsuzaki, K.M.; McClymont, E.L.; Moy, C.; Muller, J.; Nakamura, A.; Ojima, T.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Ridgway, K.D.; Romero, O.E.; Slagle, A.L.; Stoner, J.S.; St-Onge, G.; Suto, I.; Walczak, M.D.; Worthington, L.L.; Bailey, I.; Enkelmann, E.; Reece, R.; Swartz, J.M.

    the onset of quasi-periodic (~100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent...

  9. Modeling commuter preferences for the proposed bus rapid transit in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users

  10. 78 FR 26559 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance Program and Revisions to the Definition of ``Chronically Homeless'' Extension of Public Comment Only for Rural... proposed revisions to the definition of ``chronically homeless.'' This document announces that HUD is...

  11. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic

  12. Rapid Fatal Outcome from Pulmonary Arteries Compression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Voutsadakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the mediastinal lymph nodes. This occurrence may produce symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures such as the superior vena cava syndrome or dysphagia from esophageal compression. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to pulmonary artery compression and a rapidly fatal outcome. This rare occurrence has to be distinguished from pulmonary embolism, a much more frequent event in cancer patients, in order that proper and prompt treatment be initiated.

  13. Corporatist Transitions in the Economic Reforms of Chile and Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    .... Scholars in comparative politics and political economy study these obstacles in order to give policymakers a better understanding of what is necessary to successfully reform economic policy and practice...

  14. Multinational banks and credit growth in transition economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Ralph Theodoor Anna de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of multinational banks (MNBs) on the financial development of European transition countries. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the gradual deepening of the banking systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries (CEB) has enabled firms to

  15. Rapid intestinal transit as a primary cause of severe chronic diarrhea in patients with amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Michael J; Högenauer, Christoph; Santa Ana, Carol A; Porter, Jack L; Little, Katherine H; Stone, Marvin J; Fordtran, John S

    2003-10-01

    The cause of severe diarrhea in patients with systemic amyloidosis is obscure. We therefore performed pathophysiological studies in three such patients in an effort to determine the mechanism of amyloid diarrhea. Epithelial cell absorption rate of electrolytes was measured during steady state GI perfusion of a saline-mannitol solution. GI transit time of PEG and absorption of radiolabeled bile acid were measured simultaneously while subjects ingested three meals per day. To obtain a diarrhea control group for transit time and bile acid absorption, normal subjects were studied when they had diarrhea caused by ingestion of Milk of Magnesia (MOM). Diarrhea could not be explained by malabsorption of ingested nutrients, bacterial overgrowth, bile acid malabsorption, or epithelial cell malabsorption of electrolytes. However, 25% of polyethylene glycol (PEG) ingested with a standard meal was recovered in stool in 45 min, which is 10 times faster than in normal subjects with equally severe diarrhea caused by ingestion of MOM. All of the patients had autonomic neuropathy that remained unrecognized for 15-36 months after onset of chronic diarrhea; it seems likely that this was the cause of rapid transit. Severe chronic diarrhea in three patients with systemic amyloidosis was mediated by extremely rapid transit of chyme and digestive secretions through the intestine.

  16. The Great Transformations of Tibet and Xinjiang: a comparative analysis of rapid labour transitions in times of rapid growth in two contested minority regions of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth since the mid-1990s in the Tibetan and Uyghur areas in Western China has been associated with the rapid transition of the local (mostly Tibetan and Uyghur) labour forces out of the primary sector (mostly farming and herding) and into the tertiary sector (services). The TAR,

  17. Vrednotne pasti gospodarske tranzicije v Sloveniji = Social and Values Traps of Economic Transition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Kosec Zorko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition is very unpredictable because of several value changesamong macro-social alterations which are reflected in public opinionvariability, based on the increment of dissatisfaction with new employmentpolicies, relationship with capital(ists and occurrence of socialdiscrepancies. Because of lack of knowledge or interest in politicalparticipation people have mainly described transition as corruptionand political revenge; in public opinion, culprits for the new situationarose from corporate management and the political elite. Nevertheless,with political-economic changes and the era of transition, the cancer cells of socialism-planning macroeconomics are emphasized,as also other economic and value traps which society has never beenprepared for.

  18. Point Climat no. 29 'Managing France's energy transition while safeguarding economic competitiveness: be productive'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Leguet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - Is the French energy transition compatible with economic growth and a 'competitive' French economy? Our answer is 'yes, with some conditions'. - The French economy is better positioned today for a meaningful energy transition than it has been for over 40 years. At the level of the macro-economy, a steady shift to higher energy prices is now much easier without hurting economic growth than it once was. - A small percentage of energy-intensive sectors may need targeted and temporary assistance with this transition

  19. Economic Development Benefits of New Transit Service: RiverLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the economic impacts of the RiverLINE, a light rail line connecting Trenton and Camden, New Jersey. The study examined whether and how the line impacted local land use, residential property values, travel behaviors and firm perf...

  20. Hong Kong in Transition: A Look at Economic Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    Economic interdependence has played an important role in Hong Kong's history, from its earliest days as a British colony to its current status as a center of international trade and finance. Hong Kong occupies a unique place in history because of its unprecedented transfer of power in 1997 from Britain to the People's Republic of China. The future…

  1. The Role of FDI in the Economic Development of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Tast

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available FDI are considered a key instrument in the process of transforming the former centrally planned economies and stimulate economic growth in the transition period. Economic theory suggests that FDI are an important factor for the economic growth of the host-country, while according to empirical research in general, there is a positive correlation between FDI and the economic growth, but the causality direction is not clear: FDI inflow stimulates economic growth, but in the same time FDI inflows grow with the country’s economic development. Therefore, the objective of research in the paper is the relationship between FDI and economic growth in SEE and CIS countries. The relationship between the FDI and the economic growth in transition countries is examined by linear regression correlation of the relevant variables, covering the period from 2004 to 2011. Through the Pierce coefficient and the coefficient of determination, the interaction between the relevant variables and the dependence intensity is examine, and in this context general conclusions are drawn about the effects of FDI in the SEE and CIS countries. At the same time, the beta-coefficient is used to examine the value of the change in each variable separately, in order to make a more detailed analysis of the results obtained. In order to determine the direction of causality between the FDI and the economic growth of the country, research is carried out the influence of the transition indicators on the FDI inflow in the SEE and CIS countries from 2004 to 2011.

  2. Endogenous economic growth, EROI, and transition towards renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Court; Pierre-André Jouvet; Frédéric Lantz

    2015-01-01

    Due to their initial lack of emphasis on energy and natural resources, exogenous and endogenous growth models have suffered the same critic regarding the limits to economic growth imposed by finite Earth resources. Thus, various optimal control models that incorporate energy or natural resources have been developed during the last decades. However, in all these models the importance of the Energy Return On Energy Investment (EROI) has never been raised. The EROI is the ratio of the quantity o...

  3. The economic case for low-carbon development in rapidly growing developing world cities: A case study of Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Gouldson, Andy; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Papargyropoulou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Where costs or risks are higher, evidence is lacking or supporting institutions are less developed, policymakers can struggle to make the case for low-carbon investment. This is especially the case in developing world cities where decision-makers struggle to keep up with the pace and scale of change. Focusing on Palembang in Indonesia, this paper considers the economic case for proactive investment in low-carbon development. We find that a rapidly growing industrial city in a developing country can reduce emissions by 24.1% in 2025, relative to business as usual levels, with investments of USD405.6 million that would reduce energy expenditure in the city by USD436.8 million. Emissions from the regional grid could be reduced by 12.2% in 2025, relative to business as usual trends, with investments of USD2.9 billion that would generate annual savings of USD175 million. These estimates understate the savings from reduced expenditure on energy subsidies and energy infrastructure. The compelling economic case for mainstreaming climate mitigation in this developing country city suggests that the constraints on climate action can be political and institutional rather than economic. There is therefore a need for more effective energy governance to drive the transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic case for low carbon investment in a developing world city. • Cost-effective measures could reduce emissions by 24.1% relative to BAU levels. • These pay for themselves in <1 year and generate savings throughout their lifetime. • Further savings come from reduced expenditure on energy infrastructure, subsidies. • Limitations on climate action seem to be political/institutional – not economic

  4. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development, rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system, rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training, this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work, there are following problems. (1) Accounting behavior is not standard, and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; (2) Internal control is not ...

  5. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  6. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  7. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  8. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS – AN ESSENTIAL FACTOR FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this analysis is to analyse the connection between foreign direct investments and economic growth in transition economies during a period of increased integration of financial systems in the global financial system. The research focuses on the relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth during 1970-2013, by means of methods such as the graphic, the regression and the correlation ones. The research findings show that there is a direct and strong connection between the inward financial flows of foreign direct investments and the GDP during the period under analysis in transition economies. In transition economies, a high inward flow of foreign direct investments leads to an increase of the Gross Domestic Product per capita, while a positive development of the standard of living will attract new inward FDI flows, since transition economies are seen as attractive recipients/hosts for foreign direct investments.

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Economic-Driving Assistance Program for Transit Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Baoxin Han; Wanjing Ma; Hanzhou Xie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on development and evaluation of an economic-driving assistance program for transit vehicles (EDTV) which can minimize energy consumption, air pollution emission of buses, and improve the level of service of transit system as well. Taking advantage of the latest advances in information and communication technologies, the EDTV system can provide bus drivers with optimal recommended bus holding times at near-side bus stops and dynamic bus speed to adapt to the real-time traff...

  11. Ugly Facts and Fancy Theories: Children and Youth during the Transition. Innocenti Occasional Papers Economic Policy Series, Number 47. Special Subseries: Economies in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea

    This is a report sponsored by UNICEF on the effects of economic and political transition in Europe, particularly Eastern Europe, on young children and adolescents. The economic theories and changes in labor and markets which have characterized European transitions in the past few years have paid little attention to issues of poverty and child…

  12. Impact of Insurance Market on Economic Growth in Post-Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phutkaradze Jaba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify whether the development of an insurance market is linked to economic growth in former transition countries. A multiple regression analysis is employed to estimate the insurance-growth relationship, using a cross-country panel dataset analysis tracking annual total insurance penetration in 10 countries over the 2000-2012 period, and applying a fixed effect model to test the hypothesis that this linkage is demonstrably positive. The results show a negative and statistically non-significant correlation between insurance and GDP growth, suggesting a lack of evidence that insurance promotes economic growth in post-transition economies.

  13. Dealing with the Empty Vehicle Movements in Personal Rapid Transit System with Batteries Constraints in a Dynamic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Fatnassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Personal Rapid Transit is a new emergent transportation tool. It relies on using a set of small driverless electric vehicles to transport people on demand. Because of the specific on-demand characteristic of the Personal Rapid Transit system, many Personal Rapid Transit vehicles would move empty which results in a high level of wasted transportation capacity. This is enhanced while using Personal Rapid Transit vehicles with limited electric battery capacity. This paper deals with this problem in a real time context while minimizing the set of empty vehicle movements. First, a mathematical formulation to benchmark waiting time of passengers in Personal Rapid Transit systems is proposed. Then, a simulation model that captures the main features of the Personal Rapid Transit system is developed. A decision support system which integrates several real time solution strategies as well as a simulation module is proposed. Our dispatching strategies are evaluated and compared based on our simulation model. The efficiency of our method is tested through extensive test studies.

  14. Australia's economic transition, unemployment, suicide and mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Nicholas; Large, Matthew; Myles, Hannah; Adams, Robert; Liu, Dennis; Galletly, Cherrie

    2017-02-01

    There have been substantial changes in workforce and employment patterns in Australia over the past 50 years as a result of economic globalisation. This has resulted in substantial reduction in employment in the manufacturing industry often with large-scale job losses in concentrated sectors and communities. Large-scale job loss events receive significant community attention. To what extent these mass unemployment events contribute to increased psychological distress, mental illness and suicide in affected individuals warrants further consideration. Here we undertake a narrative review of published job loss literature. We discuss the impact that large-scale job loss events in the manufacturing sector may have on population mental health, with particular reference to contemporary trends in the Australian economy. We also provide a commentary on the expected outcomes of future job loss events in this context and the implications for Australian public mental health care services. Job loss due to plant closure results in a doubling of psychological distress that peaks 9 months following the unemployment event. The link between job loss and increased rates of mental illness and suicide is less clear. The threat of impending job loss and the social context in which job loss occurs has a significant bearing on psychological outcomes. The implications for Australian public mental health services are discussed.

  15. Preferensi Konsumen Terhadap Transportasi Publik (Studi Kasus Bus Rapid Transit (BRT Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichwinsyah Azali

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Semarang as the capital city of Central Java Province has a population density of 4.269 per square kilometer in 2015. Due to high population density, communities’ mobility will also be increasing. Government arranged the policy related to traffic and public transportation in the Law Number 22 Year 2009 article 158 paragraph 1, the government of Semarang City has guaranteed the availability of road-based transportation in Urban Areas by providing public transportation namely Bus Rapid Transit (BRT Trans Semarang. This research aims to analyze communities’ preference in terms of price, convenience, reliability, accessibility, and safety toward the possibility of BRT and Non BRT transportation modes selection. This research uses 100 respondents by Purposive Sampling. Binary Logistic Regression model is applied to determine the effect of independent variable towards dependent variable of BRT and Non BRT transportation modes selection. The result of this research indicated that BRT and Non BRT transportation modes selection in Semarang City are dominated by 82 respondents of BRT users and 18 respondents of Non BRT users. BRT and Non BRT transportation modes selection are affected by the factor of price, convenience, reliability, accessibility, and safety. Keywords: Modes selection, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT Trans Semarang, Principal Component Analysis, Binary Logistic Regression.

  16. The intra-industry trade of the Czech Republic in the economic transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, K.; Münich, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2004), s. 27-50 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : economic transition * intra-industry trade * labor Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.200, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=12888376&site=ehost-live

  17. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  18. Human Mobility Analysis for Extracting Local Interactions under Rapid Socio-Economic Transformation in Dawei, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Kimijima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides knowledge about impacts of a socio-economic transformation in a rapidly urbanizing environment. This study assesses a long-term mobility data which uses a face-to-face questionnaire and GPS logger-based method of data collection for extracting socio-economic impacts from the rapid transformation. Conversion of mobility related information such as travel distance, direction, and time from the questionnaire survey into spatiotemporal information was carried out by developing an algorithm. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study in Dawei Special Economic Zone, Myanmar was conducted. The results show that the questionnaire-based mobility data can be associated with GPS-based mobility data and diverse mobility patterns are found for different social groups in the stage of urban formation. The results enabled an understanding of the human dynamics in interactions, which can be used for monitoring rural sustainability and its challenges in the future with the background of the accelerated project development in the area.

  19. A study of riders' noise exposure on Bay Area Rapid Transit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Powell, Cynthia; King, Margaret Mary

    2011-02-01

    Excessive noise exposure may present a hazard to hearing, cardiovascular, and psychosomatic health. Mass transit systems, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, are potential sources of excessive noise. The purpose of this study was to characterize transit noise and riders' exposure to noise on the BART system using three dosimetry metrics. We made 268 dosimetry measurements on a convenience sample of 51 line segments. Dosimetry measures were modeled using linear and nonlinear multiple regression as functions of average velocity, tunnel enclosure, flooring, and wet weather conditions and presented visually on a map of the BART system. This study provides evidence of levels of hazardous levels of noise exposure in all three dosimetry metrics. L(eq) and L(max) measures indicate exposures well above ranges associated with increased cardiovascular and psychosomatic health risks in the published literature. L(peak) indicate acute exposures hazardous to adult hearing on about 1% of line segment rides and acute exposures hazardous to child hearing on about 2% of such rides. The noise to which passengers are exposed may be due to train-specific conditions (velocity and flooring), but also to rail conditions (velocity and tunnels). These findings may point at possible remediation (revised speed limits on longer segments and those segments enclosed by tunnels). The findings also suggest that specific rail segments could be improved for noise.

  20. Financing environmental and energy transition - Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virlouvet, Gael

    2013-09-01

    Ecological transition is a concrete and progressive measure, to be committed to here and now, aimed at better taking environmental challenges into account, with a strong regional dimension. The 4 main environmental challenges are attenuation and adaptation to climate change, the preservation of biodiversity, access to raw materials and the protection of human health. This approach is within the context of sustainable development. It implies a profound change from our current development model. Energy transition is one of the strands of ecological transition. Certain examples from abroad are worth bearing in mind in the field of energy transition (Germany, the United Kingdom), or the scope of stimulus packages aimed at ecological transition (South Korea). Ecological transition has a cost: collective anticipation. In France, available financing tools are above all those of traditional environmental policies, some of which benefit from dedicated financing. Other public policies integrate the challenges of ecological transition in a diverse manner, and mostly very poorly. As for the private financing of this transition, this depends firstly on the profitability of the economic framework, which is still far from optimal. It also depends on taking extra-financial criteria into account, something which is still very weak. To implement ecological transition, room for manoeuvre needs to be created in a constrained financial context: weakening growth, public expenditure contingencies, and difficulties in deploying private saving. To properly meet economic and social challenges, ecological transition must contribute to the economic dynamism of regions, facing the challenge of 'sustainable competitiveness'. To achieve this we need to identify the uncertainties which hinder the proactive approach of key stakeholders, to better articulate the various decision-making levels and improve the resilience of regional economies. The mobilisation of civil society is a key

  1. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  2. Rapid and economical data acquisition in ultrafast frequency-resolved spectroscopy using choppers and a microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Monahan, Daniele M; Fleming, Graham

    2016-08-08

    Spectrometers and cameras are used in ultrafast spectroscopy to achieve high resolution in both time and frequency domains. Frequency-resolved signals from the camera pixels cannot be processed by common lock-in amplifiers, which have only a limited number of input channels. Here we demonstrate a rapid and economical method that achieves the function of a lock-in amplifier using mechanical choppers and a programmable microcontroller. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness by performing a frequency-resolved pump-probe measurement on the dye Nile Blue in solution.

  3. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  4. A multidimensional decision-making model for internationalization of high-tech SMEs in transition economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roersen, M.J.; Roersen, Mariska; Groen, Arend J.; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Until now, international entrepreneurship has mainly used stage theory, institutional theory, transaction cost economics and the resource-based view to explain or describe the internationalization of SMEs in transition economy context. Following recent literature we contend that these approaches are

  5. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, A.; Werf, van der, E.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

  6. How community-level social and economic developments have changed the patterns of substance use in a transition economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Most social changes take place at the community level before indirectly affecting individuals. Although the contextual effect is far-reaching, few studies have investigated the important questions of: how do community-level developments affect drinking and smoking, and how do they change the existing gender and income patterns of drinking and smoking, particularly in transition economies? In this study, I used a Chinese panel dataset between 1991 and 2011 to reveal the moderating effects of community developments. Through multilevel growth curve modeling that controls for age, period, and cohort effects, as well as individual- and community-level covariates, I found that community-level economic development and social development are negatively associated with drinking and smoking. Moreover, economic and social developments also moderate the important influences of income and gender: women start to drink more in communities with higher economic development; the traditionally positive association between income and smoking/drinking is also reversed, i.e. the rich start to smoke and drink less in communities with higher social development. This study concludes that the rapid changes in communal social and economic structures have created new health disparities based on the gender and socioeconomic hierarchy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Guegan, G.; Guerrini, Y.; Marzeau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 10 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress was devoted to the study of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition. This committee comprises three group of studies covering the following topics: natural gas in the less developed countries (environment protection, power production, institutional framework and cooperation), natural gas in countries in economical transition (situation in Eastern Europe, reforms and investments, prices and tariffs, towards the integration to the European Union), natural gas in developing countries (financing and technology transfers, down-side gas development, economical viability, technology transfers, projects financing, recommendations), inter-region development and power production (South America, Asia, role of the worldwide bank). (J.S.)

  8. Contribution of small and medium enterprises to economic development: Evidence from a transiting economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Obi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to present a data article on the contribution of SMEs to economic development in a transiting economy. Descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from 600 respondents in 60 small-scale enterprises located in different parts of the country (20 small-scale enterprises located in Lagos State, 20 in Anambra State and 20 in Kano State of Nigeria respectively. Data analysis was carried out using tables and percentages and the null hypotheses of the study was tested using chi-square (X2 inferential statistical model at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the operation of small and medium-scale enterprises and economic growth in developing nations. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Economic development, Transiting economy, Nigeria

  9. Relationships of working conditions, health problems and vehicle accidents in bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rapid solidification growth mode transitions in Al-Si alloys by dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, John D.; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Gibbs, John W.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Mertens, James C.E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Clarke, Amy J.; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    In situ dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) imaging of Al-Si thin-film alloys was performed to investigate rapid solidification behavior. Solidification of alloys with compositions from 1 to 15 atomic percent Si was imaged during pulsed laser melting and subsequent solidification. Solely α-Al solidification was observed in Al-1Si and Al-3Si alloys, and solely kinetically modified eutectic growth was observed in Al-6Si and Al-9Si alloys. A transition in the solidification mode in eutectic and hypereutectic alloys (Al-12Si and Al-15Si) from nucleated α-Al dendrites at lower solidification velocities to planar eutectic growth at higher solidification velocities was observed, departing from trends previously seen in laser-track melting experiments. Comparisons of the growth modes and corresponding velocities are compared with previous solidification models, and implications regarding the models are discussed.

  11. Transition-zone observations of rapid flare events as observed by OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lites, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid dissipation of flare energy has been observed in the transition-zone line of C IV at 1548.2 A using the University of Colorado spectrometer aboard OSO-8. Impulsive brightenings have been resolved with characteristic rise times as low as 3.5s. One event is analyzed in detail, and it is inferred that the electron density is greater than 2 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm at a temperature of 60,000 K, and that the flare energy is deposited at a rate of 2 ergs/cu cm per sec or greater. The temporal behavior of the intensity at the center of the C IV line is consistent with a nonequilibrium ionization of C III through C V. If this event is a result of the multiple tearing mode instability as the primary energy release mechanism, then the observations indicate a preflare magnetic field of about 175 G.

  12. Mechanism-based model of a mass rapid transit system: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Khoon, Lee Kee; Guang, Hung Gih; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics within the mass rapid transit (MRT) system of Singapore. We show that the trip distribution of Origin-Destination (OD) station pairs follows a power-law, implying the existence of critical OD pairs. We then present and discuss the empirically validated agent-based model (ABM) we have developed. The model allows recreation of the observed statistics and the setting up of various scenarios and their effects on the system, such as increasing the commuter population and the propagation of travel delays within the transportation network. The proposed model further enables identification of bottlenecks that can cause the MRT to break down, and consequently provide foresight on how such disruptions can possibly be managed. This can potentially provide a versatile approach for transport planners and government regulators to make quantifiable policies that optimally balance cost and convenience as a function of the number of the commuting public.

  13. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  14. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit(BRT) has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective mode of public transport, and has gained popularity in many cities around the world.To optimise the operations and infrastructure it is advantageous to deploy transportmodels. However, microscopic models are very inefficient...... upgrades (busways and enhanced stations) ensure a reduction to traveltime whereas no improvements to reliability occur. Upgrades to technology and serviceplanning (pre-paid fare collection, boarding and alighting from all doors, special BRT vehicles, ITS, and active bus control) ensure an increase...... in service reliability whereas only small reductions to travel time are observed. By combining all BRT elements it is possible to obtain synergies where the improved reliability due to planning and technology elements makes it possible to utilise the infrastructure optimally. Hence, it is possible...

  15. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  16. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  17. Rapid, all-optical crystal orientation imaging of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Sabrina N.; Zhai, Yao; Zande, Arend M. van der; O'Brien, Kevin; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Hone, James C.; Zhang, Xiang; Yin, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant research and industrial interest for their electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. While large-area crystal growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition have been demonstrated, the presence of grain boundaries and orientation of grains arising in such growths substantially affect the physical properties of the materials. There is currently no scalable characterization method for determining these boundaries and orientations over a large sample area. We here present a second-harmonic generation based microscopy technique for rapidly mapping grain orientations and boundaries of 2D TMDCs. We experimentally demonstrate the capability to map large samples to an angular resolution of ±1° with minimal sample preparation and without involved analysis. A direct comparison of the all-optical grain orientation maps against results obtained by diffraction-filtered dark-field transmission electron microscopy plus selected-area electron diffraction on identical TMDC samples is provided. This rapid and accurate tool should enable large-area characterization of TMDC samples for expedited studies of grain boundary effects and the efficient characterization of industrial-scale production techniques

  18. Public Governance and Economic Growth in the Transitional Economies of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to new growth theories, public governance is an important determinant for sustained economic growth. This study examines the impact of six public governance indicators, including voice and accountability, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption, on the economic growth in the transitional economies of the European Union during the 2002-2013 period. The results show that all governance indicators except regulatory quality had a statistically significant positive impact on economic growth. Our findings also indicate that control of corruption and rule of law had the largest impact on economic growth, while political stability had the lowest impact.

  19. Economic impact of the energy transition at the local level. Methodologies and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Christiane; Ustinskaya, Elina

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms that link the energy transition to the stimulation of the economy on the ground is indispensable in terms of more efficient targeting of local energy transition policies. Objective evidence of economic results is required, as is a better understanding of economic analysis methods, in order to equip local and regional authorities with the tools required to demonstrate the economic benefits for all the key players. With the 'Economic impact of the energy transition at a local level - Methodologies and case studies' study, Energy Cities illustrates numerous socio-economic aspects of the energy transition and confirms the local economic benefits, through the use of data. As with any complex, new and diffuse process, this field of research is still not fully understood. Appropriate, high-quality analysis at the local level has rarely been carried out to date and a critical assessment of the methods used is necessary. This study will fill a gap and provide suggestions on potential areas for further research in a range of fields which should be further explored and examined in collaboration with local authorities and voluntary partners. Methodology and results The first part of the study sets out the scope of the study and contains a general description of the impact observed and the potential outcome of transition policies in the main green growth sectors: eco-innovation, the energy performance of buildings, renewable energy, sustainable mobility, recycling and industrial ecology. The analysis then focuses on the feedback of six towns and regions with a policy of active sustainable development (building renovation, support for eco-industries, promotion of soft mobility etc.), presented from the point of view of the economic results observed and the evaluation methods used. The study comprises five European authorities - Brussels, Copenhagen, Hannover, Kirklees and the Greater Paris Region, and one North American authority - Nolan County

  20. Are rapid transitions between invasive and native species caused by alternative stable states, and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Ives, Anthony R; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Carpenter, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    Rapid transitions in ecosystem structure, or regime shifts, are a hallmark of alternative stable states (ASS). However, regime shifts can occur even when feedbacks are not strong enough to cause ASS. We investigated the potential for ASS to explain transitions between dominance of an invasive species, rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), and native sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) in northern Wisconsin (USA) lakes. A rapid transition from Lepomis to rusty crayfish dominance occurred as rusty crayfish invaded Trout Lake, and the reverse transition resulted from an eight-year experimental removal of rusty crayfish from Sparkling Lake. We fit a stage-structured population model of species interactions to 31 years of time-series data from each lake. The model identified water level as an important driver, with drought conditions reducing rusty crayfish recruitment and allowing Lepomis dominance. The maximum-likelihood parameter estimates of the negative interaction between rusty crayfish and Lepomis led to ASS in the model, where each species was capable of excluding the other within a narrow range of environmental conditions. However, uncertainty in parameter estimates made it impossible to exclude the potential that rapid transitions were caused by a simpler threshold response lacking alternative equilibria. Simulated forward and backward transitions between species dominance occurred at different environmental conditions (i.e., hysteresis), even when the parameters used for simulation did not predict ASS as a result of slow species responses to environmental drivers. Thus, ASS are possible, but by no means certain, explanations for rapid transitions in this system, and our results highlight the difficulties associated with distinguishing ASS from other types of threshold responses. However, whether regime shifts are caused by ASS may be relatively unimportant in this system, as the range of conditions over which transitions occur is narrow, and under most conditions, the

  1. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  2. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozheng; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  3. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish calculation economic transition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the view of the Swedish delegation that the U.S. calculation of the economic transitions was in error. The report analyzed the principle differences between the U.S. approach and Swedish approach and concluded that the Swedish results can be reproduced using the U.S. method and Swedish data. Conversely, the U.S. results should be reproducible by Sweden

  4. The Effects of the Demographic Transition on Economic Growth : Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sundman, Marie-Lor

    2011-01-01

    Demographic transition implies severe challenges for high income nations, for instance Japan, as the population decreases due to declines in birth rates as well as the higher rate of elderly population. More women are entering the labor market which affects birth rates. In addition, technological progress has improved health care and standard of living, bringing up life expectancies. However, the elderly population is increasing, elevating the dependency ratio which dampens the economic growt...

  5. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  6. The design evaluation of inductive power-transformer for personal rapid transit by measuring impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Song; Baek, Soo-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The contact-less inductive power transformer (IPT) uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. The concept of the IPT for vehicles such as the personal rapid transit (PRT) system is proposed and some suggestions for power collector design of IPT to improve power transfer performance are presented in this paper. The aim of this paper is to recommend the concept of IPT for vehicles such as the PRT system and also to present some propositions for the power collector design of the IPT, which is to improve the power transfer performance. Generally, there are diverse methods to evaluate transfer performance of the traditional transformers. Although the principle of IPT is similar to that of the general transformer, it is impossible to apply the methods directly because of large air gap. The system must be compensated by resonant circuit due to the large air gap. Consequently, it is difficult to apply numerical formulas to the magnetic design of IPT systems. This paper investigates the magnetic design of a PRT system using three-dimensional magnetic modeling and measurements of the pick-up coupling coefficient and its impedances. In addition, how the use of Litz wire and leakage inductance is related will be observed through experiment and simulation

  7. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  8. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  9. KAJIAN AWAL SIMULASI KOMPUTER MODEL KEBIJAKAN PENENTUAN JUMLAH OPTIMAL ARMADA BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Budiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan Bus Rapid Transit (BRT di Kota Semarang diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu solusi akan permasalahan kemacetan, adanya BRT ini terutama pada trayek perjalanan koridor II, ternyata mendapatkan tanggapan positif dari masyarakat pengguna, terbukti dari meningkatnya permintaan yang terjadi dari tahun 2012 hingga 2013 yakni hampir menyentuh angka 90% dari tahun sebelumnya. Dari hasil pengamatan pada trayek perjalanan Koridor II yang telah dilakukan, ternyata diketahui bahwa pada beberapa shelter (halte terjadi permintaan yang cukup tinggi, dan akhirnya pada saat peak hour armada BRT tidak mampu menampung seluruh permintaan yang terjadi, sehingga mengakibatkan penumpang harus menunggu lebih lama untuk dilayani oleh armada tersebut. Hal tersebut memicu permasalahan baru yakni kurang optimalnya jumlah armada yang beroperasi dan juga jadwal antar keberangkatan armada yang kurang menyesuaikan kondisi ketika tingginya permintaan pada setiap halte. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah dengan melakukan pendekatan sistem, yang selanjutnya melakukan pemodelan sistem transportasi dan simulasi computer yang terjadi pada rute perjalanan tersebut. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah rancangan model simulasi dalam bentuk model matematis dan simulasi komputer. Variabel pengendali pada model matematis dan simulasi komputer adalah frekuensi waktu antar kedatangan armada BRT, sehingga diharapkan mengurangi panjang antrian penumpang. Kata kunci: sistem transportasi, pemodelan sistem, simulasi komputer.

  10. Bus Rapid Transit and Socioeconomic Condition of Bus Commuters in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi L. Kuye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is one of the most common means of transportation across the world. Bus transportation in Nigeria had witnessed many problems for the past decades considering the growing population with the attendant loss of lives and properties in most cities like Lagos in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the adequacy of services provided by Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in Lagos State with respect to the extent to which it influences the socioeconomic conditions of bus commuters. It examines the effect of services rendered by BRT on cost reduction potential, income and safety. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 20 samples each from all respondents in all local government area in Lagos State to reach a total of three hundred and thirty (330 samples. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire which was validated. Data collected were analysed with the use of descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and standard deviation and inferential statistics such as regression and analysis of variance techniques. Findings showed that BRT services has reduced the cost of bus commuters and also increased safety and security thereby increasing the socioeconomic condition of Lagosians. The study recommends improvements in BRT services through the deployment of technology as it had been used in developed countries.

  11. CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM UNDER ECONOMIC TRANSITION: NATIONAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Guo, Rong; Wang, Qingbin

    2003-01-01

    China's Tourism industry, especially international tourism, has expanded rapidly since its market-oriented economic reform started in 1978. There has been limited information regarding the trends and regional disparities. This paper examines the national trends of China's international tourism since 1982 and analyzes the changes in regional disparities since 1995. While the trend analysis suggests that China's international tourism is likely to keep growing at a significant rate, the analysis...

  12. Does Innovation Performance Depend on Economic Growth?: The Case of a Country in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H Jasinski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze a possible influence of economic growth on innovation performance. Econometric model based on principal component analysis is the research tool. Poland, as a country in transition, is here a case-study. The analysis has confirmed an interesting pattern: in 1989-2007, corporate innovation performance was changing, in principle, in the same direction as macro-economic changes but with a one-to-two-year delay. This is some proof that the innovation activity followed the cyclical development of the national economy. Innovation performance was demand-driven, i.e., pulled by demand resulting from the economy's recovery and high economic growth. So, technological innovation appeared to be highly sensitive to the general economic situation in Poland as a transitional economy. Economic growth seems to be a kind of tag-boat pulling innovation activities in the business sector.Este artículo intenta analizar una posible influencia del crecimiento económico en el desempeño de la innovación. La herramienta de investigación empleada es el modelo econométrico basado en un componente principal de análisis. El estudio de caso es Polonia, una economía en transición. El análisis ha confirmado un patrón interesante: durante el periodo 1989-2007, el desempeño de la innovación cambió, en principio, en la misma dirección que los cambios macroeconómicos pero con un retraso de uno a dos años. Esto muestra de algún modo que la actividad innovadora correspondió al desarrollo cíclico de la economía nacional. El desempeño innovador se orientó por la demanda, es decir, una demanda impulsada por la recuperación económica y el alto crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto, la innovación tecnológica parece ser muy sensible a la situación económica en general de Polonia, como economía en transición. El crecimiento económico parece ser una especie de motor que impulsa las actividades innovadoras del sector de negocios.

  13. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  14. RADII OF RAPIDLY ROTATING STARS, WITH APPLICATION TO TRANSITING-PLANET HOSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    The currently favored method for estimating radii and other parameters of transiting-planet host stars is to match theoretical models to observations of the stellar mean density ρ * , the effective temperature T eff , and the composition parameter [Z]. This explicitly model-dependent approach is based on readily available observations, and results in small formal errors. Its performance will be central to the reliability of results from ground-based transit surveys such as TrES, HAT, and SuperWASP, as well as to the space-borne missions MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler. Here, I use two calibration samples of stars (eclipsing binaries (EBs) and stars for which asteroseismic analyses are available) having well-determined masses and radii to estimate the accuracy and systematic errors inherent in the ρ * method. When matching to the Yonsei-Yale stellar evolution models, I find the most important systematic error results from selection bias favoring rapidly rotating (hence probably magnetically active) stars among the EB sample. If unaccounted for, this bias leads to a mass-dependent underestimate of stellar radii by as much as 4% for stars of 0.4 M sun , decreasing to zero for masses above about 1.4 M sun . Relative errors in estimated stellar masses are three times larger than those in radii. The asteroseismic sample suggests (albeit with significant uncertainty) that systematic errors are small for slowly rotating, inactive stars. Systematic errors arising from failings of the Yonsei-Yale models of inactive stars probably exist, but are difficult to assess because of the small number of well-characterized comparison stars having low mass and slow rotation. Poor information about [Z] is an important source of random error, and may be a minor source of systematic error as well. With suitable corrections for rotation, it is likely that systematic errors in the ρ * method can be comparable to or smaller than the random errors, yielding radii that are accurate to about 2% for

  15. The economics of environmental policy in Poland: implications for countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, M.L.; Bochniarz, Z.; Bolan, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to generate insights into the problems and opportunities faced by countries in transition in implementing environmental policy based on the recent experience of Poland. There is much to be learned from the experience of the country that arguably took the riskiest and boldest path of environmental and economic institutional change. The experience of Poland can be enlightening in terms of the problems and opportunities in establishing an institutional framework that can validate the long term legitimacy of sustainable development as a national goal. From the unique set of circumstances facing Poland, lessons can be derived for other countries in transition. The paper begins by introducing the basic welfare economics of institutional choice. The theoretical arguments are presented in terms general to institutional design and specific to environmental policy. Subsequently, the recent experience of Poland in terms of the problems faced and key environmental policy innovations are documented. The concluding section presents policy implications that can be drawn from the Polish experience and speculates about their applicability to other countries in transition. 28 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  16. [The theory of the demographic transition as a reference for demo-economic models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genne, M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the theory of demographic transition (TTD) is to better understand the behavior and interrelationship of economic and demographic variables. There are 2 types of demo-economic models: 1) the malthusian models, which consider demographic variables as pure exogenous variables, and 2) the neoclassical models, which consider demographic variables as strictly endogenous. If TTD can explore the behavior of exogenous and endogenous demographic variables, it cannot demonstrate neither the relation nor the order of causality among the various demographic and economic variables, but it is simply the theoretical framework of a complex social and economic phenomenon which started in Europe in the 19th Century, and which today can be extended to developing countries. There are 4 stages in the TTD; the 1st stage is characterized by high levels of fecundity and mortality; the 2nd stage is characterized by high fecundity levels and declining mortality levels; the 3rd stage is characterized by declining fecundity levels and low mortality levels; the 4th stage is characterized by low fertility and mortality levels. The impact of economic variables over mortality and birth rates is evident for mortality rates, which decline earlier and at a greater speed than birth rates. According to reliable mathematical predictions, around the year 1987 mortality rates in developing countries will have reached the low level of European countries, and growth rate will be only 1.5%. If the validity of demo-economic models has not yet been established, TTD has clearly shown that social and economic development is the factor which influences demographic expansion.

  17. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Economic-Driving Assistance Program for Transit Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxin Han

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on development and evaluation of an economic-driving assistance program for transit vehicles (EDTV which can minimize energy consumption, air pollution emission of buses, and improve the level of service of transit system as well. Taking advantage of the latest advances in information and communication technologies, the EDTV system can provide bus drivers with optimal recommended bus holding times at near-side bus stops and dynamic bus speed to adapt to the real-time traffic control plan at downstream intersections. In order to address the impacts of the stochastic variation of bus dwell time, the total link between adjacent intersections is divided into three parts: upstream of bus stop part; bus stop part; and downstream of bus stop part. The methods for calculating recommended parameters, including bus holding time and bus speed in each of the three parts are proposed based on real-time bus status and signal status at downstream intersections. A VISSIM-based simulation platform was designed and used for simulating and evaluating the proposed EDTV system. Extensive experimental analyses have shown that the proposed EDTV system can improve the performance of a transit system in terms of reducing fuel consumption, air pollution emissions and level of service of the transit system.

  20. How Economic Disadvantage Affects the Availability and Nature of Mentoring Relationships During the Transition to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Erickson, Lance D; Hagler, Matthew; Rhodes, Jean E

    2018-03-01

    Supportive nonparental adults, particularly nonfamilial adults, provide critical support during the transition to adulthood, opening doors to educational and career paths. This study examined whether economic disadvantage shapes access to these relationships. Results showed that low-income adolescents had reduced access to naturally occurring mentors, and the relationships they did form tended to be close bonds with family and friends, rather than nonfamilial adults. Their mentors were more likely to focus on practical support, and less likely to serve as role models or provide career advice. These effects of socioeconomic status on natural mentoring relationships remained evident, even when accounting for youth race/ethnicity. Findings suggest that networks of support differ depending on a youth's socioeconomic context in ways that could perpetuate social and economic inequalities. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  1. TRANSITION TO INNOVATIVE ECONOMICS ON THE BASIS OF «ROAD CARD»: EXAMINATION, EVALUATION, PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Baklanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative economics model is examined in its interaction with the environment that includes such components as science, society, state, education, business and market as well as safety and court systems. Three main RF economics innovative and active development strategies are suggested and discussed: «resource-export», «resource-science» and «resource-innovation» strategies. Preference is given to the resourceinnovation strategy characteristic with multiple effect resulting from innovations used to update domestic technologies and to restructure the processing and manufacturing industries. An instrument called «Road map» is developed as a set and succession of measures required for Russia to transit to innovative economy.

  2. Comparison of methodological approaches to identify economic activity regularities in transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Poměnková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper focuses on consideration and evaluation of methodical approaches to analyze cyclical structure character of economic activity in transition economy. As a starting point, work in time domain is applied, which is followed in frequency domain approach. Both approaches are viewed from methodical as well as application point of view and their advantage and disadvantage are discussed. Consequently, time-frequency domain approach is added and applied on real data. On the basis of obtained results recommendation is formulated. All discussed methodical approaches are also considered from the perspective of capability to evaluate behaving of business cycle in time of global economic crisis before/after year 2008. The empirical part of the paper deals with data of gross domestic product in the Czech Republic in 1996/Q1–2010/Q2.

  3. Contribution of small and medium enterprises to economic development: Evidence from a transiting economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, James; Ibidunni, Ayodotun Stephen; Tolulope, Atolagbe; Olokundun, Maxwell Ayodele; Amaihian, Augusta Bosede; Borishade, Taiye Tairat; Fred, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The focus of this research was to present a data article on the contribution of SMEs to economic development in a transiting economy. Descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from 600 respondents in 60 small-scale enterprises located in different parts of the country (20 small-scale enterprises located in Lagos State, 20 in Anambra State and 20 in Kano State of Nigeria respectively). Data analysis was carried out using tables and percentages and the null hypotheses of the study was tested using chi-square ( X 2 ) inferential statistical model at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the operation of small and medium-scale enterprises and economic growth in developing nations.

  4. Constitutional Property Rights Protection and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper seeks to estimate the economic growth effect of constitutional provisions for property rights protection. It does so using the unique situation in formerly communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus where all but two introduced new constitutions after the fall...... of the Iron Curtain. The effects of implementing different constitutional provisions can therefore be observed in a group of countries with the same formal starting point. Estimates provide no evidence of positive effects and mainly point towards a negative conclusion: the introduction of constitutional...... protection of property rights is not associated with economic development in the long run, but tends to impose costs during a period of institutional transition and implementation proportional to the constitutional change....

  5. China and the Impossible Trinity: Economic Transition and the Internationalization of the Renminbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorui Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the recent formal inclusion of the Renminbi (RMB into the IMF’s Special Drawing Right (SDR currency basket, prospects for further internationalization of the RMB are improving. However, as China attempts to simultaneously undergo an economic transition into a more balanced growth model, and the internationalization of its currency, pressures are mounting from the impossible trinity. The latter is based on the Mundell-Flemming model. The latter posits a policy-choice problem in which a country cannot simultaneously have unfettered capital movement, an independent monetary policy, and a fixed exchange rate system. Naturally, three baskets of policy combinations are possible. Historical events such as the Asian financial crisis (1997-1998 have demonstrated that countries are strictly bound by the impossible trinity. The paper posits that China should opt for the policy basket of a fully liberalized capital account, fully liberalized interest rates, and maintain its current basket peg exchange rate regime but eventually allow for a greater spread. The policy sequence should begin with the liberalization of the interest rates while maintaining the current level of capital controls. Once adequate time has been given to allow the domestic financial and economic system to adjust and consolidate itself, the liberalization of the capital account should be the next goal. Finally, the basket peg exchange rate regime should be allowed a greater float. While the interest rates and the capital account are undergoing liberalization, the exchange rate should operate as a policy tool so as to minimize shocks to the domestic economic system. The policy basket and sequence have been chosen because they are conducive to a risk-averse economic transition from the current export-led growth model. The paper visits the cases of Hong Kong, the United States, and the European Union to examine their policy choice vis-à-vis the impossible trinity in order to make a

  6. Teaching Economics with Spanish Primary School Textbooks during the Franco Dictatorship and the Transition to Democracy (1962-1982)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Kira Mahamud; Hernández Laina, Yovana

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyze knowledge about economics conveyed via primary school textbooks published during the late Franco dictatorship and the years of transition to democracy in Spain. Starting from the premise that the process of political socialization and identity construction is based partly on economic factors, we examine the evolution of…

  7. Rapid change of ion energy distribution and floating potential at L/H transition in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Okano, F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid changes of the main ion energy distribution at transitions from L-to-H, H-to-L and during ELMs are studied with the time of flight neutral measurement in the JFT-2M tokamak. The change of the main ion energy distribution after sawtooth crash during an L-mode phase is also studied. The change of the ion energy distribution just after sawtooth crash is the same as that at L/H-transition. The floating potential measured in the SOL also shows the rapid jump to more positive just after the sawtooth crash (at the same time of the change of an ion energy distribution). This shows the increase of ion outflux in the SOL and might correspond to the change of the ion energy distribution. This may be the reason why most of H-modes are triggered by a sawtooth. (author)

  8. The evaluation of Foreign Direct Investments and their impact in the economics of some transition countries: the case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Kukaj; Anera Alishani

    2017-01-01

    The Foreign Direct Investment is suggested to have a positive impact on the economic growth of many countries, especially in the transition countries such as Kosovo. During the last century, the world has witnessed remarkable growth of FDI because they impact positively the overall strategy for economic and social development. This article will provide a general review of the FDIs and will focus on their economic implication on the developing countries and especially in Kosovo and some other ...

  9. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  10. Transition from a planar interface to cellular and dendritic structures during rapid solidification processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmanan, V.

    1986-01-01

    The development of theoretical models which characterize the planar-cellular and cell-dendrite transitions is described. The transitions are analyzed in terms of the Chalmers number, the solute Peclet number, and the tip stability parameter, which correlate microstructural features and processing conditions. The planar-cellular transition is examined using the constitutional supercooling theory of Chalmers et al., (1953) and it is observed that the Chalmers number is between 0 and 1 during dendritic and cellular growth. Analysis of cell-dendrite transition data reveal that the transition occurs when the solute Peclet number goes through a minimum, the primary arm spacings go through a maximum, and the Chalmers number is equal to 1/2. The relation between the tip stability parameter and the solute Peclet number is investigated and it is noted that the tip stability parameter is useful for studying dendritic growth in alloys.

  11. ADEME energy transition scenarios. Summary including a macro-economic evaluation 2030 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    ADEME, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency, is a public agency reporting to the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. In 2012 the agency drew up a long-term scenario entitled 'ADEME Energy Transition Scenarios 2030-2050'. This document presents a summary of the report. The full version can be viewed online on the ADEME web site. With this work ADEME offers a proactive energy vision for all stakeholders - experts, the general public, decision-makers, etc. - focusing on two main areas of expertise: managing energy conservation and developing renewable energy production using proven or demonstration-phase technologies. These scenarios identify a possible pathway for the energy transition in France. They are based on two time horizons and two separate methodologies. One projection, applicable from the present day, seeks to maximise potential energy savings and renewable energy production in an ambitious but realistic manner, up to 2030. The second exercise is a normative scenario that targets a fourfold reduction in greenhouse gas emissions generated in France by 2050, compared to 1990 levels. The analysis presented in this document is primarily based on an exploration of different scenarios that allow for the achievement of ambitious energy and environmental targets under technically, economically and socially feasible conditions. This analysis is supplemented by a macro-economic analysis. These projections, particularly for 2030, do not rely on radical changes in lifestyle, lower comfort levels or hypothetical major technological breakthroughs. They show that by using technologies and organisational changes that are currently within our reach, we have the means to achieve these long-term goals. The scenarios are based on assumptions of significant growth, both economic (1.8% per year) and demographic (0.4% a year). The 2050 scenario shows that with sustained growth, a

  12. Political-economic transition in Georgia and its implications for tourism in Svaneti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voll Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Private tourism entrepreneurship relies on special knowledge of the service sector with a strong focus on individual action and a general service mentality. The organization and regulation of tourism in post-socialist European countries experienced a shift from being state-driven to being determined by individual entrepreneurs. Yet in some cases, the adoption of the new entrepreneurial business principles is contested by different cultural understandings of how tourism should be 'produced'. With examples from the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia (Svaneti we will demonstrate that these different understandings can play a major role in creating barriers for developing community-based tourism. Shortly after the transition to the market economy, a number of different small-scale, community-based tourism projects emerged, with individual entrepreneurship contesting the traditional values of hospitality in these regions (predominantly based on religious and 'tribal' values and norms rather than purely on entrepreneurial values. The methods used for this preliminary study of post-socialist tourism development included a short-term, mobile ethnography consisting of semi-structured interviews of tourism producers in the region, participant observation, as well as mapping occupancy of buildings according to unoccupied, agriculture and agritourism and second homes categories based on the condition of the gardens. Further changes in the political-economic framework have now shifted the focus towards larger-scale tourism developments supported by public-private partnerships. This paper analyses the impacts of these political-economic changes on the development of community-based tourism in Svaneti and explores in particular the friction between collective traditions and individual entrepreneurship in the experience economy of transition countries and its relationship with regional economic growth and rural depopulation.

  13. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  14. The digital brain switch: managing rapid transitions between role identities in a digital world

    OpenAIRE

    Symon, Gillian; Chamakiotis, Petros; Whiting, Rebecca; Roby, Helen; Whittle, Jon; Chong, Ming Ki; Ang, Chee Siang; Rashid, Umar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present initial findings from an EPSRC-sponsored multi-disciplinary research project investigating how digital technologies and social media affect role transitions across work-life domains. The research uses an innovative combination of visual diaries and narrative interviews to capture micro-transitions (‘switches’) and explore these with participants in the context of their overall lives. Findings from a pilot study with academics are reported here in terms of: emergent d...

  15. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the

  16. Energy pricing policy in economies in transition (EIT) - economic and social impact case of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczynski, F.

    1996-01-01

    The economic and social impact of the energy policy and pricing in countries with economies in transition is shown on the Polish example. Detailed changes in industrial production, growth of investments in Poland are shown for the period 1990-1996 with annual inflation rate unemployment data. This is followed by expected growth of investments and inflation for the period 1993-2000. In the framework of primary energy consumption structure in 1994 and prospect for 2000 two possible scenarios of gas consumption by households, industry and for power generation, are presented up to 2010. Gas prices for the mentioned consumers in Poland are compared to those in Western Europe and environmental impacts are mentioned as well

  17. Economics of nuclear and thermal power plants in the transition to market relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1993-01-01

    In the economic conditions taking shape, the provision of electricity for the national economy of Russia, including in the short term (up to the years 2010-2015), depends in many ways on a weighted choice of strategy for the use of alternative means of electricity generation from the standpoint of fuel resources and electrical technology. When considering problems that need to be reassessed, the role of all alternative energy sources, including nuclear power, in the energy system of Russia must be determined, i.e., a strategy must be worked out for the development of the power industry. Information and data are presented on the present state of the electrical power industry in Russia including fossil and nuclear. Issues and policies associated with the transition to a market-driven economy as related to the nuclear power industry is examined. Specifically, a open-quotes Conception of a Power Policy for Russiaclose quotes is discussed

  18. Demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa: how big will the economic dividend be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Robert; Lipton, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In mid-demographic-transition, many Asian countries enjoyed a large demographic 'dividend': extra economic growth owing to falling dependant/workforce ratios, or slower natural increase, or both. We estimate the dividend, 1985-2025, in sub-Saharan Africa and its populous countries. Dependency and natural increase peaked around 1985, 20 years after Asia. The UN projects an acceleration of the subsequent slow falls but disregards slowish declines in young-age mortality and thus, we argue, overestimates future fertility decline. Even if one accepts their projection, arithmetical and econometric evidence suggests an annual, if not total, dividend well below Asia's. The dividend arises more from falling dependency than reduced natural increase, and could be increased by accelerating the fertility decline (e.g., by reducing young-age mortality) or by employing a larger workforce productively. Any dividend from transition apart, low saving in much of Africa (unlike Asia) means that, given likely natural increase, current consumption per person is unsustainable because it depletes capital per person.

  19. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  20. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira

    2017-10-30

    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p Economic growth in Mongolia from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increase in the effect of social determinants of child health; whilst focused policy improved access to immunisation. Children with less educated mothers and lower household incomes should be targeted in interventions to reduce health inequity.

  1. Exploring synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapidly urbanizing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many urban areas around the world, Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina, USA are experiencing population growth and sprawl that is putting stress on the transportation system. Light rail and denser transit-oriented development are being considered as possible solutio...

  2. Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bhaskara Rao, B. [School of Economics and Finance, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. However, most of them did not take into account financial developments and institutional quality. Moreover, Stern [Stern, D., 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8): 1419-1439.] noted that there are important econometric weaknesses in the earlier studies, such as endogeneity, heteroscedasticity, omitted variables, etc. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also financial development and institutional quality. We employ the standard reduced-form modelling approach to control for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity and GMM estimation to control for endogeneity. Our study considers 24 transition economies and panel data for 1993-2004. Our results support the EKC hypothesis while confirming the importance of both institutional quality and financial development for environmental performance. We also found that financial liberalization may be harmful for environmental quality if it is not accomplished in a strong institutional framework. (author)

  3. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  4. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  5. An evaluation grid for the assessments of macro-economic impacts of energy transition. Working paper Nr 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrard, Jean-Francois; Scapecchi, Pascale

    2014-05-01

    This study aims at comparing the main available macro-economic models used to assess the consequences of policies for energy transition, and at determining their scope and limitations of validity. More precisely, the authors study the impact of two categories of policy instruments (those aimed at modifying prices and incentive ones) and the role of the adopted modelling of technical progress and of the macro-economic closure of the model. In a first part, they present various tools or models used to assess economic impacts of energy transition: technical-economic, macro-economic, general balance, and hybrid models. Then, after a presentation of some principles adopted to analyse these various models, the authors discuss price-based tools, tools based on demand support, the key role of technological progress, the impact of the macro-economic closure on the reached objective. They finally discuss the results obtained by applying an evaluation grid to energy transition scenarios. A set of recommendations is finally proposed for a better assessment of these impacts

  6. Protecting ecotourism resources in a time of rapid economic and environmental transformation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Watson; Dave Ostergren; Peter Fix; Bill Overbaugh; Dan McCollum; Linda Kruger; Martha Madsen; He Yang

    2009-01-01

    In the Far East of Russia, similar to many places in Asia, ecotourism and the environment are in transition. A science team, cooperating with the United Nations Development Programme project "Demonstrating Sustainable Conservation of Biological Diversity in Four Protected Territories in the Kamchatka Region, Russian Federation," is working to provide vital...

  7. Effects of new bus and rail rapid transit systems – an international review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    areas surrounding the transit line with increasing property values. Such effects are traditionally associated with attractive rail-based public transport systems. However, a statistical comparison of 41 systems did not show significant deviations between effects on property values resulting from BRT...... time, ridership and modal shifts, and (ii) the indirect strategic effects in terms of effects on property values and urban development. The review confirms the existing literature suggesting that BRT can attract many passengers if travel time reductions are significantly high. This leads to attractive...

  8. The Declining and the Thriving Neighborhoods : Urban Regeneration in the Chinese Context of Migration and Economic Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, L.; Huang, Xin; Yang, Qiao; Tieben, Hendrik; Geng, Yan; Rossini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, one of the major changes in urban development strategies of the first-tier cities in China is the increasing focus on urban regeneration. To cope with the magnitude of migration and challenges of economic transition, these cities are forced to find new models of urban

  9. Economics and business administration post-graduates in transition from university to work: Labor market success factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, 13-17 April). Economics and business administration post-graduates in transition from university to work: Labor market success factors. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association (AERA),

  10. Sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular block after rapid sequence intubation: a systematic review and economic assessment†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D.; Paulden, M.; Paton, F.; Heirs, M.; Duffy, S.; Hunter, J. M.; Sculpher, M.; Woolacott, N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sugammadex 16 mg kg−1 can be used for the immediate reversal of neuromuscular block 3 min after administration of rocuronium and could be used in place of succinylcholine for emergency intubation. We have systematically reviewed the efficacy and cost-effectiveness and made an economic assessment of sugammadex for immediate reversal. The economic assessment investigated whether sugammadex appears cost-effective under various assumptions about the value of any reduction in recovery time with sugammadex, the likelihood of a ‘can't intubate, can't ventilate’ (CICV) event, the age of the patient, and the length of the procedure. Three trials were included in the efficacy review. Sugammadex administered 3 or 5 min after rocuronium produced markedly faster recovery than placebo or spontaneous recovery from succinylcholine-induced block. No published economic evaluations were found. Our economic analyses showed that sugammadex appears more cost-effective, where the value of any reduction in recovery time is greater, where the reduction in mortality compared with succinylcholine is greater, and where the patient is younger, for lower probabilities of a CICV event and for long procedures which do not require profound block throughout. Because of the lack of evidence, the value of some parameters remains unknown, which makes it difficult to provide a definitive assessment of the cost-effectiveness of sugammadex in practice. The use of sugammadex in combination with high-dose rocuronium is efficacious. Further research is needed to clarify key parameters in the analysis and to allow a fuller economic assessment. PMID:20937718

  11. Shooting the Rapids: Navigating Transitions to Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The case studies of Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden; the Northern Highlands Lake District and the Everglades in the USA; the Mae Nam Ping Basin, Thailand; and the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia, were compared to assess the outcome of different actions for transforming social-ecological systems (SESs. The transformations consisted of two phases, a preparation phase and a transition phase, linked by a window of opportunity. Key leaders and shadow networks can prepare a system for change by exploring alternative system configurations and developing strategies for choosing from among possible futures. Key leaders can recognize and use or create windows of opportunity and navigate transitions toward adaptive governance. Leadership functions include the ability to span scales of governance, orchestrate networks, integrate and communicate understanding, and reconcile different problem domains. Successful transformations rely on epistemic and shadow networks to provide novel ideas and ways of governing SESs. We conclude by listing some ð"„¬rules of thumb" that can help build leadership and networks for successful transformations toward adaptive governance of social-ecological systems.

  12. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  13. Chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the accelerated rapid eye movement sleep transitions after selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation: a model-based analysis using Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyalik, Diána; Vas, Szilvia; Kátai, Zita; Kitka, Tamás; Gyertyán, István; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Tóthfalusi, László

    2014-11-19

    Shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and increased REM sleep amount are presumed biological markers of depression. These sleep alterations are also observable in several animal models of depression as well as during the rebound sleep after selective REM sleep deprivation (RD). Furthermore, REM sleep fragmentation is typically associated with stress procedures and anxiety. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants reduce REM sleep time and increase REM latency after acute dosing in normal condition and even during REM rebound following RD. However, their therapeutic outcome evolves only after weeks of treatment, and the effects of chronic treatment in REM-deprived animals have not been studied yet. Chronic escitalopram- (10 mg/kg/day, osmotic minipump for 24 days) or vehicle-treated rats were subjected to a 3-day-long RD on day 21 using the flower pot procedure or kept in home cage. On day 24, fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded in the first 2 h of the passive phase. The observed sleep patterns were characterized applying standard sleep metrics, by modelling the transitions between sleep phases using Markov chains and by spectral analysis. Based on Markov chain analysis, chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the REM sleep fragmentation [accelerated transition rates between REM and non-REM (NREM) stages, decreased REM sleep residence time between two transitions] during the rebound sleep. Additionally, the antidepressant avoided the frequent awakenings during the first 30 min of recovery period. The spectral analysis showed that the SSRI prevented the RD-caused elevation in theta (5-9 Hz) power during slow-wave sleep. Conversely, based on the aggregate sleep metrics, escitalopram had only moderate effects and it did not significantly attenuate the REM rebound after RD. In conclusion, chronic SSRI treatment is capable of reducing several effects on sleep which might be the consequence

  14. Electroweak phase transition in the economical 3-3-1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phong, Vo Quoc; Van, Vo Thanh; Minh, Le Hoang [Ho Chi Minh City University of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Long, Hoang Ngoc [Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-07-15

    We consider the EWPT in the economical 3-3-1 (E331) model. Our analysis shows that the EWPT in the model is a sequence of two first-order phase transitions, SU(3) → SU(2) at the TeV scale and SU(2) → U(1) at the 100 GeV scale. The EWPT SU(3) → SU(2) is triggered by the new bosons and the exotic quarks; its strength is about 1-13 if the mass ranges of these new particles are 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} GeV. The EWPT SU(2) → U(1) is strengthened by only the new bosons; its strength is about 1-1.15 if the mass parts of H{sub 1}{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup ±} and Y{sup ±} are in the ranges 10-10{sup 2} GeV. The contributions of H{sub 1}{sup 0} and H{sub 2}{sup ±} to the strengths of both EWPTs may make them sufficiently strong to provide large deviations from thermal equilibrium and B violation necessary for baryogenesis. (orig.)

  15. Economic growth and the demand for dietary quality: Evidence from Russia during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraf, Christine; Teuber, Ramona; Brosig, Stephan; Glauben, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The increasing incidence of nutrition-related chronic diseases worldwide has raised people's awareness of dietary quality. Most existing studies on the topic of changing nutrition patterns measure dietary quality by single macronutrient indicators or anthropometric outcomes. However, such an approach is often too narrow to provide a picture of overall dietary quality and is sometimes even misleading. This study contributes to the existing literature by taking into account that the analysis of dietary quality comprises two dimensions: the adequate intake of vitamins and minerals, as well as the moderate intake of nutrients that increase the risk of chronic diseases. Thereby, we apply Grossman's health investment model to the analysis of the demand for dietary quality, explicitly addressing the different dimensions of dietary quality and the intertemporal character of health investments. We apply our approach to Russia using data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 1996 to 2008. Our results show that intake levels of vitamins and minerals as well as saturated and total fatty acids increased after 1998 along with economic recovery, while the intake of fiber decreased. Our econometric results imply an income elasticity of vitamins and minerals of 0.051, and an income elasticity of fats of 0.073. Overall, our results are in line with an ongoing nutrition transition in the Russian Federation, which is marked by decreasing deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, as well as the increasing consumption of fats with its accompanying negative health consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Recycled Concrete Interfacial Transition Zone in a Rapid Carbonization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbing Yue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of recycled concrete interface structures, a multi-interface reconstruction model was established. To study the microstructure evolution of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ during the carbonization process of recycled concrete, the microstructure characteristics of the ITZ of C30, C40, and C50 grade recycled concrete and the mortar matrix before and after carbonization were studied through the microhardness tester and SEM. The results show that the microhardness values of the ITZ and the mortar matrix are obviously increased and that the width of the ITZ decreases, while the ITZ performance of the C50 grade recycled concrete is not significantly changed. The ITZ exhibits a large amount of granular CaCO3 after carbonization, the pores are refined, and microcracks are generated. Overall, there are significant differences in the microstructures between the ITZ and the mortar matrix before and after carbonization.

  17. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  18. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  19. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT [mass rapid transit] system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih-Cheng Hu; Jen-Ho Lee [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

    2004-03-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE. (author)

  20. Bangkok's mass rapid transit system's commuter decision-making process in using integrated smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerakan Kaewwongwattana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the decision-making process to use an integrated smartcard ticketing system by Bangkok metropolitan transit commuters. A second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis using LISREL 9.10 was undertaken on Bangkok commuter's decision-making process on the use of an integrated smartcard system. The sample consisted of 300 Bangkok commuters obtained by accidental sampling using questionnaires with a 5-point Likert scale. The tools in the research questionnaires used scale estimation that achieved a confidence value of 0.84. The research instruments used rating scales measuring information search, alternative choices, and use decision on the 15 variables in the decision-making process which had factor loadings between 0.49 and 0.89 weight elements when sorted in descending order and overall had a high level. Use decision, alternative choices and information search had a factor of 0.89, 0.65 and 0.49, respectively. There was a good fit of the decision-making model to the empirical data (chi-square = 34.55, probability (p = 0.94, df = 49, RMSEA = 0.00, GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.96, SRMR = 0.04.

  1. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  2. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  3. Economic impact of rapid diagnostic methods in Clinical Microbiology: Price of the test or overall clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The need to reduce the time it takes to establish a microbiological diagnosis and the emergence of new molecular microbiology and proteomic technologies has fuelled the development of rapid and point-of-care techniques, as well as the so-called point-of-care laboratories. These laboratories are responsible for conducting both techniques partially to response to the outsourcing of the conventional hospital laboratories. Their introduction has not always been accompanied with economic studies that address their cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility, but rather tend to be limited to the unit price of the test. The latter, influenced by the purchase procedure, does not usually have a regulated reference value in the same way that medicines do. The cost-effectiveness studies that have recently been conducted on mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of bacteraemia and the use of antimicrobials have had the greatest clinical impact and may act as a model for future economic studies on rapid and point-of-care tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  5. Modelling and Simulation of Cooperative Control for Bus Rapid Transit Vehicle Platoon in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a cooperative control model for improving the operational efficiency of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT vehicles. The model takes advantage of the emerging connected vehicle technology. A connected vehicle centre is established to assign a specific reservation time interval and transmit the corresponding dynamic speed guidance to each BRT vehicle. Furthermore, a set of constraints have been set up to avoid bus queuing and waiting phenomena in downstream BRT stations. Therefore, many BRT vehicles are strategically guided to form a platoon, which can pass through an intersection with no impedance. An actual signalized intersection along the Guangzhou BRT corridor is employed to verify and assess the cooperative control model in various traffic conditions. The simulation-based evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can reduce delays, decrease the number of stops, and improve the sustainability of the BRT vehicles.

  6. Current-induced metal-insulator transition in VO x thin film prepared by rapid-thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Choong-Rae; Cho, SungIl; Vadim, Sidorkin; Jung, Ranju; Yoo, Inkyeong

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in polycrystalline VO x thin films and their preparations have been studied. The films were prepared by sputtering of vanadium thin films succeeded by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in oxygen ambient at 500 deg. C. Crystalline, compositional, and morphological characterizations reveal a continuous change of phase from vanadium metal to the highest oxide phase, V 2 O 5 , with the time of annealing. Electrical MIT switching has been observed in these films. Sweeping mode, electrode area, and temperature dependent MIT has been studied in Pt/VO x /Pt vertical structure. The important parameters for MIT in VO x have been found to be the current density and the electric field, which depend on carrier density in the films

  7. Bus Rapid Transit system’s influence on urban development: An inquiry to Boston and Seoul BRT systems’ technical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, Lutfi

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the relation between bus rapid transit (BRT) system and urban development. This article was written through a multi-staged comprehensive literature review. It includes a general overview of widely acknowledged BRT technical characteristics. It explains the approach taken in understanding the relation between BRT system provision and urban development around the system. Findings regarding the influence of Boston Silver Line 4 and 5 and Seoul BRT systems on urban development around the systems are quoted and used as case studies. Investigation on the technical characteristics of Boston SL4/5 and Seoul BRT systems are provided. This article shows that the two BRT systems that influence urban development around the systems have technical characteristics that enable the BRT systems to have high performance. However, while the quoted BRT systems can influence urban development, they have significantly different performance.

  8. Economic potential of fuel recycling options: A lifecycle cost analysis of future nuclear system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ruxing; Choi, Sungyeol; Il Ko, Won; Kim, Sungki

    2017-01-01

    In today's profit-driven market, how best to pursue advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies while maintaining the cost competitiveness of nuclear electricity is of crucial importance to determine the implementation of spent fuel reprocessing and recycling in China. In this study, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of ongoing national projects and the technical compatibility with China's future fuel cycle transition. We investigated the dynamic impacts of technical and economic uncertainties in the lifecycle of a nuclear system. The electricity generation costs associated with four potential fuel cycle transition scenarios were simulated by probabilistic and deterministic approaches and then compared in detail. The results showed that the total cost of a once-through system is lowest compared those of other advanced systems involving reprocessing and recycling. However, thanks to the consequential uncertainties caused by the further progress toward technology maturity, the economic potential of fuel recycling options was proven through a probabilistic uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, it is recommended that a compulsory executive of closed fuel cycle policy would pose some investment risk in the near term, though the execution of a series of R&D initiatives with a flexible roadmap would be valuable in the long run. - Highlights: • Real-time economic performance of the four scenarios of China's nuclear fuel cycle system transition until 2100. • Systematic assessments of techno-economic feasibility for ongoing national reprocessing projects. • Investigation the cost impact on nuclear electricity generation caused by uncertainties through probabilistic analysis. • Recommendation for sustainable implementation of fuel cycle R&D initiative ingrate with flexible roadmap in the long run.

  9. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  10. The Rapid Urban Growth Triad: A New Conceptual Framework for Examining the Urban Transition in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban transition is a universal event that unfolds in all countries, the determinants, patterns, and outcomes do not necessarily follow a uniform process. With the urban transition being basically completed in developed countries around the turn of the 21st century, the growth of cities today is almost entirely confined to developing countries. Still, much of our conceptual understanding of this process is derived from earlier accounts, with definitions rooted in a historical context. This has resulted in common misconceptions such as a tendency to view the growth of cities primarily as an outcome of rural to urban migration, neglecting the growing contributions of urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas. A tendency to treat the components of urban growth in isolation has created a rift within the urban studies discourse, preventing any real theorization of their combined impacts and the interplay among them. Applying a systems thinking approach, this paper introduces a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing rapid urban growth in developing countries. The framework offers explanatory power to previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition—ultimately revealing new policy levers for managing it in a sustainable way.

  11. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  12. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  13. The role of human capital formation in the transition to modern economic growth, 1300-1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805621

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of the Industrial Revolution increasingly emphasize the key role of human capital in promoting economic growth, and empirical studies have shown that education is a strong predictor of per capita GDP. Contrary to the theory, however, economic historians have described the role of

  14. Transition of chaotic motion to a limit cycle by intervention of economic policy: an empirical analysis in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenshi; Managi, Shunsuke; Vitanov, Nikolay K; Demura, Katsuhiko

    2007-04-01

    This paper investigates the transition of dynamics observed in an actual real agricultural economic dataset. Lyapunov spectrum analysis is conducted on the data to distinguish deterministic chaos and the limit cycle. Chaotic and periodic oscillation were identified before and after the second oil crisis, respectively. The statitonarity of the time series is investigated using recurrence plots. This shows that government intervention might reduce market instability by removing a chaotic market's long-term unpredictability.

  15. Novel HPTLC and UV-AUC analyses: For simple, economical, and rapid determination of Zileuton racemate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh B. Ganorkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel, simple, rapid and reliable High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC and UV-spectroscopic area under curve (UV-AUC methods were developed and validated for the analysis of zileuton racemate in bulk and in in-house tablet formulation. HPTLC quantitation of zileuton was done by UV detection at 260 nm and analysis was performed on (20 × 10 cm aluminium sheets precoated with silica gel 60-F254 (E. Merck as stationary phase and toluene–methanol–glacial acetic acid (3.5:1.5:0.1 v/v as mobile phase. Quantitation by HPTLC method was performed over the concentration range of 200–1200 ng/band. The HPTLC method resulted into a compact and well resolved band for zileuton at retention factor (Rf of 0.51 ± 0.02. Linear regression analysis data for calibration of HPTLC method represented a good linear relationship with regression coefficient; r2 = 0.997. UV-AUC method was developed using sodium lauryl sulphate (0.05 M as a hydrotropic agent to enhance water solubility and area was determined at a wavelength range in between 248.40 and 271.0 nm. Correlation coefficient for UV-AUC analysis was found to be r2 = 0.999. The developed UV-AUC method depicted a fine linear relationship for zileuton racemate in a concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL. Both the developed methods were validated for precision, robustness, ruggedness, accuracy, sensitivity as per guidelines laid by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH. Statistical analysis proved that the developed methods were precise, robust, sensitive and accurate and can be used effectively for the analysis of zileuton in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.

  16. Sustainable Economic Development in the Transition Countries, With a Retrospect of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolovski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development represents a civilization challenge that should meet the needs of today’s generations without jeopardizing the ability of the Earth to meet the needs of the future generations. This challenge, as an evolutionary process in which the social and economic development and the environment protection are independent, but mutual complementary components demands the solving of several issues The vision of sustainable economic development is based on the historical, cultural and political development of the countries. There is no unique way of sustainable development for different countries and therefore they cannot be made in the same way. The transition toward sustainable development represents a social choice that connects the global vision of the local needs and goals. The citizens must participate in the process of sustainable development. They must recognize the role they have in creating problems and finding solutions. In order to gain a general frame for the assessment of sustainable economic development  it is necessary to integrate several methodologies  and approaches toward the possible future generations for a quality and healthy life. One of the ways of assessing the results from the policies and the activities is the use of the principles and indicators according to which it is determined how much the countries work on sustainable development. Part of the indicators are generally accepted, and part are in a modeling phase. A systematic approach is necessary to see whether all indicators are necessary, and which of them are necessary for the assessment of sustainability. The economists do not have problems in executing the objective and quantitative indicators. The sociologists are facing many problems in the execution of indicators because of the immateriality of the life quality. However, the environment experts see problems when they are limited in the execution of indicators

  17. Economic and Managerial Analysis of Effective Managerial Strategies on Prevention from Ketosis in Transition Period in Shahroud Commercial Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfi, H.; Yazdani, A. R.; Latifi, M.; Shirani Bidabadi, F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study any effects of managerial strategies on prevention of ketosis metabolic disorder in transition period in Shahroud commercial dairy farms. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in order to obtain required information about the performance of these managerial strategies, performance costs, involvement situation with disorders relying upon clinical signs and treatment and health records, producing and economic situation, and fertility rate and its costs. The considered managerial guidelines include body condition score management or type evaluation in transition period, increase in dry matter intake close to parturition, using propylene glycol, using niacin, and high-quality feeding (the importance of feed quality) in transition period. Finally and upon arrangement of data, it was possible to study any effects of mentioned managerial strategies on related variants through multiple linear regressions. Furthermore, in order to study any relation among variables, we considered Pearson correlation coefficients as well. Finally, it was revealed that any application of managerial strategies for prevention from Ketosis in transition period has a significant effect in betterment of managerial and economic parameters. PMID:23738102

  18. Food shopping transition: socio-economic characteristics and motivations associated with use of supermarkets in a North African urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.

  19. The sustainability and transition of economic growth in China: from a perspective of factor structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yafei; Wu Xiaohang

    2008-01-01

    After more than 20 years' high speed growth, the sustainable growth of Chinese economy faces serious lim-itation of resources and factors now and in the future. In order to maintain the economic growth, China has to trans, form the way of economic growth. Based on the analysis on the related theories of economic growth and the structur-al transformation in factors of production, this paper proposes that the transformation of the economic growth way has to impel the optimization and the promotion of the utilization structure of factors of production. Finally, based on the analysis of the necessity to change the pattern of economic growth, this paper proposes the strategic measures to promote the continuous economic growth and the transformation of patterns of economic growth.

  20. Framing Young People's Educational Transitions: The Role of Local and Contemporary Economic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ceryn

    2017-01-01

    Despite rates of participation in post-compulsory full-time education reaching approximately 84% in Wales, social class inequalities continue to shape young people's transitions from compulsory to post-compulsory education. This article draws upon data from a project which explored how young people's educational decisions and transitions in Wales,…

  1. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  2. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. ‘Kingdom of Ends’ as Economic Model: Whether Transition is Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsak Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the connection between ethics, in particular Kant’s practical philosophy, and economics. The author examines historical reasons for Kant’s ethic not to have become part of the economic discourse and interprets modern business processes from Kant’s perspective. The article aims to demonstrate the possibilities of applying the philosophical instruments of Kant’s morals to concrete economic issues.

  4. Correlation between Government and Economic Growth –Fiscal Policy during the Transition in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Xhenet Syka; Dr.Sc. Ilir Kaduku

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we tried to analyze some aspects of fiscal policy in our country, without pretending to give our own sample. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditures and taxes which affect economic activity. Determination of fiscal policy in a given year takes into account the time virtually the past (current socio-economic status) and the implications for the future (fiscal sustainability). In general the cases dealt the role fiscal policy plays toward economic growth. The analy...

  5. Economic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, V.; Dung, N.H.; Shi, X.; Spoor, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and institutional reforms in East and Southeast Asia have caused impressive economic growth and improved the livelihood of millions of people. In several regions, however, this growth has been obtained at the expense of land quality or to the detriment of other natural resources. As a

  6. MAJOR EVENTS IN THE ARAB ORDER: THE DECLINE OF SUSTAINABILITY AND THE TRANSITION TO ECONOMIC RESILIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA IOANA OPREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab world particularities are not solely the ones derived from natural wealth (oil and gas, but are also driven from historical particularities which mark this region, together with specific Islamic politics and economic organizational framework, with deep roots in religious concepts. In a global context, where the rules from the West are the ones leading globalization, the Arab World brings its contribution, even though the Islamic space defines a different socio-economic concept. In the East lies a series of features that place the Arab world in a different plan than the one shown frequently in the discussions about world order, with geopolitical but also economic implications. Conflicts in this region lead to declining sustainable development and trigger the need to strengthen the economic resilience. As the least peaceful region of the contemporary world, Arab World integrated the concept of economic resilience, in order to recover from shocks and continue further development.

  7. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Body Growth and Rapid Hematological Development Support Breath Hold of Baby Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) during Subice Transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, Shawn R; Poll, Caryn P; Edwards, Matthew S

    Body size and oxygen stores in the blood and muscle set breath-hold limits in marine mammals, yet these characteristics are understudied in immature cetaceans. We examined body mass and hematology from birth through adulthood in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). At birth, body mass was 8% and 6% of the maximum mass recorded for adult females and males, respectively. Body mass then increased rapidly, approaching an asymptote around 12 yr for females and 18 yr for males. Interestingly, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit levels decreased after birth; this neonatal anemia was reversed as levels increased after 2 mo postpartum. Mature levels were obtained at approximately 8, 9, and 11 mo postpartum, respectively. Neonatal mean corpuscular hemoglobin also increased with ontogeny; mature levels were achieved by approximately 13 mo after birth. In contrast, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a significant but subtle increase throughout ontogeny. Our results indicate that postnatal maturation was required and that maturation occurred far earlier than the age at weaning (i.e., 2-3 yr postpartum). This is atypical of marine mammals, which generally achieve mature hemoglobin levels at weaning. Hematological maturation before maternal independence undoubtedly supports the prolonged breath holds of young belugas transiting under sea ice. This assessment enhances our knowledge of cetacean physiology and provides important inputs for determining age-specific dive capacity, yielding insights into age-specific flexibility to alter underwater behaviors, as will be required for future regime shifts and disturbances.

  9. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  10. Effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio-Medicines, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 2Statistical Sciences, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Post Marketing Study Management, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine (RAIM in patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in a real-world clinical setting. Methods: The postmarketing surveillance study with a 3-day observational period after the last RAIM administration was conducted (original study. Following this, an extended study was added for patients who received oral olanzapine after RAIM administration during the original study period, in order to additionally observe them for 7 days after initial RAIM administration. Effectiveness and safety from initial RAIM administration were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, respectively. Results: The effectiveness and safety analysis set included a total of 521 and 522 patients, respectively. A majority of patients received 10 mg of RAIM (475/522 patients, 91.0%. The mean ± SD total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score was 23.6±6.2 (n=318 at baseline (before initial RAIM administration, 17.4±6.8 (n=280 at 2 hours after initial administration, 16.2±6.8 (n=246 2 days after final administration, 14.9±6.2 (n=248 3 days after final administration, 13.8±5.9 (n=242 4 days after final administration, 13.2±5.8 (n=221 7 days after initial

  11. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R.

    2006-01-01

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant

  12. Land use impacts of bus rapid transit : phase II -- effects of BRT station proximity on property values along the Boston silver line Washington Street Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the U.S.; however, several systems are operating and many : more are being planned. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land uses and BRT systems is need...

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  14. Foreign direct investment and their impact on economic development countries in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Joksimovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is among the key developmental factors that, along with international trade, contributes to the globalisation of the world economy and business. It is therefore necessary to ensure FDI improves economic development. Attracting investors, a favourable investment climate, and investment attractiveness compared to other countries in the region are some of the prerequisites for effective economic development of the Republic of Serbia. The authors in the paper analyse the impact of FDI on the economic development of Republic of Serbia. Based on available countries from 2012 to 2014, the paper presents a comparative view of the Republic of Serbia and the countries in the region.

  15. Labor Market Transitions of Men and Women During an Economic Crisis: Evidence from Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Indonesia is in the midst of a major financial, economic and political crisis. The immediate effects of the crisis on labor market outcomes are examined drawing on two rounds of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS...

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  17. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  18. Tax reform in emerging transition: Is Kosovo’s Government and NGOs mathematical economics rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2009-01-01

    Tax reform in small emerging democracies is difficult to measure what effects is likely to produce due to countries’ aggregate political and economic vulnerabilities. If both are taken as remaining relatively stable, then it is easier to discuss what impact the reform introduced may have in the economy and her stakeholders. In absence of a monetary policy, the Government of Kosovo in mid-2008 adopted the changes in tax rates taking effect from January 2009, with the aim to foster economic gro...

  19. Planning ahead for livable communities along the Powell–Division Bus Rapid Transit : neighborhood conditions and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    New transit investments can be a double-edged sword for disadvantaged communities (e.g., those included in environmental justice and Title VI protected classes). Transit investments improve communities mobility and access, and may improve health w...

  20. The role of coal consumption in the economic growth of the Polish economy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgul, Henryk; Lach, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is an analysis of the causal links between quarterly coal consumption in the Polish economy and GDP. For the sake of accurate computation an additional variable - employment - was also taken into account. Computations conducted for the period Q1 2000 to Q4 2009 by means of recent causality techniques confirmed the neutrality of hard coal usage with respect to economic growth. On the other hand, calculations for the pairs lignite-GDP and total coal consumption-GDP showed the existence of a significant nonlinear causality from coal usage to economic growth. This is clear evidence for claiming that lignite plays an important role in the economic growth of the Polish economy. Furthermore, each coal-related variable was found to have a nonlinear causal impact on employment. Because of the relatively short length of available time series we additionally applied bootstrap critical values. The empirical results computed by both methods did not exhibit significant differences. These results have important policy implications. In general, our findings support the hypothesis that closing hard coal mines in Poland should have no significant repercussions on economic growth. However, this does not seem to be true for lignite mines. - Research highlights: → The reduction of hard coal consumption should not hamper economic growth in Poland. → Lignite consumption is an important factor determining economic growth in Poland. → The usage of lignite and hard coal has a causal impact on employment in Poland.

  1. Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-03-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  3. Interconnected power systems: a technical and economical optimization for the benefit of energy transitions in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The roles and missions of TSOs go way beyond the implicit meaning of the term 'power transmission'. At the heart of the power system, we are responsible to keep the balance between supply and demand. By ensuring that we have the ability to fulfill this role on a daily basis, we provide our customers with economical, reliable and clean access to power supply. Operating the power system is all about optimization. Firstly, by mutualizing energy sources at the European level, RTE insures 'power' solidarity between regions and enhance renewable energy sources contribution. Secondly, the market mechanisms that we are developing make it possible to use the most competitive energy sources in France and in Europe. This optimal use of resources call for close cooperation with our European counterparts. These mechanisms support security of supply and economic optimization of the system, while also facilitating other ways to consume power. Overall, we promote solutions to help making decisions based on physical and economic parameters, always seeking the most advantageous solution and ensuring grid operability. RTE is constantly seeking ways of remaining a step ahead of changes within the power system. In the energy transition context, French economic competitiveness also relies on optimal efficiency of the power system. Our ambition is to developing a smart transmission system to support tomorrow's economy and energy landscape, in conjunction with our partners. (author)

  4. The evaluation of Foreign Direct Investments and their impact in the economics of some transition countries: the case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kukaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Foreign Direct Investment is suggested to have a positive impact on the economic growth of many countries, especially in the transition countries such as Kosovo. During the last century, the world has witnessed remarkable growth of FDI because they impact positively the overall strategy for economic and social development. This article will provide a general review of the FDIs and will focus on their economic implication on the developing countries and especially in Kosovo and some other Western Balkan countries. The paper will clarify the main causes of failure of foreign direct investments and will revile the importance of indicators that are mainly of institutional nature. It is estimated that FDIs impact the economic development of the host country through two main channels: firstly, FDIs increase the domestic capital and increase the efficiency through the improvement of managerial skills, the transfer of new technology or through the bringing of more effective marketing strategies, innovations and best practices, secondly: the effect of FDIs varies much from the specifications of the country in terms of their capacity to absorb the FDIs, the ability to diversify them and their ability to connect the FDIs with the domestic investments.

  5. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. MEASURING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES : SOME LESSONS FROM CHINESE EXPERIENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus

    This article quantifies the comparative performance of China in several dimensions. Firstly, it shows that China's move from a command to a market economy was less abrupt and more successful than that of 29 other economies making a similar transition. Secondly, while official estimates show annual

  7. Reforming economic institutions in transition economies: what determines the speed of reform?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, N.; in 't Veld, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies institutional divergence among two types of transition economies: (1) the former socialist economies of Central and Eastern Europe, which have gradually been converging to European levels of institutional quality, and (2) the countries of the Former Soviet Union, which have, on

  8. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.; Werf, van der E.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one

  9. Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: the effect of lower dose-frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna C; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of twice-weekly Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). ReST is an effective treatment at a frequency of four sessions a week for three consecutive weeks. In this study we used a multiple-baselines across participants design to examine treatment efficacy for four children with CAS, aged four to eight years, who received ReST treatment twice a week for six weeks. The children's ability to acquire new skills, generalize these skills to untreated items and maintain the skills after treatment was examined. All four children improved their production of the target items. Two of the four children generalized the treatment effects to similar untreated pseudo words and all children generalized to untreated real words. During the maintenance phase, all four participants maintained their skills to four months post-treatment, with a stable rather than rising profile. This study shows that ReST treatment delivered twice-weekly results in significant retention of treatment effects to four months post-treatment and generalization to untrained but related speech behaviors. Compared to ReST therapy four times per week, the twice-weekly frequency produces similar treatment gains but no ongoing improvement after the cessation of treatment. This implies that there may be a small but significant benefit of four times weekly therapy compared with twice-weekly ReST therapy. Readers will be able to define dose-frequency, and describe how this relates to overall intervention intensity. Readers will be able to explain the acquisition, generalization and maintenance effects in the study and describe how these compare to higher dose frequency treatments. Readers will recognize that the current findings give preliminary support for high dose-frequency CAS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.

  11. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  12. Satellite in transit metastases in rapidly fatal conjunctival melanoma: implications for angiotropism and extravascular migratory metastasis (description of a murine model for conjunctival melanoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Raymond L; Lemaitre, Stéphanie; Lévy-Gabrielle, Christine; Rodrigues, Manuel; Desjardins, Laurence; Dendale, Rémi; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Lugassy, Claire; Cassoux, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    Little information is currently available concerning loco-regional metastases such as satellite and in transit metastases and their natural history in conjunctival melanoma as compared to cutaneous melanoma. Angiotropism, a marker of extravascular migration of melanoma cells along vascular channels, often appears responsible for microscopic satellite, satellite and in transit metastases development in cutaneous melanoma. In addition, diffuse tissue microscopic satellites are correlated with widespread melanoma dissemination and death. Herein we report rapid conjunctival melanoma progression and a fatal outcome in four of five patients following recurrence as satellite in transit metastases. Five patients aged 31, 60, 63, 56, and 67 years developed primary conjunctival melanoma, histologically characterised by tumour thicknesses of 4, 4, 1.1, 3, and 2 mm. Two or more conjunctival melanomas manifested ulceration, significant mitotic rates, necrosis, angiotropism, and intralesional transformation. The conjunctival melanoma recurred in a matter of months as one or more discrete satellite in transit lesions in the vicinity of the primary melanoma. Histological examination revealed well-defined micronodules containing atypical melanocytes in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma. All lesions were extravascular and most appeared angiotropic. Four of five patients subsequently developed parotid or other loco-regional nodal disease and rapidly ensuing widespread metastases and death. The time course from diagnosis to the demise of the patients averaged about 13 (range 7-20) months. Our findings suggest that satellite in transit metastases constitute an important new risk marker for possible rapid metastatic disease progression and death in patients with conjunctival melanoma. This finding appears to take on even greater significance if such lesions develop rapidly, i.e., in a matter of weeks or months following diagnosis of primary conjunctival melanoma, and if the

  13. Bridging Research and Policy in Energy Transition. Contributing to shape energy and climate policies through economic modelling and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paugam, Anne; Giraud, Gael; Thauvin, Eric

    2015-11-01

    The growth model of the 20. century relied heavily on the exploitation of fossil energy and natural resources extracted at low cost. Yet, the depletion of these resources, the upward trend of their prices over the long term and the consequences of their use for the environment and climate are now challenging the sustainability of this model. The notion of energy transition is directed at rethinking the use of energy resources and natural capital to reach an economic growth that mitigates negative environmental effects, without sacrificing the well-being of populations. Turning this idea into action is a challenging task. AFD has designed and funded research and technical cooperation projects in order to inform decisions on the short-term cost and long-term impact of measures designed to accelerate the transition to low-carbon energy regimes. Using tools for empirical economic analysis (particularly 'economy-energy' models), these projects have been carried out in several intervention settings, including South Africa, China and Mexico, which are discussed in this paper

  14. Symposium on Economic Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Murrell

    1991-01-01

    This symposium examines the economic problems facing the reforming countries of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the interrelationships between these problems, and current knowledge on how to deal with them. The word "reform" is surely a misnomer for what is occurring; "revolution" is more fitting.

  15. Transformation of Corporate Culture in Conditions of Transition to Knowledge Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, Tatiana V.; Chelnokova, Elena A.; Kaznacheeva, Svetlana N.; Bicheva, Irena B.; Lazutina, Antonina L.; Perova, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of corporate culture transformations which are conditioned by changes in social-economic situation. The modern paradigm of knowledge management is assumed to become the main value for forming a new vision of corporate culture. The starting point for transformations can be found in the actual corporate culture…

  16. Effect of corporate economic performance on firm-level environmental performance in a transition economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 303-329 ISSN 0924-6460 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Czech Republic * environmental protection * financial performance * pollution Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2010

  17. The effects of local government investment on economic growth and employment: evidence from transitional China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo; Hou Yongjian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 28 provinces in the year of 1987-2001,this paper examines the effects of the local government investment on economic growth and employment.The empirical result shows that the local government investment plays a significant positive role in economic growth and emplovment.However,while the proportion of local government investment to GDP had a remarkable rise after 1998.the elasticity of local government investment on economic growth declined,which shows that there is a hig room for raising the efficiency of local government mvestment.Moreover,the empirical examination shows that although local government investment had positive effect on employment,the elasticity had a decrease after 1994 when the tax-sharing system reform was put into practice.This shows that the positive role of local government investment on emplovment is also limited.This paper argues that the role of local governments as investors must be weakened,and local governments of different levels should lessen direct economic intervention and concentrate on public regulation.

  18. Correlation between Government and Economic Growth –Fiscal Policy during the Transition in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Xhenet Syka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to analyze some aspects of fiscal policy in our country, without pretending to give our own sample. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditures and taxes which affect economic activity. Determination of fiscal policy in a given year takes into account the time virtually the past (current socio-economic status and the implications for the future (fiscal sustainability. In general the cases dealt the role fiscal policy plays toward economic growth. The analysis many focused both in the theoretical treatment as well as the role that fiscal policy has played in our country, going even further in some suggestions for the future. The most important issue was addressed in the long-term fiscal policy view, fiscal sustainability. In the final everything is addressed to the role of fiscal policy on social issues. The role that fiscal policy should play in economic and social development has long been a controversial issue and is still different among economists. While a restrictive fiscal policy means increasing taxes and cut government spending. Fiscal policy may be expansionary or restrictive. An expansionary fiscal policy means a reduction of direct and indirect taxes and increased government expenditures. Choose between two types of fiscal policy is not an easy decision, both in terms of the current state of the economy, as well as political decisions.

  19. Reforms and Economic Growth in Transition Economies: Complementarity, Sequencing and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Staehr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effects of sequencing and reform speed on output performance in transition countries. These largely unsettled issues are addressed using principal component techniques to construct reform clusters and by explicit tests of speed effects. The results indicate that broad-based reforms are good for output growth, but so is a policy of liberalisation and small-scale privatisation without structural reforms. Conversely, large-scale privatisation without adjoining reforms, market opening without supporting reforms and bank liberalisation without enterprise restructuring affect growth negatively. Swift reform policies allow transition countries to benefit from higher growth for longer time. The speed of reforms appears otherwise to have little effect on growth in the short and medium term.

  20. The effects of economic and political integration on power plants’ carbon emissions in the post-soviet transition nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don; Sie, Amanda; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2017-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which accounts for a significant share of the world’s CO2 emissions, varies by macro-regional context. Here we use multilevel regression modeling techniques to analyze CO2 emissions levels in the year 2009 for 1360 fossil-fuel power plants in the 25 post-Soviet transition nations in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia. We find that various facility-level factors are positively associated with plant-level emissions, including plant size, age, heat rate, capacity utilization rate, and coal as the primary fuel source. Results further indicate that plant-level emissions are lower, on average, in the transition nations that joined the European Union (EU), whose market reforms and environmental directives are relevant for emissions reductions. These negative associations between plant-level emissions and EU accession are larger for the nations that joined the EU in 2004 relative to those that joined in 2007. The findings also suggest that export-oriented development is positively associated with plant-level CO2 emissions in the transition nations. Our results highlight the importance in macro-regional assessments of the conjoint effects of political and economic integration for facility-level emissions.

  1. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  2. Transition to Organic Tea Production in the Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam: Economic and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nghia Dai Tran

    2009-01-01

    This study from Vietnam shows that a switch from conventional to organic tea productions would bring real environmental, health and economic benefits for the country's farmers and its society as a whole. In particular, the amount of agrochemical residue and waste produced by tea production would be reduced. Farmers would also be able to enjoy a better livelihood as they could command a premium price for their organic tea products. The study therefore recommends that organic tea production is ...

  3. Behavioural assumptions in labour economics: Analysing social security reforms and labour market transitions

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to test behavioural assumptions in labour economics models and thereby improve our understanding of labour market behaviour. The assumptions under scrutiny in this study are derived from an analysis of recent influential policy proposals: the introduction of savings schemes in the system of social security. A central question is how this reform will affect labour market incentives and behaviour. Part I (Chapter 2 and 3) evaluates savings schemes. Chapter 2 exam...

  4. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Song Guojun; Beresford, Melanie; Ma, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: → We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. → We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. → Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. → Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. → This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  5. The sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, and economic importance of evaporite carbonate transitions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarg, J. F.

    2001-04-01

    World-class hydrocarbon accumulations occur in many ancient evaporite-related basins. Seals and traps of such accumulations are, in many cases, controlled by the stratigraphic distribution of carbonate-evaporite facies transitions. Evaporites may occur in each of the systems tracts within depositional sequences. Thick evaporite successions are best developed during sea level lowstands due to evaporative drawdown. Type 1 lowstand evaporite systems are characterized by thick wedges that fill basin centers, and onlap basin margins. Very thick successions (i.e. saline giants) represent 2nd-order supersequence set (20-50 m.y.) lowstand systems that cap basin fills, and provide the ultimate top seals for the hydrocarbons contained within such basins. Where slope carbonate buildups occur, lowstand evaporites that onlap and overlap these buildups show a lateral facies mosaic directly related to the paleo-relief of the buildups. This facies mosaic, as exemplified in the Silurian of the Michigan basin, ranges from nodular mosaic anhydrite of supratidal sabkha origin deposited over the crests of the buildups, to downslope subaqueous facies of bedded massive/mosaic anhydrite and allochthonous dolomite-anhydrite breccias. Facies transitions near the updip onlap edges of evaporite wedges can provide lateral seals to hydrocarbons. Porous dolomites at the updip edges of lowstand evaporites will trap hydrocarbons where they onlap nonporous platform slope deposits. The Desert Creek Member of the Paradox Formation illustrates this transition. On the margins of the giant Aneth oil field in southeastern Utah, separate downdip oil pools have accumulated where dolomudstones and dolowackestones with microcrystalline porosity onlap the underlying highstand platform slope. Where lowstand carbonate units exist in arid basins, the updip facies change from carbonates to evaporite-rich facies can also provide traps for hydrocarbons. The change from porous dolomites composed of high

  6. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  7. REVENUE FARMING AND IMPERIAL TRANSITION: AN ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF EARLY COLONIAL STATE FORMATION IN JAVA, C. 1800s-1820s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Revenue farming (pacht or verpachtingen in Dutch is a fiscal institution that existed in Java since the pre-colonial period. During the VOC period, the Dutch modified, institutionalized and &extended it as one of their fiscal institutions to solve human resource shortage and administrative barriers in collecting taxes from local population. For political and economic reasons the Dutch favored the Chinese as main partners in operating the system. The system was proven efficient to an extent that it collected substantial revenue contribution to the state exchequer. During the period of 'imperial'  transition from 1800s until 1820s, changing regimes in Java retained the system to finance their political agenda. This paper argues that revenue-farming system was the financial source for the Dutch in establishing a real colonial state in Java.

  8. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  9. Revisiting informal payments in 29 transitional countries: The scale and socio-economic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Cheung, Alex

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses informal payments (IPs) in 29 transitional countries using a fully comparable household survey. The countries of the former Soviet Union, especially those in the Caucasus and Central Asia, exhibit the highest scale of IPs, followed by Southern Europe, and then Eastern Europe. The lowest and the highest scale of IPs were in Slovenia (2.7%) and Azerbaijan (73.9%) respectively. We found that being from a wealthier household, experiencing lower quality of healthcare in the form of long waiting times, lack of medicines, absence of personnel, and disrespectful treatment, and having relatives to help when needed, are associated with a higher odds ratio of IPs. Conversely, working for the government is associated with a lower odds ratio of IPs. Living in the countries of the former Soviet Union and in Mongolia is associated with the highest likelihood of IPs, and this is followed by the countries of the Southern Europe. In contrast, living in the countries of Eastern Europe is associated with the lowest likelihood of IPs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A Space-Economic Representation of Transitive Closures in Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangjun Chen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A composite object represented as a directed graph (digraph for short is an important data structure that requires efficient support in CAD/CAM, CASE, office systems, software management, web databases, and document databases. It is cumbersome to handle such objects in relational database systems when they involve ancestor-descendant relationships (or say, recursive relationships. In this paper, we present a new encoding method to label a digraph, which reduces the footprints of all previous strategies. This method is based on a tree labeling method and the concept of branchings that are used in graph theory for finding the shortest connection networks. A branching is a subgraph of a given digraph that is in fact a forest, but covers all the nodes of the graph. On the one hand, the proposed encoding scheme achieves the smallest space requirements among all previously published strategies for recognizing recursive relationships. On the other hand, it leads to a new algorithm for computing transitive closures for DAGs (directed acyclic graph in O(eþb time and O(nþb space, where n represents the number of the nodes of a DAG, e the numbers of the edges, and b the DAG's breadth. In addition, this method can be extended to cyclic digraphs and is especially suitable for a relational environment.

  11. Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Cardenal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.

  12. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO_3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N_2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible for both

  13. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rong-Gang, E-mail: rc@envs.au.dk; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO{sub 3}-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N{sub 2}O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible

  14. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  15. Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

    2014-05-06

    China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found.

  16. Interdisciplinary matrix in economics: two applications to the transition from socialism to capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimowicz, Aleksander

    2009-10-01

    The 7-fold interdisciplinary matrix is introduced. This integrated methodological point of view is original, although it is based on ideas of others in various ways. The name for this new approach draws on the Kuhnian notion of a disciplinary matrix. There are four components of the Kuhnian matrix on which the existence of scientific communities hinges: symbolic generalizations, models, values, and exemplars. In this context the term "paradigm" should refer to exemplars. The interdisciplinary matrix is composed of seven elements: cybernetics, catastrophe theory, fractal geometry, deterministic chaos, artificial intelligence, theory of complexity, and humanistic values. Scientific developments have recently brought substantial changes in the structure of scientific communities. Transferability of ideas and thoughts contributed to the creation of scientific communities, which unite representatives of various professions. When researching into certain phenomena we no longer need to develop theories for them from scratch, as we can draw on the achievements in other disciplines. Two examples of the employment of the interdisciplinary matrix in macroeconomics are elaborated here: the investment cycle model in socialist economy, and the model of economic transformation based on chaotic hysteresis.

  17. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  18. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika; Prishchepov, Alexander; Lambin, Eric F; Radeloff, Volker C

    2011-01-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  20. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  1. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  2. Talent 2 - the new vehicle family for regional and rapid transit rail services; Talent 2 - Die neue Fahrzeugfamilie fuer den Regional- und S-Bahnverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segieth, Christian [Bombardier Transportation, Hennigsdorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In February 2007, Deutsche Bahn AG concluded a framework contract with railway vehicle manufacturer Bombardier for the supply of 321 new-generation Talent 2 electrical multiple unit trains for regional and rapid transit rail services. In light of changing market requirements, the trains are not being delivered in predetermined numbers at predetermined dates, as used to be customary, but will be released according to need up until 2014. The contract covers the basic conditions and agreements for the overall order, which is worth some 1.2 billion of Euros. Deutsche Bahn AG has already concluded similar contracts with Bombardier for double-deck coaches. (orig.)

  3. Health inequalities during 20 years of rapid economic development in China (1980-2000): a mortality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, XiaoYing; Song, XinMing; Chen, Gong; You, YunZhong; Ren, Qiang; Liu, JuFen; Zhang, Lei; Tan, LingFang; Wei, JiHong; Chen, QiuYuan

    2011-08-01

    To examine the influence of China's economic reforms on population health and regional mortality rates. Longitudinal study measuring the mortality trends and their regional variations. Using data from the three most recent national censuses, we used the model life table to adjust the mortality levels within the population for each census, and to calculate life expectancy. We then examined the variation in patterns of mortality and population health by economic status, region and gender from 1980-2000. Life expectancy varied with economic status, province, and gender. Results showed that, although life expectancy in China had increased overall since the early 1980s, regional differences became more pronounced. Life expectancy for populations who live in the eastern coastal provinces are greater than those in the western regions. Differences in life expectancy are primarily related to differences in regional economic development, which in turn exacerbate regional health inequalities. Therefore, it is necessary to improve economic development in less developed regions and to improve health policies and the public health system that address the needs of everyone. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-Ling; Xiang, Bao; Wang, Bao-Liang; Jin, Xia; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2014-04-01

    This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region.

  5. Reaching a 1.5°C target: socio-technical challenges for a rapid transition to low-carbon electricity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Nick; Darby, Sarah J; Grünewald, Philipp; McKenna, Eoghan; Ford, Rebecca

    2018-05-13

    A 1.5°C global average target implies that we should no longer focus on merely incremental emissions reductions from the electricity system, but rather on fundamentally re-envisaging a system that, sooner rather than later, becomes carbon free. Many low-carbon technologies are surpassing mainstream predictions for both uptake and cost reduction. Their deployment is beginning to be disruptive within established systems. 'Smart technologies' are being developed to address emerging challenges of system integration, but their rates of future deployment remain uncertain. We argue that transition towards a system that can fully displace carbon generation sources will require expanding the focus of our efforts beyond technical solutions. Recognizing that change has social and technical dimensions, and that these interact strongly, we set out a socio-technical review that covers electricity infrastructure, citizens, business models and governance. It describes some of the socio-technical challenges that need to be addressed for the successful transition of the existing electricity systems. We conclude that a socio-technical understanding of electricity system transitions offers new and better insights into the potential and challenges for rapid decarbonization.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Work stress, fatigue and risk behaviors at the wheel: Data to assess the association between psychosocial work factors and risky driving on Bus Rapid Transit drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This Data in Brief (DiB article presents a hierarchical multiple linear regression model that examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and risk behaviors at the wheel in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT drivers (n=524. The data were collected using a structured self-administrable questionnaire made of measurements of wok stress (job strain and effort- reward imbalance, fatigue (need for recovery and chronic fatigue, psychological distress and demographics (professional driving experience, hours driven per day and days working per week. The data contains 4 parts: descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations between the study variables and a regression model predicting risk behaviors at the wheel and the entire study dataset. For further information, it is convenient to read the full article entitled “Stress-related Psychosocial Factors at Work, Fatigue, and Risky Driving Behavior in Bus Rapid Transport (BRT Drivers”, published in Accident Analysis & Prevention. Keywords: Professional drivers, Work stress, Fatigue, Psychological distress, Risk behaviors, Bus Rapid Transport, BRT

  7. Changes in melatonin secretion in tourists after rapid movement to another lighting zone without transition of time zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Joanna; Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Morita, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research in the field of Chronobiology is focused on the problem of the circadian rhythms (CR) desynchronization. In travelers, it results mostly from the changes of surrounding: photoperiod, local climate conditions (radiation and thermal load) and behavior (e.g. type and place of tourism and activity level). Until now, it was not documented whether the changes in melatonin (MLT) secretion occur in effect of mid-distance transparallel travels (TpT), without complications arising due to time-zone transitions (e.g. jet-lag syndrome). To cope with this problem, a special field experiment was carried out. In the experiment, MLT characteristics were examined twice a year in real conditions through a group of young tourists (23-26 years old) at their place of habitual residence (Warsaw, Poland), and at their tourist destination (Tromso, Norway). Transition to circumpolar zone in summer has resulted in insignificant reduction in melatonin peak value (MPV) compared to preflight control (2 days before travel) and the melatonin peak time (MPT) was delayed. However, after traveling southward on the returning flight, MPV was lower compared to control and MPT was advanced. In winter, MPV was insignificantly higher in comparison to preflight control and MPT was almost unchanged. While changes in MPV do not depend on season, flight direction and day of stay after flight than MPT was differentiated seasonally and due to direction of flight. MPV and MPT were significantly modified by characteristics of individual light exposure during daytime and evening. The experiment showed also that in real conditions activity level is an important factor affected melatonin peak in tourists. In winter, greater daytime activity significantly influenced earlier MPT occurrence, both after northward and southward flights.

  8. Non-Linear Relationship between Economic Growth and CO₂ Emissions in China: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Xin; Hao, Peng; Yao, Pei-Yi

    2017-12-13

    The non-linear relationship between provincial economic growth and carbon emissions is investigated by using panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) models. The research indicates that, on the condition of separately taking Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc), energy structure (Es), and urbanisation level (Ul) as transition variables, three models all reject the null hypothesis of a linear relationship, i.e., a non-linear relationship exists. The results show that the three models all contain only one transition function but different numbers of location parameters. The model taking GDPpc as the transition variable has two location parameters, while the other two models separately considering Es and Ul as the transition variables both contain one location parameter. The three models applied in the study all favourably describe the non-linear relationship between economic growth and CO₂ emissions in China. It also can be seen that the conversion rate of the influence of Ul on per capita CO₂ emissions is significantly higher than those of GDPpc and Es on per capita CO₂ emissions.

  9. Voluntary sway and rapid orthogonal transitions of voluntary sway in young adults, and low and high fall-risk older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Murray G; Kavanagh, Justin J; Morrison, Steven; Barrett, Rod S

    2009-10-01

    Falls amongst older people have been linked to reduced postural stability and slowed movement responses. The objective of this study was to examine differences in postural stability and the speed of response between young adults, low fall-risk older adults, and high fall-risk older adults during voluntary postural sway movements. Twenty-five young adults (25+/-4 years), and 32 low fall-risk (74+/-5 years), and 16 high fall-risk (79+/-7 years) older adults performed voluntary sway and rapid orthogonal transitions of voluntary sway between the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Measures included reaction and movement time and the amplitudes of the centre of pressure, centre of mass, and the separation distance between the centre of pressure and centre of mass. Both fall-risk groups compared to the young had slower reaction and movement time, greater centre of pressure and/or centre of mass amplitude in the orthogonal (non-target) direction during voluntary sway, and reduced anterior-posterior and medial-lateral separation between the centre of pressure and centre of mass during voluntary sway and orthogonal transitions. High compared to low fall-risk individuals had slower reaction and movement time, increased non-target centre of mass amplitude during voluntary sway, and reduced medial-lateral centre of pressure and centre of mass separation during voluntary sway and orthogonal transitions. Age-related deterioration of postural control resulted in slower reactive responses and reduced control of the direction of body movement during voluntary sway and orthogonal transitions. Slower postural reaction and movement time and reduced medial-lateral control of the centre of mass during voluntary sway movements are associated with increased fall-risk in community-living older people.

  10. Implications of climate variability for the detection of multiple equilibria and for rapid transitions in the atmosphere-vegetation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathiany, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Claussen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany); Fraedrich, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Paleoclimatic records indicate a decline of vegetation cover in the Western Sahara at the end of the African Humid Period (about 5,500 years before present). Modelling studies have shown that this phenomenon may be interpreted as a critical transition that results from a bifurcation in the atmosphere-vegetation system. However, the stability properties of this system are closely linked to climate variability and depend on the climate model and the methods of analysis. By coupling the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), an atmosphere model of intermediate complexity, with the simple dynamic vegetation model VECODE, we assess previous methods for the detection of multiple equilibria, and demonstrate their limitations. In particular, a stability diagram can yield misleading results because of spatial interactions, and the system's steady state and its dependency on initial conditions are affected by atmospheric variability and nonlinearities. In addition, we analyse the implications of climate variability for the abruptness of a vegetation decline. We find that a vegetation collapse can happen at different locations at different times. These collapses are possible despite large and uncorrelated climate variability. Because of the nonlinear relation between vegetation dynamics and precipitation the green state is initially stabilised by the high variability. When precipitation falls below a critical threshold, the desert state is stabilised as variability is then also decreased. (orig.)

  11. Influence of ejection temperature on structure and glass transition behavior for Zr-based rapidly quenched disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.H.; Inoue, A.; Kong, F.L.; Zhu, S.L.; Stoica, M.; Kaban, I.; Chang, C.T.; Shalaan, E.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Eckert, J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of ejection liquid temperature (T el ) on the structure, thermal stability and crystallization of Zr−Al−Ni−Cu ribbons prepared by the melt-spinning technique. The increase in T el was found to cause the formation of an oxide phase on the ribbon surface, more loose atomic configurations, the absence of glass transition (GT) and supercooled liquid (SL) region, and the rise of crystallization temperature. The changes in the GT and SL region occur reversibly by controlling the T el . Neither the change in alloy composition except oxygen nor the difference in crystallized phases is seen. Their hardness increases significantly by the disappearance of GT and SL region. The reversible changes in the appearance and disappearance of GT and SL region was found for different Zr-based glassy ribbons, being independent of alloy compositions. The disappearance is presumably due to the change in atomic configurations from high-coordinated to less-coordinated atomic packing in the melt-spun ribbons by freezing high-temperature liquid. The observed phenomenon of the reversible changes provides a novel opportunity for deep understanding of mutual correlations among liquid structure, GT, stability of SL and bulk glass-forming ability for metallic alloys.

  12. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.-C.; Lee, J.-H.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE

  13. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S.-C. E-mail: f10870@ntut.edu.tw; Lee, J.-H

    2004-03-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE.

  14. Evidence from a mouse model that epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal-epithelial transition contribute to rapid restoration of uterine tissue integrity during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Fiona L; Murray, Alison; Esnal, Arantza; Gibson, Douglas A; Critchley, Hilary O D; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-01-01

    In women dynamic changes in uterine tissue architecture occur during each menstrual cycle. Menses, characterised by the shedding of the upper functional layer of the endometrium, is the culmination of a cascade of irreversible changes in tissue function including stromal decidualisation, inflammation and production of degradative enzymes. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the rapid restoration of tissue homeostasis at time of menses are poorly understood. A modified mouse model of menses was developed to focus on the events occurring within the uterine lining during endometrial shedding/repair. Decidualisation, vaginal bleeding, tissue architecture and cell proliferation were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after progesterone (P4) withdrawal; mice received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 90 mins before culling. Expression of genes implicated in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) was determined using a RT2 PCR profiler array, qRTPCR and bioinformatic analysis. Mice exhibited vaginal bleeding between 4 and 12 hours after P4 withdrawal, concomitant with detachment of the decidualised cell mass from the basal portion of the endometrial lining. Immunostaining for BrdU and pan cytokeratin revealed evidence of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. Cells that appeared to be in transition from a mesenchymal to an epithelial cell identity were identified within the stromal compartment. Analysis of mRNAs encoding genes expressed exclusively in the epithelial or stromal compartments, or implicated in MET, revealed dynamic changes in expression, consistent with a role for reprogramming of mesenchymal cells so that they could contribute to re-epithelialisation. These studies have provided novel insights into the cellular processes that contribute to re-epithelialisation post-menses implicating both epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal cell differentiation in restoration of an intact epithelial cell layer. These

  15. Socio-economic status, lifestyle and childhood obesity in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...

  16. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  17. Survival modeling for the estimation of transition probabilities in model-based economic evaluations in the absence of individual patient data: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Adunlin, Georges; Montero, Alberto J

    2014-02-01

    Survival modeling techniques are increasingly being used as part of decision modeling for health economic evaluations. As many models are available, it is imperative for interested readers to know about the steps in selecting and using the most suitable ones. The objective of this paper is to propose a tutorial for the application of appropriate survival modeling techniques to estimate transition probabilities, for use in model-based economic evaluations, in the absence of individual patient data (IPD). An illustration of the use of the tutorial is provided based on the final progression-free survival (PFS) analysis of the BOLERO-2 trial in metastatic breast cancer (mBC). An algorithm was adopted from Guyot and colleagues, and was then run in the statistical package R to reconstruct IPD, based on the final PFS analysis of the BOLERO-2 trial. It should be emphasized that the reconstructed IPD represent an approximation of the original data. Afterwards, we fitted parametric models to the reconstructed IPD in the statistical package Stata. Both statistical and graphical tests were conducted to verify the relative and absolute validity of the findings. Finally, the equations for transition probabilities were derived using the general equation for transition probabilities used in model-based economic evaluations, and the parameters were estimated from fitted distributions. The results of the application of the tutorial suggest that the log-logistic model best fits the reconstructed data from the latest published Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves of the BOLERO-2 trial. Results from the regression analyses were confirmed graphically. An equation for transition probabilities was obtained for each arm of the BOLERO-2 trial. In this paper, a tutorial was proposed and used to estimate the transition probabilities for model-based economic evaluation, based on the results of the final PFS analysis of the BOLERO-2 trial in mBC. The results of our study can serve as a basis for any model

  18. Where is Nepal in the nutrition transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Marais, Debbi; Newlands, David

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition transition is rapid in developing countries, but Nepalese transition is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe nutrition transition in Nepal over the past 40 years by identifying the shifts in the Nepalese diets and nutritional status and the underlying shifts associated with this. Popkin's framework was used to identify shifts in Nepalese diet and the inter-relationship of diet with epidemiological, demographic and economic shifts. The current study used quantitative methodology including secondary data analysis based on food balance sheets, economic surveys and the government databases. The Nepalese diet is shifting away from agricultural staple based foods to modern processed foods with higher total energy, total fat, and sugar. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases are increasing. Urbanisation is rapid and nutrition transition already advanced in urban area. The Nepalese economic structure has also changed shifting away from agricultural food supply system towards modern processing based food supply system. These changes in the Nepalese diet are triggered by income and urbanisation. The trade liberalisation has made processed foods, edible oil and sugar easily available at supermarkets and fast food outlets. It is clear that Nepal has now entered into the fourth stage of nutrition transition according to Popkin's framework. As a result, overweight, obesity and the prevalence of many noncommunicable diseases are all rapidly growing. A further study is recommended to identify whether urban versus rural, rich versus poor and educated versus uneducated families are experiencing the transition in similar way.

  19. Economic growth and CO2 emissions: an investigation with smooth transition autoregressive distributed lag models for the 1800-2014 period in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Ersin, Özgür Ömer

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to combine the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration framework with smooth transition autoregressive (STAR)-type nonlinear econometric models for causal inference. Further, the proposed STAR distributed lag (STARDL) models offer new insights in terms of modeling nonlinearity in the long- and short-run relations between analyzed variables. The STARDL method allows modeling and testing nonlinearity in the short-run and long-run parameters or both in the short- and long-run relations. To this aim, the relation between CO 2 emissions and economic growth rates in the USA is investigated for the 1800-2014 period, which is one of the largest data sets available. The proposed hybrid models are the logistic, exponential, and second-order logistic smooth transition autoregressive distributed lag (LSTARDL, ESTARDL, and LSTAR2DL) models combine the STAR framework with nonlinear ARDL-type cointegration to augment the linear ARDL approach with smooth transitional nonlinearity. The proposed models provide a new approach to the relevant econometrics and environmental economics literature. Our results indicated the presence of asymmetric long-run and short-run relations between the analyzed variables that are from the GDP towards CO 2 emissions. By the use of newly proposed STARDL models, the results are in favor of important differences in terms of the response of CO 2 emissions in regimes 1 and 2 for the estimated LSTAR2DL and LSTARDL models.

  20. Diverse and uneven pathways towards transition to low carbon development: The case of diffusion of solar PV technology in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iizuka, M.

    2014-01-01

    Transition towards low carbon development (LCD) is an urgent challenge for the global community. As increased economic activities usually result in more carbon emissions, this challenge is particularly crucial for rapidly growing emerging countries. For these countries, reducing carbon emissions

  1. Evidence from a mouse model that epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal-epithelial transition contribute to rapid restoration of uterine tissue integrity during menstruation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona L Cousins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In women dynamic changes in uterine tissue architecture occur during each menstrual cycle. Menses, characterised by the shedding of the upper functional layer of the endometrium, is the culmination of a cascade of irreversible changes in tissue function including stromal decidualisation, inflammation and production of degradative enzymes. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the rapid restoration of tissue homeostasis at time of menses are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: A modified mouse model of menses was developed to focus on the events occurring within the uterine lining during endometrial shedding/repair. Decidualisation, vaginal bleeding, tissue architecture and cell proliferation were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after progesterone (P4 withdrawal; mice received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 90 mins before culling. Expression of genes implicated in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET was determined using a RT2 PCR profiler array, qRTPCR and bioinformatic analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice exhibited vaginal bleeding between 4 and 12 hours after P4 withdrawal, concomitant with detachment of the decidualised cell mass from the basal portion of the endometrial lining. Immunostaining for BrdU and pan cytokeratin revealed evidence of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. Cells that appeared to be in transition from a mesenchymal to an epithelial cell identity were identified within the stromal compartment. Analysis of mRNAs encoding genes expressed exclusively in the epithelial or stromal compartments, or implicated in MET, revealed dynamic changes in expression, consistent with a role for reprogramming of mesenchymal cells so that they could contribute to re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies have provided novel insights into the cellular processes that contribute to re-epithelialisation post-menses implicating both epithelial cell migration and

  2. A High-Speed Target-Free Vision-Based Sensor for Bus Rapid Transit Viaduct Vibration Measurements Using CMT and ORB Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has become an increasing source of concern for public transportation of modern cities. Traditional contact sensing techniques during the process of health monitoring of BRT viaducts cannot overcome the deficiency that the normal free-flow of traffic would be blocked. Advances in computer vision technology provide a new line of thought for solving this problem. In this study, a high-speed target-free vision-based sensor is proposed to measure the vibration of structures without interrupting traffic. An improved keypoints matching algorithm based on consensus-based matching and tracking (CMT object tracking algorithm is adopted and further developed together with oriented brief (ORB keypoints detection algorithm for practicable and effective tracking of objects. Moreover, by synthesizing the existing scaling factor calculation methods, more rational approaches to reducing errors are implemented. The performance of the vision-based sensor is evaluated through a series of laboratory tests. Experimental tests with different target types, frequencies, amplitudes and motion patterns are conducted. The performance of the method is satisfactory, which indicates that the vision sensor can extract accurate structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial or natural targets. Field tests further demonstrate that the vision sensor is both practicable and reliable.

  3. A Usability Study of the Automatic Ticket Vending Machines for the Middle-aged and Elderly Patrons: The Case of the Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the usability problems for the middle-aged and elderly users of the automatic ticket vending machines of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System. Thirty two middle-aged and elderly users (16 men and 16 females were observed in their actual uses of the machines, and 9 of them (6 men and 3 women were interviewed afterwards. The results show that, first, most senior users observed in this study made mistakes at the first step of touching the screen that initiates the ticket buying process. Second, the feedback and voice guidance design need further improvement to facilitate the senior users’ operation of the machines. Based on the findings, this study recommends that: (1 the operation instruction may be improved by enhancing the color contrast and graphics complementing of caption and voice guidance; (2 the transaction interface should be simplified, avoiding using button symbol to show information, and the visual instruction should be supplemented with voice instructions; (3 operation feedback should be strengthened and in line with previous use experience. [Article content in Chinese

  4. Rapid change of chromomeric and pairing patterns of polytene chromosome tips in D. melanogaster: migration of polytene-nonpolytene transition zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P A

    1979-07-01

    The high variability of chromomeric patterns in near-terminal regions of polytene chromosome arms has been explored in a number of races, strains and hybrids of Drosophila melanogaster. Traditional explanations for tip differences between strains (differential compaction of chromatin, somatic or germinal deletion) are examined and, in the light of the reported observations, rejected. The range of polytene tip variability and rates of change in wild races are greater than has been supposed: strains formerly considered to be terminally deleted appear to gain terminal bands; others, formerly considered normal, appear to have lost them. Strains with high cell-to-cell tip variability are also described. Cell-to-cell variations, as well as much of the observed rapid changes in tip appearance, are probably due to heritable differences in the location of an abrupt transition zone between polytene and nonpolytene chromatin. A quantitative relationship between the amount of certain subterminal bands present and the frequency of tip association of nonhomologous chromosomes is shown and its possible significance for chromosome is shown and its possible for chromosome pairing discussed.

  5. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) was one of the seven total Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) that was down-selected in 2015 for continued funding and research. In Phase I our team learned that a spacecraft propelled by an Electric Sail (E-Sail) can travel great astronomical distances, such as to the Heliopause region of the solar system (approx. 100 to 120 AU) in approximately one quarter of the time (10 years) versus the time it took the Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 (36 years). The completed work within the Phase II NIAC funded effort builds upon the work that was done in the Phase I NIAC and is focused on: 1) Testing of plasma interaction with a charged wire in a MSFC simulated solar environment vacuum test chamber. 2) Development of a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) models that are validated in the plasma testing and used to extrapolate to the E-Sail propulsion system design. 3) Conceptual design of a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) spacecraft developed to showcase E-Sail propulsion systems. 4) Down selection of both: a) Materials for a multi km length conductor and, b) Best configuration of the proposed conductor deployment subsystem. This paper will document the findings to date (June, 2017) of the above focused areas.

  6. Network integration modelling of feeder and BRT(bus rapid transit) to reduce the usage of private vehicles in Palembang’s suburban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur'afalia, D.; Afifa, F.; Rubianto, L.; Handayeni, K. D. M. E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the optimal feeder network route that integrates with BRT (Bus Rapid Transit). Palembang, a high growing population city with unresolved transportation demand sector. BRT as main public transportation could not fulfill people’s demand in transportation, especially in Alang-Alang Lebar sub-district. As an impact, the usage of private vehicles increases along the movement toward the city center. The concept of Network Integration that integrates feeder network with BRT is expected to be a solution to suppress the rate of private vehicles’ usage and to improve public transportation service, so that the use of BRT will be increased in the suburban area of Palembang. The method used to identifying the optimal route using Route Analysis method is route analysis using Tranetsim 0.4. The best route is obtained based on 156 movement samples. The result is 58,7% from 199 mobility’s potency of private vehicle usage’s can be reduced if there is a feeder network’s route in Alang-Alang Lebar’s sub-district. From the result, the existance of integration between feeder network and BRT is potential enough to reduce the usage of private vehicles and supports the sustainability of transportation mobility in Palembang City.

  7. Thailand's Work and Health Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2010-09-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker's health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker's mental and physical health.

  8. Oral Language Competence and the Transition to School: Socio-Economic and Behavioural Factors That Influence Academic and Social Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Oral language competence (skill in everyday talking and listening) is critical in the early years of school in two key respects: it underpins the transition to literacy in the early years, and is the means by which children form and maintain interpersonal relationships in the school setting. In this paper, the role of oral language competence with…

  9. The Role and Interdependence of Economic Indicators in Optimal Natural Gas Supply in Macedonia as a transitional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mladenovska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates the importance of the economic set of indicators relevant for assessing natural gas supply options, as a part of the multi criteria decision making (MCDM method. Such an approach is a useful tool for decision makers. Thus, the paper is not only dealing with economic indicators arising from investment and other types of costs, but it mostly focuses on macroeconomic environment and macroeconomic preconditions strongly related to energy infrastructure. MCDM is firstly utilized to calculate the indicator’s weighting factors, and further, regression analyses are performed in terms of identifying interdependencies among the indicators.

  10. How to accelerate the energy transition? Opinion of the implementation of the law related to energy transition for a green growth (LTECV). Opinion of the economic, social and environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Guillaume; Charru, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    This publication states the critical opinion of the French economic, social and environmental Council (CESE) on the French energy policy notably defined within the law on energy transition for a green growth. In a first part, the authors discuss the different ambitious objectives (global objectives and those related to a low carbon strategy, to the energy multi-year programme, and to simplification) and outline the necessity of a better implementation. Then, they address aspects related to governance, and outline the complexity of the organisation at the national level, an insufficient steering, and the fact that territories are now awarded new competencies and that questions remain unanswered as far as means are concerned. The report then proposes a first assessment which reveals that global objectives are difficult to reach, means are insufficient, renovation objectives (for housing and office building) are far from being reached, transports appear to be a weak point in the transition, the taking of these issues into account in agriculture is still insufficient, industry and services display a contrasted situation, energy production and service providers are facing complex evolutions, and renewable energies are facing difficulties in reaching the desired pace. The last part discuss how to accelerate energy transition through a mobilisation of all actors

  11. Impact of Family Structure on Parental Attitudes Toward the Economic Support of Adult Children Over the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    2005-01-01

    This research explored the influence of family structure on midlife parents' attitudes toward the economic support of adult children and measured change in those attitudes as their oldest child moved from adolescence to young adulthood. Results suggest that family structure has long-term effects on parents' attitudes toward financial obligations…

  12. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wong-McSweeney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350 near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors.

  13. Rapid change of fecal microbiome and disappearance of Clostridium difficile in a colonized infant after transition from breast milk to cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Manli Y; Zhang, Husen; Brannan, Lera E; Carman, Robert J; Boone, James H

    2016-10-07

    Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C. difficile presence in gut microbiota. Fifty fecal samples, collected weekly between 5.5 and 17 months of age from a female infant who was an asymptomatic carrier of C. difficile, were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Colonization switching between toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile strains as well as more than 100,000-fold fluctuations of C. difficile counts were observed. C. difficile toxins were detected during the testing period in some infant stool samples, but the infant never had diarrhea. Although fecal microbiota was stable during breast feeding, a dramatic and permanent change of microbiota composition was observed within 5 days of the transition from human milk to cow milk. A rapid decline and eventual disappearance of C. difficile coincided with weaning at 12.5 months. An increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroides spp., Blautia spp., Parabacteroides spp., Coprococcus spp., Ruminococcus spp., and Oscillospira spp. and a decrease of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia spp., and Clostridium spp. were observed during weaning. The change in microbiome composition was accompanied by a gradual increase of fecal pH from 5.5 to 7. The bacterial groups that are less abundant in early infancy, and that increase in relative abundance after weaning, likely are responsible for the expulsion of C. difficile.

  14. Coastal conduit in southwestern Hudson Bay (Canada) in summer: Rapid transit of freshwater and significant loss of colored dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granskog, Mats A.; MacDonald, Robie W.; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Senneville, Simon; Mundy, Christopher-John; Barber, David G.; Stern, Gary A.; Saucier, Francois

    2009-08-01

    Distributions of freshwater (sea-ice melt and runoff) were investigated along inshore-offshore sections in southwestern Hudson Bay for fall conditions. Conductivity-temperature-density profiles and bottle samples collected for salinity, oxygen isotope (δ18O), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) analyses were used to discriminate between contributions of river water (RW) and sea-ice melt (SIM). Stations had a fresh summer surface mixed layer 5-25 m thick overlying a cold subsurface layer indicative of the previous winter's polar mixed layer (PML). The fraction of RW decreased strongly with distance from shore, while the opposite was true for SIM. The majority of RW was constrained in a coastal domain within 100-150 km from shore, which, because of high alongshore velocities, accounts for the majority of freshwater and volume transports. On the basis of freshwater inventories and composition, brine and RW accumulate in the PML over winter because of ice formation and downward mixing. The summer surface circulation results in an annual net export of SIM from the region. Residence times for freshwater components in the southwestern sector of the bay, based on currents derived from a 3-D ocean model for Hudson Bay, are about 1-10 months, implying rapid transit of freshwater. Despite the short residence time for RW (1-3 months), CDOM is significantly photobleached and provides an unreliable tracer for RW. Photobleaching represents an important sink for dissolved organic carbon entering from rivers and could, in part, explain why Hudson Bay is only a minor sink for atmospheric CO2 in the open water season.

  15. Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART): An approach to rapidly determine optimal multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry parameters for small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-02-11

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a universal approach for quantitative analysis because of its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, optimization of MRM parameters remains as a time and labor-intensive task particularly in multiplexed quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed an approach named Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART) to predict the optimal MRM parameters of small molecules. SMART requires firstly a rapid and high-throughput analysis of samples using a Stepped MS(All) technique (sMS(All)) on a Q-TOF, which consists of serial MS(All) events acquired from low CE to gradually stepped-up CE values in a cycle. The optimal CE values can then be determined by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms for the ion pairs of interest among serial scans. The SMART-predicted parameters were found to agree well with the parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from the same vendor using a mixture of standards. The parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from a different vendor was also employed for comparison, and found to be linearly correlated with the SMART-predicted parameters, suggesting the potential applications of the SMART approach among different instrumental platforms. This approach was further validated by applying to simultaneous quantification of 31 herbal components in the plasma of rats treated with a herbal prescription. Because the sMS(All) acquisition can be accomplished in a single run for multiple components independent of standards, the SMART approach are expected to find its wide application in the multiplexed quantitative analysis of complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2013-01-01

    Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transition from non-renewable to renewable energy sources: fuel cells in Antarctica as an economically attractive niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschoff, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence that indicates that fuel cells might be commercially attractive in several market niches in Latin America; however, political approval of demonstration projects has been elusive. In this paper, the results of an economic study carried out on the assumption of introducing an environmentally friendly fuel, such as methanol, for feeding fuel cell systems for electricity generation and heat production in the six bases that Argentina has in Antarctica are reported. It is seen that, in this particular case, there is a net cost benefit, even if the assets resulting from diminishing pollution in Antarctica are not taken into account. (Author)

  18. The storage of electric energy: an unavoidable dimension of energy transition. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, Alain

    2015-01-01

    After a brief synthesis, the opinion of the Council is stated. It presents the main objectives of the storage of electric energy, its main physical-chemical principles and the available technologies (gravity, compressed air energy storage, electrochemical, thermal, electric, and inertial storage), and the three main techniques: pumped-storage hydroelectricity, batteries, hydrogen. Global assessment and recommendations are discussed, notably in terms of economic and financial consequences, but also in terms of technological choices, research and development, local development, industrial cooperation, and legal framework. Appendices notably present in detail the different technologies, the operation of the electric grid in France and Europe, and some experiments

  19. INTRA-URBAN SPATIAL CHANGES AMONG WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN BUCHAREST (ROMANIA DURING ECONOMIC TRANSITION (1992-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey KOBAYASH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs in Bucharest, Romania, increased by six times (compared to five times for men between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, during a period of transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. A study of over 150 territory referential units shows a concentration of business women in central, high income areas and a correlation between the entrepreneurial status and education. Data from 50 telephone interviews show that women with university degrees are more likely to operate at a city-wide or national scale, in fields such as cosmeticology, consultancy, law, design, art, and manufacturing. Women without higher education tend to operate at a local, smaller scale. Both spatial concentration and education have an impact upon business behaviour.

  20. Rapid anthropogenic response to short-term aeolian-fluvial palaeoenvironmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Agha, Nuha; Goring-Morris, A. Nigel; Porat, Naomi; Barzilai, Omry

    2014-09-01

    Archaeological investigations along Nahal Sekher on the eastern edge of Israel's northwestern Negev Desert dunefield revealed concentrations of Epipalaeolithic campsites associated respectively with ancient water bodies. This study, aimed at better understanding the connections between these camps and the water bodies, is concerned with a cluster of Natufian sites. A comprehensive geomorphological study integrating field mapping, stratigraphic sections, sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages was conducted in the vicinity of a recently excavated Natufian campsite of Nahal Sekher VI whose artifacts directly overlay aeolian sand dated by OSL to 12.4 ± 0.7 and 11.7 ± 0.5 ka. Residual sequences of diagnostic silty sediments, defined here as low-energy fluvial fine-grained deposits (LFFDs), were identified within the drainage system of central Nahal Sekher around the Nahal Sekher VI site. LFFD sections were found to represent both shoreline and mid-water deposits. The thicker mid-water LFFD deposits (15.7 ± 0.7-10.7 ± 0.5 ka) date within the range of the Epipalaeolithic campsites, while the upper and shoreline LFFD units that thin out into the sands adjacent to the Nahal Sekher VI site display slightly younger ages (10.8 ± 0.4 ka-7.6 ± 0.4 ka). LFFD sedimentation by low-energy concentrated flow and standing-water developed as a result of proximal downstream dune-damming. These water bodies developed as a result of encroaching sand that initially crossed central Nahal Sekher by 15.7 ± 0.7 ka and probably intermittently blocked the course of the wadi. LFFD deposition was therefore a response to a unique combination of regional sand supply due to frequent powerful winds and does not represent climate change in the form of increased precipitation or temperature change. The chronostratigraphies affiliate the Natufian sites to the adjacent ancient water bodies. These relations reflect a rapid, but temporary anthropogenic response to a

  1. Territories and energy transition: from the European Metropolis of Lille and the Pays de Fayence to the potential of Ouarzazate and the West African Economic and Monetary Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisgibault, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates territorial energy decentralization. It advocates the greater involvement of territories in the energy transition. Should this evolution be driven from the top by global, European and national decisions and targets, which are then transposed in the territories? Would it be better for territories to initiate local sustainable projects, which can then be approved on a regional and national level and then aggregated? How can inter-communal and regional levels increase their influence in energy and climate matters? How do regional schemes and plans interact with local planning documents? Is territorial Energy Independence feasible, and is it compatible with solidarity? The methodology is based on analysis of the corpus, statistical computation and field work. The field work was conducted in four different spatial typologies: the new European Metropolis of Lille, an urban space, the Pays de Fayence, a Southern France rural space, Ouarzazate, Morocco, a desert space and the West African Economic and Monetary Union. These different typologies have allowed us to draw a vertical line guiding the research conducted given the evolving context post-COP 21, the new European Commission initiatives and the 2015 French laws on territorial organization and energy transition. These factors are grouped into three pairs to interpret the results on France's carbon constraints, the Mediterranean region and Africa, which will only be subject to carbon constraints when the COP 21 Paris agreement has entered into force. (author) [fr

  2. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  3. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei, E-mail: weiweileede@gmail.com [Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Song Guojun [Environmental Policy and Planning Institute (EPPI), Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Beresford, Melanie [Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ma, Ben [Environmental Policy and Planning Institute (EPPI), Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: > We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. > We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. > Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. > Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. > This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  4. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  5. Research Monograph on Federal International Economic Emergency Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-31

    rights to use such information in the form of licenses, patents, franchises , etc. I Accordingly, for purposes of this study, we shall define economics...existence of the Washington Metropolitan Area’s rapid transit system, U.S. production of subway cars U . has ended. Consumer products ranging from

  6. Why Does Population Aging Matter So Much for Asia? Population Aging, Economic Growth, and Economic Security in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Asia as a whole is experiencing a rapid demographic transition toward older populations, though different countries are at different stages of this region- wide trend. We document Asia's aging population, describe the region's old-age support systems, and highlight the regional socioeconomic implications of the transition for those support systems. Aging populations present two fundamental challenges to Asian policymakers: (1) developing socioeconomic systems that can provide economic securit...

  7. The mechanisms of transitions from natural convection and nucleate boiling to nucleate boiling or film boiling caused by rapid depressurization in highly subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Hata, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuya

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms of transient boiling process including the transitions to nucleate boiling or film boiling from initial heat fluxes, q in , in natural convection and nucleate boiling regimes caused by exponentially decreasing system pressure with various decreasing periods, τ p on a horizontal cylinder in a pool of highly subcooled water were clarified. The transient boiling processes with different characteristics were divided into three groups for low and intermediate q in in natural convection regime, and for high q in in nucleate boiling regime. The transitions at maximum heat fluxes from low q in in natural convection regime to stable nucleate boiling regime occurred independently of the τ p values. The transitions from intermediate and high q in values in natural convection and nucleate boiling to stable film boiling occurred for short τ p values, although those to stable nucleate boiling occurred for tong τ p values. The CHF and corresponding surface superheat values at which the transition to film boiling occurred were considerably lower and higher than the steady-state values at the corresponding pressure during the depressurization respectively. It was suggested that the transitions to stable film boiling at transient critical heat fluxes from intermediate q in in natural convection and from high q in in nucleate boiling for short τ p occur due to explosive-like heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation (HSN). The photographs of typical vapor behavior due to the HSN during depressurization from natural convection regime for short τ p were shown. (author)

  8. Cardiovascular risk status of Afro-origin populations across the spectrum of economic development: findings from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Lara R; Forrester, Terrence E; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Lambert, Estelle V; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S; Khatib, Rasha; Tonino, Laura; Riesen, Walter; Korte, Wolfgang; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Luke, Amy

    2017-05-12

    Cardiovascular risk factors are increasing in most developing countries. To date, however, very little standardized data has been collected on the primary risk factors across the spectrum of economic development. Data are particularly sparse from Africa. In the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) we examined population-based samples of men and women, ages 25-45 of African ancestry in metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Key measures of cardiovascular disease risk are described. The risk factor profile varied widely in both total summary estimates of cardiovascular risk and in the magnitude of component factors. Hypertension ranged from 7% in women from Ghana to 35% in US men. Total cholesterol was well under 200 mg/dl for all groups, with a mean of 155 mg/dl among men in Ghana, South Africa and Jamaica. Among women total cholesterol values varied relatively little by country, following between 160 and 178 mg/dl for all 5 groups. Levels of HDL-C were virtually identical in men and women from all study sites. Obesity ranged from 64% among women in the US to 2% among Ghanaian men, with a roughly corresponding trend in diabetes. Based on the Framingham risk score a clear trend toward higher total risk in association with socioeconomic development was observed among men, while among women there was considerable overlap, with the US participants having only a modestly higher risk score. These data provide a comprehensive estimate of cardiovascular risk across a range of countries at differing stages of social and economic development and demonstrate the heterogeneity in the character and degree of emerging cardiovascular risk. Severe hypercholesterolemia, as characteristic in the US and much of Western Europe at the onset of the coronary epidemic, is unlikely to be a feature of the cardiovascular risk profile in these countries in the foreseeable future, suggesting that stroke may remain the

  9. Thailand’s Work and Health Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health. PMID:22318916

  10. Process-based modelling of fluvial system response to rapid climate change: 2. application to the River Maas (The Netherlands) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, P.W.; Balen, van R.T.; Kasse, C.; Vandenberghe, J.

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive process-based numerical model of catchment hydrology and alluvial channel dynamics is applied to the evolution of the river Maas during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition. Palaeo-climatological reconstructions based on a number of climatic and environmental proxies are combined

  11. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  12. Single and Double Infrared Transitions in Rapid Vapor Deposited Parahydrogen Solids: Application to Sample Thickness Determination and Quantitative Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tam, Simon

    2001-01-01

    ...) solid from its infrared (IR) absorption spectrum. Millimeters-thick pH2 solids of exceptional optical clarity can be produced by the rapid vapor deposition method M.E. Fajardo and S. Tam, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4237 (1998...

  13. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  14. Impacts of climate change on vegetation, hydrological and socio-economic droughts in a transitional wet-to-dry Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Pulquério, Mário; Grosso, Nuno; Duarte Santos, Filipe; João Cruz, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus river basin is located in a transitional region between humid and semi-arid climate. The lower part of the basin is a strategic source of water for Portugal, providing water for agricultural irrigation, hydropower generation, and domestic water supplies for over 4 million people. Climate change in this region is expected to lead to higher temperatures and lower rainfall, therefore increasing climatic aridity. In this transitional region, this could lead to an increased frequency of severe droughts, threatening climatic support for current agricultural and forestry practices, as well as the sustainability of domestic water supplies. This work evaluated the impacts of climate change on drought frequency and severity for the Portuguese part of the Tagus river basin. Climate change scenarios for 2010-2100 (A2 greenhouse emission scenarios) were statistically downscaled for the study area. They were evaluated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model, which simulated vegetation water demand and drought stress, soil water availability, irrigation abstraction, streamflow, reservoir storage and groundwater recharge. Water inflows from Spain were estimated using an empirical climate-based model. Drought occurrence and severity was analyzed in terms of: * meteorological drought, based on (i) the Standardized Precipitation Index and (ii) the Aridity Index; * vegetation/agricultural drought, based on plant water stress; * hydrological drought, based on (i) streamflow rates and (ii) reservoir storage; * socio-economic drought, based on (i) the capacity of the main reservoir in the system (Castelo de Bode) to sustain hydropower and domestic supplies, and (ii) the rate of groundwater extraction vs. irrigation demands for the cultures located in the intensive cultivation regions of the Lezírias near the Tagus estuary. The results indicate a trend of increasing frequency and severity of most drought types during the XXIst century, with a

  15. Cardiovascular risk status of Afro-origin populations across the spectrum of economic development: findings from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara R. Dugas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are increasing in most developing countries. To date, however, very little standardized data has been collected on the primary risk factors across the spectrum of economic development. Data are particularly sparse from Africa. Methods In the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS we examined population-based samples of men and women, ages 25–45 of African ancestry in metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Key measures of cardiovascular disease risk are described. Results The risk factor profile varied widely in both total summary estimates of cardiovascular risk and in the magnitude of component factors. Hypertension ranged from 7% in women from Ghana to 35% in US men. Total cholesterol was well under 200 mg/dl for all groups, with a mean of 155 mg/dl among men in Ghana, South Africa and Jamaica. Among women total cholesterol values varied relatively little by country, following between 160 and 178 mg/dl for all 5 groups. Levels of HDL-C were virtually identical in men and women from all study sites. Obesity ranged from 64% among women in the US to 2% among Ghanaian men, with a roughly corresponding trend in diabetes. Based on the Framingham risk score a clear trend toward higher total risk in association with socioeconomic development was observed among men, while among women there was considerable overlap, with the US participants having only a modestly higher risk score. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive estimate of cardiovascular risk across a range of countries at differing stages of social and economic development and demonstrate the heterogeneity in the character and degree of emerging cardiovascular risk. Severe hypercholesterolemia, as characteristic in the US and much of Western Europe at the onset of the coronary epidemic, is unlikely to be a feature of the cardiovascular risk profile in these

  16. Highly efficient transition metal-free coupling of acid chlorides with terminal alkynes in [bmim]Br: A rapid route to access ynones using MgCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Soltani Rad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild, highly efficient and transition metal-free protocol for synthesis of ynones in an ionic liquid is described. In this approach, the coupling reaction of different acid chlorides with terminal alkynes was efficiently carried out using 0.05 mol% MgCl2 in the presence of triethylamine in [bmim]Br at room temperature to afford the corresponding ynones in good to excellent yields. This method is highly efficient for various acid chlorides and alkynes including aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic substrates bearing different functional groups. The influence of some parameters in this reaction including type of ionic liquid, base and catalyst has been discussed.

  17. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  18. A rapid transition from ice covered CO2–rich waters to a biologically mediated CO2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Geibert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, locally called Warm Deep Water (WDW, enters the Weddell Gyre in the southeast, roughly at 25° E to 30° E. In December 2002 and January 2003 we studied the effect of entrainment of WDW on the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in Weddell Sea surface waters. Ultimately the fCO2 difference across the sea surface drives air-sea fluxes of CO2. Deep CTD sections and surface transects of fCO2 were made along the Prime Meridian, a northwest-southeast section, and along 17° E to 23° E during cruise ANT XX/2 on FS Polarstern. Upward movement and entrainment of WDW into the winter mixed layer had significantly increased DIC and fCO2 below the sea ice along 0° W and 17° E to 23° E, notably in the southern Weddell Gyre. Nonetheless, the ice cover largely prevented outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. During and upon melting of the ice, biological activity rapidly reduced surface water fCO2 by up to 100 μatm, thus creating a sink for atmospheric CO2. Despite the tendency of the surfacing WDW to cause CO2 supersaturation, the Weddell Gyre may well be a CO2 sink on an annual basis due to this effective mechanism involving ice cover and ensuing biological fCO2 reduction. Dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in melting sea ice may play a minor role in this rapid reduction of surface water fCO2.

  19. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The economic case for low carbon waste management in rapidly growing cities in the developing world: The case of Palembang, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Colenbrander, Sarah; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Gouldson, Andy; Tin, Lee Chew

    2015-11-01

    The provision of appropriate waste management is not only an indicator of development but also of broader sustainability. This is particularly relevant to expanding cities in developing countries faced with rising waste generation and associated environmental health problems. Despite these urgent issues, city authorities often lack the evidence required to make well-informed decisions. This study evaluates the carbon and economic performance of low-carbon measures in the waste sector at a city level, within the context of a developing country. Palembang in Indonesia is used as a case of a medium-sized city in a newly industrialized country, with relevance to other similar cities in the developing world. Evidence suggests that the waste sector can achieve substantial carbon emission reductions, and become a carbon sink, in a cost effective way. Hence there is an economic case for a low carbon development path for Palembang, and possibly for other cities in developing and developed countries facing similar challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic Components of Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses…

  2. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) - Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Scheider, Todd; Heaton, Andrew; Vaughn, Jason; Stone, Nobie; Wright, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail (E-Sail) for future scientific exploration missions. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two-year follow-on Phase II NIAC award in October 2015. This paper documents the findings from this three-year investigation. An Electric sail, a propellant-less propulsion system, uses solar wind ions to rapidly travel either to deep space or the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could reach Pluto in 5 years, or the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years compared to the thirty-five plus years the Voyager spacecraft took. The team's recent focuses have been: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from MSFC's experimental data on the interaction between simulated solar wind and a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) Determining what missions could benefit from this revolutionary propulsion system, 3) Conceptualizing spacecraft designs for various tasks: to reach the solar system's edge, to orbit the sun as Heliophysics sentinels, or to examine a multitude of asteroids.

  3. An Asian dilemma. Modernising the electricity sector in China and India in the context of rapid economic growth and the concern for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.; Vlasblom, J.; Kroeze, C. (eds.)

    2001-12-01

    The research question dealt with in this report is: What are the feasible policy and technology options to modernise the electricity sector in China and India taking into account the supply and demand for electricity and given the conflict between the need for economic growth and the need to anticipate future developments in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions? The project essentially integrates three methodological approaches, a scenario approach, a bottom-up technology approach and an institutional cum stakeholder approach. Following an initial appraisal of the 'business-as-usual' scenario for the electricity sector for both countries, a range of policy and technology options was identified, as well as their potential and technical, economic and political feasibility. These options were combined and compared to the business-as-usual scenario to develop emission reduction scenarios for China and India and were tested with stakeholders to identify their feasibility and to assess the potential of using instruments at national and international level to facilitate their implementation. Although some measures have a high technical potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in both countries, these are not seen as particularly feasible by the stakeholders. For example end use efficiency has a very high technical emission to reduce emissions but is not given much priority in China and India (especially in the small-scale sector). Efficiency improvement in power plants and in transmission and distribution can also yield results in terms of emission reductions but are not seen as important in China. The report discusses the barriers and opportunities in relation to the various options. refs.

  4. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  5. Successful Youth Transitions. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Nguyen, Nhi

    2011-01-01

    Youth transitions refer to young people's journeys from school to post-school study and on to employment. This is a time when young people experience rapid biological, psychological and physical changes, as well as changing social and economic situations, as they begin to take on the responsibilities of adulthood. In this paper, the authors first…

  6. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  7. Distributed Transit Rider Messaging : Final Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty, lack of transit system awareness, and feelings of isolation have negative impact on all riders, regardless of abilities, thereby reducing community livability and transit demand. Lower transit demand, in turn, decreases economic competit...

  8. NICE recommendations for the assessment of stable chest pain: assessing the early economic and service impact in the rapid-access chest pain service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Reza; Raga, Santosh; Abdool, Ali; Disney, Andrew; Wong, Peter; Davis, Gershan K

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, guidelines published by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) suggested a change in the way patients with stable chest pain of suspected cardiac origin were investigated. These guidelines removed exercise treadmill testing from routine use and introduced cardiac CT to regular use. To investigate whether these guidelines had improved our service provision by reducing the number of further investigations required to make a diagnosis, and to see if our costs had increased now that the less expensive exercise treadmill tests were not recommended. Clinic letters were used to assess patients pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease for two six-month cohorts of consecutive patients seen in the rapid access chest pain clinic (January-June 2010 and July-December 2011) using NICE published methodology, and to ascertain which investigations patients had. Using NICE modelled costs, we generated comparative hypothetical costs for each cohort and an average cost per patient. In the January-June 2010 cohort, 435 patients with chest pain were seen, and in July-December 2011, 334 patients were seen. In the pre-NICE guidelines cohort, 23% of patients required two investigations as compared with 11.4% in the post-NICE guidelines cohort, with no patient requiring three investigations as compared with 3% in the original cohort. There was no significant increase in costs per patient in the post-NICE guidance group. Implementing NICE guidance reduced the number of investigations needed per patient, and did not prove more expensive for our department in the short term.

  9. Mainstreaming Low-Carbon Climate-Resilient growth pathways into Development Finance Institutions' activities. A research project on the standards, tools and metrics to support transition to the low-carbon climate-resilient development models. Paper 1 - Climate and development finance institutions: linking climate finance, development finance and the transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient economic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Risler, Ophelie; Forestier, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Development finance institutions (DFIs) are in a position to be key actors in aligning development and the 2 deg. challenge. One of the principal challenges today is to scale-up the financial flows to the trillions of dollars per year necessary to achieve the 2 deg. C long-term objectives. Achieving this transition to a low-carbon, climate resilient (LCCR) economic model requires the integration or 'mainstreaming' of climate issues as a prism through which all investment decisions should be made. This paper presents an overview of the opportunities and challenges of linking a LCCR transition with the objectives of development finance. It first presents the two-fold challenge of climate change and development for countries around the world. Second, the paper explores the role of development finance institutions and their support for the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economic model. Finally, it examines a necessary paradigm shift to integrate climate and development objectives to establish a 'LCCR development model' able to simultaneously tackling development priorities and needs for resilient, low-carbon growth. This will necessitate a move from focusing on a 'siloed' vision of climate finance to a means of aligning activities across the economy with the LCCR objectives to ensure that the majority of investments are coherent with this long-term transition. (authors)

  10. Economic Adversity Transitions From Childhood to Older Adulthood Are Differentially Associated With Later-Life Physical Performance Measures in Men and Women in Middle and High-Income Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Phoebe W; Dos Santos Gomes, Cristiano; Auais, Mohammad; Braun, Kathryn L; Guralnik, Jack M; Pirkle, Catherine M

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic adversity transitions from childhood to older adulthood and older adulthood physical performance among 1,998 community-dwelling older adults from five demographically diverse sites from middle and high-income countries. The principal exposure variable was economic adversity transition. No adversity encompassed not experiencing poverty in both childhood and older adulthood, improved described having only experienced poverty in childhood, worsened captured having experienced poverty in older adulthood, and severe is having experienced poverty in both childhood and older adulthood. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) was used for outcome measures. Analyses of the continuous SPPB score used linear regression, while analysis of a binary outcome (SPPB < 8 vs. ≥8) used Poisson regression models with robust error variance, both adjusting for sex, education, and site location. In sex-stratified models, the SPPB < 8 prevalence rate ratio (PRR) was higher for the severe (PRR: 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.70, 4.61]), worsened (PRR: 2.40, 95% CI = [1.41, 4.09]), and improved (PRR: 1.82, 95% CI = [1.11, 3.01]) groups, compared with those with no adversity in childhood or as adults, but only for females. Findings from this study indicate that persistent economic adversity has a negative effect on older adult physical performance, especially among women.

  11. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cu...... minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increased market accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty....

  12. The DOE/EM facility transition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of EM-60 is to plan, implement, and manage receipt of surplus facilities resulting from downsizing of the DOE Weapons Complex facilities and DOE operating program offices to EM, and to ensure prompt deactivation of such facilities in order to reach a minimum surveillance and maintenance condition. The revised organizational structure of EM-60 into four offices (one at headquarters, and the other three at field sites), reflects increased operating functions associated with deactivation, surveillance, and maintenance of facilities. EM-60's deactivation and transition role concerns technical, socioeconomic, institutional, and administrative issues. The primary objective of the deactivation process is to put facilities in the lowest surveillance and maintenance condition safely and quickly by driving down the open-quotes mortgageclose quotes costs of maintaining them until final disposition. EM-60's three key activities are: (1) Inventory of surplus facilities - The 1993 Surplus Facility Inventory and Assessment (SFIA) serves as a planning tool to help the Department and EM-60 determine optimal transition phasing, with safety and cost-effectiveness remaining a priority. (2) Management of accelerated facility life cycle transition - Transitions currently underway illustrate site issues. These include addressing the interests of federal and state regulatory agencies as well as interests of local stakeholders, safe management of large amounts of production residues, and options for treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal. Of equal importance in the transition process is planning the optimal transition of the labor force. (3) Economic development - to address the socio-economic impacts on affected communities of the severe and rapid downsizing of the DOE Weapons Complex, DOE is pursuing an approach that uses the land, equipment, technology assets, and highly skilled local workforces as a basis for alternative economic development

  13. Geçiş Ekonomileri ve Yeni Kurumsal İktisat’ın Yeniden Yükselişi = Transition Economies and the Re-Emergence of the New Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜLER

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition from the socialist system that is based on central planning to the capitalist system that is based on free market involves, above all, a great and complex institutional transformation. The fact that academic studies examining economies that underwent such a transformation have ignored “institutions” especially at the beginning of this process is a result of a shortcoming in the dominant neoclassical paradigm. This shortcoming is tried to be eliminated through The New Institutional Economics (NIE approach attempted to eliminate this shortcomings, which started to rise again after the mid-90s and included institutions as the main variable of its analys’s .The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the transition process, which is structurally complex, has gained a much more consistent and satisfying approach with NIE, which is of an interdisciplinary character.

  14. The energy-economic situation in the Republic of Moldova and the energy policy characteristics during the transition period to market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern, G.; Medvev, L.; Lumer, I.; Reabuhina, L.

    1994-01-01

    A significant characteristics of the present situation of the Moldavian economy is the social impact of cyclic and structural economic crises. The energy crisis is an important concern for social-political background of the Republic and it requires updating the elements of the permanent capital implied in electrothermal power production. Comparative calculations were done for electrothermal demands and the results illustrate the dynamics of the energy intensity for the power output. Several suggestions are advanced to settle the energy-economical problems

  15. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  16. Transition to University under Communism and after Its Demise. The Role of Socio-economic Background in the Transition between Secondary and Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic 1948 - 1998

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, Petr; Řeháková, Blanka; Simonová, Natalie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2003), s. 301-324 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : transition * education al inequality * higher education Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.063, year: 2003

  17. Departure Interval Optimization of Electric Bus Rapid Transit Considering Level of Service%考虑服务水平的纯电动快速公交发车间隔优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪然; 刘文峰; 李斌; 张沫

    2017-01-01

    With the electric vehicles applied in the field of bus rapid transit,due to the special operational needs of charging or battery swap for electric vehicles,the traditional methods of departure interval optimization are no longer applicable.Considering the level of service and charging time constraints,this paper studies the departure interval optimization of electric bus rapid transit.Firstly,the service level evaluation system associated with energy consumption is established by analyzing the correlation between service level indexes and energy consumption;secondly,considering the level of service and charging time constraints,the departure interval optimization model is established by setting energy consumption as the objective function;finally,taking line 1 of Jinhua E-BRT as an example to examine the effect of the optimization model,the optimization results demonstrate that compared with the current operation plans the energy consumption is saved by 6.21% under the premise of the same level of service.Therefore,the departure interval optimization method of electric bus rapid transit considering level of service established in this paper has certain practical significance and provides an important guidance for reducing the energy consumption under a certain service level.%随着电动汽车被引入城市快速公交领域,由于其充换电等特殊的运营调度需求,在发车间隔计划等制定过程中传统方法不再适用.本文在综合考虑服务水平和车辆充电时间约束条件下,对纯电动快速公交(E-BRT)发车间隔优化进行了研究.根据分析服务水平指标项与车辆能耗的相关性,建立了面向能耗评估的服务水平评价体系;综合考虑服务水平和充电时间约束条件,以车辆运营能耗为目标函数,建立了发车间隔优化模型;基于金华市E-BRT1号线运营数据进行实例验证,结果表明,在满足相同服务水平情况下,本文提出的优化模型可以节约能耗6.21%.

  18. Transition to University under Communism and after Its Demise. The Role of Socio-economic Background in the Transition between Secondary and Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic 1948 - 1998

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, Petr; Řeháková, Blanka; Simonová, Natalie

    Roč.39, č. 3 (2003), s. 301-324 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS7028302; GA ČR(CZ) GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : transition * higher education * education al inequality Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.063, year: 2003

  19. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  20. A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.; de Jong, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in

  1. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries.

  2. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  3. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2007-01-01

    .... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...

  4. Transition pathway for climate-neutral mushroom cultivation. The agenda for a climate-neutral and economic effective mushroom cultivation in 2020; Transitiepad klimaatneutrale paddenstoelenteelt. De agenda voor een klimaatneutrale en economisch rendabele paddenstoelenteelt in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurmeijer, J.M. [Grontmij, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Hilkens, J. [AdVisie, Herkenbosch (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    To realize the ambition of climate-neutral and economically viable mushroom cultivation in new businesses as of 2020, a vision and a transition pathway need to be developed. The energy saving options discussed in the report 'Onderzoek naar het energiezuinig paddenstoelenbedrijf anno 2010' ('Study of an energy efficient mushroom cultivation business in 2010') serve as starting point. Three transition pathways have been developed. Each transition pathway contributes to a future-proof mushroom cultivation sector, to increasing energy efficiency or to deployment of sustainable energy in the mushroom cultivation sector [Dutch] Voor het realiseren van de ambitie om vanaf 2020 in nieuwe bedrijven klimaatneutraal en economisch rendabel paddenstoelen te kunnen telen, dient een visie en een transitiepad te worden opgesteld. De energiebesparingsopties uit het rapport 'Onderzoek naar het energiezuinig paddenstoelenbedrijf anno 2010' dienen hierbij als uitgangspunt. Er zijn drie transitiepaden ontwikkeld. Elk transitiepad geeft zijn bijdrage aan een toekomstbestendige paddenstoelensector, aan het verhogen van de energie-efficiency of aan de toepassing van duurzame energie in de paddenstoelensector.

  5. Armenia; The Road to Sustained Rapid Growth-Cross-Country Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Garbis Iradian

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the growth determinants and the economic policy challenges that Armenia faces to sustain the rapid growth of the past two years. The paper also seeks to answer the following two questions: Why has Armenia performed relatively better than other transition economies? What are the roles of macroeconomic policies and the level of financial intermediation in explaining growth differences? The paper also draws upon past cross-country experiences by estimating panel regressions o...

  6. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  7. How can we ensure the energy transition? Comment assurer la transition energetique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojey, Alexandre

    2007-07-01

    With a continuously growing energy demand, the present energy model is clearly unsustainable due to the decline of fossil fuel resources and the risks of climate change A transition towards a sustainable model is therefore needed. However, there are no immediate alternatives leading to a sharp reduction in the use of fossil fuels, which are expected to maintain a major role for many years. The energy transition will therefore require a long time period The risks of climate change will require urgent measures and the 'carbon transition' has to be achieved more rapidly than the energy transition itself. A whole set of solutions will be needed in the technical but also economic and regulatory areas, for achieving a successful transition: energy conservation, diversification of energy . sources, reduction of the carbon content of the energy mix, CO{sub 2}, capture and storage. Hybrid options will be favoured. The paper describes the main features of the upcoming transition and the actions which are required. (auth)

  8. RoadRail: An economically viable infrastructure which facilitates the transition from oil to electricity for all forms of road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    to convert road transport from oil to electricity. This involves the electrification of major roads so that electric cars, vans, busses, and trucks can use electricity as their primary fuel over long distance, which in this study is referred to as ‘RoadRail’. This is a new and radical alternative......In recent decades, economic renewable energy technologies have been developed for the electricity and heat sectors. Although there has been some development in the transport sector, there is still no well-establish sustainable alternatives to oil. In this study, a new alternative is proposed...... and electricity/oil costs, Denmark is presented as a case study for the installation of RoadRail. The results indicate that based on 2020 cost assumptions, RoadRail is a more socio-economic alternative than a business-as-usual using oil. This is primarily due to decreasing electric vehicle costs, decreasing...

  9. The Mediterranean solar plan: a flagship project of the Union for the Mediterranean area - A co-development and socio-economic transition factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocilnikar, Antoine Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) was launched at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, on July 13 2008, which saw the creation of the Union for the Mediterranean. The Summit directed the MSP to all renewable energy, interconnections needed for their deployment and energy efficiency. It mandated the UfM Secretariat for its coordination. The summit was followed by a Franco-German agreement in August 2008 which set a target of 20 GW MSP is already in deployment. In the field of wind energy, 1700 MW are built and in the solar field, several projects are in advanced stages of preparation. It targets co-development. It can also be a project of the 'Partnership of Deauville' set up at the G8 Summit on 26 and 27 May 2011 with the people of the region of North Africa and the Middle East that initiate a transition to a free, democratic and tolerant world, starting with Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan and Morocco, in partnership with countries wishing to support the transition in the region. (author)

  10. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  11. Royal Order of 27 July 1966 relating to the reciprocal recognition of licences for the import, transport, transit, and distribution of radioactive substances between the countries of the Benelux Economic Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Royal Order made taking into account the 1958 Act on protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, the 1963 Royal Order embodying the general regulations on protection of the population and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations and the 1966 recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Benelux Economic Union lays down that, notwithstanding Section 38 and 57 of the 1963 Royal Order, licences for the import, transport and transit of radioactive substances or devices containing them which are issued by the competent authorities of the Netherlands or Luxembourg are valid in Belgium. Also, a Belgia distributor of such substances or devices containing them must ensure that a consignee residing in either of these countries holds the licences required by his national law. (NEA) [fr

  12. Economic development and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, R J

    1991-01-01

    The demographic transition in Latin America has resulted in increased family size rather than the Western European model of reduced family size. In 1905, both fertility and mortality were high in Latin America, but mortality declined more rapidly in Latin America than in Europe. In 1905, the crude birth rate for 15 selected countries averaged 44/1000 population. Western fertility at a comparable transition point was much lower at 30/1000. Between 1905 and 1960, fertility declines were evident in Uruguay, Argentina, Cuba, and Chile. Between 1960 and 1985, fertility declines appeared in Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, and Colombia. Fertility declines were smaller in the other Latin American countries. Crude birth rates declined markedly by 1985 but may overestimate fertility decline, which is more accurately measured by standardized birth rates. Fertility decline was evident in Argentina, Chile, and Costa Rica for standardized birth rates, survivorship ratio, and births surviving past the age of 15 years. Theoretically, families are expected to reduce family size when survivorship is assured; when mortality is 25%, only four children need be planned instead of six when mortality is 50%. A result of falling mortality is a cheaper cost of producing children, which may stimulate parents to raise bigger families. Western fertility decline has been attributed to mortality decline, urbanization, increased female labor force participation, rising wages, and more efficient contraception. Comparable economic development in Latin America has not resulted in large enough changes to encourage family size limitation. A table of fertility and economic indicators for selected countries in Latin America and Europe reflects the inverse relationship between income growth, urban growth, and growth in female educational status and fertility. The regression equation explains 60% of the variation in fertility rates among Latin American countries. Explanatory power increases to 75% when female

  13. THE DYNAMIC OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC COMPONENT OF THE OLT AND JIU BORDERED SUB-CARPATHIANS IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD – AS A PREMISE OF THE ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona MĂLĂESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the transition period, the Sub-Carpathians between Olt and Jiu were characterised by a reduced growth of the demographic potential, but especialy by a large mobility due to the socio-economical development and the balance between the rural and urban environment. From a spatial perspective, the Northern frame has reduced its demographic potential in the last 17 years, even more than the rural dorsal between the two bordering cities. Overall, the two extremities have increased their demographic potential, even if the evolutional tendencies have changed along the 17 years.The „centrality” degree and the vicinity of the capital and of the E 70 highway, determine, in the case of Râmnicu Vâlcea, a much higher territorial demographic “binding capacity”. Although still within the upper echelons from the perspective of the socio-economical development indicators, and moreover from that of the demographic resource descriptors (alphabetization indices, etc., the studied perimeter is in a constant demographic potential reduction process (proportionally the same with the distance towards the bordering urban center, firstly of the young one (atracted by the two urbane centers and secondly of the young and qualified –in general (rural and urban –in the benefit of the country’s main urban centers and especially the capital.

  14. The evolution of the health system outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe and their association with social, economic and political factors: an analysis of 25 years of transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Piotr; Szromek, Adam R

    2016-03-17

    After the fall of communism, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe started the process of political, economic, and social transformation. In health system the reform directions were often similar, despite differences in transition dynamics and the degree of government determination to implement reforms. Nonetheless, for most post-communist countries, there is a gap in evidence regarding the effectiveness of implemented reforms and their impact on health system performance. The presented study attempts to analyse and evaluate the results of health reforms in CEE countries with regard to their influence on health system outcomes. We also analysed the external and internal health system environments during the transition period to determine the factors affecting the effectiveness of health reforms. We compared the indicators of population health status, lifestyle, occupational safety issues and health system resources in 21 post-communist countries between sub-periods across the entire transition period at the aggregate level. The dynamics of change in health system outcomes in individual countries, as well as between countries, was also compared. Finally, we analysed the correlations between health system outcomes gathered into one synthetic measure and factors considered as potential determinants affecting the effectiveness of health reforms. The analyses were performed based on one-dimensional, two-dimensional and multidimensional statistical methods. The data were retrieved from the international databases, such as WHO, World Bank, International Labour Organization, World Value Survey and the European Social Survey. Among the factors positively stimulating improvements in health system outcomes were the total expenditure on health and a lower financial burden on patients, but primarily they were determined by the broader economic context of the country. Another finding was that better initial position positively determined health system outcomes at later

  15. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Arnaud; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Arnoux, Mathieu; Auverlot, Dominique; Leguet, Benoit; Grandjean, Alain; Morel, Julien; Lambert, Quentin; Tranie, Jean-Pascal; Bureau, Dominique; Dron, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This special dossier about energy transition is made of 10 contributions dealing with: thousands of years of energy transition (Jean-Marc Jancovici); a recurring problem after a thousand years of fight (Mathieu Arnoux); urban mobility: another energy story (Arnaud Passalacqua); an opportunity subjected to conditions for the French competitiveness (Dominique Auverlot, Benoit Leguet); Germany: an energy utopia or a role model? (Etienne Beeker); environment: the financing stakes (Dominique Dron); reconciling the economical, social and ecological stakes (Alain Grandjean); Sweden in the face of transportation challenge (Julien Morel, Quentin Lambert); India and China with a commitment to global warming (Jean-Pascal Tranie); training the energy transition managers (Dominique Bureau)

  16. Mediterranean studies of cardiovascular disease and hyperglycemia: analytical modeling of population socio-economic transitions (MedCHAMPS)--rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Critchley, Julia; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unwin, Nigel; Capewell, Simon; Bennett, Kathleen; Unal, Belgin; Husseini, Abdullatif; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Phillimore, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In response to the escalating epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Mediterranean Region (MR), an international collaboration aiming at understanding the burden of CVD and evaluating cost-effective strategies to combat it was recently established. This paper describes the rationale and methods of the project MedCHAMPS to disseminate this successful experience. The framework of MedCHAMPS is exceptional in combining multiple disciplines (e.g. epidemiology, anthropology, economics), countries [Turkey, Syria, occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), Tunisia, UK, Ireland], research methods (situational and policy analysis, quantitative and qualitative studies, statistical modeling), and involving local stakeholders at all levels to assess trends of CVD/diabetes in the society and attributes of the local health care systems to provide optimal policy recommendations to reduce the burden of CVD/diabetes. MedCHAMPS provides policy makers in the MR and beyond needed guidance about the burden of CVD, and best cost-effective ways to combat it. Our approach of building developed-developing countries collaboration also provides a roadmap for other researchers seeking to build research base into CVD epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

  17. Nutrition transition among adolescents of a south-Mediterranean country: dietary patterns, association with socio-economic factors, overweight and blood pressure. A cross-sectional study in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delpeuch Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the burden of chronic diseases linked to the nutrition transition and associated dietary and lifestyle changes is of growing concern in south and east Mediterranean countries and adolescents are at the forefront of these changes. This study assessed dietary intake and association with socio-economic factors and health outcomes among adolescents in Tunisia. Methods Cross-sectional survey (year 2005; 1019 subjects 15-19 y. from a clustered random sample. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative frequency questionnaire (134 items as was physical activity; the Diet Quality Index International measured diet quality; dietary patterns were derived by multiple correspondence analysis from intakes of 43 food groups. Body Mass Index (BMI ≥85th and 95th percentile defined overweight and obesity. Waist Circumference (WC assessed abdominal fat. High blood pressure was systolic (SBP or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥90th of the international reference for 15-17 y., and SBP/DBP ≥120/80 mm Hg for 18-19 y. Results Energy intake levels were quite high, especially for females. The macro-nutrient structure was close to recommendations but only 38% had a satisfactory diet quality. A main traditional to modern dietary gradient, linked to urbanisation and increased economic level, featured an increasing consumption of white bread, dairy products, sugars, added fats and fruits and decreasing consumption of oils, grains, legumes and vegetables; regarding nutrients this modern diet score featured a decreasing relationship with total fat and an increase of calcium intake, but with an increase of energy, sugars and saturated fat, while vitamin C, potassium and fibre decreased. Adjusted for age, energy and physical activity, this modern pattern was associated with increased overweight in males (2nd vs. 1st tertile: Prevalence Odds-Ratio (POR = 4.0[1.7-9.3], 3rd vs. 1st: POR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] and a higher WC

  18. Nitrogen economics of root foraging: transitive closure of the nitrate-cytokinin relay and distinct systemic signaling for N supply vs. demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffel, Sandrine; Krouk, Gabriel; Ristova, Daniela; Shasha, Dennis; Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2011-11-08

    As sessile organisms, root plasticity enables plants to forage for and acquire nutrients in a fluctuating underground environment. Here, we use genetic and genomic approaches in a "split-root" framework--in which physically isolated root systems of the same plant are challenged with different nitrogen (N) environments--to investigate how systemic signaling affects genome-wide reprogramming and root development. The integration of transcriptome and root phenotypes enables us to identify distinct mechanisms underlying "N economy" (i.e., N supply and demand) of plants as a system. Under nitrate-limited conditions, plant roots adopt an "active-foraging strategy", characterized by lateral root outgrowth and a shared pattern of transcriptome reprogramming, in response to either local or distal nitrate deprivation. By contrast, in nitrate-replete conditions, plant roots adopt a "dormant strategy", characterized by a repression of lateral root outgrowth and a shared pattern of transcriptome reprogramming, in response to either local or distal nitrate supply. Sentinel genes responding to systemic N signaling identified by genome-wide comparisons of heterogeneous vs. homogeneous split-root N treatments were used to probe systemic N responses in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in nitrate reduction and hormone synthesis and also in decapitated plants. This combined analysis identified genetically distinct systemic signaling underlying plant N economy: (i) N supply, corresponding to a long-distance systemic signaling triggered by nitrate sensing; and (ii) N demand, experimental support for the transitive closure of a previously inferred nitrate-cytokinin shoot-root relay system that reports the nitrate demand of the whole plant, promoting a compensatory root growth in nitrate-rich patches of heterogeneous soil.

  19. Energy and economic growth: Grounding our understanding in physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the complex, wide ranging and unresolved debate within the economics literature on the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use. It explores the difference between neo-classical and ecological economic worldviews and highlights how the ecological economic approach attempts to ground its analysis within the physical limits implied by the laws of thermodynamics. Once these laws are accounted for, the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use seems more limited than neo-classical economics implies. Analysis of empirical evidence also demonstrates that observed improvements in GDP/energy use ratios in the USA are better explained by shifts towards higher quality fuels than by improvements in the energy efficiency of technologies. This implies a need to focus on decarbonising energy supply. Furthermore, where energy-efficiency improvements are attempted, they must be considered within the context of a possible rebound effect, which implies that net economy-wide energy savings from energy-efficiency improvements may not be as large as the energy saved directly from the efficiency improvement itself. Both decarbonising energy supply and improving energy efficiency require the rapid development and deployment of new and existing low-carbon technologies. This review therefore concludes by briefly outlining areas of economic thought that have emerged as a result of engagement between economists and experts from other disciplines. They include ecological, evolutionary and institutional economics, all of which can make policy-relevant contributions to achieving a transition to a low-carbon economy

  20. Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities.” [20 U.S. ... a lot of ground to cover! But it’s essential ground, if the student’s transition to the adult ...

  1. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  2. SINGAPORE'S DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, THE LABOR FORCE AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES: THE LAST FIFTY YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    MUI TENG YAP; CHRISTOPHER GEE

    2015-01-01

    The trajectory of Singapore's population size and composition can be mapped out with its progression through the various phases of demographic transition from high birth and death rates in the post-war years to very low birth and death rates today, all within the context of rapid economic and social development that has taken place in the past 50 years. Population planning has been integral in Singapore's national development strategy, balancing the economy's needs for more and better qualifi...

  3. Transition management: origin, evolution, critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rotmans (Jan); D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTransition management has rapidly emerged over the past few years as a new approach to dealing with complex societal problems and governance in the context of these problems. In the Netherland, UK and Belgium, serious efforts have been and are being undertaken to develop transition

  4. Das causas às conseqüências econômicas da transição demográfica no Brasil From the causes to the economic consequences of the demographic transition in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Almeida Paiva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As relações entre crescimento populacional e desenvolvimento desafiam estudiosos por muito tempo e referem-se tanto aos impactos do crescimento e estrutura da população sobre o crescimento e a distribuição da renda (crescimento econômico, quanto sobre os impactos do crescimento econômico sobre o crescimento e a estrutura da população. Há cerca de três décadas discutiam-se as causas e conseqüências do crescimento populacional. Hoje, discutem-se as causas e conseqüências da transição demográfica. Muita coisa mudou no mundo e, do ponto de vista demográfico, a maior mudança foi a universalização do processo de transição demográfica. Expressões como "bomba demográfica" foram substituídas por "bônus demográfico" ou "janela de oportunidades". Este artigo pretende examinar como essas relações entre população e economia foram interpretadas e discutidas e como influenciaram o pensamento, a pesquisa acadêmica e, eventualmente, algumas propostas de políticas públicas no Brasil. O artigo procura sumariar os avanços que estão em curso na pesquisa sobre população e economia e suas implicações para as políticas públicas e o desenvolvimento.Relationships between development and population growth have challenged scholars and researchers for many years, and refer to the impacts of population growth and distribution on economic growth, and to the impacts of economic growth on population. Three decades ago the major issue was the causes and consequences of population growth. The central issue today is about the causes and consequences of demographic transition on the economy. Many changes have taken place over the last thirty years. From the demographic point of view, the most important change has been the generalization of the so-called demographic transition. "Demographic bonus" and "window of opportunities" have become substitutes for "the demographic bomb." This article describes how the relations between population

  5. Nutritional challenges for children in societies in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei

    2014-05-01

    This review is to explore the childhood nutrition and health in relation to socioeconomic changes in transitional countries, and to describe the good experiences and policies in these countries to combat childhood nutritional challenges. Double burden of malnutrition - the coexistence of under-nutrition and over-nutrition in the same population - is a prominent public health concern in transitional countries. With rapid industrialization, these countries are facing a growing epidemic of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity is a likely consequence of behavioral changes, and accompanied with an increasing incidence of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Although remarkable improvement of childhood nutrition was achieved, the stunting growth and micronutrient deficiency remain to be child health issues in transitional countries. The social transition caused a broad range of nutrition-associated problems. Previous successful experiences indicated that if appropriate action is undertaken, the child nutritional problems accompanied with economic transition could be controlled to some extent. However, greater efforts are needed to improve the status of childhood nutrition in transitional countries.

  6. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  7. Networks versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article analyses the neglected relationship between networks and unemployment. It challenges the neo-classic understanding of the transition from unemployment to employment and elaborates the line of reasoning within economic sociology. Based on theories of information problems at the labour...

  8. Economic Effect on the Plutonium Cycle of Employing {sup 235}U in Fast Reactor Start-Up; Incidence Economique du Demarrage des Reacteurs Rapides a l'Aide d'Uranium-235 sur le Cycle du Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dievoet, J.; Egleme, M.; Hermans, L. [BELGONUCLEAIRE, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    Preliminary results are presented of a study carried out under an agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government to evaluate the advantages of loading fast reactors with {sup 235}U. There are several ways of starting up a fast reactor with {sup 235}U: (1) the reactor can be operated entirely with enriched uranium, the plutonium produced being used to start up and operate other reactors; in this case the uranium is recycled within the reactor and more enriched uranium is added; (2) the plutonium produced can be partly recycled within the reactor together with the uranium; in this case the reactor is transformed gradually into a plutonium reactor. These two procedures can be combined and applied simultaneously in different enrichment zones of the same reactor, enriched uranium being added, for example, to the internal zone and plutonium recycled in the external zone. The method of reprocessing the fuel is also a complicating factor, depending on whether the core and the axial breeding blankets are reprocessed together or separately. Similarly, where a reactor has several enrichment zones, these can likewise be reprocessed either together or separately. The calculations are performed with the help of a code that uses the equivalence coefficients defined by Baker and Ross for the part relating to the characteristics of successive reactors, and the discounted fuel cycle cost method for the economic part. In the first stage of this work a rough analysis was made. The reloading of each zone was assumed to be carried out in a single operation, and the time spent by the fuel elements out of pile was ignored. In a later stage, progressive reloading by batches will be considered, with allowance for fabrication and reprocessing times, etc. The most interesting results relate to variations in fuel composition (plutonium content, isotopic composition) from one cycle to another, variations in the fuel cycle characteristics (doubling time, loading and unloading

  9. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  10. Marketing and the transition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial stage of the transition process reduction of economic activities and downturn trend of GDP per capita are occur, which are the results of actual structural discrepancy and imperative need in undertaking of an adequate structural changes. Economic policy maker's orientation to the economic liberalization, macroeconomic stabilization, foreign capital inflow increase of revenue and expenditure should be attended by the adequate changes in a microeconomic sphere, primarily changes in approach to dealing of basic economic activities protagonists, id est companies. Marketing as the economic process, business philosophy and business function membership dues to raising of company's qualification and competitiveness, assist the economic requiste changes and palliate the transition process as well.

  11. China's Urban Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Clifton

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Chinese urbanization is proceeding rapidly in step with population growth and a structural shift in employment patterns. Discusses governmental policies and economic reforms that enhance the urbanization process. Describes four extended metropolitan areas and maintains they will be the models for future urbanization. (CFR)

  12. Afghanistan Economic Update, April 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Joya, Omar; Khan, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Economic growth slowed considerably to 3.6 percent (estimated) in 2013 despite robust agricultural production, as heightened uncertainty surrounding the political and security transition led to a slump in investor and consumer confidence. Growth is projected to remain weak in 2014, while a smooth political and security transition would help restore confidence in the economy and enable a pi...

  13. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  14. The Employment Impact of Poland’s Special Economic Zones Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    >gminas (communes) more likely to be negatively affected by the economic transition. A significant and positive effect of the policy on employment is documented, but with some negative spillovers at the policy level as zones start to spread rapidly. Accounting for covariates, timing, policy spillovers and reducing......In 1994, Poland launched a special economic zones experiment to maintain employment structures outside the major cities. Using difference-in-difference estimations, this paper evaluates whether the policy has been successful in its primary objective, which is to sustain employment in

  15. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  16. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world s largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  17. Health system strengthening in Cambodia-a case study of health policy response to social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.

  18. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Makarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative.This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to transportand logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slow down and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of north west China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capacity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of all egedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen

  19. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  20. Social costs of transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of political and economic transformation in Central and East Europe after 1990 was based on the presumption that the reforms will collapse when the citizens realize that the cost they have to pay for them is too high. The classical claim was that democracy will be destroyed by democratic means-namely, that the losers in the transition will vote the way back to the authoritarian regime. The article offers an explanation as to the regress to the authoritarian regime will not be a consequence of the economic reforms. The article is divided in six section. Section 1 considers the general context of the start of the economic transformation in the light of the debate about the choice between the expert government and the significance of democratic procedures for economic reforms. Section 2 defines the context of Serbia within which economic transformation started out after 2000. Sections 4-5 consider economic policy of the two post-Milosevic government. The major finding is that it was the economic policy that was highly socially sensible that prevented social uprising and undermining democracy by democratic means. Section 6 concludes by applying the concept of equilibrium of partial reforms.

  1. Pays en transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique. Le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une économie fermée à une.

  2. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  3. Evolutionary transitions between beneficial and phytopathogenic Rhodococcus challenge disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, Elizabeth A; Fuller, Skylar L; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Thomas, William J; Gordon, Michael I; Stevens, Danielle M; Creason, Allison L; Belcher, Michael S; Serdani, Maryna; Wiseman, Michele S; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Putnam, Melodie L; Chang, Jeff H

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how bacteria affect plant health is crucial for developing sustainable crop production systems. We coupled ecological sampling and genome sequencing to characterize the population genetic history of Rhodococcus and the distribution patterns of virulence plasmids in isolates from nurseries. Analysis of chromosome sequences shows that plants host multiple lineages of Rhodococcus , and suggested that these bacteria are transmitted due to independent introductions, reservoir populations, and point source outbreaks. We demonstrate that isolates lacking virulence genes promote beneficial plant growth, and that the acquisition of a virulence plasmid is sufficient to transition beneficial symbionts to phytopathogens. This evolutionary transition, along with the distribution patterns of plasmids, reveals the impact of horizontal gene transfer in rapidly generating new pathogenic lineages and provides an alternative explanation for pathogen transmission patterns. Results also uncovered a misdiagnosed epidemic that implicated beneficial Rhodococcus bacteria as pathogens of pistachio. The misdiagnosis perpetuated the unnecessary removal of trees and exacerbated economic losses.

  4. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  5. KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMIC SAFETY RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rakhmatulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan essentially depends on how the Republic’s transit potential is used and how internal demands in energy resources are met. There are many legal, investment, technological and other challenges with respect to these aspects. Main ways to solvethe problems are: to form potential transit development legislation conforming to respective international standards; to take specific transport infrastructure modernization measures; to simplify railway and road transport state border crossing procedures; to develop service facilitiesalong interstate trunk roads; to improve competitiveness of domestic oil-processing enterprises; to further develop integrative cooperation withRussia in the oil processing field.

  6. The 'Europe, Territories' project of energy transition(s) in Europe: comparative analysis of scenarios, of their territorial application, and of their social-economic impacts. Phase 1. Analysis of national scenarios in Germany, Austria, Denmark and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelin, Stephane; Marignac, Yves; Besnard, Manon; Letz, Thomas; Rialhe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This report reports an identification and an analysis of different scenarios of energy transition elaborated in different European countries (Germany, Austria, Denmark, Switzerland), and is a required preliminary step for the 'Europe-Territories' project implemented by the NegaWatt association. The report justifies the selection of these countries and, for each country, the selection of a specific scenario as several scenarios were available for each country. It discusses available data, identifies missing data and reports the search for additional data. Then, it reports the comparison between noticed trajectories, European objectives and retained scenarios. More precisely, and for each of the four countries and for France, it analyses the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and the evolution of final energy consumption. For each national scenario, it presents various aspects which can be, depending on the country, framework and method, major focuses, implementation, results, economic benefits, scenario assessment, energy production and demand. It proposes a comparative analysis of the studied national scenarios in terms of objectives and methodology, of energy demand and of energy production. It finally analyses trajectories on the short and on the long term. Some more detailed presentations of national scenarios are given in appendix

  7. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  8. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  9. Economics of population versus economic demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tkachenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article specifies the correlation between economic demography and the economy of population as the most important scientific areas of modern research. It is concluded that the Russian scientific community lags in the development of these sciences from the world scientific thought. Special attention is paid to the works and ideas of S. Kuznets and Amartya Sen as outstanding researchers of the interrelationships between the population and the economy. It is emphasized that their contribution was not only theoretical but also of practical importance. The importance of G. Myrdal’s works for modern studies of the consequences of population aging is considered. The article examines foreign training courses on “Population Economics”, presented at the Universities of Wisconsin and McMaster, their analysis led to the conclusion that the preparation of textbooks on courses is less productive than the use of scientific articles in journals, containing more recent ideas and achievements of science. The author considers the system, proposed in the course Michel Grignon and Byron G. Spencer «The Economics of Population» more preferable. The article substantiates the opinion that the economic theory of well-being should be the core of the population economy. It is concluded that the differences between economic demography and the economy of population are not just differences between the micro- and macro levels, as some authors write, but the transition to large scales and entropy.The author identifies three most important areas of demo-economic research, which include research in the field of human capital, international economic migration, especially remittance, analysis of the stratification of the population and society by the income in the global and national economies. One can single out the general area of interests of the population economy and economic demography in which these sciences are almost impossible to divide and in which only

  10. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  11. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  12. Macroeconomic models and energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillard, Pierre; Le Hir, Boris; Epaulard, Anne

    2016-02-01

    As a new policy for energy transition has just been adopted, several questions emerge about the best way to reduce CO 2 emissions, about policies which enable this reduction, and about their costs and opportunities. This note discusses the contribution macro-economic models may have in this respect, notably in the definition of policies which trigger behaviour changes, and those which support energy transition. The authors first discuss the stakes of the assessment of energy transition, and then describe macro-economic models which can be used for such an assessment, give and comment some results of simulations performed for France by using four of these models (Mesange, Numesis, ThreeME, and Imaclim-R France). The authors finally draw lessons about the way to use these models and to interpret their results within the frame of energy transition

  13. Contours of New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for a paradigm change in economic thought has been well established, but the contours and fundamental characteristics of a new paradigm in economic theory are yet to be worked out. This article views this transition as an inevitable expression of the maturation of the social sciences into an integrated trans-disciplinary science of society founded on common underlying principles, premises and processes. It calls for evolution of human-centered, value-based economic theory whose objective is to maximize human economic security, welfare and well-being rather than economic growth. It emphasizes the determinative role of fundamental creative social processes expressing in all fields of human endeavor. It argues for extending the boundaries of economics to encompass the entire gamut of political, legal, social, psychological, intellectual, organizational and ecological factors that directly and indirectly contribute to economic security, welfare and well-being. The article concludes with a list of anticipated practical implications.

  14. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  15. A market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, the uranium market was hit hard by the Fukushima disaster, which stalled the growth in nuclear reactor requirements and is still having a profound effect today with zero Japanese nuclear reactors in operation. To make matters worse, the evolving shale gas revolution has made it difficult for many U.S. merchant nuclear plants to compete with gas-fired plants, leading some of these plants to shut down early. As Japanese nuclear plants remain offline, uranium inventories have been building, with the market currently sitting on excess supply of about 14 million pounds U3O8 [~5,400 t U] for 2014. Due to the current oversupply situation, uranium prices have moved below where the true equilibrium likely should be, especially given that 50% of current uranium production is at a full cost above the current spot price of $35 per pound [91 USD/kg U]. Although new uranium projects are planned over the next few years, they are not assured of coming online unless market conditions improve. And with more production cutbacks eminent due to the unfavorable economics for some operating and planned uranium mines, the market could find itself in a volatile situation in only a few years with Chinese nuclear generation expected to grow rapidly, and new countries such as the U.A.E. and Saudi Arabia advancing their nuclear power programs. In fact, the pullback in both the spot and long-term uranium prices over the past three years could again create a problem for the market over the next few years since there is currently less impetus to expand uranium production or engage in exploration. With global nuclear reactor requirements still increasing significantly in the medium- to long-term, more requisite new production will have to be brought online, especially with the U.S.-Russia HEU deal having ended last year, which contributed to up to 24 million pounds of U_3O_8 [~9,200 tU] feed annually. In addition to transitioning from an inventory-driven market to a production

  16. Research of low-carbon transition path of star hotels--A case study of Guilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Fengling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A general trend of the world economic development is the low-carbon economic transition. With a wide influencing range and rapid development, the hotel industry has prominent problems in the energy con-sumption, resources occupancy and environmental unfriendliness, so it is imperative to develop low-carbon ho-tels. This paper proposes the low-carbon transition of the star hotels in Guilin in terms of constructing the energy conservation and innovative management mode, adopting new technologies and ways, developing low-carbon hotel products and guiding low-carbon consumption through analysis about the inevitability of establishing low-carbon hotels in Guilin, the running status of the existing star hotels and the situation of energy consumption, thus further promoting the development of low-carbon tourism in Guilin.

  17. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    As the world gets ready to begin the second decade of the twenty-first century, global climate change has been recognized as a real threat to civilization as we know it. The rapid and successful economic growth of developing nations, particularly China and India, is contributing to climate change. The route to initial economic success in China followed that of the developed nations through the development of industries. Unfortunately, China's environmental protection efforts have not been the same as in developed countries because China is vastly different culturally, socially, economically and, especially, politically from developed nations. When China started to deal with environmental concerns in the late 1970s, it took advantage of the experiences of other countries in establishing environmental standards and regulations, but it did not have a model to follow when it came to implementing these standards and regulations because of the abovementioned differences. Economically, China is transitioning from an agricultural base into an industrial base; however, even now, 60% of the population remains farmers. China has been and still is heavily dependent upon coal for energy, resulting in serious atmospheric particulate pollution. While growing efforts have been expended on the environment, at this juncture of its economic development, China would be well served to revisit the traditional "develop first and clean up later" approach and to find a balance between development and protecting the environment. Against this backdrop, a reflective look of the effort to manage air quality from 1949-2008 (with an emphasis on the past 30 years) in China is presented in this paper. The environmental component of the 2008 Olympic Games is examined as a special example to illustrate the current measures being used to improve air quality in China.

  18. NASA Scatterometer Observes the Extratropical Transition of Pacific Typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenquing; Dunbar, R. Scott

    1997-01-01

    The transition is a facinating science problem, but it also has important economic consequences. The transition occurs over the busiest trans-ocean shipping lane, and when the resulting storms hit land, they usually cause devastation to populated areas.

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  20. Economic conversion: The US experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of the Second World War, our country experienced what economists have called open-quotes The Great Conversionclose quotes or open-quotes The Great Disarmament.close quotes Following that period and until the beginning of the Viet-Nam War was a time marked by economic expansion and boom. Since those years, there have been several periods during which bases were closed and defense spending was slowed. For the communities going through these transitions, again there was economic expansion. A recent survey reports that, within the last 25 years, over 100 communities redeveloped their economic base and experienced, not catastrophy as they expected, but a period of economic growth. Jobs were not lost but nearly doubled. Small businesses and educational institutions multiplied. Building starts accelerated. The survey attributed this economic growth to proper planning, increased awareness of the need for job training and education, diversification of economic activity, and an ownership on the part of the citizens in their collective economic future. The lesson for us should be that realigning our community economic priorities away from such a strong emphasis on military spending and toward a diverse and productive civilian economy brings economic health. We are relearning this lesson in the redevelopment of Lowry Air Force Base and the transition of Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant from a weapons manufacturing mission to one of cleanup

  1. A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in local governments. This represents the largest ever central government-led effort addressing transit metropolis development in the world. How has the program been implemented locally? Have the selected demonstration cities followed the same principle or taken comparable measures to implement their version of the transit metropolis? What is their performance? These questions remain unknown in the current literature. This article answers the above questions through a literature review, interviews and comparative case studies in Shenyang and Dalian, two large cities in Liaoning Province. It shows that both cities have successfully achieved the target levels for building a transit metropolis. Similarities between the two cities can be found their absence of any policies on automobile restriction and the presence of enormous efforts in transit network expansion and optimization. Differences lie in the fact that Shenyang has been more conventional in developing the transit metropolis, while Dalian has been more innovative and flexible in policy implementation. When comparing our empirical findings with the experience of creating transit metropolis elsewhere in China and in foreign countries, we find that policies and regulations restricting car use and calming traffic are not necessary conditions for successful transit metropolises; however, the attractiveness of transit infrastructure, combined with aesthetic and well-decorated street network is essential for a modal shift for transit. We also find that the perception on the transit metropolis in China more emphasizes transit service improvement, while the concept in Western countries more focuses on

  2. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: A country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition.......To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition....

  3. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  4. Analysis of travel patterns between road and transit-oriented development areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Park, D.; Lee, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic growth has caused severe traffic congestion and air pollution in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA). As a consequence, traffic demand management (TDM) policies have been implemented to mitigate traffic congestion in the region. This study analyzed travel patterns that occurred as a result of transport policy changes in Seoul between 1996 and 2002. General travel pattern changes in the SMA were compared with the travel patterns of regions with car-oriented road construction policies and public transit-invested regions. Results of the study showed that investment in road construction had no significant impact on reducing traffic congestion. The modal shift to public transit modes caused a reduction in the number of cars on roads. The study demonstrated that transit-oriented policies can be used to overcome severe traffic congestion. 7 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  6. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  7. Uruguay; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Uruguay during the 1990s. Real GDP expanded on average by more than 4 percent a year in 1990–94 and fell by 2½ percent in 1995. The rapid growth of output during 1990–94 reflected buoyant external demand from Uruguay’s main trading partners (Argentina and Brazil), as well as progress in strengthening the public finances, reducing wage indexation, opening the economy, and curtailing government intervention. Consumer price inflation fell steadily fr...

  8. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  10. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  11. Issues on Settlement of Final Expenses and Performance Assessment in the Course of Transition: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    L¨¹ Wei; LIU Yusheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the process and the performance of transition with the following logic: transition is an objective process in accordance with the general principles of economic history; the objectivity is embodied in the expected economic and social effects of transition, the profound economic and social changes in the course of transition, and the different problems facing different transitional stages. Transition is, at the same time, a subjective process involving the participation of t...

  12. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  13. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  14. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  15. Transition economies: performance and challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švejnar, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 3-28 ISSN 0895-3309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2002 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696574

  16. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  17. Evolutionary modelling of transitions to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, K.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis has examined how evolutionary economics can contribute to modelling the micromechanisms that underlie transitions towards sustainable development. In general, transitions are fundamental or structural system changes. They involve, or even require, escaping lock-in of dominant, environmentally unsustainable technologies, introducing major technical or social innovations, and changing prevailing social practices and structures. Due to the complexity of socioeconomic interactions, it is not always possible to identify, and thus target with appropriate policy instruments, causes of specific unsustainable patterns of behaviour. Formal modelling exercises can help improve our understanding of the interaction of various transition mechanisms which are otherwise difficult to grasp intuitively. They allow exploring effects of policy interventions in complex systems. However, existing models of transitions focus on social phenomena and seldom address economic problems. As opposed, mainstream (neoclassical) economic models of technological change do not account for social interactions, and changing heterogeneity of users and their perspectives - even though all of these can influence the direction of innovations and patterns of socio-technological development. Evolutionary economics offers an approach that goes beyond neoclassical economics - in the sense of employing more realistic assumptions regarding the behaviour and heterogeneity of consumers, firms and investors. It can complement current transition models by providing them with a better understanding of associated economic dynamics. In this thesis, formal models were proposed to illustrate the usefulness of a range of evolutionary-economic techniques for modelling transitions. Modelling exercises aimed to explain the core properties of socio-economic systems, such as lock-in, path-dependence, coevolution, group selection and recombinant innovation. The studies collected in this dissertation illustrate that

  18. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  19. Financial system development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper provides an overview of the major issues with respect to financial system development in transition economies, which were discussed at a conference in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1997. After a brief remark on the role of financial system design during economic transition, the

  20. Growth and industrial policy during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovic Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After twenty-five years of economic transition economic performance varies considerably in transition countries, while in most cases current outcomes show that the desired effects have not been achieved. In this paper we elaborate on why industrial policy has been a key missing element in the transition and has greatly contributed to the unexpectedly small and slow pace of economic recovery. After discussing the achieved level of economic development we undertake an empirical analysis in order to define the role of several important factors of growth, as seen at the beginning of transition (reform progress, macroeconomic stabilisation, initial conditions and those that attracted particular attention during the global crisis (industrial/manufacturing output, exports. The analysis shows that the growth model in transition economies has altered both over time and in relation to the progress of transition reforms. The most important change concerns the share of industrial output in GDP, which is found to be one of the most important factors of growth after the initial phase of reform. These results suggest that transition economies should implement industrial policy measures as an integral part of their reform strategy instead of just speeding up reforms as the key (if not the only element of government policy. Based on these results, we explore what would be a viable and proper industrial policy in transition countries, particularly what should be done in current conditions after the damaging effects of the recurrent global recession, and make some policy suggestions.

  1. The national debate on energy transition. An economic taking into account of nuclear risks. Note to the 'scenarios' sub-group of the group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    In this note, the author presents and discusses three important aspects of risks associated to nuclear energy: the ethical aspect (acceptability of risks of occurrence of a major accident, of risks related to the nuclear fuel cycle, of risks related to proliferation), the economic and financial aspects excluding accidents, and the economic and financial aspects of an accident (assessment of the cost of a major accident, risk of occurrence of a major accident, building up of a dedicated fund)

  2. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid; Amir Shtayat

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and ...

  3. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  4. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apalovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid increase in the world's population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author)

  5. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apalovic, R [State Forest Products Research Institute and Slovak Biomass Association, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1995-12-01

    A rapid increase in the world`s population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author) 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  7. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  8. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  9. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  10. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  11. Economic assessment of energetic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain; Bureau, Dominique; Schubert, Katheline; Henriet, Fanny; Maggiar, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Le Teno, Helene; Baumstark, Luc; Crassous, Renaud; Roques, Fabien

    2013-09-01

    This publication gathers contributions proposed by different members of the Economic Council for a Sustainable Development (CEDD) on the issue of energy transition, and more precisely on scenarios elaborated with respect to energy transition. A first set of contributions addresses models of energy transition (assessment of scenario costs to reach a factor 4; the issue of de-carbonation of energy consumption; study of ELECsim, a tool to highlight costs of scenarios of evolution of the electric power system). The second part addresses arbitrations and choice assessment (the importance of social and economic impacts of scenarios; challenges related to the joint definition of the discount rate and of the evolution of carbon value in time; the issue of assessment of the integration of renewable energies into the power system)

  12. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  13. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  14. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  15. Coping with the Global Economic Crisis: A Challenge to Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is rapid transformation of the economics of the developed countries of the ... economic crisis affecting both the developing and underdeveloped countries of ... creating new demands for more adaptable, multi-skilled and creative labour.

  16. Voodoo Economics:Voodoo Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Alonso, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...

  17. Social learning research in ecological economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding

  18. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla

    2014-01-01

    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  19. Organizing by covenant : the organization of transitional labor markets : paper IREC Conference 2004 'Governance issues in shifting industrial and employment relations' Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 26-28, 2004 : session potential and limits of national level socio-economic governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    From 26-28 August 2004 in Utrecht the Industrial Relations in Europe Conference (IREC) was held on governance issues in shifting industrial and employment relations. As part of the session 'potential and limits of national level socio-economic governance' this paper about the organization of

  20. Economic analysis of public transportation in Reno, Nevada : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Access to public transit is important and beneficial economically and socially in numerous ways. Using economic and demographic variables from U.S. Census data, we have examined who is being served by public transit in Reno, as well as examined the f...

  1. Economic fables

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Shane

    2010-01-01

    I had the good fortune to grow up in a wonderful area of Jerusalem, surrounded by a diverse range of people: Rabbi Meizel, the communist Sala Marcel, my widowed Aunt Hannah, and the intellectual Yaacovson. As far as I'm concerned, the opinion of such people is just as authoritative for making social and economic decisions as the opinion of an expert using a model. Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world's foremost economists looks at ...

  2. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  3. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  4. The Philippine economic mystery

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The poor economic performance of the Philippines over the long term is a puzzle and an apparent anomaly for the region. The decline in the Philippines' global position from the first part of the 20th century is particularly striking when viewed against the backrdrop of rapid income gains in countries of East and Southeast Asia, countries the Philippines used to surpass in terms of physical and human capital. While there have been a number of attempts to explain the puzzle—difficult geography,...

  5. Economics of ALMR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) has the potential to extend the economic life of the nuclear option and of reducing the number of high level waste repositories which will eventually be needed in an expanding nuclear economy. This paper reports on an analysis which models and evaluates the economics of the use of ALMRs as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel) or from surplus weapons grade material. While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment

  6. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  7. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  8. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  9. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)

  10. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  11. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  12. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  13. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) (Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposal builds upon our teams technical findings in Phase 1 - that an E-Sail propelled spacecraft can travel 100 AU in less than 10 years or to the Heliopause...

  14. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  15. Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.

    1984-07-01

    The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.

  16. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries.   Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search.

  17. Governance of urban transitions: towards sustainable resource efficient urban infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swilling, Mark; Hajer, Maarten

    2017-12-01

    The transition to sustainable resource efficient cities calls for new governance arrangements. The awareness that the doubling of the global urban population will result in unsustainable levels of demand for natural resources requires changes in the existing socio-technical systems. Domestic material consumption could go up from 40 billion tons in 2010, to 89 billion tons by 2050. While there are a number of socio-technical alternatives that could result in significant improvements in the resource efficiency of urban systems in developed and developing countries (specifically bus-rapid transit, district energy systems and green buildings), we need to rethink the urban governance arrangements to get to this alternative pathway. We note modes of urban governance have changed over the past century as economic and urban development paradigms have shifted at the national and global levels. This time round we identify cities as leading actors in the transition to more sustainable modes of production and consumption as articulated in the Sustainable Development Goals. This has resulted in a surge of urban experimentation across all world regions, both North and South. Building on this empirically observable trend we suggest this can also be seen as a building block of a new urban governance paradigm. An ‘entrepreneurial urban governance’ is proposed that envisages an active and goal-setting role for the state, but in ways that allows broader coalitions of urban ‘agents of change’ to emerge. This entrepreneurial urban governance fosters and promotes experimentation rather than suppressing the myriad of such initiatives across the globe, and connects to global city networks for systemic learning between cities. Experimentation needs to result in a contextually appropriate balance between economic, social, technological and sustainable development. A full and detailed elaboration of the arguments and sources for this article can be found in chapter 6 of Swilling M et

  18. Towards an economics of well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, J.A.; Pouw, N.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern that presently dominant frameworks in economics no longer provide a way of adequately addressing and analysing the problems of today’s globalising and rapidly changing world. This article makes a number of fundamental proposals about how we might reframe economics to move it

  19. Promoting Women's Economic Participation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth, gender disparities in women's economic participation have remained deep and persistent in India. What explains these gender disparities? Is it poor infrastructure, limited education, or the composition of the labor force and industries? Or is it deficiencies in social and business networks and a low share of incumbent female entrepreneurs? This note analyzes ...

  20. Economic enterprise during economic dowturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Niedzielski

    2015-12-01

    The analysis showed, among others, that after a marked deterioration in the small and medium-sized enterprises sector in 2009 there was a gradual improvement of the financial situation and development of companies. Also, last year the level of optimism of entrepreneurs in the perception of the economic situation increased significantly.

  1. Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    The methodology used to arrive at the conclusions in the U.S. papers WG 5A-19 and WG 5A-22 with respect to the economics of fast breeders relative to LWR's is developed in detail in this contribution. In addition, sample calculations of the total levelized power cost of a standard LWR at $40/pound for U 3 O 8 and an FBR at a capital cost of 1.5 times that of an LWR are included. The respective total levalized power costs of the above two examples are 21.29 mills/kwh for the standard LWR and 28.48 mills/kwh for the FBR. It should be noted that the economic data used in these analyses are contained in the U.S. contribution, WG 5A-41

  2. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... sustainability. To illustrate the theoretical discussion, the paper gives some practical examples from the reprocessing industry in Norway. Findings - The paper finds, first, effective and efficient use of natural resources is necessary to implement circular value chains. Second, sustainable development...

  3. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  4. Integrating economic analysis and the science of climate instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Darwin C.; Behl, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific understanding of climate change and climate instability has undergone a revolution in the past decade with the discovery of numerous past climate transitions so rapid, and so unlike the expectation of smooth climate changes, that they would have previously been unbelievable to the scientific community. Models commonly used by economists to assess the wisdom of adapting to human-induced climate change, rather than averting it, lack the ability to incorporate this new scientific knowledge. Here, we identify and explain the nature of recent scientific advances, and describe the key ways in which failure to reflect new knowledge in economic analysis skews the results of that analysis. This includes the understanding that economic optimization models reliant on convexity are inherently unable to determine an 'optimal' policy solution. It is incumbent on economists to understand and to incorporate the new science in their models, and on climatologists and other scientists to understand the basis of economic models so that they can assist in this essential effort. (author)

  5. Integrated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions

  6. The Transitional Legend of Winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 a number of stories that featured the motive of great gain under dramatic circumstances were repeatedly told in betting-houses in Kragujevac, a town in Serbia. The main character of these legends is an empoverished victim of transition who, thanks to luck and help of friends, wins a great sum of money betting. Besides describing the preceding transitional "fall" of the winner (getting fired, failing in private enterprise, the legends describe his economical and social prosperity initiated by capital gained through betting (starting succesfull enterprises, buying good shares. Diachronically following other "sudden wealth" legends this transitional legend speaks about the establishing of a new system of values that, in the categories of social promotion, makes up for the old principles that marked the period of socialism.

  7. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  8. Governo Geisel: transição político-econômica? Um ensaio de revisão The Geisel administration: political-economic transition? An essay of revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Macarini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura reconstituir os principais traços da política econômica durante o governo Geisel (1974-1978, concentrando-se no exame de dois desdobramentos de especial importância. O primeiro diz respeito à política macroeconômica voltada aos problemas conjunturais (inflação e balanço de pagamentos. Discute-se o grau de importância atribuído a essa faceta da política econômica bem como os resultados alcançados, distinguindo-se dois períodos marcados por ênfases distintas. O segundo desdobramento refere-se ao II PND, marca fundamental da política econômica do período: o artigo procura apresentar uma leitura crítica de alguns pontos controversos suscitados pela literatura dedicada ao tema.This article seeks to trace the main aspects of the Geisel Administration (1974-1978 economic policy, focusing on two main developments. The first concerns the macroeconomic policy related to problems of inflation and balance of payments affecting the economy. A discussion is made of its degree of importance in the conduct of economic policy, as well as the results achieved, distinguishing two periods (1974-1975 and 1976-1978. The second point centers around II PND (National Plan of Development, the focal point of the economic policy of that period: a critical assessment is made of the main issues of controversy surrounding the theme as treated in the literature.

  9. Economic liberalization and globalization vs. India's poor

    OpenAIRE

    Oschinski, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Today, many in the national and international NGO community perceive globalization and economic liberalization as a threat claiming that it widens inequalities and increases overall poverty. While it is true that inequality is on the rise in a rapidly globalizing world the real culprit is not globalization itself but rather a lack of economic reforms and economic liberalization. This paper aims to show that many in the international NGO community confuse cause and effect. The root cause of po...

  10. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  11. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical education in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of physical inactivity and insufficient education about its importance are affecting not only the length and the quality of life, but also the economic aspects, such as health care costs caused by the reduction in labour productivity of the Serbian population. Based on previous experiences of countries in transition and those that have well-arranged systems of education, in terms of teaching of physical education programmes, there are possibilities for the necessary reform of the curriculum, adapted to our abilities and needs. These are primarily related to the objectives of education - proper development and creation of positive habits regarding physical activity and health. So far, the reforms of physical education in Serbia have not produced results. The reform should be the transition from education focused on the program to education focused on the ultimate goals (knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards physical activity, i.e. the lifelong values. The objectives and outcomes of teaching physical education should be individualized according to the psychosomatic status and specific dimensions of that status. Therefore, the role and responsibility of teachers change and it is necessary to reform their education. Of course, government is very involved in all of this, at all levels - throughout strategies and campaigns to raise awareness of the nation and its knowledge about the importance of physical activity through all forms of education.

  13. How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    "Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…

  14. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment

  15. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...

  16. Terra Reversa. The transition to fair sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.T.; De Meyere, V.

    2009-01-01

    Terra Reversa tells how to reverse present policy by means of integrating transition management and the 4E-model (Energy-Economy-Environment-Engineering) into a new vision for the transition to a socially fair, ecologically sustainable and economically stable model for our society. The question is whether one is willing to leave the beaten path. Terra Reversa is an argument to opt for a Green New Deal XL (a number of proposals to combat climate change) [nl

  17. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  18. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2007-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and

  19. The Greenpeace 2013 scenario for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Cyrille; Teske, Sven

    2013-01-01

    After a synthesis of the Greenpeace scenario for energy transition, this report presents the French current energy landscape: structure of the energy system, greenhouse gas emissions and nuclear risks, main social and economic challenges, and search for a political ambition (from the Grenelle de l'Environnement to the current debate on energy). Then, after having outlined that energy transition must be decided now, the report presents the scenario hypotheses: studies used to develop the scenario, macro-economic and technical-economic hypotheses. The scenario is then presented in terms of possible trajectory, of energy demand (global evolution per sector), of energy production (electricity, heat, mobility), and of CO 2 assessment and nuclear wastes. Scenarios are compared in social and economic terms, more particularly in terms of investments in electricity and heat production systems, of electricity production costs and electricity bill, of energy independence, and of jobs in the electricity and heat sectors

  20. El impacto de la educación de la justicia criminal en el clima político-socio-económico de naciones de transición y desarrollo/The impact of the education of criminal justice in the socio–economic-politic climate of countries in transition and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Eskridge (Estados Unidos de América

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone que los esfuerzos sean emprendidos para desarrollar los departamentos académicos de la Criminología y justicia criminal dentro de los sistemas educativos más altos de naciones desarrolladas y de transición. Es mi proposición que en tiempo, este plan estratégico reducirá el alcance y la extensión de la corrupción en estas naciones y moverá generalmente el crimen en un contexto más manejable. Esto en cambio rendirá una oportunidad aumentada para tales naciones como asegurar la inversión externa, darse cuenta de la estabilidad económica aumentada, y participar eventualmente en un grado más grande en la economía del mercado global. It is proposed that efforts be undertaken to develop the academic departments of Criminology and criminal justice within educational systems highest of developed nations and transition. It is my proposition that in time, this strategic plan will reduce the scope and extent of corruption in these Nations and generally move the crime in a more manageable context. This will instead pay a chance increased to such Nations as ensuring foreign investment, realizing increased economic stability, and eventually participate in a larger extent in the global market economy.

  1. Energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Develi, Abdulkadir; Kaynak, Selahattin (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Energy resources, the basic input in every area of the economy, have a fundamental function for society's welfare. Traditional energy resources are, however, rapidly decreasing. Energy supply has been falling behind in meeting global demand, and is causing increased focus on efficiency and economy concepts in recent energy policies. Since the existing energy resources are not spread evenly among the countries, but instead are concentrated in certain regions and countries, a monopolistic situation arises. Equally, supply assurance is an issue, since the energy supply is held by certain regions and countries who have monopolistic pricing power. Both the EU and many other countries are studying how to marketize energy. This book focuses on the importance of energy and the problems posed by it. It will be useful for the academic community, related sectors and decision makers.

  2. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  3. Simulation of transition crossing in LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    LAMPF II is the proposed rapid-cycling synchrotron that will take 0.8-GeV protons from the LAMPF linear accelerator and raise them to 32 GeV. Early design models were based on a 60-Hz cycle with 10 13 protons to be accelerated per cycle. Any reasonable magnetic lattice results in the proton beam going through a phase transition. A general accelerator-simulation code that includes the effect of longitudinal space charge, ARCHSIM, has been used to study the transition in a typical achromatic lattice. The beam remains stable through the transition

  4. Localization transition in SU(3) gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tamás G.; Vig, Réka Á.

    2018-01-01

    We study the Anderson-like localization transition in the spectrum of the Dirac operator of quenched QCD. Above the deconfining transition we determine the temperature dependence of the mobility edge separating localized and delocalized eigenmodes in the spectrum. We show that the temperature where the mobility edge vanishes and localized modes disappear from the spectrum coincides with the critical temperature of the deconfining transition. We also identify topological charge related close to zero modes in the Dirac spectrum and show that they account for only a small fraction of localized modes, a fraction that is rapidly falling as the temperature increases.

  5. The economics of electricity markets

    CERN Document Server

    Biggar, Darryl R

    2014-01-01

    With the transition to liberalized electricity markets in many countries, the shift to more environmentally sustainable forms of power generation and increasing penetration of electric vehicles and smart appliances, a fundamental understanding of the economic principles underpinning the electricity industry is vital. Using clarity and precision, the authors successfully explain economic theory of all liberalized electricity market types from a cross-disciplinary engineering and policy perspective. No prior engineering knowledge or economics expertise is assumed in introducing key ideas such as nodal pricing, optimal dispatch and efficient pricing or in extending those models to areas including investment, risk management and the handling of contingencies. Key features: Comprehensively covers the principles of all liberalized electricity market types, including the US, Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Provides up to date coverage of research and policy iss es, including design of financial transmission rig...

  6. Obesity and cardiovascular disease in developing countries: a growing problem and an economic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Susan U; Leeder, Stephen; Greenberg, Henry M

    2006-03-01

    This review examines the rise of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially obesity, in developing countries and the implications for both health and economics. In the majority of developing countries fertility and infant and child mortality have fallen markedly, and life expectancies have increased. Rapid urbanization, falling food prices, and globalization of economies have contributed to an increase in risk factors for chronic disease. Recent work indicates that the prevalence of these risk factors, including obesity, is rising faster than the historical experience of the West. The transition is affecting women in particular, and increases in risk factors are more marked among lower incomes in growing economies than among the wealthy. Rather than the stereotypical problem of the rich, chronic disease is now a problem for the poor. Significant research in this area of global health has only been undertaken in the last decade. Additional field research is needed in every dimension of the transition, both to document the problem itself and to determine its economic and societal impact and cost effective responses. Two critical factors are virtually absent from existing work and should be emphasized. First, the impact of rising risk factors for, and mortality from, cardiovascular disease in the work force may imply a growing threat to continued economic progress. Second, because risk factor reduction requires society-wide strategies, broad public-private coalitions will be needed to mobilize sectors beyond healthcare.

  7. Childhood obesity in transition zones: an analysis using structuration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine; Deave, Toity; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2010-07-01

    Childhood obesity is particularly prevalent in areas that have seen rapid economic growth, urbanisation, cultural transition, and commodification of food systems. Structuration theory may illuminate the interaction between population and individual-level causes of obesity. We conducted in-depth ethnographies of six overweight/obese and four non-overweight preschool children in Hong Kong, each followed for 12-18 months. Analysis was informed by Stones' strong structuration theory. Risk factors played out differently for different children as social structures were enacted at the level of family and preschool. The network of caregiving roles and relationships around the overweight/obese child was typically weak and disjointed, and the primary caregiver appeared confused by mixed messages about what is normal, expected and legitimate behaviour. In particular, external social structures created pressure to shift childcare routines from the logic of nurturing to the logic of consumption. Our findings suggest that threats to what Giddens called ontological security in the primary caregiver may underpin the poor parenting, family stress and weak mealtime routines that mediate the relationship between an obesogenic environment and the development of obesity in a particular child. This preliminary study offers a potentially transferable approach for studying emerging epidemics of diseases of modernity in transition societies.

  8. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  9. Wind farm economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy are changing rapidly, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. Although the United Kingdom has regions of high wind speed, these are often in difficult terrain and construction costs are often higher than elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, wind energy costs are converging with those of the conventional thermal sources. At present, bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, which means that energy prices are higher. Ways of overcoming this problem are explored. It is important, also, to examine the value of wind energy. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than energy from centralized plant, since it is fed into the low-voltage distribution network. (Author)

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF LAW AND ECONOMICS IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pomaskow, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The law and economics movement can improve the functioning of companies doing business in the contemporary, rapidly changing, reality. The tensions between the idea of efficiency and the idea of justice cause difficulties in the application of tools which are proposed by the representatives of the law and economics movement in legal solutions. Economics proposes a new, fresh look at the law, which makes it easier to assess and influence the growth of its transparency. Perspective can therefor...

  11. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  13. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  15. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  16. The energy transition in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Sweden has the distinction of having started several major changes to its energy supply at an early stage. The country has no fossil reserves, and so was importing increasing volumes of oil products in the years following World War II. Yet it rapidly perceived the geopolitical risks generated by such oil dependency, and so developed its nuclear capacity, enabling it to reduce quickly the role of oil in its economy after the shocks of the 1970's. Sweden has also managed to exploit its natural resources. Until the 2000's, hydropower was able to enter the market without public assistance. By contrast, wood could not have gained its current market share without a policy combining public aid for investment and penalties for competing energies. The severe economic crisis which hit the country between 1991 and 1993 led such penalties being converted into taxes, notably a tax on CO_2 emissions that came into force in 1991. This helped Sweden reconstruct its tax system, to finance its social model. The challenge highlighted the country's ability to generate consensus policy guidelines. One of these guidelines was to react immediately after initial warnings about climate change. Sweden first strengthened its energy efficiency policy, structuring field actions through a national agency backed up by partner organizations in local communities to help consumers - individuals or industries - technically and economically. Sweden then adopted an unusual instrument to promote renewable electricity, namely its system of green certificates. Implemented in 2003, this system has spurred the development of the cheapest sources of renewable energy, two-thirds coming from onshore wind and one third from biomass. The cost of this support still remains remarkably moderate today. At the end of 2014, Sweden thus only used fossil fuels to provide 30% of its primary energy supplies, while renewables accounted for 52% of final energy consumption. Energy consumption per capita remains high, but

  17. Transition scenarios towards sustained Pu-management in China - 5504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.; Drevon, C.; Favet, D.; Avrin, A.P.; Carlier, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese nuclear reactor park is growing rapidly with already some 250 GWe projected to be operational by mid-century and with even larger nuclear reactor parks during the second half of this century to match the energy demand in a sustainable way. Such a large and fast growing nuclear reactor park goes with anticipated challenges with regard to the fuel cycle with essentially a focus on the rapidly growing inventory of used nuclear fuel. China is considering various options towards a more sustainable nuclear energy park with the recycling of fissile materials in various types of reactors being the backbone towards such sustainable nuclear future. This paper briefs on an analysis of the transition towards a continued responsible and flexible management of plutonium and uranium in this Chinese nuclear reactor park highlighting the results of nuclear energy systems scenario technical-economic analysis for LWR-MOX and LWR-SFR scenarios. Preliminary analysis show that the 2 described options lead to a sustainable closed cycle system while implementing early a responsible management of fast growing generated used fuel inventory

  18. Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market

  19. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  20. Economic instruments for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaman, R.

    1991-01-01

    Economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies distinguish themselves from traditional tools (the 'command and control' type) for the reason that: they influence the costs and the benefits of the economic agents in question; they change the behaviour of the subjects in question in a way that they guarantee behaviour trends less harmful to the environment; they guarantee the assignment of adequate prices to the natural resources that traditionally don't have a price and therefore are consumed excessively by the economic subjects; normally they impose the transfer of economic resources to the disadvantage of the subjects responsible for the phenomena of pollution; certain objective pollution reduction data guarantee the minimization of the social costs of pollution abatement, that is, of the total costs on the economic system in general (economists define this characteristic as the 'static efficiency'); they guarantee what is called in economical jargon, the dynamic efficiency, i.e., in practice, they determine a continuous incentive for the reduction of the emission of the various pollutants and for the realization of the technological innovations that are able to control the pollution; they are more flexible than the instruments of direct regulation, because they leave the subjects a freedom of choice under different price conditions than in the past; they are flexible as well for the reason that the public operator can intervene rapidly to change the way of application