WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid economic progress

  1. Climate economics in progress 2011; Climate economics in progress 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Perthuis, Christian [Paris-Dauphine University (France); Jouvet, Pierre-Andre [Paris-Ouest University (France); Trotignon, Raphael; Simonet, Gabriela; Boutueil, Virginie [Climate Economics Chair, Paris-Dauphine University (France)

    2011-10-01

    Climate Economics in Progress offers a global overview of the present status of action on climate change. Drawing on the most recent data, it analyzes the development of carbon markets in Europe and other parts of the world. It also examines the conditions for including major players such as China and new sectors such as agriculture, forestry and transport in the fight against global warming. The book is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand current advances in climate control, which could pave the way for a new form of economic growth. The book brings together a group of researchers whose goal is to make the link between academic research on the economics of climate change and the implementation of operational tools, thereby allowing the climate issue to be integrated into the functioning of the real economy

  2. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirolimus, a potent inhibitor of B- and T-cell activation, is a commonly used immunosuppressant after renal transplantation. Withdrawal of sirolimus from the immunosuppression regimen may reduce B-cell surveillance. We present a case of rapidly progressive central nervous system (CNS) polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus ...

  3. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A

    2009-03-01

    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  4. Rapidly progressive periodontitis. A distinct clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R C; Altman, L C; Ebersole, J L; Vandesteen, G E; Dahlberg, W H; Williams, B L; Osterberg, S K

    1983-04-01

    We report radiographic, clinical, historical, and laboratory observations on seven patients selected to illustrate the features and characteristics of rapidly progressive periodontitis, with the aim of establishing this disease as a distinct clinical entity. This form of periodontitis is seen most commonly in young adults in their twenties, but it can occur in postpubertal individuals up to approximately 35 years of age. During the active phase, the gingival tissues are extremely inflamed and there is hemorrhage, proliferation of the marginal gingiva, and exudation. Destruction is very rapid, with loss of much of the alveolar bone occurring within a few weeks or months. This phase may be accompanied by general malaise, weight loss, and depression, although these symptoms are not seen in all patients. The disease may progress, without remission, to tooth loss, or alternatively, it may subside and become quiescent with or without therapy. The quiescent phase is characterized by the presence of clinically normal gingiva that may be tightly adapted to the roots of teeth with very advanced bone loss and deep periodontal pockets. The quiescent phase may be permanent, it may persist for an indefinite period, or the disease activity may return. Most patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis have serum antibodies specific for various species of Bacteroides, Actinobacillus, or both, and manifest defects in either neutrophil or monocyte chemotaxis. Affected patients generally respond favorably to treatment by scaling and open or closed curettage, especially when accompanied by standard doses of antibiotics for conventional time periods. A small minority of patients do not respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and the disease progresses inexorably to tooth loss even in the presence of aggressive periodontal therapy and maintenance. At the present time it is not possible to distinguish prior to treatment which individuals will respond to therapy and which will

  5. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  6. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

  7. The usefulness and significance of assessing rapidly progressive spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björndahl, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is possible and clinically relevant to distinguish between slow and rapid progressive spermatozoa in basic semen analysis. This is discussed in light of the different purposes of semen analysis for the subfertile couple and the male patient. The two groups of progressive spermatozoa should be distinguished to help ensure that pertinent information available in the semen sample is not neglected. PMID:20111079

  8. Secular stagnation and progressive economic policy alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onaran, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes two main findings in the Post-Keynesian literature regarding the linkages between financialization, income distribution, accumulation and productivity. Firstly, at the core of secular stagnation lies the missing link between profits and investment. Secondly, rising inequality and financialization have been the main reasons for this missing link and hence the major brakes against capital accumulation and growth. The paper concludes with alternative progressive policies ba...

  9. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2015 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education, Division of Community Colleges, will annually provide the State Board of Education with The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund Annual Progress Report. Administration and oversight responsibility for the fund was transferred from the Iowa Economic Development Authority to the Iowa Department of…

  10. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  11. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  12. Rapidly Progressive Atrioventricular Block in a Patient with Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Saeed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac sarcoidosis is a major cause of death in patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Cardiac manifestations are seen in 2.3% of the patients. Atrioventricular (AV block is one of the common manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis. Other presentations of cardiac involvement include congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. The presence of AV block in young patients should raise the suspicion of sarcoidosis. AV block may be the only manifestation and patients may not have clinical evidence of pulmonary involvement. Here we describe a young male presented with exercise induced AV block rapidly progressing to complete heart block with recurrent syncope needing urgent pacemaker implantation. Factors that suggested an infiltrative process included his young age, rapidly progressive conduction abnormalities in the ECG in the absence of coronary disease, and previous history of cutaneous sarcoidosis.

  13. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  14. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  15. Rapid progress on the vertebrate tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer H Bradley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the greatest challenges for biology in the 21st century is inference of the tree of life. Interest in, and progress toward, this goal has increased dramatically with the growing availability of molecular sequence data. However, we have very little sense, for any major clade, of how much progress has been made in resolving a full tree of life and the scope of work that remains. A series of challenges stand in the way of completing this task but, at the most basic level, progress is limited by data: a limited fraction of the world's biodiversity has been incorporated into a phylogenetic analysis. More troubling is our poor understanding of what fraction of the tree of life is understood and how quickly research is adding to this knowledge. Here we measure the rate of progress on the tree of life for one clade of particular research interest, the vertebrates. Results Using an automated phylogenetic approach, we analyse all available molecular data for a large sample of vertebrate diversity, comprising nearly 12,000 species and 210,000 sequences. Our results indicate that progress has been rapid, increasing polynomially during the age of molecular systematics. It is also skewed, with birds and mammals receiving the most attention and marine organisms accumulating far fewer data and a slower rate of increase in phylogenetic resolution than terrestrial taxa. We analyse the contributors to this phylogenetic progress and make recommendations for future work. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that a large majority of the vertebrate tree of life will: (1 be resolved within the next few decades; (2 identify specific data collection strategies that may help to spur future progress; and (3 identify branches of the vertebrate tree of life in need of increased research effort.

  16. Black economic empowerment progress in the advertising industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication and Advertising (ACA); black economic empowerment (BEE);. All the authors are at the ... with BEE – rather, it starts with a change of perceptions and attitudes (Xate 2006: 14). BEE has become a ... investigating transformation progress in the advertising industry in Cape Town. South African advertising ...

  17. Economic Perspectives of Technological Progress: New Dimensions for Forecasting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiss, Brian

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the causal relationship between the allocation of financial resources and technological growth. Argues that economic constraints are becoming an important determinant of technological progress that must be incorporated into technology forecasting techniques. (Available from IPC (America) Inc., 205 East 42 Street, New York, NY 10017;…

  18. Syndromes of rapidly progressive cognitive decline-our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. Aims: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center. Settings and Design: Patients who presented with rapid deterioration of cognitive functions within weeks to 1 year between 2011 and December 2016 were evaluated. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent all mandatory tests for dementia including brain imaging. Complete vasculitis workup, autoimmune encephalitis profile including Voltage Gated Potassium Channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, glutamic acid-decarboxylase, thyroid-peroxidase antibody, cerebrospinal fluid, and other special tests such as duodenal biopsy and paraneoplastic workup were done based on clinical indications. Results and Conclusions: Out of 144 patients 42 had immune-mediated encephalopathy, 18 had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 3 had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 63 had infection with neurocysticercosis, 7 had tuberculosis, 2 had HIV, 1 had herpes simplex encephalitis, 1 had neurosyphilis, 1 Whipples disease, 1 had Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, 1 had Mass lesion, 3 had Frontotemporal dementia, and 3 had small vessel disease. Good majority of these patients have infective and immune-mediated causes and less number belong to degenerative group. Therefore, caution is needed to look for treatable cause as it carries a different treatment options and outcome.

  19. Adult-onset phenylketonuria with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Zeynep; Cakar, Arman; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Gurvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 25/30, and neuropsychological evaluation revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with simultanagnosia and constructional apraxia. His Clinical Dementia Rating score (CDR) was 1. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter in T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion weighted images. Diagnostic workup for rapidly progressive dementias was all normal except PHE level which was found to be highly elevated (1075 μmol/L, normal 39-240 μmol/L) with normal tyrosine level (61.20 μmol/L, normal 35-100 μmol/L). Three months after PHE-restricted diet, his cognitive impairment and signs of parkinsonism significantly improved, with MRI scan unchanged. This case demonstrates that late-onset PKU is a rare, treatable cause of rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism with certain constellations such as consanguinity and white matter abnormalities (WMAs) in imaging.

  20. eRME - Rapid Maxillary Expansion in the economic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Mahadevia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Rapid Maxillary Expansion constitutes a routine clinical procedure in orthodontics, involving separation of mid-palatine suture which is usually done with help of the Hyrax screw. However, because of its high cost, the use has been limited, especially in institutions. So, the purpose of this study was to construct an economical device which can expand the maxillary arch in growing patients. Materials and Methods: Six patients having constricted maxilla and posterior skeletal crossbite were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics. A unique, easy and simple alternative device for expanding the maxillary arch called economic Rapid Maxillary Expander (eRME has been fabricated at about one-tenth the cost of the conventional Hyrax. Pre- and post-treatment effects were statistically tested by using paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results and Conclusion: The study results showed an average expansion in canine, premolar and molar regions of 4.4 mm, 6.8 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, having significant difference pre-and post-treatment. Thus, it shows that maxillary expansion is efficiently possible with the application of this newly constructed device named eRME. This appliance also acts as a fixed retainer to avoid relapse, hence negating the need for a separate retainer.

  1. Rapidly progressive cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting as a lung mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Saeed; Irfan, Muhammad; Aftab, Kanwal

    2009-01-01

    A very rare case of a rapidly progressive variant of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) presenting as a focal mass-like lesion with compression of the large airways leading to respiratory failure is described. A 60-year-old lady presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital Emergency Department in hypoxaemic respiratory failure with a 6-day history of dyspnoea, productive cough and fever. Chest x ray showed a right upper lobe mass-like lesion compressing the large airways and right pleural effusion. She deteriorated in the Emergency Department and was intubated due to worsening hypoxaemic respiratory failure. The pleural fluid and bronchoscopic specimens were negative on microbiological and cytological examination. CT-guided right lung biopsy revealed chronic non-specific inflammation without granuloma and malignancy. COP was diagnosed on video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lung biopsy. She was successfully treated with high dose steroids and discharged in a stable condition; her 3-month follow-up chest x rays showed complete resolution of the lung lesion with some residual fibrosis. PMID:21686529

  2. Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Loose, Verne William; Starks, Shirley J.; Ellebracht, Lory A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.

  3. From scientific progress to economic growth the economics and the economy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Frank

    2017-01-01

    he past few centuries have seen an enormous increase in living standards in many parts of the world and these economies have become more complex than ever before. At the same time, progress in science and technology has reached unprecedented heights, taking us far beyond the wildest dreams of a few generations ago. Questions as to how science, technology and the economy interact are pertinent and important ones, whose partial answers require a view "from across the fence" between disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the vast and varied field of the economics of science. It is a unique blend of an economic perspective on the way science works, what makes scientists tick, and a study of the impact of scientific and technological progress on economies and their growth. Whether it is about the speculative market of ideas or science and technology as engines of the economy, there is something here for economists, engineers and scientists alike.

  4. Case of Rapid Progression of Hemiatrophy on the Face: A New Clinical Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Nomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of diseases, including lupus profundus, morphea, lipodystrophy, and Parry-Romberg syndrome, may manifest progressive hemifacial atrophy. These diseases usually progress slowly and rapid progression of atrophy is extremely rare. We report a case of elderly-onset rapid progression of hemifacial atrophy only in three weeks. Our case did not meet variable differential diagnoses. We discuss the clinical character of the patient against the past of literature and suppose it may be a new clinical entity.

  5. THE PROGRESS OF ECONOMIC THOUGHTFULNESS CONCERNING THE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOBAN Gabriela-Liliana

    2014-07-01

    production processes and the use of high level technologies will lead towards the growth f production level and the living standards of people. For the time being, one can characterize the economies of the developed countries and of many countries in progress of development, as being services oriented economies; the development and diversification of services was determined by the need of satisfying social needs, more and more diversified. In this way, the part of services aimed to become proportionally to their contribution, as regards the economic growth.

  6. Clinical reasoning: rapidly progressive quadriparesis in a forgetful patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoan Ritter, Laura; Isaacs, Jeremy D; McEntagart, Meriel; O'Dwyer, John P

    2013-11-19

    A 50-year-old right-handed retired family business manager developed progressive left-sided weakness over 5 days after a mechanical fall. She remembered catching her foot on the carpet and falling down a flight of stairs, followed by severe neck pain over C4-C5 and inability to get up for nearly an hour. Over the subsequent month her symptoms progressed and she presented to hospital with an asymmetric spastic paraparesis, loss of pinprick sensation in her arms and legs, loss of vibration sense to both hips, and double incontinence.

  7. Renal hemosiderosis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with primary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkurt, Sultan; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Temiz, Gokhan; Akay, Olga Meltem; Soydan, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to the accumulation of iron in many organs including the liver, spleen and heart and results in injury and dysfunction of these organs. On the other hand, iron accumulation and functional impairment in kidney is extremely rare. We report a 61-year-old male patient with hereditary hemochromatosis, in whom the renal function was deteriorated rapidly. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomeruli and hemosiderin accumulation in tubular epithelial cells.

  8. Treatment of nephrotic syndrome associated with idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, A; Sigüenza, F; Caridad, A; Sangrador, G

    1993-02-01

    Recent reports suggest that cyclosporin A is beneficial in inducing remission of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is seen in 10-30% of patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. We report a case of a 69-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome, associated with idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, who was treated initially with corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. Three months later he developed thrombophlebitis and leucopenia and cyclophosphamide was suspended. Relapse of nephrotic syndrome associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis developed and therapy with cyclosporin A was used with a good response.

  9. Progress on high-performance rapid prototype aluminum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Myrick, Bruce H.

    2017-05-01

    Near net shape parts can be produced using some very old processes (investment casting) and the relatively new direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. These processes have significant advantages for complex blank lightweighting and costs but are not inherently suited for producing high performance mirrors. The DMLS process can provide extremely complex lightweight structures but the high residual stresses left in the material results in unstable mirror figure retention. Although not to the extreme intricacy of DMLS, investment casting can also provide complex lightweight structures at considerably lower costs than DMLS and even conventional wrought mirror blanks but the less than 100% density for casting (and also DMLS) limits finishing quality. This paper will cover the progress that has been made to make both the DMLS and investment casting processes into viable near net shape blank options for high performance aluminum mirrors. Finish and figure results will be presented to show performance commensurate with existing conventional processes.

  10. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  11. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data Collec...

  12. B-Cell Depletion Salvage Therapy in Rapidly Progressive Dermatomyositis Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Khaled; Palomino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Glucocorticoids are the initial standard treatment. However, many patients fail to respond and continue to progress despite treatment with high dose glucocorticoids. The efficacy of rituximab has been suggested in case reports and case series of refractory antisynthetase (AS) syndrome, but data on patients without auto-antibodies or with rapidly progressive ILD are scarce. We report a case of rapidly progressive dermatomyositis (DM) associated ILD treated successfully with B-cell depletion therapy.

  13. Rapid progression of gliomatosis cerebri to secondary glioblastoma, factors that affects the progression rate: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastomas may develop de novo or through progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas. The term 'primary glioblastoma' refers to a glioblastoma that lacks a precursor lesion and has a clinical history of less than three months. On the other hand, the term 'secondary glioblastoma' indicates that the glioblastoma has progressed from a low-grade tumor after a long latency period and often manifests in younger patients. These subtypes of glioblastoma develop via different genetic pathways, and they differ in prognosis and response to therapy. Thus, differential diagnosis of these subtypes and prediction of the factors that affect the progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma to secondary glioblastoma would be clinically very important. We present a rare case of secondary glioblastoma, which developed only three months after the follow up imaging evaluations, with a history of low grade glioma, and present the factors that cause rapid progression.

  14. Black economic empowerment progress in the advertising industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Challenges and benefits. ... in the early 2000s to investigate allegations of racism and poor transformation progress. The Association for Communication and. Advertising (ACA) has been the main driving force of transformation within the ...

  15. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2014 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund was established in 2003 as part of the Grow Iowa Values Fund and is currently funded through the Iowa Skilled Worker and Job Creation Fund. This fund has become an important source of financing for community college new program innovation, development, and capacity building, particularly…

  16. CONVERGENCE AS A CURRENT WAY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryun K. Antonyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Convergence theory is one of the basic concepts of modern sociology, economic thought and political science, perceiving in the social development of the modern era prevailing tendency of the convergence of the two social systems - socialism and capitalism with their subsequent synthesis in some “mixed society’’, combining the positive features and the properties of each.

  17. Black economic empowerment progress in the advertising industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broad-based black economic empowerment (BBBEE); employment equity (EE);. Marketing .... Employment equity. South Africa has a history of discriminating against certain racial and gender groups as well as those with disabilities. These groups were not granted equal .... 2; I-Net Bridge 2009; Morna & Made 2009).

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakor, Rahul Tryambak; Santosh, Nandanavana Subbareddy

    2013-07-01

    Onset of dementia before 65 years of age is termed as young-onset dementia (YOD). Very little literature exists regarding the clinical features and diagnoses of dementia in younger individuals. We present a case series of four patients of age 10 to 23 years with severe dementia within 18 months of clinical onset (rapidly progressive dementia). Three patients had generalised periodic complexes typical of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) on electroencephalogram (EEG). All patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG measles antibodies. Our case series highlights that SSPE is an important cause of rapidly progressive YOD in developing countries like India.

  19. Obesity induced rapid melanoma progression is reversed by orlistat treatment and dietary intervention: Role of adipokines‡

    OpenAIRE

    Malvi, Parmanand; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pandey, Vimal; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Boreddy, Purushotham Reddy; Mohammad, Naoshad; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, owing to adiposity, is associated with increased risk and development of various cancers, and linked to their rapid growth as well as progression. Although a few studies have attempted to understand the relationship between obesity and melanoma, the consequences of controlling body weight by reducing adiposity on cancer progression is not well understood. By employing animal models of obesity, we report that controlling obesity either by orlistat treatment or by restricting caloric i...

  20. Rapidly progressing and resistant warts in an immuno-competent male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahidullah Sikder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous warts are common skin conditions caused by different specific strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV, mostly affect children as localized lesion on the hands and feet. They are slowly progressing and disseminated lesions are found in immuno-compromised situations. Usually majority of warts disappear by few months to two years. This is a case of extensive, giant, rapidly progressing and resistant warts in an immuno-competent adult male. 

  1. Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Brian

    2008-12-01

    The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is understood in portions of academia and sometimes acknowledged in political circles. Nevertheless, there is not a unified response. In political and policy circles, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is posited to solve the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. In academia, however, the EKC has been deemed fallacious in macroeconomic scenarios and largely irrelevant to biodiversity. A more compelling response to the conflict is that it may be resolved with technological progress. Herein I review the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation in the absence of technological progress, explore the prospects for technological progress to reconcile that conflict, and provide linguistic suggestions for describing the relationships among economic growth, technological progress, and biodiversity conservation. The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics and principles of ecology such as trophic levels and competitive exclusion. In this biophysical context, the human economy grows at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate. Reconciling the conflict via technological progress has not occurred and is infeasible because of the tight linkage between technological progress and economic growth at current levels of technology. Surplus production in existing economic sectors is required for conducting the research and development necessary for bringing new technologies to market. Technological regimes also reflect macroeconomic goals, and if the goal is economic growth, reconciliatory technologies are less likely to be developed. As the economy grows, the loss of biodiversity may be partly mitigated with end-use innovation that increases technical efficiency, but this type of technological progress requires policies that are unlikely if the conflict between economic growth

  2. Health economic perspectives of pediatric malnutrition: determinants of innovative progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieldenner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Despite some improvements in recent years, extreme poverty and malnutrition remain a critical concern for developing countries. Malnutrition, and more specifically pediatric malnutrition, is a reality affecting millions of children, particularly in South Asia and Africa. It causes increased mortality and morbidity, decreased physical and intellectual development, poor productivity and a number of negative economic outcomes. Health economics data clearly demonstrate that interventions are effective and efficient, but more data are needed to measure that efficiency. Initiatives to address microdeficiencies have focused on vitamin A, iodine, zinc, iron and folate. Iodine is often used as a best practice example. Two main institutions lead the efforts to address malnutrition throughout the world: the UN with its UN Millennium Development Goal project, and the Copenhagen Consensus. We consider micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in iodine, corresponding interventions, their effects and health economic data. We discuss how developing public/private partnership could boost the effectiveness of interventions by combining the competencies of both sides: credibility, national and international buy-in, experience of public institutions, commercial competencies, high penetration rate, and product knowledge of private industry. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightpuberty in a 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21) mosaic Turner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  4. Rapidly progressive systemic sclerosis with a fatal outcome in male patients

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    Małgorzata Widuchowska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes of malepatients with particularly severe and rapidly progressive diffusesystemic sclerosis (SSc with a fatal outcome with emphasis onorgan involvement and results of diagnostic tests, and tentativedistinction of a subgroup of especially progressive SSc. Material and methods: In the last few years among patients withSSc hospitalized in our centres, five patients with particularlyrapidly progressive disease were distinguished. Despiteaggressive treatment, the disease led to a fatal outcome ina short time. Their clinical history and results of diagnostic testswere evaluated. Results: All of them were smokers and three of them did not stopsmoking after the diagnosis. Laboratory findings revealed hightitres of Scl70 antibodies and enhanced erythrocytesedimentation rate (ESR in all of the patients. Most of them hadincreased serum creatine kinase (CK values. During the diseaserapidly progressive severe organ involvement was observed(pulmonary fibrosis, renal failure, cardiac failure, pulmonaryarterial hypertension. The skin thickening increased rapidly andthey died within 12-24 months after the first signs of skinthickening. Acute cardiac failure was the cause of death. Conclusions: The described cases suggest possible distinction ofa subset of a subgroup of patients with a particularly severe and rapidly progressive disease. It might be a population of patientswith the following characteristics: males over 40 years of agewith high titres of anti-Scl70 antibodies and elevated serum CKlevels. This is consistent with the presently published data onfactors associated with fatal prognosis in patients with SSc.

  5. ACTIVE AGEING – A NECESSITY FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS

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    ANDREEA APOSTIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to active ageing, a concept launched in 2012 by World Health Organization which has as purpose maintaining the independence and autonomy of the elderly, and at the same time the removal of the idea that the elderly population are a burden. Also, the article defines the concept of elder people, of what it means to be an elder in our modern society, of successful ageing, and about the ways we can help them. The senescence period brings numerous changes, health and social problems, period which must be anticipated humanely and sustained financially . The concept of “active ageing” targets the optimization of health and security opportunities, thus improving the quality of life for the elderly. The word “active” refers to the continuous involvement of the aged persons in the economic, social, cultural and spiritual life. Once retired, they can actively contribute to the wellness of the family and community to which they belong, and the purpose of active ageing is to increase the lifespan and life quality of the oldpeople, including the ones which suffer from handicaps.

  6. Consumer Justice: A Symbol of Economic Prosperity and Social Progressiveness

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    Subir Kumar Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized fact that consumer confidence and trust in a well functioning market for financial services promotes financial stability, growth efficiency and innovation over the long term. So protection of the interest of consumers is not merely an ethical or humanitarian issue rather it is also an issue of economy. Consumer protection demands for setting of minimum quality specification and safety standards for goods and services to curb unfair trade practices. So far the international norms are concerned it effectively contains the Bill of Rights of Consumers which help them across the globe to effectively protect their interests. Keeping in consideration about the poor bargaining position of the consumers and with an aim to ensure consumers to access non-hazardous products United Nation issued Guidelines for Consumer Protection, 1985, expanded again in 1999. The consumer justice is a facet of socio-economic justice and emanates from the basic philosophy of the Indian constitution i.e. to do justice and to strengthen the standard and status of the people of this country. It has been discussed in this article in an elaborate way about the various provisions of the Constitution and all the legislations which addresses the issues of consumers and resolve to protect their interests. But still the exploitation of Indian consumers by the dishonest traders and service providers become a routine matter and this article also scanned the reasons for the same and also provides suggestions to ameliorate the conditions of consumers. This paper is based on qualitative analysis of the information mainly obtained from secondary sources such as different books and journals as referred over here, Policy documents, existing laws, reports of United Nations, important judgments and observations of Judiciary etc.

  7. [A young man with rapidly progressing dyspnoea and a mediastinal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, D J; van den Berkmortel, F W P J; Bootsma, G P; de Mulder, P H M

    2004-11-13

    An 18-year-old male presented with a 2-week history of rapid progressive dyspnoea and dry cough due to a large mediastinal mass with compression of the trachea. Based on the raised serum values of the tumour markers chorionogonadotrophin and alphafoetoprotein the diagnosis of germ-cell tumour was made. Because of the severity of his symptoms chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin was begun on the same day and before the results of the histology investigations were known. The next day the symptoms were diminished and after completing four courses of chemotherapy there was complete remission. The differential diagnosis of a rapid progressive mediastinal mass is limited and mainly relates to malignant lymphoma and germ-cell tumours. In emergency situations if tumour markers are raised then anti-tumour therapy may be begun before any histological confirmation is available.

  8. Case report of rapidly progressive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and a proposal for aetiology in mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Xin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL is a rare oral leukoplakia and has four features such as chronic proliferation, multiple occurrences, refractoriness to treatment and high rate of malignant transformation. As mentioned above, most PVL cases processed to malignancy over many years, sometimes 20 years. However, this report described a case of rapid progress, which had malignant transformation in a short period. Additionally, the aetiology of PVL was discussed and immunity was proposed as the possible cause.

  9. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

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    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  10. Rapidly Progressive Frontotemporal Dementia Associated with MAPT Mutation G389R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Chen, Kathryn; Li, Xia; Xiao, Shifu

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia includes a large spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report the case of a young patient with MAPT mutation G389R, who was 27 years old when he progressively developed severe behavioral disturbances. Initially, he presented with slowly progressive personality change. After 1 year, he exhibited moderate dementia with extrapyramidal and pyramidal symptoms. MRI showed frontotemporal atrophy. He rapidly progressed to severe dementia 3 years after onset. Genetic testing revealed a heterozygous guanine to cytosine mutation at the first base of codon 389 (c.1165G>A) of MAPT, the tau gene, resulting in a glycine to arginine substitution in the patient and two unaffected relatives. We predicted the model of mutant tau protein through I-TASSER software, and speculated the structural change of tau protein caused by mutant site. We also detected the MAPT gene transcript and methylation of samples from peripheral blood leucocytes in an attempt to explain the possible mechanisms of incomplete penetrance, although there were not positive findings. This case is remarkable because of the early onset and rapid progression of the disease.

  11. A Short Note on the Fallacy of Identification of Technological Progress in Models of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Acikgoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study emphasizes the necessity of the Harrod-neutral identification of technological progress for the models of economic growth, which use Cobb–Douglas production function and which are based on stability. Some of the important studies, which reviewed a balanced growth path or a steady state of the Solow model, assumed the nature of technological progress as Hicks-neutral rather than Harrod-neutral. In this work, we have reminded that Harrod-neutral is a better assumption for the nature of technological progress in such studies.

  12. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 2: Case study, technological progress and commercialization of communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The economic impact of technological progress in communications satellites is considered, as well as how these impacts affect the firms involved. Influences, if any, on the three major inputs of a nation's economic output (capital, labor, and technology) is discussed.

  13. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  14. Obesity induced rapid melanoma progression is reversed by orlistat treatment and dietary intervention: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pandey, Vimal; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Boreddy, Purushotham Reddy; Mohammad, Naoshad; Singh, Shivendra Vikram; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, owing to adiposity, is associated with increased risk and development of various cancers, and linked to their rapid growth as well as progression. Although a few studies have attempted to understand the relationship between obesity and melanoma, the consequences of controlling body weight by reducing adiposity on cancer progression is not well understood. By employing animal models of obesity, we report that controlling obesity either by orlistat treatment or by restricting caloric intake significantly slows down melanoma progression. The diminished tumor progression was correlated with decreased fat mass (adiposity) in obese mice. Obesity associated factors contributing to tumor progression were decreased in the experimental groups compared to respective controls. In tumors, protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), caveolin (Cav)-1 and pAkt, which are tumor promoting molecules implicated in melanoma growth under obese state, were decreased. In addition, increased necrosis and reduction in angiogenesis as well as proliferative markers PCNA and cyclin D1 were observed in tumors of the orlistat treated and/or calorically restricted obese mice. We observed that growth of melanoma cells cultured in conditioned medium (CM) from orlistat-treated adipocytes was reduced. Adipokines (leptin and resistin), via activating Akt and modulation of FASN as well as Cav-1 respectively, enhanced melanoma cell growth and proliferation. Together, we demonstrate that controlling body weight reduces adipose mass thereby diminishing melanoma progression. Therefore, strategic means of controlling obesity by reduced caloric diet or with antiobesity drugs treatment may render obesity-promoted tumor progression in check and prolong survival of patients. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Indicators of Economic Progress: The Power of Measurement and Human Welfare

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    Garry Jacobs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress; wrong or imprecise measurement a source of hazard and even havoc. The essential purpose of economic activity is the promotion of human development, welfare and well-being in a sustainable manner, and not growth for growth’s sake, yet we lack effective measures to monitor progress toward these objectives. Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours. On one side, rising social tensions, recurring financial crises and ecological disaster; on the other, the progressive unfolding and development of human capacity in harmony with Nature. The deficiencies of GDP as a measure are well-documented by leading economists Kuznets, Tobin, Tinbergen and many others; but, unfortunately, decision-making still remains largely based on GDP, valid during 1930-70 perhaps, but certainly inappropriate today. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. We propose new composite indicator, HEWI, which can be used to guide decision-making, which retains the strengths associated with GDP, while substantially enhancing its value as a measure of human economic development. HEWI monitors progress on factors that contribute prominently to present economic welfare — household consumption, government welfare-related expenditure, income inequality and unemployment — as well as factors that have the potential to significantly enhance long term sustainability — education, fossil fuel energy efficiency and net household savings. The index

  16. THE PROGRESS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC INDICATORS BETWEEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Akyuwen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness and concept on the environmental friendly development has been emerged since early 1970s. However, the progress on its implementation was varied across countries. In Indonesia, sustainable development indicators have been studied and published by the Central Statistics Board (BPS since 2002. Based on the recommendation of the United Na-tions Commission on Sustainable Development, those indicators were classified into two groups, i.e. environment indicators and social economic indicators. This paper is aimed to compare the progress of social economic indicators among provinces in Indonesia by using descriptive ap-proach. Observed indicators were including population, per capita gross domestic product (GDP, open unemployment, poverty, energy consumption, transportation, and agriculture. In addition, regional fiscal capacity and human development index among provinces were also analyzed. Although the fund transfer from central to local governments has increased signifi-cantly since the implementation of local autonomy and fiscal decentralization in 2001, however, in general, the improvement of social economic indicators were varied between provinces. Sev-eral provinces with high fiscal capacity were not able to improve its social economic indicators significantly. On the contrary, the other provinces with low fiscal capacity have achieved better social economic indicators. This phenomenon has proved the importance of having appropriate capability in managing local economic development.

  17. Rapidly progressive atherosclerosis after domino liver transplantation from a teenage donor with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbus, Jessica R; Farhat, Linda; Fontana, Robert J; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by impaired clearance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Given limitations in pharmacologic therapy and the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, liver transplantation may be offered to select homozygous FH patients in childhood in an effort to slow progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In rare cases, domino liver transplantation can be performed, transplanting the livers of patients with various metabolic disorders into elderly recipients whose projected survival precludes prolonged waiting on the transplant list. Herein, we report a case of domino liver transplantation using the liver of a 14-year-old boy with homozygous FH into a 65-year-old man with primary sclerosing cholangitis and cirrhosis who developed rapidly progressive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease involving the arteries of his proximal bilateral lower extremities, carotid arteries and superior mesenteric artery. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research progress on the pathogenesis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative diseases

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    Hai-yang JIANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a sleep disorder characterized by the disappearance of muscle relaxation and enacting one's dreams during rapid eye movement (REM, with most of the dreams being violent or aggressive. Prevalence of RBD, based on population, is 0.38%-2.01%, but it becomes much higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially α - synucleinopathies. RBD may herald the emergence of α-synucleinopathies by decades, thus it may be used as an effective early marker of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized the progress on the pathogenesis of RBD and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.003

  19. Rapidly progressing dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus: when soil inhabitants become deadly invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Milind; Rapose, Alwyn

    2016-12-08

    We present a case report of a 61-year-old patient with acute pulmonary and cerebral infections with Aspergillus and Rhizopus. The only risk factor for invasive fungal disease was high-dose corticosteroids used to treat her chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. She had rapid progression and succumbed to her infections within 2 weeks of diagnosis in spite of aggressive antifungal therapy and surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapidly fatal dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus Our case highlights the role of high-dose corticosteroids as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in patients without traditional risk factors like haematological malignancies, solid organ transplantation or uncontrolled diabetes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Rapidly progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute loss of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Bariş; Calişkan, Mine; Tatli, Burak; Aydinli, Nur; Ozmen, Meral

    2011-12-01

    A 10-year-old male presented with vision loss and behavioral changes. He had midpoint pupils with no reaction to light and normal funduscopic examination. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cortical lesions at parieto-occipital lobes. Elevated measles antibody titers in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite oral inosiplex and supportive care, patient developed generalized seizures with frequent myoclonic jerks and rapidly progressed into coma. Cortical blindness in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be an early indicator for fulminant course.

  1. Rapidly Progressive Encephalopathy: Initial Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease in an Intensive Care Unit

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    Patrícia Afonso Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, incurable and fatal condition that can only be confirmed through neuropathological investigation, such as brain biopsy or post-mortem study. However, a probable diagnosis can be made using clinical criteria. CJD manifests as rapidly progressive dementia with myoclonus and to a lesser extent visual impairment and cerebellar and pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs. We report the case of a previously independent adult male that met all the clinical criteria. Taken together, the investigation results suggested probable CJD.

  2. Imiquimod 5% cream treatment for rapidly progressive genital condyloma in a 3-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Emily; Black, Amanda; Fleming, Nathalie

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of genital warts in children has increased in the last 50 years. Although pediatric genital warts may resolve spontaneously, the treatment of extensive perianal genital warts in children can be challenging. Imiquimod, although not approved in the pediatric population, may avoid the pain or extensive scarring associated with other treatment modalities. A 3-year-old female was scheduled for surgical resection of genital warts. At surgery, she had extensive condylomas that had progressed rapidly from initial presentation. They were not amenable to surgical treatment due to concerns of incomplete resection, post-operative pain, and genital scarring. After 6 weeks of imiquimod treatment, the condylomatous lesions had completely resolved with minimal side effects. Imiquimod 5% cream is an effective treatment option for children with extensive and rapidly progressive perianal warts and is associated with minimal side effects. Its use should be considered in children with extensive condyloma in order to avoid the pain and possible scarring associated with other approved treatment modalities. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapidly progressive osteoarthritis after arthroscopic labral repair in patients with hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Khatod, Monti

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports of poor clinical outcomes after arthroscopic surgery in hips with marked dysplasia have emerged. Arthroscopic resection of the hypertrophic labrum in cases of dysplasia, especially in the absence of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), has been implicated. Some patients will refuse PAO because it is a major open procedure, opting for a less invasive arthroscopic procedure. We present the cases of 2 young adults with marked dysplasia who had rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis despite arthroscopic labral repair. Though perhaps beneficial as an isolated procedure in borderline or mild dysplasia cases, arthroscopic hip surgery, even labral repair, may best be performed with PAO in cases with more severe dysplasia. Albeit attractive as a less invasive labral-preserving surgery, arthroscopic labral repair not only may fail to provide symptomatic improvement but may compromise or preclude a later PAO if rapidly progressive osteoarthrosis ensues. Hip arthroscopy may best be performed concurrently with or after PAO but not proceeding PAO in patients requiring both procedures. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A rapidly progressive defective spermatogenesis in a Mexican family affected by spino-bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel; Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Chacón-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Gallegos-Rivas, Mayra Celina; Kazakova, Ekaterina; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Spino-bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked recessive adult progressive disorder affecting motor neurons. It is caused by a poly-glutamine tract expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) which generates protein aggregates that cannot be processed by proteasomes. A secondary mild androgen resistance is developed by AR dysfunction and patients present endocrine abnormalities including gynecomastia and poor function of testosterone in tissues; however, normally they are fertile. In this report we describe a Mexican family with three affected brothers with primary infertility caused by a progressive impairment of spermatogenesis leading to azoospermia before 40 years of age. They presented common features associated to patients affected by SMBA, such as gynecomastia, high level of CPK, muscle cramps, fasciculations, muscle wastage, and impaired swallowing. Two intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were performed in one of the patients resulting in fertilization failure. Molecular analysis of AR gene exon 1 revealed 54 CAG repeats in DNA extracted from leukocytes in affected patients and 22 repeats in the fertile non-affected brother. Severe impaired spermatogenesis of rapid progression has not been associated before to SBMA. This is the first report of assisted reproduction techniques indicated by male infertility in patients with this rare disorder. Further studies are required to confirm the unusual result of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. We discuss the implications and possible pathogenesis of these unique features of SBMA in this family.

  5. Air pollution control by economic incentives in the U.S.: Policy, problems, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Hyder

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with cost-effectiveness of the economic incentive policies of the bubble concept and offset credits relative to the policy of direct regulations of air emissions. The second section discusses single- and multi-plant bubbles, their adoption across regions and industries, the methods used to control emissions and the extent of savings in costs. We conclude that despite the delay resulting from duplication of review of state implementation plans by both the state and the Environmental Protection Agency, the required technological commands, the requirement to model air quality and the restrictions to permit bubbling only in the attainment areas, the policy is progressing successfully and should be encouraged by eliminating the restrictions. The third section analyzes the policy of emission offset credit, trading, and banking which can permit economic growth in nonattainment areas. It reviews the available literature, which deals only with aggregation of offsets across cities instead of individual offset trades. Progress by individual offset trades is analyzed in terms of the number of offsets, their acceptance across regions, the extent of reductions in emissions, and the classification of the offsets into internal and external trades. Comparison of estimated capital costs and prices of individual offsets with direct regulation costs reveals that the former are economical. We conclude that despite the problems of high tradeoff ratios, the short and uncertain life of the emission offset credits and the technological commands, the policy is progressing successfully and should be encouraged further by relaxing restrictions.

  6. Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Steve; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Ginocchio, Christine C; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Zimmer, Louise; Bozzette, Samuel A

    2018-01-10

    We assessed the possible economic impact of a rapid test in pediatric patients with suspected community-acquired meningitis/encephalitis. Modeling simulated diagnosis, clinical decisions, resource use/costs of standard of care (SOC) and two cerebrospinal fluid testing strategies using FilmArray ® (FA), a US FDA-cleared system that provides results in approximately 1 h. Pathogens detected by FA caused approximately 75% of cases, 97% of which would be accurately diagnosed with FA.  Mean cost/case ranged from $17,599 to $22,025.  Syndromic testing is less expensive than SOC. Testing all suspected cases yielded greater savings ($3481/case) than testing only those with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid ($2157/case). Greater economic benefits are achievable with syndromic testing of all cases, rather than SOC or targeted syndromic testing.

  7. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. An economical and combined method for rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, T; Syguła-Cholewinska, J; Szostak-Kot, J

    2014-12-18

    DNA isolation is a crucial step of conducting genetic studies in any organism. However, this process is quite difficult when studying fungi because of the need to damage the fungal cell walls of specific structures. In this study, we developed a method for the rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA based on simultaneous mechanical and enzymatic cell wall degradation. There are several typical modifications of the standard phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method. This method can be modified to degrade the fungal cell wall. The first step of the presented DNA extraction included manual homogenization in modified lysis buffer. Next, enzymatic digestion using 2 enzymes was conducted, including lyticase and proteinase K. To carefully select the most favorable conditions, we developed an economical, rapid, and reliable method for fungal DNA extraction that ensures both high efficiency and proper purity, which are essential for further analyses.

  9. Rapid and economical data acquisition in ultrafast frequency-resolved spectroscopy using choppers and a microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Monahan, Daniele M; Fleming, Graham

    2016-08-08

    Spectrometers and cameras are used in ultrafast spectroscopy to achieve high resolution in both time and frequency domains. Frequency-resolved signals from the camera pixels cannot be processed by common lock-in amplifiers, which have only a limited number of input channels. Here we demonstrate a rapid and economical method that achieves the function of a lock-in amplifier using mechanical choppers and a programmable microcontroller. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness by performing a frequency-resolved pump-probe measurement on the dye Nile Blue in solution.

  10. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  11. Economism

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    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  12. An unusual case of rapidly progressive contractures: Case report and brief review

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    Subasree R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, diagnosed as cervical dystonia, was referred to our tertiary center. After a trivial trauma he had developed painful lumps in the axial region, which was followed by restricted movements of neck, shoulder, and abdominal muscles over 4 months. He had kyphoscoliosis, torticollis, rigid abdomen, and multiple muscle contractures. He also had short great toes. A detailed skeletal survey showed calcification in the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder anterior chest wall, thorax, and paraspinal muscles; there was also beaking of vertebrae, which was confirmed by CT thorax. This report showcases the diagnostic challenge posed by myositis ossificans progressiva, which can rarely cause rapidly progressing muscle contractures. A brief review of literature is also presented.

  13. Non-inflammatory cerebral amyloid angiopathy as a cause of rapidly progressive dementia: A case study

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    Leonel Tadao Takada

    Full Text Available Abstract A 77 year-old men developed a subacute-onset, rapidly progressive cognitive decline. After 6 months of evolution, he scored 6 on the Mini-Mental State Examination and had left hemiparesis and hemineglect. The patient died 11 months after the onset of cognitive symptoms. Brain MRI showed microhemorrhages on gradient-echo sequence and confluent areas of white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted images. Brain biopsy revealed amyloid-b peptide deposition in vessel walls, some of them surrounded by micro-bleeds. In this case report, we discuss the role of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA in cognitive decline, due to structural lesions associated with hemorrhages and infarcts, white matter lesions and co-morbidity of Alzheimer's disease, as well as the most recently described amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation.

  14. Male patients presenting with rapidly progressive puberty associated with malignant tumors

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    Soo Jung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In males, precocious puberty (PP is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 9 years. PP is usually idiopathic; though, organic abnormalities including tumors are more frequently found in male patients with PP. However, advanced puberty in male also can be an important clinical manifestation in tumors. We report 2 cases of rapidly progressive puberty in males, each associated with a germ-cell tumor. First, an 11-year-old boy presented with mild fever and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 10-mL testes. Investigations revealed advanced bone age (16 years with elevated basal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. An anterior mediastinal tumor was identified by chest radiography and computed tomography, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels were noted. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a yolk-sac tumor. Second, a 12-year-old boy presented with diplopia, polydipsia, and polyuria for 4 months. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 8-mL testes. Bone age was advanced (16 years and laboratory tests indicated panhypopituitarism with elevated testosterone level. A mixed germ-cell tumor was diagnosed with elevated AFP and β-hCG levels. Of course, these patients also have other symptoms of suspecting tumors, however, rapidly progressive puberty can be the more earlier screening sign of tumors. Therefore, in male patients with accelerated or advanced puberty, malignancy should be considered, with evaluation of tumor markers. In addition, advanced puberty in male should be recognized more widely as a unique sign of neoplasm.

  15. Peranan Terapi Awal dan Terapi Pemeliharaan pada Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis Type 1

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    Anita H. Joedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis (RPP is a severe form of a periodontal disease which starts since a puberty age. The disease if a generalized periodontal destruction without a specific distribution mode: it develops more progressively but does not in accordance to local factors. The first step to the RPP treatment is initial therapy: i.e. DHE, scaling and root planing, and eliminating predisposing local factors and continued with a maintence therapy which will support the success of a surgery later. A study case: a 21-year old RPP woman showed hyperaemia, an abscess, a 10 mm mesial pocket depth, a 5 mm distal pocker depth, a 5 mm buccal pocket depth, a 2nd degree tooth mobility and a 3 mm buccal recession on 25. In the initial therapy she was given an amoxicillin, a metronidazole for killing a supra and subgingival baterial, vitamins B and C, and also a chlorhexidine 0.2% mouth wash for a week. After a week the abscess and the inflammation decreased, but the mobility was still in the same condition and the DHE was still evaluated because of the patient's social factor, the FO was delayed. The next visit was done every 2 monts for a year for maintenance care. The clinical result showed the gingival inflammation and the tooth mobility disappeared. Radiographically, the alveolar bone showed more radiopaque and the lamina dura was seen. In conclusio, the initial and the maintenance therapy was seen to heal the RPP.

  16. Wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoi, H; Hiraide, F; Nishizawa, S; Inouye, T; Yoshizawa, N

    1986-01-01

    A patient with the classic form of Wegener's granulomatosis with severe dabetes mellitus and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is described. This 61-year-old male presented with epistaxis and nasal pain and obstruction. The nasal cavities were filled with crusts covering eroded mucosa. The diagnosis was made by biopsy of nasal and bronchial mucosa, and laboratory data. The epistaxis was stopped by 10 Gy irradiation over the nasal cavities. The patient had severe diabetes mellitus. His blood sugar was not controlled by diet and insulin injection. His general condition worsened rapidly as the growth of granuloma in the nose and lung. Accordingly, prednisolone therapy reinitiated to suppress the granuloma although it has a reverse effect on diabetes mellitus. Approximately one month after admission, he died of acute renal failure. Autopsy was carried out. Granulomatous lesions were noted in the nasal cavities, lungs and spleen. Many petechiae were found macroscopically over the cortex of the kidney. Hyalinization or sclerosis with crescent formation was found microscopically in estimated 85% of the glomeruli. Immunohistologic analysis of the renal tissue demonstrated an irregular linear pattern deposition of IgG, IgA and C3 and a granular pattern deposition of IgM and C1q.

  17. Biomedical Progress Rates as New Parameters for Models of Economic Growth in Developed Countries

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    Alex Zhavoronkov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative. While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm.

  18. Biomedical Progress Rates as New Parameters for Models of Economic Growth in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Litovchenko, Maria

    2013-01-01

    While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan) and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative). While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG) growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm. PMID:24217179

  19. TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES UNDER THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS IN ROMANIA

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    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technical progress put its mark in a different manner on all activities that occur within contemporary economy and it was present in the entire evolution of human society, but its implications and effects were never so strong and extensive. There is no area of activity in which progress not to interfere, both as important mutations that they are happening in the all area of production factors, as well as the place and role of the human factor in the deployment of production processes. In the current period the progress has exceeded certain human limits, operating in other areas which until more now it seems unattainable by the achievements of new technology. In this paradigm are successfully integrated tertiary activities in which the scientific and technical progress entered with great difficulty.Nowadays we are witnessing spectacular evolutions whether we talk about movement of goods, education, research, health, transportation, arts and culture, etc. The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree in which scientific and technical progress. In this paper we proposed to determine the level in which the scientific and technical progress, had a decisive impact on the development of the tertiary sector in general and in Romania in particular , we shall specify which are the economic tertiary activities that adapt fast to new changes occurred in the system of informational society. In this context we have to mention the systems of intelligent transport, electronic governance, medical system based on ICT online educational systems, as a possible response of the tertiary sector to the adaptation of technological progress benefits. In the first part of this paper we focused on the conceptual delimitation of scientific concepts at which we refer often such as: technological progress and innovative services which inevitably determine the evolution of tertiary sector under the impact of new modern technologies. On this background

  20. Rapidly progressive polyneuropathy due to dry beriberi in a man: a case report

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    Lekwuwa Godwin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of rapidly progressive and severely debilitating polyneuropathy in a patient with confirmed hypovitaminosis B1, consistent with dry beriberi. Crucially, this is a treatable condition, although sometimes with incomplete recovery, but it is probably under-recognized yet increasingly common given increasing levels of alcohol abuse in the western world. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian British man presented with progressive weakness of both lower limbs of approximately seven months' duration. He noted difficulty climbing stairs. He also complained of lethargy, and loss of muscle bulk, including his thighs. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and admitted prior alcohol abuse but denied excessive alcohol intake in the five years prior to presentation. Initial clinical and neurophysiological examinations were consistent with a mild peripheral neuropathy and probable proximal myopathy. However, over the subsequent four months he evolved a marked tetraparesis, with profound sensory disturbance of all limbs. Repeat neurophysiology revealed a widespread polyneuropathy with extensive acute and sub-acute denervation changes in all four limbs, and reduced or absent sensory nerve action potentials. Hypovitaminosis B1 was confirmed (45 nmol/L, reference range 66-200 nmol/L. His rapid clinical deterioration was in keeping with dry beriberi. He was treated with thiamine. Subsequent follow-up revealed slow but significant improvement, such that by 15-16 months from the initial onset of symptoms, and approximately six months after the onset of his marked tetraparesis, he was able to stand independently and was gradually gaining confidence in walking pending a period of in-patient neurorehabilitation. Conclusion A potentially wide differential diagnosis exists for this type of presentation. Confirming hypovitaminosis B1 by requesting the assay prior to vitamin replacement ensures accurate diagnosis and

  1. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

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    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  2. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-03

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

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    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  4. Critical Role for Monocytes/Macrophages in Rapid Progression to AIDS in Pediatric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chie; Merino, Kristen M; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Wang, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Xavier A; Wakao, Hiroshi; Mori, Kazuyasu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Veazey, Ronald S; Didier, Elizabeth S; Kuroda, Marcelo J

    2017-09-01

    Infant humans and rhesus macaques infected with the human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV or SIV), respectively, express higher viral loads and progress more rapidly to AIDS than infected adults. Activated memory CD4(+) T cells in intestinal tissues are major primary target cells for SIV/HIV infection, and massive depletion of these cells is considered a major cause of immunodeficiency. Monocytes and macrophages are important cells of innate immunity and also are targets of HIV/SIV infection. We reported previously that a high peripheral blood monocyte turnover rate was predictive for the onset of disease progression to AIDS in SIV-infected adult macaques. The purpose of this study was to determine if earlier or higher infection of monocytes/macrophages contributes to the more rapid progression to AIDS in infants. We observed that uninfected infant rhesus macaques exhibited higher physiologic baseline monocyte turnover than adults. Early after SIV infection, the monocyte turnover further increased, and it remained high during progression to AIDS. A high percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end label (TUNEL)-positive macrophages in the lymph nodes (LNs) and intestine corresponded with an increasing number of macrophages derived from circulating monocytes (bromodeoxyuridine positive [BrdU(+)] CD163(+)), suggesting that the increased blood monocyte turnover was required to rapidly replenish destroyed tissue macrophages. Immunofluorescence analysis further demonstrated that macrophages were a significant portion of the virus-producing cells found in LNs, intestinal tissues, and lungs. The higher baseline monocyte turnover in infant macaques and subsequent macrophage damage by SIV infection may help explain the basis of more rapid disease progression to AIDS in infants.IMPORTANCE HIV infection progresses much more rapidly in pediatric cases than in adults; however, the mechanism for this difference is unclear. Using the rhesus macaque model

  5. "Rekindle and Recapture the Love": Establishing System-Wide Indicators of Progress in Community Engagement and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    In May 2012, University of North Carolina (UNC) President Tom Ross simultaneously commissioned two task forces to develop indicators that all UNC campuses could use to measure "progress in community engagement and economic development." The charge to the Community Engagement Task Force and the Economic Development Task Force was to…

  6. Economic and history timeline of the consecutive events of the progressive development of the national economic education at western Ukrainian territory in a period of the early XIX – XX centuries: educational institutionalization of economic systems

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    Holubka Mykhailo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In scientific work, the economic and historical chronology of events of the consistent progressive development of national economic education in Western Ukraine in the early XIX and XX centuries is reviewed. The research is structured within the economic and historical chronology, and attention is paid to Western Ukrainian intelligentsia in terms of their influence on the further successful development of economic education in the western region in a designated period.

  7. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications.

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    Selvaraju Gayathri Devi

    Full Text Available A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely "powdered glass method" from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05 and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03. The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method's applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666.

  8. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely "powdered glass method" from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method's applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666).

  9. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  10. HPLC method for rapidly following biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction progress using a core-shell column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Samuel J.; Ott, Lisa S. [California State University, Chico, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    There are a wide and growing variety of feedstocks for biodiesel fuel. Most commonly, these feedstocks contain triglycerides which are transesterified into the fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) which comprise biodiesel fuel. While the tranesterification reaction itself is simple, monitoring the reaction progress and reaction products is not. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is useful for assessing the FAAE products, but does not directly address either the tri-, di-, or monoglycerides present from incomplete transesterification or the free fatty acids which may also be present. Analysis of the biodiesel reaction mixture is complicated by the solubility and physical property differences among the components of the tranesterification reaction mixture. In this contribution, we present a simple, rapid HPLC method which allows for monitoring all of the main components in a biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction, with specific emphasis on the ability to monitor the reaction as a function of time. The utilization of a relatively new, core-shell stationary phase for the HPLC column allows for efficient separation of peaks with short elution times, saving both time and solvent. (orig.)

  11. A rapidly progressing Pancoast syndrome due to pulmonary mucormycosis: a case report

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    Hiatt Kim M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pancoast syndrome is characterized by Horner syndrome, shoulder pain radiating down the arm, compression of the brachial blood vessels, and, in long-standing cases, atrophy of the arm and hand muscles. It is most commonly associated with lung carcinoma but rarely is seen with certain infections. Case presentation We present the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man who had acute myeloid leukemia and who developed a rapidly fulminating pneumonia along with signs and symptoms of acute brachial plexopathy and left Horner syndrome. Also, a purpuric plaque developed over his left chest wall and progressed to skin necrosis. The skin biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage showed a Rhizopus species, leading to a diagnosis of mucormycosis. This is a rare case of pneumonia due to mucormycosis associated with acute Pancoast syndrome. Conclusions According to our review of the literature, only a few infectious agents have been reported to be associated with Pancoast syndrome. We found only three case reports of mucormycosis associated with acute Pancoast syndrome. Clinicians should consider mucormycosis in their differential diagnosis in a patient with pulmonary lesions and chest wall invasion with or without neurological symptoms, especially in the setting of neutropenia or other immunosuppressed conditions. It is important to recognize this condition early in order to target therapy and interventions.

  12. Injury Markers but not Amyloid Markers are Associated with Rapid Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, I.A.; Visser, P.J.; Knol, D.L.; van der Flier, W.M.; Teunissen, C.E.; Barkhof, F.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Scheltens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the time between the diagnosis of MCI and the diagnosis of dementia is highly variable. In this study we investigated which known risk factors and biomarkers of AD pathology were associated with rapid progression

  13. Rapid Progression of Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification and Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure and Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Seong Ho [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. The authors experienced a patient with chronic renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism by parathyroid adenoma accompanied with rapid progressions of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage. Recent chest radiographs, compared with previous chest radiographs, showed rapid accumulation of calcification in both upper lungs. Following up on the high-resolution CT scan after five years demonstrates more increased nodules in size and ground glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with MPC and alveolar hemorrhage by transbronchial lung biopsy. We assumed rapid progression of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage in underlying chronic renal failures could be a primary hyperparathyroidism which may be caused by parathyroid adenoma detected incidentally. Therefore parathyroid adenoma was treated with ethanol injections. Herein, we have reported on CT findings of MPC with alveolar hemorrhage and reviewed our case along with other articles.

  14. Neurocognitive features distinguishing primary central nervous system lymphoma from other possible causes of rapidly progressive dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Mariel B; Mendez, Mario F

    2015-03-01

    Define the neurocognitive features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) presenting with dementia, and compare with other causes of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). PCNSL can present as an RPD. Differentiating PCNSL from other RPDs is critical because lymphomatous dementia may be reversible, and untreated PCNSL is fatal. We performed a meta-analysis of case reports of dementia from PCNSL (between 1950 and 2013); 20 patients (14 with lymphomatosis cerebri) met our criteria. We compared these patients to a case series of patients with RPD from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other non-PCNSL etiologies (Sala et al, 2012. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 26:267-271). Median age was 66 years (range 41 to 81); 70% were men. Time from symptom onset to evaluation was <6 months in 65%. No patients had seizures; 5% had headaches; 45% had non-aphasic speech difficulty. There was significantly more memory impairment in patients with PCNSL than other RPDs and significantly less myoclonus and parkinsonism. Behavioral changes and cerebellar signs were not significantly different. Significantly more patients with PCNSL than other RPDs had white matter changes; significantly fewer had atrophy. Elevated CSF protein and pleocytosis were more frequent in PCNSL; patients with other RPDs tended to have normal CSF±14-3-3 protein. Unlike patients with RPD from other causes, those with PCNSL commonly present with impaired memory, apathy, and abnormal speech and gait, without headache, seizure, or myoclonus. White matter changes and CSF abnormalities predominate. Improved clinical awareness of PCNSL can prompt earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Developing E-Governance in the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vidiasova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he article provides an overview of e-governance development in the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU. There is a lack of integrated research on e-governance in the EEU countries, although given the strengthening of this regional bloc, new information and communication technologies (ICT could serve as significant growth driver. Given the history and specifics of regional cooperation in the post-Soviet space and international best practices in ICT use in regional blocs, this article reviews the development of e-governance in the EEU members The research methodology was based on a three-stage concept of regionalism [Van Langenhov, Coste, 2005]. The study examines three key components: progress in developing e-governance, barriers to that development and future prospects. It used qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included the results of the United Nations E-Government rating, EEU countries’ regulations based on 3,200 documents and the authors’ expert survey, in which 18 experts (12 EEU representatives and six international experts participated. The study revealed the progress made by EEU countries in improving technological development and reducing human capital development indicators. The survey identified key barriers to e-governance development in the EEU: low motivation and information technology skills among civil servants, and citizens’ low computer literacy. The analysis of EEU members’ national economic priorities revealed a common focus on ICT development. The authors concluded that prospects for e-governance in the EEU were associated with strengthening regional cooperation in standardizing information systems, implementing one-stop-shop services, managing electronic documents and expanding online services. The authors presented two areas for developing e-governance within the EEU. The first is external integration, which, if strengthened, would affect the economy positivelyand optimize business processes

  16. Primary Cutaneous Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Not Otherwise Specified: A Rapidly Progressive Variant of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Aderhold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Cutaneous Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma NOS (PTL-NOS is a rare, progressive, fatal dermatologic disease that presents with features similar to many common benign plaque-like skin conditions, making recognition of its distinguishing features critical for early diagnosis and treatment (Bolognia et al., 2008. A 78-year-old woman presented to ambulatory care with a single 5 cm nodule on her shoulder that had developed rapidly over 1-2 weeks. Examination was suspicious for malignancy and a biopsy was performed. Biopsy results demonstrated CD4 positivity, consistent with Mycosis Fungoides with coexpression of CD5, CD47, and CD7. Within three months her cancer had progressed into diffuse lesions spanning her entire body. As rapid progression is usually uncharacteristic of Mycosis Fungoides, her diagnosis was amended to PTL-NOS. Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL should be suspected in patients with patches, plaques, erythroderma, or papules that persist or multiply despite conservative treatment. Singular biopsies are often nondiagnostic, requiring a high degree of suspicion if there is deviation from the anticipated clinical course. Multiple biopsies are often necessary to make the diagnosis. Physicians caring for patients with rapidly progressive, nonspecific dermatoses with features described above should keep more uncommon forms of CTCL in mind and refer for early biopsy.

  17. Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhisa Masaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples included 11 autopsied cases with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, six with MS, and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND. Methods of analysis included immunohistochemical expression of astrocytic Cx43/Cx30, oligodendrocytic Cx47/Cx32 relative to AQP4 and other astrocytic and oligodendrocytic proteins, extent of demyelination, the vasculocentric deposition of complement and immunoglobulin, and lesion staging by CD68 staining for macrophages. Lesions were classified as actively demyelinating (n=59, chronic active (n=58 and chronic inactive (n=23. Sera from 120 subjects including 30 MS, 30 NMO, 40 OND and 20 healthy controls were examined for anti-Cx43 antibody by cell-based assay. Six NMO/NMOSD and three MS cases showed preferential loss of astrocytic Cx43 beyond the demyelinated areas in actively demyelinating and chronic active lesions, where heterotypic Cx43/Cx47 astrocyte oligodendrocyte gap junctions were extensively lost. Cx43 loss was significantly associated with a rapidly progressive disease course as six of nine cases with Cx43 loss, but none of eight cases without Cx43 loss regardless of disease phenotype, died within two years after disease onset (66.7% vs. 0%, P=0.0090. Overall, five of nine cases with Cx43 loss and none of eight cases without Cx43 loss had distal oligodendrogliopathy characterized by selective myelin associated glycoprotein loss (55.6% vs. 0.0%, P=0.0296. Loss of oligodendrocytic Cx32 and Cx47 expression was observed in most active and chronic lesions from all MS and NMO/NMOSD cases. Cx43-specific antibodies were absent in NMO/NMOSD and MS patients. CONCLUSIONS

  18. DISTURBANCES OF THE VASCULAR THROMBOCYTE MECHANISM OF HEMOSTASIS IN PATHOGENESIS OF THE MICROCIRCULATORY DISORDERS IN RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Karpenko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern stomatology the problem ofatypicalforms ofinflammatoryperiodontaldiseases origination, namely of rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP, has got special importance due to its widespread. The article presents one of the impotant parts of the pathogenesis- the disturbance of microcirculation processes caused by the decrease of blood clot resistencyofa vascularwall in pathogenesis ofmicrocirculatori disorders in patients with RPP. These disturbances are predetermined by endothelial dysfunction with the subsequent degradation of the clinical presentation of disease, the stomatologic status and quality of patients life.

  19. Stratification by Genetic and Demographic Characteristics Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Rapidly Progressive Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, André; Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep Singh; Zafar, Saima; Lange, Peter; Schmidt, Christian; Zerr, Inga

    2016-10-18

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are routinely used for the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia, but are also affected by patients' characteristics. To assess if stratification by age, sex, and genetic risk factors improves the accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in patients with rapidly progressive dementia. 1,538 individuals with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 173 with classic Alzheimer's disease (cAD), 37 with rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease (rpAD), and 589 without signs of dementia were included in this retrospective diagnostic study. The effect of age, sex, PRNP codon 129, and APOE genotype on CSF levels of tau, p-tau, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-40 values measured at time of diagnostic work-up was assessed. Tau was a better marker for the differentiation of CJD and rpAD in older (AUC:0.97; 95% CI:0.96-1.00) than in younger (AUC:0.91; 95% CI:0.87-0.94) patients as tau levels increased with age in CJD patients, but not in rpAD patients. PRNP codon 129 and APOE genotype had complex effects on biomarkers in all diseases, making stratification by genotype a powerful tool. In females (AUC:0.78; 95% CI:0.65-0.91) and patients older than 70 (AUC:0.78; 95% CI:0.62-0.93), tau was able to differentiate with moderate accuracy between cAD and rpAD patients. Implementation of stratum-specific reference ranges improves the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia. Diagnostic criteria developed for this setting have to take this into account.

  20. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  1. Lower corneal hysteresis is associated with more rapid glaucomatous visual field progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes, Carlos V Gustavo; Hill, Victoria; Tello, Celso; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal hysteresis (CH) and their relationship with the rate of visual field (VF) change. Glaucoma patients who underwent complete ophthalmic examination and tonometry using both the Goldmann applanation tonometer and the Ocular Response Analyzer were prospectively enrolled. Only eyes with ≥5 SITA Standard 24-2 VF tests were included. Automated pointwise linear regression analysis was used to determine VF progression. One hundred fifty-three eyes (153 patients; mean age, 61.3 ± 14.0 y; mean number of VF, 8.5 ± 3.4; mean follow-up time, 5.3 ± 2.0 y) met the enrollment criteria. The mean global rate of VF change was -0.34 ± 0.7 dB/y. Twenty-five eyes (16%) reached a progression endpoint. Progressing eyes had lower CCT (525.0 ± 34.2 vs 542.3 ± 3 8.5 μm, P=0.04) and lower CH (7.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.0 ± 1.8 mm Hg, PCorneal biomechanical and physical properties, such as CH and CCT, are highly correlated and associated with VF progression. As CH may describe corneal properties more completely than thickness alone, it may be a parameter that is better associated with progression.

  2. Progress towards Rapid Detection of Measles Vaccine Strains: a Tool To Inform Public Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jill K

    2017-03-01

    Rapid differentiation of vaccine from wild-type strains in suspect measles cases is a valuable epidemiological tool that informs the public health response to this highly infectious disease. Few public health laboratories sequence measles virus-positive specimens to determine genotype, and the vaccine-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assay described by F. Roy et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:735-743, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01879-16) offers a rapid, easily adoptable method to identify measles vaccine strains in suspect cases. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. A rapidly progressing, deadly disease ofActias selene (Indian moon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A mixed baculoviral–bacterial infection observed among Actias selene (Hübner 1807), the Indian moon moth (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), larvae was characterized and followed by a photographic documentation of the disease progression. The etiological agents were determined using mass spectrometry and ...

  4. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  5. A Case of Immunotactoid Glomerulopathy with Rapid Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotactoid glomerulopathy (IGN is a rare immunoglobulin deposition disease. It is often mistaken for cryoglobulinemia or amyloidosis due to the similarities on biopsy findings. The disease progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD within 7 months to 10 years. This is the first case reported of a patient with a diagnosis of IGN who developed acute kidney injury (AKI and ESRD within 1 week of initial presentation.

  6. Association of AIDS and Bipolar Mania with Rapid Progression to Dementia and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Yang

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS may present clinically as acute or chronic organic brain syndrome, or mimic functional psychiatric diseases. Among such psychiatric diseases, mania tends to occur with increased frequency after the onset of AIDS. We report a case in which manic manifestations were noted before the diagnosis of AIDS. The patient had no past or family history of mood disorders, but had risk factors for HIV infection. He had a rapid downhill course from initial manic symptoms to depression, dementia and then death within 10 months. Such rapid cognitive deterioration into AIDS dementia after mania is consistent with previous reports. Cases like this will become more common with spread of the AIDS pandemic in Asian regions, including Taiwan. Clinicians should be mindful of HIV infection/AIDS as a differential diagnosis in patients with manic episodes and risk factors for HIV infection.

  7. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis.

  8. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Shinichi; Sasaki, Noriko; Chinen, Naofumi; Honda, Kiri; Saito, Eiko; Wakabayashi, Takayuki; Yamada, Chiho; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM) from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis. PMID:25431723

  9. A Case of Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Popliteal Artery Progressing Rapidly after Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Hiromichi; Aoyama, Takanobu; Sasako, Yoshikado

    2014-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease is a rare non-atherosclerotic vascular disease. We report a 36-year-old man with right intermittent claudication by adventitial cystic disease. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an ovoid cystic mass compressing the right popliteal artery and causing severe stenosis of the lumen. Percutaneous aspiration was performed, which improved his symptoms. However, he complained of identical intermittent claudication two weeks later. Radiographic findings revealed that the cystic lesion had progressed rapidly. The cystic lesion was resected and the affected arterial segment was interposed. We consider that conventional surgical intervention remains the favored treatment option in the management of adventitial cystic disease.

  10. Rapid progression of mediastinal tumor within a few days: A case report of T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae Ran; Lee, Young Kyung; Jun, Hyun Jung; Jung, Eun Ah; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is a highly aggressive tumor derived from lymphocyte of the thymus, which accounts for 2% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease occurs most commonly in adolescent and young adult males. It often results in respiratory emergency because of high proliferation rate. In this case, we confirmed the rapid progression of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma through the chest CT scan with one week interval. Three days of empirical chemotherapy resulted in substantial reduction of mediastinal mass, pleural thickening and pleural effusion.

  11. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  12. Advanced and rapidly progressing head and neck cancer: good palliation following intralesional bleomycin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, Keith Ian

    2011-09-01

    The authors herein report the case of a 61-year-old man undergoing adjuvant therapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer, who developed parastomal recurrence in his radiation field around his tracheotomy site, while he was undergoing radiation therapy, and compromised the secure placement of his tracheotomy tube and maintenance of his upper airway. MRI restaging and biopsy confirmed recurrence and progressive disease in his mediastinum. He underwent local therapy with intralesional bleomycin with good palliation, and ability to maintain the patency of his upper airway.

  13. Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernadi, Istvan; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-10-12

    The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation. Their build-up rate reflected prospectively the forthcoming choice sequence, suggesting adaptation to an internal plan. Population decoding demonstrated a high-accuracy progress code. These findings indicate that amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of planned, self-defined behavioral sequences. Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit.

  14. Acute Q Fever Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin with Rapidly Progressive Hepatic Failure in a Patient with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Han Lin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fulminant acute Q fever presenting as fever of unknown origin with rapidly progressive hepatic failure in a patient with alcoholism. A 51-year-old electrician, who was a habitual drinker, presented with a 2-week history of intermittent high fever, acute hepatomegaly and rapidly progressive jaundice after being accidentally exposed to dust from bird nests when he was repairing electrical equipment and circuitry at an abandoned factory in Taipei County. Ascites and prolonged prothrombin time were noted at admission. Transjugular liver biopsy and bone marrow biopsy found multiple small fibrinoid-ring granulomas in liver parenchyma and bone marrow. Doxycycline therapy was empirically started. The fever gradually subsided over a 2-week period, along with the recovery of liver function. The diagnosis of acute Q fever was confirmed by high titers of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (phase I IgM 1:160 and IgG 1:2560, phase II IgM > 1:320 and IgG 1:5120 and a four-fold elevation of phase II IgG titer in the paired serum. The experience of this case shows that the possibility of Q fever should not be overlooked in patients who have an unexplained febrile illness and severe liver function impairment following exposure to a contaminated environment in Taiwan.

  15. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  16. Difficult preoperative diagnosis in a case of rapidly progressive carcinomatous pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Shuto, Takashi; Okamoto, Keitaro; Kawano, Madoka; Kozaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Jun; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman initially diagnosed with stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. After 8 months, she developed dyspnea, leg edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and liver congestion. Her cardiac ejection fraction was normal and cardiomegaly was not evident. Metastatic carcinomatous pericarditis or pleurisy was suspected, but laboratory findings, including tumor markers, were normal. She was transferred to our hospital for the repair a cardiac injury caused by a pericardial drainage procedure. Emergency surgery was performed for the misplaced drainage catheter in the right atrium and for an abnormal mass in her right and left atria. The clinical diagnosis of carcinomatous pericarditis was made; however, her condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died 6 days postoperatively. At autopsy, metastasis was identified in a large area of the pericardium and myocardium.

  17. Systemic and rapidly progressive light-chain deposition disease initially presenting as tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Soma, Jun; Nakaya, Izaya; Yahata, Mayumi; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Yaegashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Akiyoshi; Wano, Masaharu; Sato, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital after first-time detection of proteinuria and hematuria during a routine medical check-up. Because her serum creatinine level had rapidly increased from 0.9 to 3.2 mg/dl since measurement 3 months earlier, she was referred to our hospital. Renal biopsy revealed extensive tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis with mild leukocyte infiltration. Glomeruli showed minimal changes, and no immunoglobulin or complement deposition was observed by immunofluorescence. Oral prednisolone was commenced under the diagnosis of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and she discharged once. However, its effects were transient; her renal function deteriorated rapidly and hemodialysis was initiated 5 months after her initial check-up. On readmission, urinary Bence-Jones protein κ-type was detected, and examination of bone marrow led to a diagnosis of Bence-Jones κ-type multiple myeloma. Light-chain staining using a renal biopsy specimen obtained 2 months earlier showed κ-light-chain deposition on tubular basement membranes but not glomeruli. Despite undergoing chemotherapy with vincristine, doxirubicin, and dexamethasone, the patient died suddenly from a cardiac arrhythmia. Autopsy showed κ-light-chain deposition in the heart, thyroid, liver, lungs, spleen, and ovaries. Congo red staining yielded negative results. Typical light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) characterized by nodular glomerulosclerosis was observed in the kidneys. This case demonstrates that tubulointerstitial nephritis can be an early pathological variant of LCDD, which may be followed by accelerated and massive light-chain deposition in glomeruli.

  18. Rapidly progressive antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies associated with pulmonary-renal syndrome in a 10-year-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Blanco Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The term pulmonary-renal syndrome has been used frequently to describe the clinical manifestations of a great number of diseases in which pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis coexist. The classic example of this type of vasculitis is Goodpasture´s syndrome, a term used to describe the association of pulmonary hemorrhage, glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM. Among the several types of systemic vasculitides that can present clinical manifestations of the pulmonary-renal syndrome, we focus the discussion on two types more frequently associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA, microscopic polyangiitis and Wegener´s granulomatosis, concerning a 10 year old girl with clinical signs and symptoms of pulmonary-renal syndrome, with positive ANCA and rapidly progressive evolution. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl referred to our hospital for evaluation of profound anemia detected in a primary health center. Five days before entry she had experienced malaise, pallor and began to cough up blood-tinged sputum that was at first attributed to dental bleeding. She was admitted to the infirmary with hemoglobin = 4 mg/dL, hematocrit = 14%, platelets = 260,000, white blood cells = 8300, 74% segmented, 4% eosinophils, 19% lymphocytes and 3% monocytes. Radiographs of the chest revealed bilateral diffuse interstitial alveolar infiltrates. There was progressive worsening of cough and respiratory distress during the admission day, when she began to cough up large quantities of blood and hematuria was noted. There was rapid and progressive loss of renal function and massive lung hemorrhage. The antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA test with antigen specificity for myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO was positive and the circulating anti-GBM showed an indeterminate result.

  19. Rapid progression to glioblastoma in a subset of IDH-mutated astrocytomas: a genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Timothy E; Snuderl, Matija; Serrano, Jonathan; Karajannis, Matthias A; Heguy, Adriana; Oliver, Dwight; Raisanen, Jack M; Maher, Elizabeth A; Pan, Edward; Barnett, Samuel; Cai, Chunyu; Habib, Amyn A; Bachoo, Robert M; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J

    2017-05-01

    According to the recently updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2016), grade II-III astrocytomas are divided into IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant groups, the latter being significantly less aggressive in terms of both progression-free and total survival. We identified a small cohort of WHO grade II-III astrocytomas that harbored the IDH1 R132H mutation, as confirmed by both immunohistochemistry and molecular sequence analysis, which nonetheless had unexpectedly rapid recurrence and subsequent progression to glioblastoma. Among these four cases, the mean time to recurrence as glioblastoma was only 16 months and the mean total survival among the three patients who have died during the follow-up was only 31 months. We hypothesized that these tumors had other, unfavorable genetic or epigenetic alterations that negated the favorable effect of the IDH mutation. We applied genome-wide profiling with a methylation array (Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450k) to screen for genetic and epigenetic alterations in these tumors. As expected, the methylation profiles of all four tumors were found to match most closely with IDH-mutant astrocytomas. Compared with a control group of four indolent, age-similar WHO grade II-III astrocytomas, the tumors showed markedly increased levels of overall copy number changes, but no consistent specific genetic alterations were seen across all of the tumors. While most IDH-mutant WHO grade II-III astrocytomas are relatively indolent, a subset may rapidly recur and progress to glioblastoma. The precise underlying cause of the increased aggressiveness in these gliomas remains unknown, although it may be associated with increased genomic instability.

  20. Acute gouty arthritis and rapidly progressive renal failure as manifestation of multiple myeloma: clinical case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Gudym

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of multiple myeloma in 78-year-old man, its clinical onset was as an acute attack of gout. The patient was admitted to hospital due to the development of the first acute attack of gout. The attack was characterized by polyarthricular joint lesion of the upper and lower extremities, pronounced inflammatory reaction, insufficient response to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and a high level of hyperuricemia. The serum uric acid concentration ranged from 636 to 712 μmol/l. The study of the synovial fluid of the inflamed knee joint made it possible to reveal uric acid crystals and to confirm the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritis. Simultaneously, the patient had significant renal impairment: creatinine was 574 μmol/l, urea — 39.9 mmol/l, glomerular filtration rate according to CKD-EPI — 8 ml/min. The daily proteinuria was 1.8 g. A retrospective assessment of laboratory parameters allowed to reveal completely normal indicators of renal function 6 months ago. Considering the development of acute gouty arthritis, its polyarticular nature, persistent course, rapid involvement of new joints, high uric acid levels during an acute attack exceeding 600 μmol/l (10 mg/dL, rapid development of renal failure within 6 months until the terminal stage, it was suggested the secondary nature of gout on the background of kidney damage by another pathological process. Further clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies allowed verifying multiple myeloma with renal damage. Bence Jones protein in the urine was not detected, there was also no evidence of hyperproteinemia. However, pain in the spine, ribs and chest was the basis for carrying out an X-ray study of the bones of the skeleton. Changes in the skeleton typical for multiple myeloma have been identified. Myelogram showed a high content of plasma cells (21.1 %, electrophoresis of blood proteins showed a high M-gradient (30.42 %, and a cytochemical

  1. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapidly Progressive Pancreatic Lipomatosis in a Young Adult Patient with Transfusion-dependent Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipomatosis is defined as deposition of fat cells in pancreatic parenchyma. Although the etiology of this condition is still unclear, it is not uncommon in the elderly obese individuals, and a variety of transfusion-dependent hematologic diseases such as β-thalassemia major. Pancreatic lipomatosis associated with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS has never been reported. We present a 17-year-old male patient with transfusion-dependent MDS. He received transfusion of a total of 345 units of blood in a period of 18 months but without iron chelating agent. Progressive fatty replacement of the pancreas parenchyma was found by a series of computed tomography images over seven hospital admissions due to repeated infections. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemosiderin deposition. Because of his poor response to induction chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation was suggested, but the patient died of sepsis before the therapeutic procedure could take place. Although most patients with pancreatic lipomatosis have neither clinical symptoms nor abnormal laboratory data, it may cause endocrine and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. In this reported case, mild exocrine dysfunction was noted on the last admission. Clinicians should be cautious of hemosiderin deposition after large amount of blood transfusion and chelating therapy should be given to avoid iron overload.

  3. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma with rapid progression and fatal outcome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Ghizlane

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Leiomyosarcomas are neoplasms of smooth muscles that most commonly arise from the uterus, gastrointestinal tract, or soft tissue. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only nine cases have been published to date. Because of the rarity of pleural leiomyosarcoma and its similarity (clinical and histological to other pleural neoplasms, particularly sarcomatous mesothelioma, diagnosis is often difficult. Case presentation A 58-year-old North African man was admitted with complaints of dyspnea and chest pain to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion and pleural thickening. A transthoracic needle biopsy yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, and tumor cells were strongly and uniformly positive for vimentin, a smooth muscle actin at immunohistochemical analysis. A general examination did not show any metastatic lesions in other areas. One month after diagnosis, the tumor grew rapidly, with pulmonary invasion, and therefore he was treated only by palliative care. He died from respiratory failure one month later. Because no organ of origin of the leiomyosarcoma, other than the pleura, was detected, this case was diagnosed as a primary pleural leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions Although leiomyosarcoma originating from the pleura is rare, this entity is increasingly described. The purpose of presenting this case report is to raise awareness among clinicians to consider this clinical entity as a differential diagnosis when a pleural mass is identified.

  4. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  5. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  6. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A.; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A.; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D.; Smith, Colette J.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Phillips, A.; Mocroft, A.; Tverland, J.; Mansfeld, M.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Brandt, R. Salbøl; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundström, A.; Delforge, M.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Kjær, J.; Sjøl, A.; Meidahl, P.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Iversen, J. Schmidt; Kirk, O.; Ross, M.; Fux, C. A.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Kesselring, A. M.; Kamara, D. A.; Weber, R.; Pradier, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Kowalska, J.; Sabin, C.; Law, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Bower, M.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Donald, A.; Grulich, A.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, dr T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, Drs J. C.; van der Valk, Drs M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Pronk, M. J. H.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; Branger, J.; Schippers, F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R. W.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Bauer, M. P.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, Drs G.; Kortmann, W.; Stuart, J. W. T. Cohen; Diederen, B. M. W.; Leyten, M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Barth, R. E.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Durand, N. N.; Voigt, R.; Chêne, G.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Bernard, N.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Dauchy, F. A.; de Witte, S.; Dupon, M.; Duffau, P.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Gemain, M. C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lataste, P.; Lafarie, S.; Lazaro, E.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J. P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Receveur, M. C.; Tchamgoué, S.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Viallard, J. F.; Moreau, J. F.; Pellegrin, I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M. E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; D'Ivernois, C.; Hanapier, C.; Leleux, O.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Sicard, X.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Petoumenos, K.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Watson, K.; Roth, N.; Nicholson, J.; Bloch, M.; Franic, T.; Baker, D.; Vale, R.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Calvo, G.; Mateu, S.; Domingo, P.; Sambeat, M. A.; Gatell, J.; del Cacho, E.; Cadafalch, J.; Fuster, M.; Codina, C.; Sirera, G.; Vaqué, A.; de Wit, S.; Clumeck, N.; Necsoi, C.; Gennotte, A. F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Payen, M. C.; Semaille, P.; van Laethem, Y.; Neaton, J.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; Abrams, D. I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L. R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Lundgren, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Grint, D.; Podlekareva, D.; Peters, L.; Reekie, J.; Fischer, A. H.; Losso, M.; Elias, C.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Machala, L.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Gerstoft, J.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.- P.; Girard, P.- M.; Livrozet, J. M.; Vanhems, P.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Staszewski, S.; Bickel, M.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Panos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; Hassoun, G.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Chirianni, A.; Montesarchio, E.; Gargiulo, M.; Antonucci, G.; Testa, A.; Narciso, P.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Pynka, M.; Parczewski, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Babes, Victor; Zakharova, N.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Gutierrez, M.; Karlsson, A.; Mateo, G.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Francioli, P.; Cavassini, M.; Hirschel, B.; Boffi, E.; Kravchenko, E.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A. M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M. A.; Murphy, M.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Morfeldt, L.; Thulin, G.; Åkerlund, B.; Koppel, K.; Håkangård, C.; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, Massimo; Ammassari, Adriana; Antinori, Andrea; Balotta, Claudia; Bonfanti, Paolo; Bonora, Stefano; Borderi, Marco; Capobianchi, M. Rosaria; Castagna, Antonella; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Cingolani, Antonella; Cinque, Paola; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; de Luca, Andrea; Di Biagio, Antonio; Girardi, Enrico; Gianotti, Nicola; Gori, Andrea; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Lichtner, Miriam; Madeddu, Giordano; Maggiolo, Franco; Marchetti, Giulia; Marcotullio, Simone; Monno, Laura; Mussini, Cristina; Puoti, Massimo; Quiros, Eugenia; Rusconi, Stefano; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Marchetti, G.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.; Onofrio, M.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Guida, M. G.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Andreoni, M.; Cingolani, A.; d' Avino, A.; Ammassari, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Mura, M. S.; Madeddu, G.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Bonora, S.; Sciandra, M.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Caissotti, C.; Dellamonica, P.; Bernard, E.; Cua, E.; de Salvador- Guillouet, F.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pillet, S.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P. M.; Dollet, K.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton- Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Egger, M.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Martinetti, G.; de Tejada, B. Martinez; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, A.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Yerly, S.

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data

  7. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons : the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  8. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, D.A.; Ryom, L.; Ross, M.; Kirk, O.; Reiss, P.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Fux, C.A.; Mocroft, A.; Sabin, C.; Lundgren, J.D.; Smith, C.J.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Crevel, R. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in

  9. Progressive Retrenchment: A Strategy for Home Economics Survival in the Secondary School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judy Haymore

    1987-01-01

    The author argues that home economics educators must plan better for retrenchment, since currently the courses being cut (consumer education and family relations) are the ones that are most relevant to modern life. (CH)

  10. Clinical follow-up data and the rate of development of precocious and rapidly progressive puberty in patients with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Dilek; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Cetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2018-01-26

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical follow-up data of patients with premature thelarche and determine the rate of development of precocious and early puberty in these patients. The charts of 158 girls with premature thelarche who were followed-up in our pediatric endocrinology polyclinic were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the age at onset: group 1 (0-1 month) (n=12), group 2 (1-24 months) (n=40) and group 3 (2-8 years) (n=106). At admission, the mean height standard deviation score (SDS), body weight (BW)-SDS, body mass index (BMI) and BMI-SDS were significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 and group 2. At admission, 8.8% of the patients were obese and 24% of the patients were overweight. The majority of patients who were obese and overweight were in group 3. At the end of the follow-up, thelarche regressed in 24.7%, persisted in 32.9%, progressed in 25.9% and had a cyclic pattern in 16.5% of the patients. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 47 of the 158 patients (29.7%). The mean age at progression to early or rapidly progressive puberty was 98.1±17.6 months. A total of 89.3% of the patients who progressed to early or rapidly progressive puberty were in group 3. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 29.7% of subjects with premature thelarche. As patients who developed rapidly progressive puberty had a higher BW-SDS and BMI-SDS than those who did not, it is suggested that the increase in weight could stimulate rapidly progressive puberty in cases with premature thelarche.

  11. Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Norman; Pendergrass, William; Singh, Narendra; Swisshelm, Karen; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2008-02-05

    This study was directed to assess the DNA damage and DNA repair response to X-ray inflicted lens oxidative damage and to investigate the subsequent changes in lens epithelial cell (LEC) behavior in vivo that led to long delayed but then rapidly developing cataracts. Two-month-old C57Bl/6 female mice received 11 Grays (Gy) of soft x-irradiation to the head only. The animals' eyes were examined for cataract status in 30 day intervals by slit lamp over an 11 month period post-irradiation. LEC migration, DNA fragment, free DNA retention, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) presence were established in the living lenses with fluorescent dyes using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The extent and removal of initial LEC DNA damage were determined by comet assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the presence of oxidized DNA and the response of a DNA repair protein in the lenses. This treatment resulted in advanced cortical cataracts that developed 5-11 months post-irradiation but then appeared suddenly within a 30 day period. The initially incurred DNA strand breaks were repaired within 30 min, but DNA damage remained as shown 72 h post-irradiation by the presence of the DNA adduct, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), and a DNA repair protein, XRCC1. This was followed months later by abnormal behavior by LEC descendant cells with abnormal differentiation and migration patterns as seen with LSCM and fluorescent dyes. The sudden development of cortical cataracts several months post-irradiation coupled with the above findings suggests an accumulation of damaged descendants from the initially x-irradiated LECs. As these cells migrate abnormally and leave acellular lens surface sites, eventually a crisis point may arrive for lens entry of environmental O(2) with resultant ROS formation that overwhelms protection by resident antioxidant enzymes and results in the coagulation of lens proteins. The events seen in this study indicate the retention and transmission of

  12. Birth weight and delivery practice in a Vietnamese rural district during 12 year of rapid economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thu; Eriksson, Bo; Tran, Toan Khanh; Nguyen, Chuc Thi Kim; Ascher, Henry

    2013-02-19

    Since the Doi Moi reform 1986 economic conditions in Vietnam have changed significantly and positive health and health care developments have been observed. International experience shows that improved economic conditions in a country can reduce the risk of perinatal mortality, decrease the risk of low birth weight and increase the mean birth weight in newborns. The Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) FilaBavi in Bavi district outside Hanoi city has been operational since 1999. An open cohort of more than 12,000 households (52,000 persons) has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy and education. The aim of this research is to study trends in birth weight as well as birth and delivery practices over the time period 1999-2010 in FilaBavi in relation to the social and economic development. Information about birth weight, sex, place and method of delivery, mother's age and education as well as household economy of 10,114 children, born from 1999 to 2010, was obtained from the routine data collection in the HDSS. Over the study period the mean birth weight remained at the same level, about 3,100 g, in spite of increased economic resources and technology development. At the individual child level we found associations between birth weight and household economy as well as the education of the mother. Hospital delivery increased from about 35% to 65% and the use of Caesarian section increased from 2.6% to 10.1%. During the twelve years studied, household income as well as the use of modern technology increased rapidly. In spite of that, the mean and variation of birth weight did not change systematically. It is suggested that increasing gaps in economic conditions and misallocation of resources, possibly to overuse of technology, are partly responsible.

  13. Economic impact of rapid diagnostic methods in Clinical Microbiology: Price of the test or overall clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The need to reduce the time it takes to establish a microbiological diagnosis and the emergence of new molecular microbiology and proteomic technologies has fuelled the development of rapid and point-of-care techniques, as well as the so-called point-of-care laboratories. These laboratories are responsible for conducting both techniques partially to response to the outsourcing of the conventional hospital laboratories. Their introduction has not always been accompanied with economic studies that address their cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility, but rather tend to be limited to the unit price of the test. The latter, influenced by the purchase procedure, does not usually have a regulated reference value in the same way that medicines do. The cost-effectiveness studies that have recently been conducted on mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of bacteraemia and the use of antimicrobials have had the greatest clinical impact and may act as a model for future economic studies on rapid and point-of-care tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  15. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyi, Yin; Funian, Zou; Hao, Li; Ying, Cheng; Jialin, Zhang; Baifeng, Li

    2017-01-01

    Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods). Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets). In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  16. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, manifesting as rapidly progressive dementia without any mass or enhancing brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Nakano, Yuta; Tsuyama, Naoko; Murayama, Shigeo; Oki, Ryosuke; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Murakami, Nagahisa; Fujita, Koji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Uehara, Hisanori; Abe, Takashi; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-10-01

    Among the many potential etiologies for rapidly progressive dementia (RPD), primary central nervous system extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKL) is a rare entity. We present the first reported case of autopsy-proven RPD due to ENKL without any mass or enhancing lesion of the brain. A 54-year-old immunocompetent man presented with RPD, myoclonus and ataxia. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score was 22/30. His brain MRI revealed progressive brain atrophy without gadolinium enhancement or mass lesion. Five months after the initial evaluation, cognitive impairment further worsened with an MMSE score of 3/30. At the advanced stage, lumbar MRI showed swollen cauda equina with gadolinium enhancement. The number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid had gradually increased. Twelve months after onset, the patient died of respiratory failure. Pathological findings revealed that lymphoma cells had diffusely invaded the meninges, parenchyma of the brain, spinal cord and cauda equina. Cells were positive for CD3, CD56 and EBV-encoded small RNAs and negative for CD20. No evidence of malignancy was identified in the visceral organs. This report indicates that ENKL should be recognized as one of the rare causes of RPD. Early testing for EBV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and imaging of cauda equina would be useful diagnostic tools. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Rapidly progressive psychotic symptoms triggered by infection in a patient with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Shin; Nakamura, Masataka; Asayama, Shinya; Kunieda, Takenobu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Osaka, Hitoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2017-02-28

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism inherited in autosomal recessive pattern and is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological abnormalities. We herein describe a 15-year-old boy with MTHFR deficiency who presented with a slowly progressive decline of school performance and a spastic gait. Rapidly deteriorating psychosis and repetitive seizures triggered by a febrile infection prompted neurological investigation. He had significantly elevated total plasma homocysteine and urinary homocystine levels, as well as a decreased plasma methionine level. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed leukoencephalopathy. DNA gene sequencing showed c.446_447 del GC ins TT and c.137G > A, and c.665C > T heterozygous mutations in the MTHFR gene of the patient. Oral administration of betaine drastically improved his clinical symptoms within a few months. After 8 months of treatment, his total plasma homocysteine level moderately decreased; and the plasma methionine concentration became normalized. Furthermore, the white matter lesions on MRI had disappeared. This patient demonstrates the possibility that MTHFR deficiency should be considered in mentally retarded adolescents who display an abnormally elevated plasma level of homocysteine in association with progressive neurological dysfunction and leukoencephalopathy. Febrile infections may be an aggravating factor in patients with MTHFR deficiency.

  18. Immunological Basis for Rapid Progression of Diabetes in Older NOD Mouse Recipients Post BM-HSC Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D, mediated by autoreactive T cell destruction of insulin-producing islet beta cells, has been treated with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell (BM-HSC transplantation. Older non-obese diabetic (NOD mice recipients (3m, at disease-onset stage receiving syngeneic BM-HSC progressed more rapidly to end-stage diabetes post-transplantation than younger recipients (4-6w, at disease-initiation stage. FACS analyses showed a higher percentage and absolute number of regulatory T cells (Treg and lower proportion of proliferating T conventional cells (Tcon in pancreatic lymph nodes from the resistant mice among the younger recipients compared to the rapid progressors among the older recipients. Treg distribution in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, blood and thymus between the two groups was similar. However, the percentage of thymic Tcon and the proliferation of Tcon in MLN and blood were lower in the young resistants. These results suggest recipient age and associated disease stage as a variable to consider in BM-HSC transplantation for treating T1D.

  19. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  20. Rapid and Economic Access to Some NSAIDS-Based Bioactive Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave energy for the synthesis is considered as one of the alternate strategies. The present work includes the synthesis of some newer 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues using both conventional and alternate rapid methods.The conventional method involves the synthesis of the target molecules by using cyclodehydrating agent like POCl3, while the other method consists of using some catalytic reagents like PbO2. Also, the short reaction time provided by microwave synthesis makes it ideal for the reaction. Hence, this project describes an efficient and operationally simple method for the microwave-assisted synthesis of some bioactive heterocycles based on NSAIDs.

  1. [Reasearch progress in health economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyao; Shi, Jufang; Dai, Min

    2015-08-01

    Burden of colorectal cancer is rising in China. More attention and financial input have been paid to it by central government that colorectal cancer screening program has been carried out recently in many areas in China. Diversity of screening strategies and limited health resources render selecting the best strategy in a population-wide program a challenging task that economy was also required to be considered except safety and efficacy. To provide a reference for the subsequent further economic evaluation, here we reviewed the evidence available on the economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening in China. Meanwhile, information related to screening strategies, participation and mid-term efficacy of screening, information and results on economic evaluation were extracted and summarized. Three of the four studies finally included evaluated strategies combining immunochemical fecel occult blood test (iFOBT) with high-risk factor questionnaire as initial screening, colonoscopy as diagnostic screening. There was a consensus regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of screening compared to no screening. Whereas the lack and poor comparability between studies, multi-perspective and multi-phase economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening is needed, relying on current population-based screening program to conduct a comprehensive cost accounting.

  2. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  3. The "Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress" Report and Quality of Life: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 the Stiglitz Commission presented its report on the Measurement of Progress in Societies. The report was commissioned by President Sarkozy of France in 2008. Among its members, the Commission had five Nobel laureates. The report emphasizes three areas which require further attention by statistical offices and policy makers: A better…

  4. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  5. Development of a Sensitive Outcome for Economical Drug Screening for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Peter; Ghazali, Danish; Tanigawa, Makoto; Barbour, Chris; Cortese, Irene; Kelley, William; Snyder, Blake; Ohayon, Joan; Fenton, Kaylan; Lehky, Tanya; Wu, Tianxia; Greenwood, Mark; Nair, Govind; Bielekova, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic advance in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) has been very slow. Based on the transformative role magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast-enhancing lesions had on drug development for relapsing-remitting MS, we consider the lack of sensitive outcomes to be the greatest barrier for developing new treatments for progressive MS. The purpose of this study was to compare 58 prospectively acquired candidate outcomes in the real-world situation of progressive MS trials to select and validate the best-performing outcome. The 1-year pre-treatment period of adaptively designed IPPoMS (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00950248) and RIVITaLISe (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01212094) Phase II trials served to determine the primary outcome for the subsequent blinded treatment phase by comparing 8 clinical, 1 electrophysiological, 1 optical coherence tomography, 7 MRI volumetric, 9 quantitative T1 MRI, and 32 diffusion tensor imaging MRI outcomes. Fifteen outcomes demonstrated significant progression over 1 year (Δ) in the predetermined analysis and seven out of these were validated in two independent cohorts. Validated MRI outcomes had limited correlations with clinical scales, relatively poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and recorded overlapping values between healthy subjects and MS patients with moderate-severe disability. Clinical measures correlated better, even though each reflects a somewhat different disability domain. Therefore, using machine-learning techniques, we developed a combinatorial weight-adjusted disability score (CombiWISE) that integrates four clinical scales: expanded disability status scale (EDSS), Scripps neurological rating scale, 25 foot walk and 9 hole peg test. CombiWISE outperformed all clinical scales (Δ = 9.10%; p = 0.0003) and all MRI outcomes. CombiWISE recorded no overlapping values between healthy subjects and disabled MS patients, had high SNR, and predicted changes in EDSS in a longitudinal assessment of 98 progressive MS

  6. The development of capability measures in health economics: opportunities, challenges and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Kinghorn, Philip; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Recent years have seen increased engagement amongst health economists with the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen and others. This paper focuses on the capability approach in relation to the evaluative space used for analysis within health economics. It considers the opportunities that the capability approach offers in extending this space, but also the methodological challenges associated with moving from the theoretical concepts to practical empirical applications. The paper then examines three 'families' of measures, Oxford Capability instruments (OxCap), Adult Social Care Outcome Toolkit (ASCOT) and ICEpop CAPability (ICECAP), in terms of the methodological choices made in each case. The paper concludes by discussing some of the broader issues involved in making use of the capability approach in health economics. It also suggests that continued exploration of the impact of different methodological choices will be important in moving forward.

  7. Bureaucracy, Infrastructure, and Economic Growth: Evidence from U.S. Cities During the Progressive Era

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Rauch

    1994-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of economic development has emphasized the establishment of a professional bureaucracy in place of political appointees as an important component of the institutional environment in which private enterprise can flourish. I hypothesize that establishment of such a bureaucracy will lengthen the period that public decision makers are willing to wait to realize the benefits of expenditures, leading to allocation of a greater proportion of government resources to long-...

  8. An economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage O-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, H; Bürgi, E; Margadant, A; Boller, E

    1978-01-01

    An easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of Salmonella/Shigella. In the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage O-1 of FELIX and CALLOW is tested. Positive cultures are serologically confirmed. The test is performed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. Phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if Shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for indol production and motility in a semisolid tryptophane agar. Of 22880 Salmonella straine 21977, i.e. 96.1% were phage-sensitive. Strains belonging to certain O-groups (OE) or species are lysed at a lower percentage. However, since they are lysine decarboxylase positive they are not lost and can be submitted to a serological examination.

  9. The performance of matrices in daily clinical practice to predict rapid radiologic progression in patients with early RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, D; Vanderschueren, G; Meyfroidt, S; Joly, J; Van der Elst, K; Westhovens, R; Verschueren, P

    2014-04-01

    To compare in daily clinical practice the reliability of matrices that forecast rapid radiologic progression (RRP) at year one, at year two, and over 2 years in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Overall, 74 early RA patients with X-rays of hands and feet at baseline, year one, and year two were included. Initial DMARD combination therapy with steroids (ICTS) or DMARD monotherapy (IMT) was initiated according to patients' RA severity, based on rheumatologist opinion. The images were scored via the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH) method. A total Sharp score progression of equal or higher than five per year was considered RRP. Six matrices were tested: ASPIRE CRP/ESR matrices, the BEST matrix, two SWEFOT matrices, and the ESPOIR matrix. Patients were placed in each of them yielding a RRP probability. The performance was tested by Area Under the Curve analysis reflecting the predictive value. Four patients developed RRP in year one, five in year two, and four over 2 years. With regard to face validity, the predicted probability did not correspond to the risk in reality: the one ICTS patient who developed RRP over 2 years was always found in the lowest RRP categories of all matrices. The ASPIRE CRP matrix yielded at least a moderate predicting value for the three time points. The other matrices showed moderate to no predicting value. The performance of all matrices was disappointing and it is impossible to fully rely on the existing matrices in daily clinical practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Techno-economical study of ethanol and biogas from spruce wood by NMMO-pretreatment and rapid fermentation and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2011-09-01

    Given that N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is a promising alternative for the pretreatment of lignocelluloses, a novel process for ethanol and biogas production from wood was developed. The solvent, NMMO, is concentrated by multistage evaporation, and the wood is pretreated with the concentrated NMMO. Thereafter, ethanol is produced by the non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (NSSF) method, which is a rapid and efficient process. The wastewater is treated by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester for rapid production of biogas. The process was simulated by Aspen plus®. Using mechanical vapor recompression for evaporators in the pretreatment and multi-pressure distillation columns, the energy requirements for the process were minimized. The economical feasibility of the developed biorefinery for five different plant capacities was studied by Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. The base case was designed to utilize 200,000 tons of spruce wood per year and required M€ 58.3 as the total capital investment, while the production cost of ethanol is calculated to be €/l 0.44. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of total cost and economic consequences of progression for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikian, Steven R; Milentijevic, Dejan; Binder, Gary; Gibson, Craig J; Hu, X Henry; Nagarwala, Yasir; Hussein, Mohamad; Corvino, Frank A; Surinach, Andy; Usmani, Saad Z

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the cost patterns of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) before and after first relapse. This US claims analysis evaluated, from a US health plan perspective, patterns of total direct costs of care from treatment initiation to progression for patients with MM treated with novel agents, using time to next therapy (TTNT) as a proxy measure for progression. A retrospective study was conducted using a large US claims database, evaluating patients with claims for MM between 2006 and 2013. Patients with claims for stem cell transplant (SCT) were excluded. The analysis focused on patients receiving lenalidomide (LEN) or bortezomib (BORT) based treatment, for whom complete claim history was available through initiation of subsequent treatment. Average patient monthly direct costs were determined, including medical and pharmacy costs, and total cost patterns over quarterly time periods were calculated. The study population comprised 2843 patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) and 1361 with relapsed MM. Total monthly cost for patients with NDMM declined steadily, from $15,734 initially to $5082 at 18+ months after therapy. Upon initiation of second-line therapy, total monthly costs rose to $13,876 and declined to $6446 18 months later. Although NDMM cost levels for individual ordinal months were similar between the LEN and BORT groups, TTNT was longer for LEN-based treatments (37 months). The BORT-treated cohort had higher average monthly total costs for NDMM and for the common time period through 37 months after initiation of therapy ($7534 vs $10,763 for LEN and BORT, respectively). Key limitations of this study, in addition to the lack of mortality and staging information available from claims data, include the definition of TTNT based on change in treatment or a defined gap in therapy prior to retreatment, which may differ from actual time of progression in some patients. For patients with NDMM receiving either LEN- or BORT-based treatment

  13. Development economics. A multifaceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor: evidence from six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Duflo, Esther; Goldberg, Nathanael; Karlan, Dean; Osei, Robert; Parienté, William; Shapiro, Jeremy; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher

    2015-05-15

    We present results from six randomized control trials of an integrated approach to improve livelihoods among the very poor. The approach combines the transfer of a productive asset with consumption support, training, and coaching plus savings encouragement and health education and/or services. Results from the implementation of the same basic program, adapted to a wide variety of geographic and institutional contexts and with multiple implementing partners, show statistically significant cost-effective impacts on consumption (fueled mostly by increases in self-employment income) and psychosocial status of the targeted households. The impact on the poor households lasted at least a year after all implementation ended. It is possible to make sustainable improvements in the economic status of the poor with a relatively short-term intervention. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The economics of new drugs: can we afford to make progress in a common disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Bradford R; Schulman, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    The concept of personalized medicine is beginning to come to fruition, but the cost of drug development is untenable today. To identify new initiatives that would support a more sustainable business model, the economics of drug development are analyzed, including the cost of drug development, cost of capital, target market size, returns to innovators at the product and firm levels, and, finally, product pricing. We argue that a quick fix is not available. Instead, a rethinking of the entire pharmaceutical development process is needed from the way that clinical trials are conducted, to the role of biomarkers in segmenting markets, to the use of grant support, and conditional approval to decrease the cost of capital. In aggregate, the opportunities abound.

  15. The Economic and Clinical Impact of Sustained Use of a Progressive Mobility Program in a Neuro-ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jeannette M; Guin, Peggy R; Danek, Gale D; Thomas, Jaime R; Titsworth, William L; Reed, Richard K; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Fahy, Brenda G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate a progressive mobility program in a neurocritical care population with the hypothesis that the benefits and outcomes of the program (e.g., decreased length of stay) would have a significant positive economic impact. Retrospective analysis of economic and clinical outcome data before, immediately following, and 2 years after implementation of the Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus program (UF Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL) involving a series of planned movements in a sequential manner with an additional six levels of rehabilitation in the neuro-ICU at UF Health Shands Hospital. Thirty-bed neuro-ICU in an academic medical center. Adult neurologic and neurosurgical patients: 1,118 patients in the pre period, 731 patients in the post period, and 796 patients in the sustained period. Implementation of Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus. ICU length of stay decreased from 6.5 to 5.8 days in the immediate post period and 5.9 days in the sustained period (F(2,2641) = 3.1; p = 0.045). Hospital length of stay was reduced from 11.3 ± 14.1 days to 8.6 ± 8.8 post days and 8.8 ± 9.3 days sustained (F(2,2641) = 13.0; p ICU length of stay (p = 0.031) and hospital length of stay (p < 0.001) remained after adjustment for age, sex, diagnoses, sedation, and ventilation. Hospital-acquired infections were reduced by 50%. Average total cost per patient after adjusting for inflation was significantly reduced by 16% (post period) and 11% (sustained period) when compared with preintervention (F(2,2641) = 3.1; p = 0.045). Overall, these differences translated to an approximately $12.0 million reduction in direct costs from February 2011 through the end of 2013. An ongoing progressive mobility program in the neurocritical care population has clinical and financial benefits associated with its implementation and should be considered.

  16. Social, economic, and political factors in progress towards improving child survival in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykens, Kristine; Singh, Karan P; Ndukwe, Elewichi; Bae, Sejong

    2009-01-01

    Child mortality is a persistent health problem faced by developing nations. In 2000 the United Nations (UN) established a set of high priority goals to address global problems of poverty and health, the Millennium Development Goals, which address extreme poverty, hunger, primary education, child mortality, maternal health, infectious diseases, environmental sustainability, and partnerships for development. Goal 4 aims to reduce by two thirds, between 2000 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2006 these rates have only been reduced from 167 per 1,000 live births to 157, and 27 nations in this region have made no progress towards the goal. A country-specific database was developed from the UN Millennium Development Goal tracking project and other international sources which include age distribution, under-nutrition, per capita income, government expenditures on health, external resources for health, civil liberties, and political rights. A multiple regression analysis examined the extent to which these factors explain the variance in child mortality rates in developing countries. Nutrition, external resources, and per capita income were shown to be significant factors in child survivability. Policy options include developed countries' renewed commitment of resources, and developing nations' commitments towards governance, development, equity, and transparency.

  17. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda

    2012-01-01

    in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels...

  18. The performance of the progressive resolution optimizer (PRO) for RapidArc planning in targets with low-density media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Monica W K; Leung, Lucullus H T; Yu, Peter K N

    2013-11-04

    A new version of progressive resolution optimizer (PRO) with an option of air cavity correction has been implemented for RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of this new PRO with the use of air cavity correction option (PRO10_air) against the one without the use of the air cavity correction option (PRO10_no-air) for RapidArc planning in targets with low-density media of different sizes and complexities. The performance of PRO10_no-air and PRO10_air was initially compared using single-arc plans created for four different simple heterogeneous phantoms with virtual targets and organs at risk. Multiple-arc planning of 12 real patients having nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) and ten patients having non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were then performed using the above two options for further comparison. Dose calculations were performed using both the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm with the dose to medium option and the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA). The effect of using intermediate dose option after the first optimization cycle in PRO10_air and PRO10_no-air was also investigated and compared. Plans were evaluated and compared using target dose coverage, critical organ sparing, conformity index, and dose homogeneity index. For NSCLC cases or cases for which large volumes of low-density media were present in or adjacent to the target volume, the use of the air cavity correction option in PRO10 was shown to be beneficial. For NPC cases or cases for which small volumes of both low- and high-density media existed in the target volume, the use of air cavity correction in PRO10 did not improve the plan quality. Based on the AXB dose calculation results, the use of PRO10_air could produce up to 18% less coverage to the bony structures of the planning target volumes for NPC cases. When the intermediate dose option in PRO10 was used, there was negligible difference observed in plan quality between

  19. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations.

  20. Progress towards universal health coverage in BRICS: translating economic growth into better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Krishna D; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Araujo, Edson Correia; McIntyre, Diane

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--represent some of the world's fastest growing large economies and nearly 40% of the world's population. Over the last two decades, BRICS have undertaken health-system reforms to make progress towards universal health coverage. This paper discusses three key aspects of these reforms: the role of government in financing health; the underlying motivation behind the reforms; and the value of the lessons learnt for non-BRICS countries. Although national governments have played a prominent role in the reforms, private financing constitutes a major share of health spending in BRICS. There is a reliance on direct expenditures in China and India and a substantial presence of private insurance in Brazil and South Africa. The Brazilian health reforms resulted from a political movement that made health a constitutional right, whereas those in China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa were an attempt to improve the performance of the public system and reduce inequities in access. The move towards universal health coverage has been slow. In China and India, the reforms have not adequately addressed the issue of out-of-pocket payments. Negotiations between national and subnational entities have often been challenging but Brazil has been able to achieve good coordination between federal and state entities via a constitutional delineation of responsibility. In the Russian Federation, poor coordination has led to the fragmented pooling and inefficient use of resources. In mixed health systems it is essential to harness both public and private sector resources.

  1. Rapid progressing allele HLA-B35 Px restricted anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells recognize vestigial CTL epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian B Willberg

    Full Text Available The HLA-B*35-Px allele has been associated with rapid disease progression in HIV-1 infection, in contrast to the HLA-B*35-Py allele.Immune responses to two HLA-B*35 restricted HIV-1 specific CTL epitopes and their variants were followed longitudinally during early HIV-1 infection in 16 HLA-B*35+ individuals. Subjects expressing HLA-B*35-Px alleles showed no difference in response to the consensus epitopes compared to individuals with HLA-B*35-Py alleles. Surprisingly, all the HLA-B*35-Px+ individuals responded to epitope-variants even in the absence of a consensus response. Sequencing of the viral population revealed no evidence of variant virus in any of the individuals.This demonstrates a novel phenomenon that distinguishes individuals with the HLA-B*35-Px rapid progressing allele and those with the HLA-B*35-Py slower progressing allele.

  2. The economic costs of progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy in France, Germany and the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McCrone

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and multiple system atrophy (MSA are progressive disabling neurological conditions usually fatal within 10 years of onset. Little is known about the economic costs of these conditions. This paper reports service use and costs from France, Germany and the UK and identifies patient characteristics that are associated with cost. 767 patients were recruited, and 760 included in the study, from 44 centres as part of the NNIPPS trial. Service use during the previous six months was measured at entry to the study and costs calculated. Mean six-month costs were calculated for 742 patients. Data on patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded and used in regression models to identify predictors of service costs and unpaid care costs (i.e., care from family and friends. The mean six-month service costs of PSP were €24,491 in France, €30,643 in Germany and €25,655 in the UK. The costs for MSA were €28,924, €25,645 and €19,103 respectively. Unpaid care accounted for 68-76%. Formal and unpaid costs were significantly higher the more severe the illness, as indicated by the Parkinson's Plus Symptom scale. There was a significant inverse relationship between service and unpaid care costs.

  3. Economic Impact of a New Rapid PCR Assay for Detecting Influenza Virus in an Emergency Department and Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Vilella, Anna; Pantoja, Efraín; Asenjo, María; Arjona, Ruth; Hurtado, Juan Carlos; Trilla, Antoni; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Mira, Aurea; Vila, Jordi; Marcos, María Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality and has a substantial economic impact on the healthcare system. The main objective of this study was to compare the cost per patient for a rapid commercial PCR assay (Xpert® Flu) with an in-house real-time PCR test for detecting influenza virus. Community patients with influenza like-illness attending the Emergency Department (ED) as well as hospitalized patients in the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona were included. Costs were evaluated from the perspective of the hospital considering the use of resources directly related to influenza testing and treatment. For the purpose of this study, 366 and 691 patients were tested in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The Xpert® Flu test reduced the mean waiting time for patients in the ED by 9.1 hours and decreased the mean isolation time of hospitalized patients by 23.7 hours. This was associated with a 103€ (or about $113) reduction in the cost per patient tested in the ED and 64€ ($70) per hospitalized patient. Sensitivity analyses showed that Xpert® Flu is likely to be cost-saving in hospitals with different contexts and prices.

  4. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  5. Plasma Leucine-Rich α-2-Glycoprotein 1 Predicts Rapid eGFR Decline and Albuminuria Progression in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Pek, Sharon Li Ting; Ang, Kevin; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Lim, Su Chi

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) is a newly identified angiogenic factor. To study whether plasma LRG1 may independently predict progression of DKD in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Prospective cohort study in a regional hospital. In total, 1226 T2DM participants were followed for a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 3.1 ± 0.4 years. Albuminuria progression was defined as elevation in albuminuria level to a higher category. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression [rapid estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline] was defined as a 40% or greater deterioration in eGFR in 3 years. Both participants with albuminuria progression and those with CKD progression had higher plasma LRG1 levels at baseline. LRG1 independently predicted albuminuria progression above traditional risk factors, including baseline eGFR and urine albumin to creatinine ratio. A 1-SD increment in LRG1 was associated with a 1.26-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 to 1.53, P = 0.018] higher adjusted risk for albuminuria progression. The association of LRG1 with microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria progression was stronger than its association with normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria progression [odds ratio (OR), 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.18, P = 0.029 vs OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.37, P = 0.486, per 1-SD LRG1 increment]. Also, LRG1 independently predicted CKD progression above traditional risk factors. A 1-SD increment in LRG1 was associated with a 1.48-fold (95% CI, 1.04 to 2.11, P = 0.032) higher adjusted risk for CKD progression. Plasma LRG1 predicts both albuminuria and CKD progression beyond traditional risk factors. It may play a role in the pathologic pathway leading to progression of DKD in T2DM.

  6. So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the…

  7. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  8. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  9. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  10. Rapid disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Veugelers, P. J.; Keet, I. P.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Miedema, F.; Lange, J. M.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between the occurrence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis and the subsequent course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a cohort of homosexual men. Adverse reactions to TMP-SMZ were associated with a more rapid

  11. Optic neuritis and rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis as the initial signs of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report with clinical and histopathologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Merih; Tuncer, Samuray; Kir, Nur; Karacorlu, Murat; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting first with optic neuritis and rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis at the posterior pole. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, photographic, angiographic, and histopathologic records of a patient with SSPE. A 15-year-old girl was referred after rapid loss of vision due to optic neuritis and macular necrosis in the right eye. She had a history of cardiac valve surgery, but had no systemic symptoms and extensive work-up was unrewarding. Contralateral involvement with rapidly progressive optic neuritis and macular necrotizing retinitis prompted retinochoroidal biopsy of the right eye, which revealed necrosis of inner retinal layers and perivascular lymphoplasmocytic infiltration with intact choroid and outer retina without any findings of inclusion bodies, microorganisms, or atypical cells. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings consistent with SSPE, and detection of elevated measles antibody titers in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. It was further confirmed by development of typical electroencephalography pattern at 6 months and neurological symptoms at 4-year follow-up. Clinicians need to be aware that optic neuritis and necrotizing retinitis at the posterior pole may be the presenting features of SSPE.

  12. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  13. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  14. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  15. Headache attack followed by rapid disease progression in pediatric moyamoya disease--how should we manage it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuignier, Sandra; Akioka, Naoki; Hamada, Hideo; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    A 4-year-old female was presented at our hospital with frequent right frontal headache attack. She was diagnosed with moyamoya disease and was conservatively followed up. One year later, the frequency of headache gradually decreased. However, follow-up MR imaging revealed that the disease stage markedly progressed in the right side and cerebral infarction occurred in the temporal lobe with atrophy of the right frontal lobe. She underwent direct and indirect revascularization on the right side. Aware of this case, we would like to emphasize that headache may be one subtype of ischemic attacks and require frequent MR follow-up to see the disease course. If there is any sign of disease progression, immediate surgical intervention should be indicated to avoid irreversible brain damage.

  16. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Stojan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  17. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojan, Jure

    2017-07-26

    Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  18. Efficacy of concurrent treatments in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients with a rapid progression of respiratory failure: an analysis of a national administrative database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Keishi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Hanaka, Tetsuya; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Kido, Takashi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-06-08

    Some IPF patients show a rapid progression of respiratory failure. Most patients are treated with high-dose corticosteroids. However, no large clinical studies have investigated the prognosis or efficacy of combined treatments including high-dose corticosteroids in IPF patients with a rapid progression of respiratory failure. We enrolled IPF patients who received mechanical ventilation and high-dose corticosteroids between April 2010 and March 2013. Records were extracted from a Japanese nationwide inpatient database. We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic and prognostic analysis. Two hundred nine patients receiving an average of 12.8 days of ventilatory support were enrolled. There were 138 (66 %) fatal cases; the median survival was 21 days. The short-term (within 30 days) and long-term (within 90 days) survival rates were 44.6 and 24.6 %, respectively. The average monthly admission rate among the IPF patients with the rapid progression of respiratory failure in the winter was significantly higher than that in spring (p = 0.018). Survival did not differ to a statistically significant extent in the different geographic areas of Japan. Survivors were significantly younger (p = 0.002) with higher rates of mild dyspnea on admission (p = 0.012), they more frequently underwent bronchoscopy (p 80 years of age (OR = 2.94, 95 % Cl 1.044-8.303; p = 0.041) and the intravenous administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (OR = 3.17, 95 % Cl 1.101-9.148; p = 0.033). Undergoing bronchoscopy during intubation (OR = 0.25, 95 % Cl 0.079-0.798; p = 0.019) and the administration of co-trimoxazole (OR = 0.28, 95 % Cl 0.132-0.607; p = 0.001) and macrolides (OR = 0.37, 95 % Cl 0.155-0.867; p = 0.033) were significantly associated with a good prognosis. The dosage of co-trimoxazole significantly correlated with survival. Co-trimoxazole and macrolides may be a good addition to high-dose corticosteroids in the

  19. Emergence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants followed by rapid disease progression in hemophiliac slow progressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunefusa Hayashida

    Full Text Available The association between emergence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants (X4 variants and disease progression of HIV-1 infection has been reported. However, it is not known whether the emergence of X4 variants is the cause or result of HIV-1 disease progression. We tried to answer this question.HIV-1 env sequences around the V3 region were analyzed in serially stocked samples in order to determine whether X4 variants emerged before or after the fall in CD4+ T-cell count.The study subjects were five HIV-1-infected hemophiliac slow progressors. Deep sequencing around the HIV-1 env V3 region was conducted in duplicate. Tropism was predicted by geno2pheno [coreceptor] 2.5 with cutoff value of false positive ratio at <5%. When X4 variant was identified in the latest stocked sample before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, we checked viral genotype in previously stocked samples to determine the time of emergence of X4 variants.Emergence of X4 variants was noted in two of the five patients when their CD4+ T-cell counts were still high. The rate of decrease of CD4+ T-cell count or of rise of HIV-1 load accelerated significantly after the emergence of X4 variants in these two cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these X4 variants emerged from CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses with several amino acid changes in the V3 region.The emergence of X4 variants preceded HIV-1 disease progression in two hemophiliac slow progressors.

  20. Model-based economic evaluation in Alzheimer's disease: a review of the methods available to model Alzheimer's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin; Shearer, James; Ritchie, Craig W; Zajicek, John P

    2011-01-01

    To consider the methods available to model Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression over time to inform on the structure and development of model-based evaluations, and the future direction of modelling methods in AD. A systematic search of the health care literature was undertaken to identify methods to model disease progression in AD. Modelling methods are presented in a descriptive review. The literature search identified 42 studies presenting methods or applications of methods to model AD progression over time. The review identified 10 general modelling frameworks available to empirically model the progression of AD as part of a model-based evaluation. Seven of these general models are statistical models predicting progression of AD using a measure of cognitive function. The main concerns with models are on model structure, around the limited characterization of disease progression, and on the use of a limited number of health states to capture events related to disease progression over time. None of the available models have been able to present a comprehensive model of the natural history of AD. Although helpful, there are serious limitations in the methods available to model progression of AD over time. Advances are needed to better model the progression of AD and the effects of the disease on peoples' lives. Recent evidence supports the need for a multivariable approach to the modelling of AD progression, and indicates that a latent variable analytic approach to characterising AD progression is a promising avenue for advances in the statistical development of modelling methods. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira

    2017-10-30

    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ < -2) and underweight (WAZ < -2) children. Access to health care was measured by prevalence of fully immunised children <5 years. Multivariate multi-level logistic mixed modelling was used to estimate the effect of socio-economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in all three outcomes, but the effect of socio-economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p < 0.001). The effect of maternal education on stunting prevalence continued over the 10 years, in both 2000 and 2010 children were twice as likely to be stunted if their mother had no education compared to university education (2000 OR = 0.45; 95% CI:0.28,0.73, p < 0.01,2010 OR =0.55; 95% CI:0.35,0.87, p < 0.05). Economic growth in

  2. Participation, Progression and Value Added: Business and Economics for 14-19-Year-Olds in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Cullimore, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to map the business and economics curriculum and explain some of the reasons for it being as it is; and to examine the number of students choosing to study the subjects and the "perceived relative value" of studying economics and business studies. In 1988 a National Curriculum was introduced for all 5-16-year-olds…

  3. The Nation's Report Card: Economics 2012. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 12. NCES 2013-453

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Economic literacy is vital for functioning effectively in today's society. Consumers need to manage their finances, investors need to plan for their future, and voters need to choose among competing economic plans. As students move on to college or enter the workforce, their understanding of the economy will help them become financially…

  4. Rapid Industrial Development, Competition, and Relative Economic Status: A Study in Human Ecology. Working Paper RID 73.10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Gene F.; Clemente, Frank

    The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,…

  5. Case report of a 28-year-old male with the rapid progression of steroid-resistant central nervous system vasculitis diagnosed by a brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keigo; Sato, Hideki; Hattori, Hidenori; Takao, Masaki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-09-30

    A 28-year-old Japanese male without a significant past medical history presented with new-onset generalized clonic seizure and headache. A brain MRI revealed multiple enhanced lesions on both cerebral hemispheres. Laboratory exams showed no evidence of systemic inflammation or auto-immune antibodies such as ANCAs. Despite four courses of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and five treatments with plasmapheresis, his symptoms worsened and the MRI lesions progressed rapidly. During these treatments, we performed a targeted brain biopsy, that revealed histological findings consistent with a predominant angiitis of parenchymal and subdural small vessels. He was provided with diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV). Subsequent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy enabled a progressive successful improvement of his symptoms. While diagnostic methods for CNSV remain controversial, histological findings are thought to be more useful in obtaining a more definitive diagnosis than findings in image studies, such as MRI and angiography. We suggest that a brain biopsy should be considered during the early period of cases with suspected CNSV and rapid clinical deterioration. We also detected human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) using PCR technology in brain biopsy specimens, however the relationship between CNSV and HHV-7 infection is unknow.

  6. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A; Lerner, Shulamit E; Aranoff, Gaya S; Sopher, Aviva B; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J; Oberfield, Sharon E

    2014-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. The charts of 27 boys with BA ≥ 13 and short stature [height ≥ 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ≥ 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14-30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, pheight, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height.

  7. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J

    2014-03-25

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study from 2004 to 2011. Two definitions were evaluated; RP definition A: An average eGFR decline (slope) ≥5 ml/min/1.73 m2/year over four years of follow-up with ≥3 eGFR measurements/year, last eGFR definition B: An absolute annual decline ≥5 ml/min/1.73 m2/year in each year and last eGFR definition A; similar proportions were observed when considering follow-up periods of three (n=195/6375; 3.1%) and two years (n=355/10756; 3.3%). In contrast under RP definition B, greater proportions experienced RP when considering two years (n=476/10756; 4.4%) instead of three (n=48/6375; 0.8%) or four (n=15/3655; 0.4%) years' follow-up. For RP definition A, 13 (12%) individuals who experienced RP progressed to CKD, and only (21) 0.6% of those without RP progressed to CKD (sensitivity 38.2% and specificity 97.4%); whereas for RP definition B, fewer RP individuals progressed to CKD. Our results suggest using three years' follow-up and at least two eGFR measurements per year is most appropriate for a RP definition, as it allows inclusion of a reasonable number of individuals and is associated with the known risk factors. The definition does not necessarily identify all those that progress to incident CKD, however, it can be used alongside other renal measurements to early identify and assess those at risk of developing CKD. Future analyses will use this definition to identify other risk factors for RP, including the role of antiretrovirals.

  8. Progress within the manufacturing sector in Baja California during the transition towards economic opening (1975-1993: A systematic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Margarita Niño Contreras

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies some of the main economic figures of the industrialization process in system of cities of Baja California within the historic period from 1975 to 1993. Due to its economic relevance, the analysis is focused on the manufacturing sector. A new role is developing among industrial groups with growing changes that began in the late seventies. In this analysis the “shift & share” technique is still useful to identify that kind of industrial behavior. This level of aggregation was used before (CONEPO, 1988 in order to achieve some objectives in accordance with a regional economics scope. At the same time, this period of analysis brings some light into a recent economic phase of special interest, taking into consideration main figures in the national manufacturing sector of the same period.

  9. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Economic implications of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) on Pakistan: a CGE approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Zada, Naseeb; Mukhopadhyay, Kakali

    2018-01-01

    The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) is one of the recently negotiated multilateral free trade agreements which aims to establish a free trade agreement between 11 economies...

  11. Rapidly progressing subperiosteal orbital abscess: an unexpected complication of a group-A streptococcal pharyngitis in a healthy young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantinides Fulvia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Complications associated to group-A streptococcal pharyingitis include non-suppurative complications such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis and suppurative complications such as peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess, sinusitis, mastoiditis, otitis media, meningitis, brain abscess, or thrombosis of the intracranial venous sinuses. Case presentation We described a case of a 15-year-old patient with a history of acute pharyngodinia early followed by improvise fever and a progressive formation of a diffuse orbital edema, corneal hyperaemia, diplopia and severe decrease of visual acuity. The patient was surgically treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS after the response of a maxillofacial computed tomography scans that showed a pansinusitis complicated by a left orbital cellulites. Numerous colonies of Streptococcus pyogenes were found in the samples of pus and an antibiotic therapy with meropenem was initiated on the basis of the sensitivity test to antibiotics. The patient was finally discharged with diagnosis of left orbital cellulites with periorbital abscess, endophtalmitis and acute pansinusitis as a consequence of streptococcal pharyngitis. Conclusion The case highlights the possible unusual complication of a group-A streptococcal pharyingitis in a immunocompetent child and the needing of a prompt surgical and medical approach toward the maxillofacial complications associated to the infection.

  12. Rapid progressive visual decline and visual field defects in two patients with the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Janine; Engellandt, Kay; Terai, Naim; Bottesi, Antonia; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-02-08

    Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (HvCJD) is a rare disease, patients presenting with loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields. Two patients with rapid loss of visual acuity and declining visual fields presented with homonymic hemianopsia over several weeks. Cranial MRI showed neither stroke nor other morphological changes explaining the severe visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed no pathologies. However, lumbar puncture showed an increase in total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Visual field testing revealed further deterioration during follow-up. Several weeks later, patients' behaviour changed markedly, exhibiting aggression, declining memory function and physical degeneration. The suspected diagnosis was the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (HvCJD). CSF analysis showed evidence of PrP Sc and 14-3-3 protein. Both patients died within 8 weeks of the CJD diagnosis. Loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields without corresponding MRI findings and marked changes in behaviour should lead to a diagnosis of HvCJD. Corresponding diagnostic tests should be performed for confirmation. The prognosis for survival is poor and should be immediately communicated to affected patients and their relatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atypical rapid progression of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip in a patient on hemodialysis using polyacrylonitrile membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth S. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States); Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Wayne State School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Abbud, Alexander [Wayne State School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Amyloidosis related to dialysis is a well-known complication affecting many organ systems, in particular the musculoskeletal system. In 1985 Shirahama et al. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 53:705-709, 1985) identified beta-2 microglobulin (MG) as the offending constituent by using protein purification techniques. Amyloidosis has been increasing in prevalence because of longer life spans and increased chronic medical conditions such as end-stage renal disease. When dialysis-related amyloidosis involves the musculoskeletal system, it affects the shoulder girdle, the so called shoulder pad sign, the wrist, hip, knee, and spine (Resnick, Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, 4th edn., pp. 2054-2058 and 2176-2183, 2002). Other osteoarticular manifestations of amyloidosis include osteoporosis, lytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. It has been well documented that the prevalence of amyloid is dependent on duration of dialysis - over 90% in patients on dialysis for over 7 years (Jadoul, Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:61-64, 1998). However, a recent changeover to high-flux membranes used in hemofiltration has been reported to delay its onset (Campistol et al., Contrib Nephrol 125:76-85, 1999). We report on the radiographic, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT) findings of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip, and sequence its atypical rapid onset. The imaging, histopathological findings, and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Chronic Subdural Hematoma development in Accelerated phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia presenting with seizure and rapid progression course with fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheja Amol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH in leukemia is rare, and most reported cases occurred in relation with acute myeloid leukaemia; however, occurrence is extremely rare in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML. Seizure as presentation of SDH development in CML cases is not reported in literature. Authors report an elderly male, who was diagnosed as CML, accelerated phase of developing SDH. Initially presented to local physician with seizure; urgent CT scan head was advised, but ignored and sensorium rapidly worsened over next day and reported to our emergency department in deeply comatose state, where imaging revealed chronic subdural hematoma with hypoxic brain injury with fatal outcome. Seizure, progressive worsening of headache, vomiting and papilloedema are harbinger of intracranial space occupying lesion and requires CT head in emergency medical department for exclusion, who are receiving treatment of haematological malignancy

  15. Economic and clinical effects of evaluating rapid viral response to peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Davis, Gary L; McHutchison, John G; Manns, Michael P; Albrecht, Janice K

    2003-11-01

    Evaluation of 12-wk viral response to initial antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been recommended to minimize antiviral-associated morbidity and costs. The aim of this study was to examine the economic and clinical effects of evaluating rapid viral response during antiviral therapy for treatment naive chronic hepatitis C patients. We applied viral response and drug dosage from an international randomized clinical trial of ribavirin plus peginterferon alfa-2b or ribavirin plus interferon alfa-2b to a previously published computer cohort simulation to project lifelong clinical and economic outcomes. Natural history and economic estimates were based on published literature, expert panel estimates, and actual variable and reimbursement cost data. The assessment of 12-wk rapid viral response reduced antiviral treatment duration by 40-44% and antiviral costs by 44-45% (savings of $15,116-16,268 for peginterferon plus ribavirin and $8300 for interferon plus ribavirin) compared to full 48-wk dosing. With the 12-wk evaluation, the marginal cost-effectiveness of peginterferon plus ribavirin versus interferon plus ribavirin was $13,600-22,800 compared with $14,600-25,000 per discounted quality adjusted life-year gained with the 24-wk evaluation. For genotype 1, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing for peginterferon plus ribavirin remaining preferred and cost-effective compared with interferon plus ribavirin. For genotype 2 or 3, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing yielded similar results to those of 24-wk treatment. Assessment of 12-wk viral response in genotype 1, hepatitis C infected patients should reduce peginterferon plus ribavirin morbidity and costs and improve its cost-effectiveness; however, for genotype 2 and 3, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing and 24-wk treatment have similar outcomes. Decisions regarding continuation of antiviral treatment should also consider the variability in the accuracy of quantitative viral assays as

  16. Why Are You Wearing a Watch? Complicating the Narrative of Economic and Social Progress in Britain with Year 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibona, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Frustrated by the traditional narrative of the industrial revolution as a steady march of progress, and disappointed by her students' dull and deterministic statements about historical change, Hannah Sibona decided to complicate the tidy narrative of continual improvement. Inspired by an article by E.P. Thompson, Sibona reflected that introducing…

  17. Rapid, easy and economical dot EIA for detection of antibodies to HIV-1 using recombinant env- and gag-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R; Glathe, H; Lang, H; Simon, H; Clausnitzer, R; Petzold, G; Dittmann, S

    1991-01-01

    A rapid and simple screening test for antibodies to HIV-1 was designed on the principle of dot-EIA. Recombinant HIV-1 env and gag polypeptides are fixed on nitrocellulose sheets. Peroxidase conjugated protein A is used for detection of bound antibodies. After addition of hydrogen peroxide and 2-bromo-1-naphtol antigen-antibody complexes are visualized as discrete blue coloured spots. The test is completed within 15 min. Out of 111 sera positive by commercial EIA and Western blot analysis 110 were recognized by dot-EIA (sensitivity: 99.1%). False positive results compared with commercial EIA were found in 2 of 423 healthy blood donors (specificity: 99.5%).

  18. Considering Valproate as a Risk Factor for Rapid Exacerbation of Complex Movement Disorder in Progressed Stages of Late-Infantile CLN2 Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Jessika; Nickel, Miriam; Schulz, Angela; Denecke, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2 disease, OMIM 204500) is a rare autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in childhood. Symptoms include epilepsy, rapid motor and language regression, dementia, visual loss, and a complex movement disorder in later stages of the disease. We report on two children with genetically confirmed late-infantile CLN2 disease who developed a severe exacerbation of their complex movement disorder leading to hyperthermia, hyper-CK-emia and decreased level of consciousness over several weeks despite different therapeutic approaches. Both patients were on long-term antiepileptic treatment with valproate and only after the withdrawal of valproate, the movement disorder disappeared and level of consciousness improved. These observations emphasize that valproate has to be considered as a possible risk factor in patients in later stages of late-infantile CLN2 disease who develop a rapidly progressive complex movement disorder. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Partners in Progress or Economic Enemies China’s Impact on U.S. National Interests in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    differences over Taiwan…Senegal was granted zero-tariff treatment to export its products to China ” (Cisse 2013, 3). This resulted in a significant...government has focused this power is West Africa, specifically through economic investment. Is China using this investment to exert greater “soft...power” in the region, and convince those governments to support China on the global stage? Does this investment and influence come at the expense of

  20. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  1. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  2. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Xu

    Full Text Available Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  3. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  4. [ADVANCE: America`s economic Development Venture for Area Neighborhoods, Communities, and Enterprises]. Quarterly progress report -- Year two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDavid, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable, to be a responsible steward of the Nation`s nuclear weapons, to clean up decommissioned facilities, and to support continued US leadership in science and technology. To effectively utilize and integrate its mission, DOE has created the Regional Environmental Technology and Business Development Office (RETBDO) serving as a Community Reuse Organization, a stakeholder organization, which represents interests and economic concerns of communities surrounding DOE sites that are being closed or reconfigured. RETBDO is a branch office of ADVANCE, a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1994. The mission of RETBDO is to diversify the economy by creating an environment conductive to improve the representation of minorities and small businesses in the region and to assure fair business participation in major environmental decision-making, technology based start-ups, expansion management, and the attractive of new ventures to the Southwest region, including, bu not limited to, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This report describes the RETBDO program and its implementation.

  5. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  6. Using SAR and GPS for Hazard Management and Response: Progress and Examples from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S. H.; Agram, P. S.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Milillo, G.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Polet, J.; Cruz, J.

    2014-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech project to automate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. We have built a prototype SAR and GPS data system that forms the foundation for hazard monitoring and response capability, as well as providing imaging capabilities important for science studies. Together, InSAR and GPS have the ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution. For earthquakes, this deformation provides information that is complementary to seismic data on location, geometry and magnitude of earthquakes. Accurate location information is critical for understanding the regions affected by damaging shaking. Regular surface deformation measurements from SAR and GPS are useful for monitoring changes related to many processes that are important for hazard and resource management such as volcanic deformation, groundwater withdrawal, and landsliding. Observations of SAR coherence change have a demonstrated use for damage assessment for hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. These damage assessment maps can be made from imagery taken day or night and are not affected by clouds, making them valuable complements to optical imagery. The coherence change caused by the damage from hazards (building collapse, flooding, ash fall) is also detectable with intelligent algorithms, allowing for rapid generation of damage assessment maps over large areas at fine resolution, down to the spatial scale of single family homes. We will present the progress and results we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed constellation of X-band SAR satellites. Since the beginning of our project with ASI, our team has imaged deformation and coherence change caused by many natural hazard events around the world. We will present progress on our

  7. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  8. Rapid, progressive neuropathic arthropathy of the hip in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and tertiary syphilis: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Syphilis is a chronic infection that is classified into three stages. In its tertiary stage, syphilis spreads to the brain, heart and other organs; the lesions may involve the skin, mucous membranes and bones. Neuropathic arthropathy associated with tertiary syphilis has rarely been described in Europe and its association with HIV-HCV co-infection has not been reported so far. This article reports the case of a man with tertiary syphilis presenting with rapidly evolving neuropathic arthropathy of the hip and extensive bone destruction. Case presentation On initial presentation, the patient complained of progressively worsening left-sided coxalgia without localized or generalized inflammation. The patient reported to have no history of previous infections, trauma or cancer. Plain x-ray films of the left coxofemoral joint showed marked degeneration with necrosis of the proximal epiphysis of femur and morphological alterations of the acetabulum without protrusion. Primary coxarthrosis was diagnosed and hip arthroplasty was offered, but the patient declined treatment. Three months later, the patient presented a marked deterioration of his general condition. He disclosed that he was seropositive for HCV and HIV, as confirmed by serology. Syphilis serology testing was also positive. A Girdlestone's procedure was performed and samples were collected for routine cultures for bacteria and acid fast bacilli, all resulting negative. Although histological findings were inconclusive, confirmed positive serology for syphilis associated with progressive arthropathy was strongly suggestive of tertiary syphilis, probably exacerbated by HIV-HCV co-infection. The patient partially recovered the ability to walk. Conclusions Due to the resurgence of syphilis, this disease should be considered as a possible cause of neuropathic arthropathy when other infectious causes have been ruled out, particularly in patients with HIV and/or HCV co-infection. PMID:21645338

  9. Rapid, progressive neuropathic arthropathy of the hip in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and tertiary syphilis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualini Marco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis is a chronic infection that is classified into three stages. In its tertiary stage, syphilis spreads to the brain, heart and other organs; the lesions may involve the skin, mucous membranes and bones. Neuropathic arthropathy associated with tertiary syphilis has rarely been described in Europe and its association with HIV-HCV co-infection has not been reported so far. This article reports the case of a man with tertiary syphilis presenting with rapidly evolving neuropathic arthropathy of the hip and extensive bone destruction. Case presentation On initial presentation, the patient complained of progressively worsening left-sided coxalgia without localized or generalized inflammation. The patient reported to have no history of previous infections, trauma or cancer. Plain x-ray films of the left coxofemoral joint showed marked degeneration with necrosis of the proximal epiphysis of femur and morphological alterations of the acetabulum without protrusion. Primary coxarthrosis was diagnosed and hip arthroplasty was offered, but the patient declined treatment. Three months later, the patient presented a marked deterioration of his general condition. He disclosed that he was seropositive for HCV and HIV, as confirmed by serology. Syphilis serology testing was also positive. A Girdlestone's procedure was performed and samples were collected for routine cultures for bacteria and acid fast bacilli, all resulting negative. Although histological findings were inconclusive, confirmed positive serology for syphilis associated with progressive arthropathy was strongly suggestive of tertiary syphilis, probably exacerbated by HIV-HCV co-infection. The patient partially recovered the ability to walk. Conclusions Due to the resurgence of syphilis, this disease should be considered as a possible cause of neuropathic arthropathy when other infectious causes have been ruled out, particularly in patients with HIV and/or HCV co-infection.

  10. Fundus Autofluorescence and SD-OCT Document Rapid Progression in Autosomal Dominant Vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) Associated with a c.256G > A Mutation in BEST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Simone; Stöhr, Heidi; Fiebig, Britta; Weinitz, Silke; Farmand, Ghazaleh; Kellner, Ulrich; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2016-06-01

    To report the variability of clinical findings, rapid concentric progression, and successful treatment of macular edema in autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) associated with a heterozygous c.256G > A missense mutation in the bestrophin-1 (BEST1) gene. Three affected members of a four-generation ADVIRC family were examined with fundus autofluorescence (FAF), near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Direct sequence analysis of coding and flanking intronic regions of the BEST1 gene was performed. Disease manifestations presented with high variability with visual problems manifesting between 10 and 40 years of age. Two probands showed marked signs of peripheral degeneration, while this retinal area was not noticeably affected in the third. Cystoid macular edema was present in one proband, which responded to long-term treatment with topic dorzolamide with improved visual acuity. FAF and NIA revealed mid-peripheral retinal degeneration in areas that appeared normal on ophthalmoscopy. The full-field ERG was markedly reduced in two probands. Within a 5-year period a marked increase in concentric progression of degeneration including the posterior pole was documented with FAF, NIA and SD-OCT in one proband after the age of 63 years. Direct sequence analysis of the BEST1 gene revealed a heterozygous c.256G > A missense mutation in the three affected probands. The findings in this family emphasize the previously noted variability of clinical manifestations in BEST1-associated ADVIRC and the relevance of FAF and NIA imaging. Cystoid macular edema and vascular leakage can be successfully treated using dorzolamide.

  11. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia; Hirn-SPECT mit Tc-99m-Bicisat (ECD) bei rasch progredientem dementiellen Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Mainkofen (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Zerr, I.; Poser, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1999-07-01

    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 61jaehrigen Patienten mit progredientem dementiellen Syndrom, der unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) zur Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung mit TC-99m-Bicisat (ECD) vorgestellt wurde. Zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt bestanden neben dem Vollbild einer Demenz eine ausgepraegte Apraxie und Aphasie bei unspezifischen Veraenderungen im EEG sowie der neuroradiologischen Bildgebung. In der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung fanden sich fuer eine DAT untypische ausgedehnte, vorwiegend rechtshemisphaerische Perfusionsstoerungen. Im weiteren Verlauf rasche Progredienz des Krankheitsbildes mit Entwicklung eines akinetischen Mutismus sowie Nachweis erhoehter Werte der neuronspezifischen Enolase und des 14-3-3-Proteins im Liquor. Der Patient verstarb schliesslich unter dem Bild einer Decortication. Aufgrund des klinischen Verlaufs sowie der Liquorbefunde wurde, da eine autoptische Befundsicherung

  12. Economic benefits and treatment progress as determinants of the sustainability of Vietnamese voluntary co-located patients clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the past 15 years or so, in Vietnam, a phenomenon has steadily grown more and more widespread: the forming of co-located patients communities. Poor patients choose to live together, seeking/lending supports from/to one another. Despite the undeniable existence of these communities, little is researched or known about how co-located patients perceive the value of what they receive as cluster members, or how they assess their future connection to the communities they are living in. Materials and Methods. The study employs multiple logistic regressions method to investigate relationships between factors such as perceived satisfaction from community-provided financial means, reported health improvements, along with patients’ shortand longer-term commitments to these communities. Results. The results suggest meaningful empirical relationships: 1 between, on one hand, gender, perceived values and sustainability of patients communities, financial stress faced by patients and the financial benefits they received from the community, and, on the other hand, their propensity to stay connected to it; and 2 between economic conditions, length of stay with a community, general level of satisfaction, health improvements on one hand and long-term commitment to these communities on the other hand. Conclusions. Patients who choose to stick to co-location clusters do so for an economic reason: finding means to fight their financial hardship. This may suggest a degree of complication higher than one would have thought in dealing with poor patients from a social point of view. Concretely, the majority of the public only focuses on charity programs and in-king donations, while ignoring the more sustainable – and, at the same time, more complicated – alternative which is to create suitable income-generating jobs for patient. In addition, patients are not only those who seek to ask for supports but can potentially be the donors contributing to

  13. Economic Benefits and Treatment Progress as Determinants of the Sustainability of Vietnamese Voluntary Co-Located Patients Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2017-04-13

    Over the past 15 years or so, in Vietnam, a phenomenon has steadily grown more and more widespread: the forming of co-located patients communities. Poor patients choose to live together, seeking/lending supports from/to one another. Despite the undeniable existence of these communities, little is researched or known about how co-located patients perceive the value of what they receive as cluster members, or how they assess their future connection to the communities they are living in. The study employs multiple logistic regressions method to investigate relationships between factors such as perceived satisfaction from community-provided financial means, reported health improvements, along with patients' short-and longer-term commitments to these communities. The results suggest meaningful empirical relationships: 1) between, on one hand, gender, perceived values and sustainability of patients communities, financial stress faced by patients and the financial benefits they received from the community, and, on the other hand, their propensity to stay connected to it; and 2) between economic conditions, length of stay with a community, general level of satisfaction, health improvements on one hand and long-term commitment to these communities on the other hand. Patients who choose to stick to co-location clusters do so for an economic reason: finding means to fight their financial hardship. This may suggest a degree of complication higher than one would have thought in dealing with poor patients from a social point of view. Concretely, the majority of the public only focuses on charity programs and in-king donations, while ignoring the more sustainable - and, at the same time, more complicated - alternative which is to create suitable income-generating jobs for patient. In addition, patients are not only those who seek to ask for supports but can potentially be the donors contributing to the sustainability of those voluntary communities.

  14. Frequent overlap of active hepatitis in recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after living-donor liver transplantation relates to its rapidly progressive course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Egawa, Hiroto; Yoshizawa, Atsusi; Ueda, Yoshihide; Ichida, Takafumi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2011-09-01

    Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation is a challenging issue. Liver pathologies of recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after living-donor liver transplantation have not been reported. Here, liver pathologies of explanted grafts and biopsies of 9 patients who underwent retransplantation for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis were compared with those of native livers. Recurrence was diagnosed in 13 of 36 patients for primary sclerosing cholangitis post-living-donor liver transplantation, and 9 of them underwent retransplantation. All explanted grafts revealed biliary cirrhosis with sclerosing cholangitis, and 6 patients had additional features of active hepatitis. Liver biopsies showed that 3 had active hepatitis in addition to fibrous cholangitis at recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Two developed active hepatitis later after the diagnosis of recurrence. In explanted grafts, in addition to extensive hilar lymphoplasmacytic cholangitis, 4 cases showed hilar xanthogranulomatous cholangitis. The latter was not evident in 7 native livers. Ductopenia was extensive in all native livers, although such changes were relatively mild in explanted grafts at retransplantation. Patients with recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis developed progressive graft failure, and the interval between diagnosis of recurrence and retransplantation (mean, 3.2 years) was shorter than that between diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and first transplantation (mean, 7.7 years). The rather rapid deterioration of recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation may be related to the frequent overlap of active hepatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased phasic EMG activity during rapid eye movement sleep in treatment-naïve Parkinson's disease: effects of treatment with levodopa and progression of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Caminero, Ana B; De La Llave, Yolanda; Larrosa, Oscar; Barrio, Soledad; Granizo, Juan J; Pareja, Juan A

    2002-09-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may anticipate its diagnosis by several years. We assessed the presence of motor dyscontrol during REM sleep in treatment-naïve PD patients and investigated the putative effect of levodopa (L-dopa) treatment on motor activity. Overnight sleep studies were performed on 15 previously untreated PD patients and 14 controls at baseline, again after a 3- to 9-month treatment period with a low dose of L-dopa, and 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation (in 8 patients). No differences in sleep parameters were observed across groups or treatment conditions. None of the patients met criteria for RBD at baseline, whereas 5 patients were symptomatic at the time of the second sleep study. A quantitative analysis of electromyographic (EMG) activity during REM sleep showed a lower phasic twitching activity in untreated PD than in controls. However, an increase in both phasic twitching and tonic activity was found after treatment with L-dopa. Discontinuation of treatment resulted in a return to pretreatment values of phasic but not of tonic EMG activity. Thus, the increase in phasic activity seems to depend on the effects of L-dopa, whereas the increase in tonic EMG activity during REM sleep might be caused by other factors such as the progression of disease. Potential implications for the understanding of the relationship between RBD and PD are discussed. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society

  16. Case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by rapidly progressive group A hemolytic streptococcal infection during postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Yuya; Tsuji, Kousuke; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Katakura, Satomi; Kisu, Iori; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). This condition is a serious disease that involves rapidly progressive septic shock. We experienced a case of STSS caused by primary peritonitis during treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin (TP therapy) as postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer. STSS mostly develops after extremity pain, but initial influenza-like symptoms of fever, chill, myalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms may also occur. TP therapy is used to treat many cancers, including gynecological cancer, but may cause adverse reactions of neuropathy and nephrotoxicity and sometimes fever, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and general malaise. The case reported here indicates that development of STSS can be delayed after chemotherapy and that primary STSS symptoms may be overlooked because they may be viewed as adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of STSS during chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. SELF-BILL, A NEW APPLICATION OF COMMERCIAL INVOICE AS A RESULT OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin YARBAŞI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of the world economy in the last decades brought the deletion of the small and medium sized enterprises and the rise of the bigger ones in order to satisfy the consumers as much as possible. These businesses face another giant problem which is to hold enough capital, that means the merchant who has to buy big quantities of many types of goods would need an enourmous capital and the problem of the producer is having to sell his products to as many as possible retailers. The solution of these problems appear to be sending on consignement or collection on sale - so no- body would have capital insufficiency pressure. The next problem on behalf of the producer is to watch the sale of the goods for inventory control and also for cash inflow expectation. The last solution here becomes the Self-Billing in English or Autofacturation in French or Selbstfakturierung in German which means the buyer issues bill of the goods sold himself on behalf of the producer and send one copy to the producer. this application is not valid in turkey yet but we believe it will take its place among rules and legislations soon.

  18. Economical, Plain, and Rapid Authentication of Actaea racemosa L. (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Black Cohosh) Herbal Raw Material by Resilient RP-PDA-HPLC and Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Marian; Schenk, Regina; Springer, Andreas; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-11-01

    The medicinal plant Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae, aka black cohosh) is widely used to treat climacteric complaints as an alternative to hormone substitution. Recent trials prove efficacy and safety of the approved herbal medicinal products from extracts of pharmaceutical quality. This led to worldwide increasing sales. A higher demand for the plant material results in problems with economically motivated adulteration. Thus, reliable tools for herbal drug authentication are necessary. To develop an economical, plain, and rapid method to distinguish between closely related American and Asian Actaea species, using securely established and resilient analytical methods coupled to a chemometric evaluation of the resulting data. We developed and validated a RP-PDA-HPLC method including an extraction by ultra-sonication to determine the genuine contents of partly hydrolysis-sensitive polyphenols in Actaea racemosa roots and rhizomes, and applied it to a large number of 203 Actaea samples consisting of seven species. We were able to generate reliable data with regards to the polyphenolic esters in the samples. The evaluation of this data by principle component analysis (PCA) made a discrimination between Asian Actaea species (sheng ma), one American Actaea species (Appalachian bugbane), and A. racemosa possible. The developed RP-PDA-HPLC method coupled to PCA is an excellent tool for authentication of the Actaea racemosa herbal drug, and can be a powerful addition to the TLC methods used in the dedicated pharmacopoeias, and is a promising alternative to expensive and lots of expertise requiring methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Rapid tumor progression in a patient with HPV type 16 associated anal squamous cell carcinoma suffering from long-standing Crohn's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common cancer of the anal region, typically associated with high-risk (hr HPV infection. Furthermore, there is evidence that Crohn's disease predisposes to adenocarcinoma in patients with perianal disease. Materials and methods: A 57-year old patient presenting with long history of Crohn's disease since the age of mid-twenties, went through several surgeries including ileocolectomy and anal fistula resection, combined with immunosuppressive therapy additionally periodically since 2008. One year before death (in 2015 a painful fistula was diagnosed with extensive high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN-HG and evidence of invasive growth as non-keratinizing SCC. Tissue samples from several previous and current resection specimens were re-evaluated and extensively investigated for Crohn´s type inflammation, dysplasia and HPV both by immunohistochemistry (p16/Ki67 and molecular subtyping of HPV. Results: AIN-HG and invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma turned out to be strongly positive for p16/Ki67 staining and molecular analysis disclosed a HPV-16 subtype. In contrast, HPV-analysis was negative in all available previous tissue samples including one anal fistula resected five years before (in 2009 which was lined by non-keratinized squamous epithelium without any evidence of dysplasia. Thus, the patient was diagnosed as Crohn's disease with hr-HPV infection that rapidly (< 5ys progressed to AIN-HG and anal SCC. Finally, osseous metastases occurred and the patient died shortly after. Conclusions: This case of a patient diagnosed with SCC of the anal canal in combination with Crohn's disease as well as HPV Type 16 infection, points to the pathomechanism leading to dysplasia and finally cancer. We assume that immunosuppressive therapy in Crohn's disease may predispose to both persistent HPV infection and HPV related invasive anal carcinoma. The accelerated progression of HPV

  20. Economics of Privacy: Users'€™ Attitudes and Economic Impact of Information Privacy Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Frik, Alisa

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of three essays within the field of economics of information privacy examined through the lens of behavioral and experimental economics. Rapid development and expansion of Internet, mobile and network technologies in the last decades has provided multitudinous opportunities and benefits to both business and society proposing the customized services and personalized offers at a relatively low price and high speed. However, such innovations and progress have al...

  1. Grade 3 ischemia on the admission electrocardiogram predicts rapid progression of necrosis over time and less myocardial salvage by primary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billgren, Therese; Maynard, Charles; Christian, Timothy F; Rahman, Mohmmad A; Saeed, Mahammad; Hammill, Stephen C; Wagner, Galen S; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2005-07-01

    Among patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction, those with terminal QRS distortion (grade 3 ischemia) have higher mortality and larger infarct size (IS) than patients without QRS distortion (grade 2 ischemia). We assessed the relation of baseline electrocardiographic ischemia grades to area at risk (AR) and myocardial salvage [100 (AR-IS)/AR] in 79 patients who underwent primary angioplasty for first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and had technetium Tc 99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography before angioplasty (AR) and at predischarge (IS). Patients were classified as having grade 2 ischemia (ST elevation without terminal QRS distortion in any of the leads, n = 48), grade 2.5 ischemia (ST elevation with terminal QRS distortion in 1 lead, n = 16), or grade 3 ischemia (ST elevation with terminal QRS distortion in >2 adjacent leads, n = 15). Time to treatment was comparable among groups. AR was comparable among groups (38% +/- 20%, 33% +/- 23%, and 34% +/- 23%, respectively; P = .70). There were no differences among groups in residual myocardial perfusion (severity index 0.28 +/- 0.12, 0.29 +/- 0.16, and 0.30 +/- 0.15 in grades 2, 2.5, and 3 ischemia, respectively; P = .97). In contrast, there was a trend toward lower myocardial salvage (45% +/- 32%) in the grade 3 group than in the grade 2 (65% +/- 33%) and grade 2.5 (65% +/- 40%) groups ( P = .16). Salvage was dependent on time only in the grade 3 group. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between time to treatment and percentage salvage were 0.003 ( P = .99), -0.24 ( P = .38), and -0.63 ( P = .022) for grades 2, 2.5, and 3, respectively. Patients with grade 3 ischemia have rapid progression of necrosis over time and less myocardial salvage. This admission pattern is a predictor of myocardial salvage by primary angioplasty.

  2. Application of stepwise gradients in counter-current chromatography: a rapid and economical strategy for the one-step separation of eight coumarins from Seseli resinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Omer; Khan, Salman; Ha, In Jin; Park, Youmie; Tosun, Alev; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-04

    The targeted purification of compounds with a broad polarity range from traditional medicinal plants is a big challenge for counter-current chromatography (CCC). Gradient elution was introduced in CCC to address this problem. However, once a suitable solvent system is selected, the separation process requires optimization of operational parameters. The present study was conducted to optimize various operational parameters to integrate the flow rate and solvent gradients for the rapid isolation of eight coumarins from Seseli resinosum in a single run. An increase in the system temperature from 15°C to 35°C increased the stationary phase retention and solubility of the sample, whereas the operation time and viscosity of the system were decreased. The high purity of each compound was ensured by collecting the fractions from the main peaks while all the shoulder peaks were mixed and separated under the same conditions with semi-preparative CCC. GC-FID was used to analyze the components of each phase, which was prepared without presaturation to save the time and solvent consumption. Finally, eight coumarins were purified, including (1) d-laserpitin, (2) (3'S,4'S)-3'-angeloyloxy-4'-hydroxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, (3) (+)-samidin, (4) (3'S,4'S)-3'-acetoxy-4'-angeloyloxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, (5) deltoin (6), calipteryxin, (7) (3'S,4'S)-3',4'-disenecioyloxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, and (8) (-)-anomalin. The present technique has successfully accomplished the goal of one-step separation of these compounds with high purity and recovery in an economic and time efficient manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall G Holcombe

    2009-01-01

      In neoclassical theory, product differentiation provides consumers with a variety of different products within a particular industry, rather than a homogeneous product that characterizes purely competitive markets...

  4. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  5. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  6. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    This report provides an economic analysis and feasibility study for the utilization by microalgal systems of carbon dioxide generated from coal-fired power plants. The resulting biomass could be a fuel substitute for fossil fuels.

  7. The fumarate sensor DcuS: progress in rapid protein fold elucidation by combining protein structure prediction methods with NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiler, Jens; Baker, David

    2005-04-01

    We illustrate how moderate resolution protein structures can be rapidly obtained by interlinking computational prediction methodologies with un- or partially assigned NMR data. To facilitate the application of our recently described method of ranking and subsequent refining alternative structural models using unassigned NMR data [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 15404] for such "structural genomics"-type experiments it is combined with protein models from several prediction techniques, enhanced to utilize partial assignments, and applied on a protein with an unknown structure and fold. From the original NMR spectra obtained for the 140 residue fumarate sensor DcuS, 1100 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift signals, 3000 1H- 1H NOESY cross peak intensities, and 209 backbone residual dipolar couplings were extracted and used to rank models produced by de novo structure prediction and comparative modeling methods. The ranking proceeds in two steps: first, an optimal assignment of the NMR peaks to atoms is found for each model independently, and second, the models are ranked based on the consistency between the NMR data and the model assuming these optimal assignments. The low-resolution model selected using this ranking procedure had the correct overall fold and a global backbone RMSD of 6.0Å, and was subsequently refined to 3.7 Å RMSD. With the incorporation of a small number of NOE and residual dipolar coupling constraints available very early in the traditional spectral assignment process, a model with an RMSD of 2.8 Å could rapidly be built. The ability to generate moderate resolution models within days of NMR data collection should facilitate large scale NMR structure determination efforts.

  8. Assessing the economic impact of public investment in Malaysia: a case study on MyRapid Transit project using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Meenachi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis is the question of whether public investment in transport infrastructure contributes positively to Malaysia’s economic growth and welfare. Although there are strong analytical reasons to believe that public investment spending is one of the important variables that influence growth, there remains significant uncertainty about its actual degree of influence. In Malaysia, whenever there is a collapse in domestic demand, government spending becomes an important m...

  9. Significant progression of load on the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using the Anatoly Gravitational System, in a 10-week training period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David T Burke,1 David Tran,1 Di Cui,1 Daniel P Burke,2 Samir Al-Adawi,3 Atsu SS Dorvlo41Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Georgia College and State University, GA, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, OmanAbstract: In an age of increasing numbers of lifestyle diseases and plasticity of longevity, exercise and weight training have been increasingly recognized as both preventing and mitigating the severity of many illnesses. This study was designed to determine whether significant weight-lifting gains could be realized through the Anatoly Gravitational System. Specifically, this study sought to determine whether this once-weekly weight-training system could result in significant weekly strength gains during a 10-week training period. A total of 50 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 67 years, completed at least 10 weekly 30-minute training sessions. The results suggest participants could, on average, double their weight-lifting capacity within 10 sessions. This preliminary study, which would require further scrutiny, suggests the Anatoly Gravitational System provides a rather unique opportunity to load the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using only short weekly training sessions. More studies are warranted to scrutinize these findings.Keywords: Anatoly Gravitational System, weight training, musculoskeletal system

  10. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men. The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  11. A rapid and robust assay for detection of S-phase cell cycle progression in plant cells and tissues by using ethynyl deoxyuridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Gábor V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Results Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. Conclusions In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems.

  12. DNA barcoding and morphological analysis for rapid identification of most economically important crop-infesting Sunn pests belonging to Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Syromyatnikov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 includes ten species five of which inhabit the European part of Russia. The harmful species of the genus is E. integriceps. Eurygaster species identification based on the morphological traits is very difficult, while that of the species at the egg or larval stages is extremely difficult or impossible. Eurygaster integriceps, E. maura, and E. testudinaria differ only slightly between each other morphologically, E. maura and E. testudinaria being almost indiscernible. DNA barcoding based on COI sequences have shown that E. integriceps differs significantly from these closely related species, which enables its rapid and accurate identification. Based on COI nucleotide sequences, three species of Sunn pests, E. maura, E. testudinarius, E. dilaticollis, could not be differentiated from each other through DNA barcoding. The difference in the DNA sequences between the COI gene of E. integriceps and COI genes of E. maura and E. testudinarius was more than 4%. In the present study DNA barcoding of two Eurygaster species was performed for the first time on E. integriceps, the most dangerous pest in the genus, and E. dilaticollis that only inhabits natural ecosystems. The PCR-RFLP method was developed in this work for the rapid identification of E. integriceps.

  13. DNA barcoding and morphological analysis for rapid identification of most economically important crop-infesting Sunn pests belonging to Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y; Golub, Victor B; Kokina, Anastasia V; Victoria A Soboleva; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-01-01

    The genus Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 includes ten species five of which inhabit the European part of Russia. The harmful species of the genus is E. integriceps. Eurygaster species identification based on the morphological traits is very difficult, while that of the species at the egg or larval stages is extremely difficult or impossible. Eurygaster integriceps, E. maura, and E. testudinaria differ only slightly between each other morphologically, E. maura and E. testudinaria being almost indiscernible. DNA barcoding based on COI sequences have shown that E. integriceps differs significantly from these closely related species, which enables its rapid and accurate identification. Based on COI nucleotide sequences, three species of Sunn pests, E. maura, E. testudinarius, E. dilaticollis, could not be differentiated from each other through DNA barcoding. The difference in the DNA sequences between the COI gene of E. integriceps and COI genes of E. maura and E. testudinarius was more than 4%. In the present study DNA barcoding of two Eurygaster species was performed for the first time on E. integriceps, the most dangerous pest in the genus, and E. dilaticollis that only inhabits natural ecosystems. The PCR-RFLP method was developed in this work for the rapid identification of E. integriceps.

  14. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PAZ, PRI, AND PROGRESS: OCTAVIO PAZ’S POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND LITERARY STRUGGLE TO INSPIRE REFORM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gene Pace

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the twentieth century; Mexico’s political and economic policies were heavily influenced by the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI. The landmark 1998 victory by Vicente Fox, the first presidential candidate in seven decades to win without the official sanction of the PRI,marked an important milestone in Mexican history; Octavio Paz, an eloquent proponent of political, economic, and social reform, sought for decades to inspire change. This paper seeks to illuminate Paz’s economic philosophy, and to demonstrate how the acclaimed writer, through courageous symbolic action coupled with an inimitable and potent pen, challenged the PRI’s hegemony in Mexico and contributed to the historic election he almost lived to celebrate (an elderly Paz died shortly before the historic 1998 election.“The Aztec ritual of 2 October [1968] in the Plaza de Tlatelolco. . . convinced me to abandon the Mexican Foreign Service.”“October 2, 1968 ended the student movement. It also ended an era in thehistory of Mexico.”

  16. Influence of town-planning on social and economic progress of the subject of the Russian Federation in aspect of regional management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnikova Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to form a method allowing estimating the influence of town-planning on social and economic development in the region. The article presents the natural - territorial and socio-economic conditions that determine urban development. Authors examine the natural conditions in conjunction with the planning factors as a priority when implementing management actions on the socio-economic situation of the region. Complex evaluation of natural factors allows to take into account their impact on the quality of the created urban environment, and to predict possible scenarios of spatial strategy. The article examines the problems of formation of transport and logistic center of the city district integrated into the Asia-Pacific region. The strategic goal of development of the transport sector is the development of a balanced transport system. In the process of research was used analytical method for the processing of statistical and accounting documentation of the Administration of the city district. The research methodology involves use of information approach which in turn requires the use of such research methods as vertical, horizontal and comparative analysis.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a motivational intervention to reduce rapid repeated childbearing in high-risk adolescent mothers: a rebirth of economic and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, Beth; Rapp, Thomas; DeVoe, Margo; Mullins, C Daniel

    2010-04-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of an intervention that successfully reduced rapid repeated births within 2 years of an index birth to adolescent mothers. Randomized, controlled trial conducted from February 2003 to October 2007. Home-based intervention with participants recruited from 5 urban clinics that provide care to low-income African American communities. Two hundred thirty-five pregnant teenagers (n = 235) aged 18 years or younger who were at 24 or more weeks of gestation at recruitment were followed up for 27 months. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 68) or 1 of 2 home-based interventions conducted by community outreach workers: (1) computer-assisted motivational intervention (CAMI) conducted quarterly with additional visits (CAMI+ [n = 80]) or (2) CAMI only (n = 87), a single-component motivational intervention conducted quarterly. Additional births by 24 months post partum determined from birth certificates, total and weighted mean intervention costs, cost per participant, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, defined as cost per prevented repeated birth. Relative to usual care, CAMI significantly reduced repeated births (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.97). Mean intervention costs per adolescent were $2064, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per prevented repeated birth of $21 895 (unadjusted), $17 388 (adjusted), and $13 687 for a high-risk subgroup termed newly insured (eligible for but not enrolled in public insurance). The CAMI costs and cost-effectiveness compare favorably with other effective programs aimed at preventing repeated teenage births. Replication of these results in broader samples of adolescents would provide policy guidance for what works, for whom, and at what cost.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of the economically important fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on a species-specific barcoding cytochrome oxidase I marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Li, Z H; Deng, Y L; Wu, J J; Liu, R S; Buahom, N

    2013-06-01

    The guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest of fruit and vegetable crops that primarily inhabits Southeast Asia and which has the potential to become a major threat within both the Oriental and Australian oceanic regions as well as California and Florida. In light of the threat posed, it is important to develop a rapid, accurate and reliable method to identify B. correcta in quarantine work in order to provide an early warning to prevent its widespread invasion. In the present study, we describe a species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of B. correcta using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) barcoding genes. A B. correcta-specific primer pair was designed according to variations in the mtDNA COI barcode sequences among 14 fruit fly species. The specificity and sensitivity of the B. correcta-specific primer pair was tested based on the presence or absence of a band in the gel profile. A pair of species-specific B. correcta primers was successfully designed and named BCOR-F/BCOR-R. An ∼280 bp fragment was amplified from specimens belonging to 17 geographical populations and four life stages of B. correcta, while no such diagnostic bands were present in any of the 14 other related fruit fly species examined. Sensitivity test results demonstrated that successful amplification can be obtained with as little as 1 ng μl⁻¹ of template DNA. The species-specific PCR analysis was able to successfully diagnose B. correcta, even in immature life stages, and from adult body parts. This method proved to be a robust single-step molecular technique for the diagnosis of B. correcta with respect to potential plant quarantine.

  19. Pragmatism in Philosophy, Realism in Law and the Double Assault on Classical Political Economy: the foundations of the First Law and Economics Movement in American Progressive Era America (1880-1930 / Pragmatismo em Filosofia, Realismo em Direito e o Duplo Assalto à Economia Política Clássica: as bases do First Law and Economics Movement na Progressive Era Americana (1880-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Copetti Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to discuss the socalled First Law and Economics Movement, linked to the American Progressive Era, whose design allowed a paradigmatic rupture in the american legal practice. Lawyers and economists have joined together to unravel by one hand, the positions assumed by the distinctly economistic U.S. Supreme Court in the early twentieth century, based on laissez-faire and justified, contrary sense, as mere formalists; on the other hand, sought to propose interaction of both disciplines (law and economics to enhance the consideration of historical and social aspects of judicial decisions and, therefore, open for the discussion of the possibility of redefining the economic fundamentals of the general welfare of society. In this sense, it welcomes, therefore, the existence of an economic movement of the law, linked with the progressists and clearly earlier from that started in the 60s of the twentieth century by the University of Chicago.O presente ensaio visa discorrer sobre o chamado First Law and Economics Movement, vinculado à Progressive Era Americana, cuja concepção possibilitou uma ruptura paradigmática na prática jurídica dos Estados Unidos. Juristas e economistas se uniram para desvendar, por um lado, as posições nitidamente economicistas assumidas pela Suprema Corte Americana no início do século XX, fundadas na economia do laissez-faire e justificadas, contrário senso, como meramente formalistas; por outro, buscaram propor a interação de ambas as disciplinas (direito e economia para potencializar a consideração dos aspectos histórico-sociais das decisões judiciais e, com isso, abrir vista à discussão acerca da possibilidade de se redefinir os fundamentos econômicos do bem-estar geral da sociedade. Nesse sentido, enaltece-se, por consequência, a existência de um movimento econômico do (ao direito de cunho progressista e nitidamente anterior aquele iniciado na década de 60 do século XX pela University

  20. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He presented with ataxia and acute confusion. In the 3 months preceding presentation he had experienced unexplained, asymptomatic weight loss. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Sirolimus had been stopped. 1 month before the onset of symptoms, owing to an apparent functional iron deficiency in the absence of ...

  1. Rapidly Progressive and Almost Lethal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Juancarlo; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2017-03-01

    We herein describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with Osler's triad, which is the combination of endocarditis, pneumonia, and meningitis. This report is even more unusual since the pathogen isolated was the invasive and virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. The clinical entity described is also called Austrian syndrome. Even though rare in this antibiotic era, the syndrome remains one of high morbidity and mortality. This particular case is of paramount importance for the clinician reader. First, it documents the clinical features associated with invasive pneumococcal disease and the Austrian syndrome. Second, and equally important, it highlights why following the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines saves lives. For this case, the following steps were taken: 1. As a surrogate for perfusion, early and aggressive fluid resuscitation therapy (guided by lactic acid levels) was instituted; 2. also early in the treatment, broad spectrum antibiotics were administered; 3. to guide antibiotic therapy, microbiological cultures were obtained. The patient subsequently improved and was transferred to the internal medicine ward to complete 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy.

  2. A rapid and systematic review and economic evaluation of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for treatment of mania associated with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, C; Palmer, S; Bagnall, A-M; Darba, J; Duffy, S; Sculpher, M; Riemsma, R

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of quetiapine, olanzapine and valproate semisodium in the treatment of mania associated with bipolar disorder. Electronic databases; industry submissions made to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Randomised trials and economic evaluations that evaluated the effectiveness of quetiapine, olanzapine or valproate semisodium in the treatment of mania associated with bipolar disorder were selected for inclusion. Data were extracted by one reviewer into a Microsoft Access database and checked for quality and accuracy by a second. The quality of the cost-effectiveness studies was assessed using a checklist updated from that developed by Drummond and colleagues. Relative risk and mean difference data were presented as Forest plots but only pooled where this made sense clinically and statistically. Studies were grouped by drug and, within each drug, by comparator used. Chi-squared tests of heterogeneity were performed for the outcomes if pooling was indicated. A probabilistic model was developed to estimate costs from the perspective of the NHS, and health outcomes in terms of response rate, based on an improvement of at least 50% in a patient's baseline manic symptoms derived from an interview-based mania assessment scale. The model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the alternative drugs when used as part of treatment for the acute manic episode only. Eighteen randomised trials met the inclusion criteria. Aspects of three of the quetiapine studies were commercial-in-confidence. The quality of the included trials was limited and overall, key methodological criteria were not met in most trials. Quetiapine, olanzapine and valproate semisodium appear superior to placebo in reducing manic symptoms, but may cause side-effects. There appears to be little difference between these treatments and lithium in terms of effectiveness, but quetiapine is associated with somnolence and weight gain, whereas lithium is associated

  3. A matrix risk model for the prediction of rapid radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving different dynamic treatment strategies: post hoc analyses from the BeSt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, K; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Y P M; de Vries-Bouwstra, J K; Ronday, H K; Seys, P E H; Kerstens, P J S M; Huizinga, T W J; Dijkmans, B A C; Allaart, C F

    2010-07-01

    To develop a matrix model for the prediction of rapid radiographic progression (RRP) in subpopulations of patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving different dynamic treatment strategies. Data from 465 patients with recent-onset RA randomised to receive initial monotherapy or combination therapy were used. Predictors for RRP (increase in Sharp-van der Heijde score > or =5 after 1 year) were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. For subpopulations, the estimated risk of RRP per treatment group and the number needed to treat (NNT) were visualised in a matrix. The presence of autoantibodies, baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erosion score and treatment group were significant independent predictors of RRP in the matrix. Combination therapy was associated with a markedly reduced risk of RRP. The positive and negative predictive values of the matrix were 62% and 91%, respectively. The NNT with initial combination therapy to prevent one patient from RRP with monotherapy was in the range 2-3, 3-7 and 7-25 for patients with a high, intermediate and low predicted risk, respectively. The matrix model visualises the risk of RRP for subpopulations of patients with recent-onset RA if treated dynamically with initial monotherapy or combination therapy. Rheumatologists might use the matrix for weighing their initial treatment choice.

  4. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  5. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  6. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  7. Predictive value of autoantibodies from anti-CCP2, anti-MCV and anti-human citrullinated fibrinogen tests, in early rheumatoid arthritis patients with rapid radiographic progression at 1 year: results from the ESPOIR cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degboé, Yannick; Constantin, Arnaud; Nigon, Delphine; Tobon, Gabriel; Cornillet, Martin; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Nogueira, Leonor; Serre, Guy; Cantagrel, Alain; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    We compared the ability of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP2), against mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) and against citrullinated fibrinogen (AhFibA) to predict 1 year rapid radiographic progression (RRP; total Sharp score variation ≥5 points), in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We analysed 566 patients from the ESPOIR cohort with early RA fulfilling the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria at year 1. We assayed the 3 anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) tests on baseline sera. We compared the performance of these 3 ACPA tests to predict first-year RRP, by comparing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs). We assessed the 1 year RRP risk by ACPA titres. We used a logistic multivariate regression to analyse RRP risk in terms either of ACPA positivity or titre: high (>3 times the N cut-off) and low (1 to 3N). 145 patients displayed RRP. Areas under the ROCs were similar (0.60) for the 3 tests. High ACPA titres were associated with 1 year RRP, whatever the test was, and with similar ORs. Low+ anti-MCV titres were not associated with 1-year RRP, whereas low+ anti-CCP2 titres (p=0.0226) and low+ AhFibA titres (p=0.0332) were significantly associated. In multivariate analysis, 1 year RRP was associated with anti-CCP2 positivity (p1), AhFibA positivity (p1) and high anti-MCV titres (p1). Anti-CCP2 antibodies and AhFibA were predictive of 1 year RRP in early RA whatever their titre was, whereas only high anti-MCV antibody titres were predictive, potentially making them more discriminant to predict 1 year RRP risk.

  8. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  9. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  10. The Current Status and Prospects of the Economic Relationship between North Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungchul Cho

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available After the socialist market collapse after 1990s, the economic relationship of North Korea and China is becoming closer. It can be proven by the fact that economic relationship between this two countries are transferring from the national trade model to various models such as border trade, agency trade, the illicit trade and investment aid. In this progress, North Korea rely China more than in 1990. But after 1992, the economic relationship is falling from the political priority as before, blind support and assistance based on the nature of the economic benefits to the rapid changes in relationship. This thesis reviewed economic relations in the world environment which has changed. First it analyzed the national economy and trade policies adopted in the current situation of two countries, and on this basis, it looked forward to the economic relationship between the two countries, and point out the measures regarding the relationship between two countries.

  11. Did economic inequality cause the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuković Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden and large increase of interest in questions of distribution of wealth and economic inequality, arising in recent years, resulted primarily from the enormous increase in inequality that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes of the crisis from which the world is slowly recovering. This is especially true in Europe, whose recovery is barely discernible. This paper analyzes the trends of economic inequality and points to the impact of inequality on economic growth. The central question in this paper, however, is whether the economic inequalities caused the economic crisis. Although opinions differ as to inequality’s impact on the occurrence of the crisis, the fact is that enormous economic inequalities, and especially their permanent growth, could have many negative effects, such as increasing poverty, increasing social stratification and causing global economic crises. As many authors have pointed out, escalating inequality is not an inevitable price of progress. On the contrary, it is a political decision that often has expensive ramifications.

  12. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problems of poverty in the United States, and their resolution, are inextricably connected with the nature of the economic growth process and its...economic deprivation, but the adjustments required by growth have left in their wake new pockets of poverty . In the future, one of the key variables...that will determine how rapidly we can eliminate poverty in the United States will be the rate of increase in average incomes. And one of the key

  13. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  14. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  15. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  16. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  17. Caries Progression Rate in Primary Teeth: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickotsky, Nili; Petel, Roy; Araki, Rabi; Moskovitz, Moti

    The rate of caries progression in primary teeth has rarely been studied, with most studies on early childhood caries reporting the percentage of lesions that remain at a certain stage of disease over a period of time. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and behavior of proximal and occlusal carious lesions in primary teeth among children from low socio-economic status. This retrospective study was based on bite-wing radiographs of 95 children aged 5-12 taken at 6-12 months intervals, with a follow-up period of at least three years. One hundred thirty-five teeth and 141 tooth surfaces were examined. The degree of proximal surfaces and occlusal caries advancement was scored and statistical analyses (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Kaplan-Meier analysis) were performed to evaluate caries progression rate. The results revealed that approximately 0.8 years were required for a carious lesion to progress from the outer enamel to the dentino-enamel junction, and an additional 1.4 years for it to reach the inner part of the dentin. The caries progression rate found in the present study is more rapid than previously found and affects more the lower socio economic population.

  18. Community Colleges and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Augustine

    This document argues that regions that sustain economic growth or recover rapidly from economic slumps are often the same communities that have aggressively developed and continue to strengthen collaborations with business and industry, universities, community colleges, high schools, and other key public and private sector entities. In San Diego…

  19. Maior sobrevida em pacientes com marcadores imunogenéticos de rápida progressão para a AIDS: subsídios para a assistência de enfermagem Mayor supervivencia en pacientes presentando marcadores inmunogenéticos de rápida progresión para el SIDA: apoyo para la atención de enfermería Greater survival among patients with immunogenetic markers of rapid progression to AIDS: subsidies for nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Fernandes

    2005-04-01

    ón de salud con enfoque en el comportamiento positivo de salud son herramientas que la enfermería debe utilizar con portadores del VIH, buscando la mejor calidad de vida y mayor supervivencia de esos individuos, incluso en aquellos que tienen predisposición genética a la rápida progresión de la enfermedad.This study sought subsidies for improving nursing care programs for AIDS patients and aimed to verify the influence of changes in sexual behavior, including the adoption of safe sex practices, associated with the survival of AIDS patients with immunogenetic markers of rapid disease progression. 27 AIDS patients were interviewed, with genetic predisposition to rapid progression to AIDS. Genes were typified through the polymerase chain reaction. In spite of the presence of immunogenetic factors, associated with individual predisposition to a rapid evolution of the disease, changes in sexual behavior, including safe sex practices and antiretroviral therapy, may be related to greater survival. This suggests that counseling, detection of risk attitudes and health education, focusing on positive health behavior, are tools nursing must use with HIV-positive patients, with a view to better quality of life and greater survival among these individuals, even among those with genetic predisposition to rapid disease progression.

  20. Malaysia Economic Monitor, December 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Malaysia Economic Monitor (MEM) is to foster better-informed policy analysis and debate regarding the key challenges that Malaysia faces in its endeavor to achieve rapid, inclusive and sustainable economic growth. The MEM consists of two parts: Part 1 presents a review of recent economic developments and a macroeconomic outlook. Part 2 focuses on a selected special topic that is key to Malaysia’s development prospects, particularly as the country move...

  1. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  2. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  3. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  4. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  5. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals in the modern society are considering running their own business as the best option that they have regarding their employment. The progress of small and medium enterprises sector provides huge potential on the absorption capacity of the young labour force.Frequent and rapid changes in the structure of the work program eliminate the idea that an individual has only one job during the entire life. Therefore, people endowed with entrepreneurial skills they have to successfully cope with a new socio-economic context

  6. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  7. INCOME INEQUALITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF INDIAN STATES 1980-2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Stewart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 1980s, India has experienced an acceleration of economic growth by way of a promotion of a more efficient pro business and market oriented model. Following the rapid growth of the 1980s, the 1990s brought continued deregulation through market liberalization policies and additional progressive strides by way of a financial crisis in the spring of 1991. These happenings and others have had significant impacts on India's income inequality; therefore, this study endeavors to investigate primarily the relationship between income inequality and economic growth, while surveying other relevant macroeconomic variables.

  8. The Global Economic Prospect: New Sources of Economic Stress. Worldwatch Paper 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    American economic analysts will better understand current economic trends if they investigate economic problems in light of the expanding global economy. Reasons for the failure of economists to explain the simultaneous existence of rapid inflation and high unemployment include preoccupation with economic indicators, short-term forecasts, and…

  9. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  10. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  11. Progress, Exponential Growth and Post-Growth Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Teleological progress is the underlying motif of modern culture, and informs education, innovation, and economic development. Progress includes a gradual increase in consumerism. Since the 1940s, the Keynesian Settlement and its embedded belief in progress is legislated in exponential 2-3% economic growth. Unfortunately, climate change is a direct…

  12. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  13. Potterian Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Snir, Avichai

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in psychology and neuroscience find that fictional works exert strong influence on readers and shape their opinions and worldviews. We study the Potterian economy, which we compare to economic models, to assess how Harry Potter books affect economic literacy. We find that some principles of Potterian economics are consistent with economists’ models. Many others, however, are distorted and contain numerous inaccuracies, which contradict professional economists’ views and insight...

  14. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  15. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  17. Economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Shemer, Joshua

    2005-02-01

    Innovation in medical science is progressing at a rapid pace. As a result, new medical technologies that offer to improve upon or completely replace existing alternatives are continually appearing. These technologies--which include pharmaceuticals, devices, equipment, supplies, medical and surgical procedures, and administrative and support systems--are changing the way medicine can be practiced and delivered, forcing healthcare providers and policymakers to consistently evaluate and adapt to new treatment options. Meanwhile, society is becoming more demanding of new medical technologies. Emerging medical technology, however, has been viewed as a significant factor in increasing the cost of healthcare. The abundance of new medical alternatives, combined with scarcity of resources, has led to priority setting, rationing and the need for more technology management and assessment. Economic evaluation of medical technologies is a system of analysis used to formally compare the costs and consequences of alternative healthcare interventions. EEMT can be used by many healthcare entities, including national policymakers, manufacturers, payers and providers, as a tool to aid in resource allocation decisions. This paper discusses the four current popular methodologies for EEMT (cost-minimization, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), and describes the industry environment that has shaped their development.

  18. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin

    2016-01-01

    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  19. The economics of information systems and software

    CERN Document Server

    Veryard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Economics of Information Systems and Software focuses on the economic aspects of information systems and software, including advertising, evaluation of information systems, and software maintenance. The book first elaborates on value and values, software business, and scientific information as an economic category. Discussions focus on information products and information services, special economic properties of information, culture and convergence, hardware and software products, materiality and consumption, technological progress, and software flexibility. The text then takes a look at a

  20. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  1. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  2. Cognitive Economics – a Challenge for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive economics is the main pillar of the knowledge society. The concepts of cognition, evolution, interaction and institution should be considered in the comprehensive vision. In this paper, I promote the cognitive economics like consensual science. The compatibility between the Romanian society and the knowledge society model is also discussed in this article. I conclude that cognitive economics is the only mechanism for rapid economic development in Romania.

  3. Malthusian Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    is a theoretical demonstration that, even though a Malthusian society is inherently stagnant in the sense that sustained economic growth is absent, scattered advances in technology can permanently raise the long-term wage rate. The key reason why new technology can have a short-term as well as a long-term (i.......e. permanent) effect on the wage rate is the fact that a technological development can influence the degree to which the standard of living impacts upon birth and death rates. The second contribution of the dissertation is the empirical illustration that pre-industrial England, in spite of its Malthusian...

  4. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  5. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  6. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  7. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  8. [Science and economic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor Zaragoza, Federico

    2004-01-01

    In times of great turbulences at a planetary scale, as a result of economic and social disparities, of environmental erosion, cultural uniformization and progressive weakness of international ethical and legal international institutions, the reinforcement of scientific research appears as one of the crucial keys to correct the present trends. Increase of knowledge and its adequate application are not only the fundamental pillars of the urgent general enhancement of the quality of life, but also economic competitiveness is based on knowledge. In this communication recent data on the ERA (European Research Area) are presented and commented as well as the proposal of a European Fund (of 2000 million of euros initially) which, administered by a European Research Council, would improve the EU trade and productive perspectives and, above all, will avoid or reduce the present brain-drain of those who, lacking opportunities in Europe, emigrate to other countries, particularly the United States.

  9. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    capital will be smaller than the marginal cost of adding new capital. At this point, because of the assumptions of no technological progress of labour force, the economy ceases to grow. Thus, in the exogenous growth models financial markets have no role in promoting the long run economic performance. Limitations of the ...

  10. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF SOCIAL POLICY: QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bykovskaya Julia Viktorovna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the reforms in Russia society comes to an understanding of the priority of social policy, which is essential for the creation of normal living conditions of citizens, development and full use of their skills. In this context, the relevance is obvious social problems existing at the present stage of development of Russia. Today the problems of development and implementation of social policy - is rapidly developing area of ​​research. Together with it, representatives of different areas of a science defend the rights to social policy. The general is that the economic component of social policy is present in most studies of different specialists. The economic essence of social policy is revealed through its functions, directions for forming and holding, development priorities of the state. The analysis shows that social policy, multifaceted process, multi-level and systemic phenomenon. The main objective of social policy – is raising the level and quality of life in order to stimulate economic growth and progressive social and economic development. Obviously, social policy and the economy are closely interrelated and interdependent. Social policies directly related to economic development. With the efficient use of methods, tools, instruments of social policy is provided economic growth and development of the state. Social policy is an indicator of socio-economic development. However, the modern economy cannot be effective unless it does not fulfill its main purpose - to meet the needs of citizens, ensure the growth of their standard of living and the national welfare.

  11. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  12. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    ICS. Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. Teitenberg, T.; Lewis, L. 2009. Environmental and natural resource economics. Pearson/Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass., USA. Yusuf, A.A. 2008. The distributional impact of environmental policy: the case of carbon tax and energy pricing reform in Indonesia. EEPSEA, Singapore. Research ...

  13. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  14. Development of Rapid and Economical Colorimetric Screening Method for p-Phenylenediamine in Variety of Biological Matrices and its Application to Eleven Fatal Cases of p-Phenylenediamine Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Usman, Hafiz Faisal; Shafi, Humera; Sarwar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-03-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for detection of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in various biological samples is developed. The o-cresol test for acetaminophen detection has been modified to detect PPD in blood, urine, gastric contents, and liver. After precipitating protein with trichloroacetic acid solution (2 mL, 10% w/v), biological specimens were required to convert PPD metabolites to PPD by acid hydrolysis. Finally, o-cresol solution (1 mL, 1% w/v), hydrogen peroxide (200 μL, 3%v/v), and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (0.5 mL) were added in the biological samples. The presence of PPD was indicated by formation of violet color which was turned to bluish green color within 10-15 min. The limit of detection was found to be 2 mg/L in blood, urine, and gastric contents and 2 mg/Kg in liver. This method is also free from any potential interference by p-aminophenol, acetaminophen, and other amine drugs under test conditions. This method was successfully employed to thirteen fatal cases of PPD poisoning. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Long-run Determinants of Technological Progress in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth economists established that sustainable economic growth depends considerably on the level of technological progress in an economy. Using growth accounting model, economic researchers were able to estimate a measure of technological progress in any economy which has been known as Total Factor ...

  16. Electicism in Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arcuri (Alessandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAs the popularity of ‘law and economics’ is rapidly increasing, this essay is an invitation to pause and reflect on its methodology. Mainstream law and economics is generally associated with a paradigm that embraces rational choice theory as the theoretical grid that best understands

  17. Diagnostics of Expectations of Economic Agents as an Instrument for the Modelling of Economic Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Rashitovich Safiullin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging trends of the development of are based on rapid institutional transformations and corresponding progressive forms of value added creation. Therefore, the analysis of these trends demand advanced and evidence-based approaches. Earlier, the processes of economic industrialization, implementation of large-scale solutions, high localization of economic processes were the priority directions for the development. Nowadays, the major proprieties are such strategic focus for the development as the formation and large-scale replication of the local low-concentrated growth points, diversification of business activity, and distribution of technological, institutional, product developments; development of the social parameters of economic growth including those based on the principles of environmental friendliness of business activities, etc. The complexity and multidimensionality of the processes of socio-economic development create a basis for the improvement of the traditional theoretical approaches to modeling and forecasting of economic growth and, respectively, of the cyclic development of the economy. The strengthening of globalization processes as well as the regionalization of the economy, formation of the complex and mobile dynamic structures generating the crisis phenomena make relevant the problem of the modern regulation of the cyclic development of the economy. Its solution is impossible with classical methods of the cyclist theory. The traditional approaches for the modeling of the cyclic development of the economy can lead to a decline in the quality of the predictive models constructed on the basis of extrapolation methods with the application of the scenario forecasts of market and institutional factors which are the drivers of the phase changes of a cycle. The above-mentioned means that the current development of the considered predictive models supposes a number of risks connected with the accuracy of prediction and

  18. Progress report within the series of GRS-F progress reports on reactor safety, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour. Period: 1 July - 31 December 2003; Berichte ueber vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit gefoerderte Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum: 01. Juli - 31. Dezember 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of the investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index'' of the CEC (commission of the european communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig.) [German] Die Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH informiert im Auftrag des BMWi halbjaehrlich und jaehrlich ueber den Stand der Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit von Kernreaktoren in den Fortschrittsberichten der GRS-F-Berichtsreihe. Jeder Fortschrittsbericht stellt eine Sammlung von Einzelberichten ueber Zielsetzung, durchgefuehrte Arbeiten, erzielte Ergebnisse, geplante Weiterarbeit etc. dar, die von den Forschungsstellen selbst als Dokumentation ihres Arbeitsfortschritts in einheitlicher Form erstellt und von der Forschungsbetreuung (FB) in der GRS im Rahmen der allgemeinen Information ueber die Fortschritte von Untersuchungen zur Reaktorsicherheit herausgegeben werden. Die inhaltliche Gliederung der Berichtssammlung erfolgt durch sachliche Zuordnung der Vorhaben zu uebergeordneten Themenbereichen der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung, ferner nach dem Klassifikationsschema

  19. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies (n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  20. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  1. Corruption : the Erosion of African Economic Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, David

    2005-01-01

    Africa has during the past decades experienced vast difficulties in inducing greater levels of economic growth, which in turn has stirred intensive debates in an attempt to unveil its causes. A dawning debate to surface during recent years places corruption as a potent obstacle to impede and dent African economic progress. Embracing a theoretical and regression analysis, this thesis sets out to unravel the causes of African corruption, its implications, and its effects upon the economic stand...

  2. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  3. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  4. Progress and biotechnological prospects in fish transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Tonelli, Flávia C P; Costa, Guilherme M J; de França, Luiz Renato; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2017-11-01

    The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting. Here, we review the history of animal transgenesis, with an emphasis on fish, in conjunction with major developments in genetic engineering over the past few decades. Importantly, spermatogonial stem cell modification and transplantation are two common techniques capable of revolutionizing the generation of transgenic fish. Furthermore, we discuss recent progress and future biotechnological prospects of fish transgenesis, which has strong applications for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, some transgenic fish are already available in the current market, validating continued efforts to improve economically important species with biotechnological advancements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-12-06

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  6. Implementing economics subjects within the context of economic kinanthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hobza

    2014-03-01

    sports activities, major sporting events and grant issues. This deals progressively with micro and macro-economic issues of sports, sports funding from public sources, projects and grant issues systemically and within the context of the general economic laws. CONCLUSIONS: The article analyzes the reasons for the establishment of a new course entitled "Economics of Sport", the theoretical foundations of the syllabus and its anticipated impact on teaching practice, students' knowledge of the field as well as examining how it contributes to the practical knowledge and managerial-economic skills of graduates of kinanthropologically oriented higher education.

  7. Rapidly progressive course of primary renal synovial sarcoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Lipkovski Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary kidney sarcoma, especially synovial sarcoma (SS, is a very rare neoplasm. Pre-operative signs and symptoms are very similar to renal cell carcinoma, therefore, the proper diagnosis is very difficult and usually made after nephrectomy. This is a case report of primary renal SS. Case Outline. A 38-year-old man presented with a history of fever and hematuria, and right flank pain 3 weeks ago. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogeneous well-marginated soft tissue mass arising in the lower part of the right kidney. Right nephrectomy was performed. A cystic tumor of 120x85 mm in size with soft solid growth, and with the extensive areas of hemorrhage and necrosis was seen on gross examination. Histopathology revealed a neoplasm composed of solid monomorphic sheets of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells strongly positive for BCL2, CD99, CD56 and vimentin, and focally positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA. The histological diagnosis of primary renal SS was based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. FISH analysis and RT-PCR was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The molecular analysis demonstrated translocation of SYT gene on chromosome 18 and SSX2 gene on chromosome X. The findings were consistent with diagnosis of SS. Conclusion. Our case shows that histopathological diagnosis of primary kidney SS, although difficult, is possible to be made on the basis of morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. However, this diagnosis should be corroborated by molecular techniques confirming SYT-SSX translocation on chromosome 18 and chromosome X. Here we present visceral monophasic SS with aggressive clinical course and poor outcome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175047

  8. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Javed, Fawad; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz

    2012-03-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and interdental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to indentify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction.

  9. The power of transformation wind, sun and the economics of flexible power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?. Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication gauges the econom

  10. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  11. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  12. States and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  13. Predicting progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Rachelle S; Pavlik, Valory; Massman, Paul; Rountree, Susan; Darby, Eveleen; Chan, Wenyaw

    2010-02-23

    Clinicians need to predict prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and researchers need models of progression to develop biomarkers and clinical trials designs. We tested a calculated initial progression rate to see whether it predicted performance on cognition, function and behavior over time, and to see whether it predicted survival. We used standardized approaches to assess baseline characteristics and to estimate disease duration, and calculated the initial (pre-progression) rate in 597 AD patients followed for up to 15 years. We designated slow, intermediate and rapidly progressing groups. Using mixed effects regression analysis, we examined the predictive value of a pre-progression group for longitudinal performance on standardized measures. We used Cox survival analysis to compare survival time by progression group. Patients in the slow and intermediate groups maintained better performance on the cognitive (ADAScog and VSAT), global (CDR-SB) and complex activities of daily living measures (IADL) (P values < 0.001 slow versus fast; P values < 0.003 to 0.03 intermediate versus fast). Interaction terms indicated that slopes of ADAScog and PSMS change for the slow group were smaller than for the fast group, and that rates of change on the ADAScog were also slower for the intermediate group, but that CDR-SB rates increased in this group relative to the fast group. Slow progressors survived longer than fast progressors (P = 0.024). A simple, calculated progression rate at the initial visit gives reliable information regarding performance over time on cognition, global performance and activities of daily living. The slowest progression group also survives longer. This baseline measure should be considered in the design of long duration Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

  14. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  15. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  16. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Mihaela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.

  18. Da fusão Antárctica/Brahma à fusão com a Interbrew: uma análise da trajetória econômico-financeira e estratégica da AmBev AmBev from the merger of Antarctica and Brahma to the merger with Interbrew: an analysis of financial, economic and strategic progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio de Camargos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Criada em julho de 1999, resultante da controversa união entre as duas principais concorrentes no segmento de bebidas brasileiro - a Antárctica e a Brahma -, a AmBev, com uma gestão moderna, eficiente, voltada para resultados a curto prazo e com um controle gerencial compartilhado entre os principais executivos das duas empresas de origem, tornou-se em menos de cinco anos uma das empresas mais admiradas e bem administradas do cenário empresarial brasileiro e latino-americano. Fundamentado na teoria das fusões e aquisições, este artigo faz uma análise da trajetória da AmBev, no que se refere a seus aspectos econômico-financeiros e estratégicos, desde a sua criação até a sua fusão com a Interbrew, cuja concretização resultou em mudanças significativas para ambas e para o segmento de bebidas nacional e internacional, visto que se trata da união de empresas líderes ou vice-líderes no segmento de cervejas em diversos países e que atuam em mercados mundiais complementares.AmBev rapidly became a well managed company, one of the most admired in Brazil and on the continent. This was in less than five years after its structure in July of 1999 with the controversial merger between Antarctica and Brahma, the two main competitors in the beverage industry. This prominence was the result of modern and efficient management focused on short term results and control shared by the top executives of both Antarctica and Brahma. An analysis was made of the financial, economic and strategic progress of AmBev from the beginning up to the merger with Interbrew, using the Theory of Mergers and Acquisitions. After this merger both participants will undergo significant changes as will the national and international beverage segments where they enjoyed first and second places in the beer segment of several countries in addition to participating in complementary world markets.

  19. Socio-economic Status of Handicraft Women Among Macca Oromo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the contrary however, the artisan women who had better socio-economic status in the society are currently under destitute socio-economic situation. Their economic status is adversely affected by factors that are challenging progress of the indigenous technology by disrupting artisans' rural market. Though much remains ...

  20. Electricity industry and economic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerl, H.

    1981-06-01

    For a highly developed national economy as that of the Federal Republic of Germany, a safe and economical power supply is of great importance. In the industrial as in the commercial and public services as in the private sphere, an efficient power supply is a substantial precondition for regular functioning, for progress of the productivity and for the humanization of the working world, for the improvement of the environmental conditions, and for saving time and for easing work.

  1. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life-threatening disability and (frequently) death. A diagnosis of PML can ...

  2. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  3. Genetics of primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cree, BAC

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are classified as either having relapsing onset or progressive onset disease, also known as primary progressive MS (PPMS). Relative to relapsing onset patients, PPMS patients are older at disease onset, are equally likely to be men or women, and have more rapid accumulation of disability that does not respond well to treatments used in relapsing onset MS. Although estimates vary, 5-15% of all MS patients have a PPMS disease course. Genetic variance is a propos...

  4. How Can Economic Policy Strike a Balance between Economic Efficiency and Income Equality?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1998-01-01

    Can income equality be combined with high economic efficiency and rapid economic growth? Fortunately, we need not to answer such a general question. Indeed, the question is poorly phrased. The relationship between income and wealth distribution, on one hand, and efficiency/growth, on the other, depends on how a certain distribution of income and wealth has come about.

  5. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  6. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  7. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  8. [Rapidly developing vertebral eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Y; Boutillier, J B; Chome, J

    1983-04-01

    Radiographs taken at an interval of one week showed collapse of the twelfth dorsal vertebra, very suggestive of an eosinophilic granuloma. A biopsy performed during surgery, because of the rapid progression of the lesion, was able to confirm the diagnosis.

  9. Population growth and economic development: the case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coale, A J

    1978-01-01

    A review of events in Mexico since the publication in 1958 of Coale and Hoover's "Population Growth and Economic Development in Low Income Countries," in which they concluded that a low income country with high fertility would achieve better progress if it could reduce its fertility than if it did not do so. India and Mexico were the cases considered. Over the 20 years from 1955-75 the population of Mexico more than doubled, slightly exceeding Coale and Hoover's high projections. During that time Mexico saw substantial economic progress: a 72% increase in the proportion of primary school age children actually attending school; a 26% increase in literacy; an 89% increase in per capita income at constant prices; a 38% increase in the urban population; and a 27% rise in the average duration of life. These figures reveal the error of assuming that rapid population increase in a poor country leads inevitably to malnutrition, impoverishment, and social collapse, but also show that economic development does not automatically lead to a slowing of population growth. If Mexican fertility had fallen beginning in 1955, the population under 15 would have been most effected. The income per equivalent adult consumer might have been higher, the gains in school attendance and literacy might have covered a larger percentage of the population, and declining rather than increasing absolute numbers of persons might have been unaffected by the gains. Creation of employment opportunities for fewer persons entering the labor force would have been easier than for the large number of new entrants who will need work over the next 20 years.

  10. The Potential of Economic Diplomacy for Kosovo’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the wise use of country’s economic potential brought conducive political gains. In contemporary times, where the business competition has reached its peak, the creative diplomacy that caters economic concerns, generally called the economic diplomacy is gaining pace. The term of Economic Diplomacy is fairly new, but apparently the research and evaluation of this concept is rapidly increasing, primarily to assess its impact on economic growth. Despite gaining popularity and acknowledgment, many countries are not taking full advantage of economic diplomacy, the Republic of Kosovo is case in point. The aim of this work is to explore the importance of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, a developing country, but with vast potential for growth. The study begins with a brief analysis on Kosovo economic history and the first signs of economic diplomacy. In addition, it discusses the role, importance and the future of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, vis a vis challenges and opportunities. It analysis the level of the use of economic diplomacy in the region, as well as presents data concerning Kosovo trade with world during the period 2004-2014. Finally it offers a number of recommendations for economic development in relations to economic diplomacy and concludes that success of the economic diplomacy largely depends on active, creative and proactive leadership as well as shrewd decison making.

  11. Military Authoritarian Regimes and Economic Development: The ROK’s Economic Take-Off Under Park Chung Hee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    75 14. SUBJECT TERMS Authoritarian regimes, Developmental state, South Korea, Park Chung Hee, Chile, Pinochet , economic development, Vietnam war...PRESIDENTS PARK AND PINOCHET ................................................................................................................37 A...hee pursued economic development by powerful state intervention, Pinochet implemented economic reform by means of a free market. The rapid free

  12. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  13. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  14. Technological progress in ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y H

    1999-11-01

    Technical progress in ultrasonography (US) is especially rapid now, due to continuing advances in transducer design, signal processing techniques, and Doppler technology. A number of important technical breakthroughs have been made in the past decade. Among these, multidimensional array transducers, harmonic imaging, miniaturized transducers, extended field-of-view imaging, hand-carried ultrasound units, three-dimensional (3-D) US, and ultrasound contrast agents are the most remarkable innovations. Improved spatial and contrast resolution allows delineation of anatomic details and increases diagnostic accuracy and confidence. Miniaturized transducers can be used to image tiny or superficial structures in the human body, and can guide the surgeon to the problem site. Extended field-of-view imaging provides a larger field for demonstration of pathology in certain anatomic locations. Hand-carried US units are used widely in a physician's office or in remote areas, and bring high-quality medical imaging to the bedside. 3-D US has already shown significant benefits in perinatology; with further improvements in real-time imaging technology, 3-D US will emerge as an important adjunct to conventional 2-D US. In conjunction with harmonic imaging technology and Doppler technology, US contrast agents allow more powerful anatomic and functional evaluation of human organs. They may also play important therapeutic roles in the near future. Advancing computer technology is expected to lead to more important break-throughs in the next 5 to 10 years.

  15. Progress in neuromorphic photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  16. Recent Progress in Terahertz Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2017-09-01

    In the past decade, the concept of metasurfaces has gradually dominated the field of metamaterials owing to their fascinating optical properties and simple planar geometries. At terahertz frequencies, the concept has been driven further by the availability of advanced micro-fabrication technologies that deliver sub-micron accuracy, well below the terahertz wavelengths. Furthermore, terahertz spectrometers with high dynamic range and amplitude and phase sensitivity provide valuable information for the study of metasurfaces in general. In this paper, we review recent progress in terahertz metasurfaces mainly in the last 5 years. The first part covers nonuniform metasurfaces that perform beamforming in reflection and transmission. In addition, we briefly overview four different methodologies that can be utilized in realizing high-quality-factor metasurfaces. We also describe two recent approaches to tuning the frequency response of terahertz metasurfaces using graphene as an active medium. Finally, we provide a brief summary and outlook for future developments in this rapidly progressing field.

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Analysis of neuroeconomics as a new paradigm in economic science

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Denise Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Neuroeconomics is a recent discipline which studies what happens inthe human brain during decision making, and the relationship betweenemotions and the behavior of economic agents.As its name indicates it arises from the conjunction between neuroscienceand economics. During the last years, the rapid advance of theneurosciences allowed the realization of numerous investigations in thisarea, making possible new approaches in the economic analysis.In 2002 the Nobel Prize in Economics was given t...

  19. Economic Values and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikael Malmaeus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute decoupling of GDP growth from resource use implies that economic output can be increased without simultaneously increasing input. The essential meaning of this proposition is that the economic values that represent the GDP can be realized by increasing resource efficiency. Given that the GDP is first and foremost a measure of economic activity rather than welfare the possibility of absolute decoupling is theoretically limited. This paper demonstrates theoretically and empirically that economic values at the macroeconomic level are fundamentally determined by the use of production factors, primarily labor and physical capital. Technical innovations or efficiency gains increasing utility without raising the costs of production do not add to the GDP unless they stimulate investments in physical capital. Hence the neoclassical notion of productivity is only found to be relevant as a microeconomic concept. In practice, GDP growth is mostly explained by capital accumulation and a key question is whether or not capital accumulation can be decoupled from the use of materials and energy. This will determine the possibility of decoupling of GDP growth from resource use and environmental impact. Alternative measures of progress focusing on welfare rather than economic activity are more likely to achieve absolute decoupling.

  20. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  1. Ethiopian Journal of Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian Economic Journal of Economics is a publication of the Ethiopian Economic Association. It is a bi annual publication devoted to the advancement of economics as a scientific discipline in Ethiopia. However, contributions of articles by non-Ethiopian and on economic experience of other countries are ...

  2. Finding the economics in economic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M

    2009-02-01

    To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.

  3. Alternative Visions of Satellite Communication Economics in the 2010-2020 Time Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite communications technologies have been gradually improving for over 35 years. Quality and reliability of equipment and services increased dramatically from the 1960s until the early 1980s. In the last 20 years improvements have been progressing steadily but in less dramatic fashion. This paper addresses three new satellite technologies that may be able to rekindle the very rapid prior growth pattern and achieve dramatic new systems economies in the 2010 to 2020 time period. The future could thus see the extension of conventional satellite technologies that produces a scenario in which satellite economics may become progressively less competitive with alternative telecommunications systems. On the other hand the authors explore three possible new technologies that produce alternative economic scenarios for the future. These are: 1) a tethered geo platform network, 2) advanced peizo-electric shaped antennas on a geo platform system, and 3) a geo platform that is constituted by a swarm of nanosatellites. Each of these systems requires significant new research and development. Which of these, if any, will form part of the successful satellite communications designs in the future is unclear at present. Each alternative, however, promises progressive economic cost reductions that could make future satellite networks highly competitive for a variety of broadband services and, potentially, even with some fiber optic transmissions. This paper outlines the technology needed for future competitiveness in such satellite systems, and creates an economic model that analyzes the potential viability and profitability of each system. Further analysis examines the overall business cases. These also test the sensitivity of these systems to more reliable and less costly new launch systems that, if available, would both accelerate the deployment of new satellite communications technologies as well as decrease the cost of all satellite systems.

  4. Does India's Economic Transformation Promote Women's Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Strengthening Research Capacity. The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The... View moreGrowth and Economic ...

  5. Black economic empowerment progress in the advertising industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  6. Consumer Justice: A Symbol of Economic Prosperity and Social Progressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Kumar Roy

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized fact that consumer confidence and trust in a well functioning market for financial services promotes financial stability, growth efficiency and innovation over the long term. So protection of the interest of consumers is not merely an ethical or humanitarian issue rather it is also an issue of economy. Consumer protection demands for setting of minimum quality specification and safety standards for goods and services to curb unfair trade practices. So far the internation...

  7. Economics as if the earth really mattered. Putting balance back on the balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, D

    1991-09-01

    Some of the thinking in the economic realm which affects the relationship between the economy and the environment is discussed. The standard economic model inherently conflicts with the environment. Humans as consumers have their needs met by maximizing production and efficiency in a free market economy, where an invisible hand guides to profit. The question is raised as to what the environmental impact is for economic growth. The need for clean air, water, and preservation of other living things is not met. It is argued that pollution is a necessary byproduct of production. Economic progress as measured by gross national product (GNP) cannot account for the degradation of nature, e.g., the Alaskan oil spill actually increased GNP. Traditional economics also tell little about the maldistribution of wealth. It is pointed out that Americans spend $5 billion a year on special diets while 400 million around the world are undernourished. Limits to natural resources are also not accounted for by economic theorists, or the value of the seemingly free life-sustaining services performed by a forest in purifying air, preventing erosion and flooding, regulating climate, and supporting biological diversity. It is pointed out that restructuring must occur if the capacity of the Earth to support life is classed in economic terms as an externality. Steady state economic models consider the cycles of production and consumption in the context of the surrounding ecosystem of waste and raw materials and try to achieve a state of equilibrium. Despite the 1972 President's Commission on Population Growth and the American Future's statement that population growth is not necessary for a vital economy, the mythology exists that the economy will collapse, personal income will drop, and business will decline without an ever-growing population. A summary on positive outcomes of zero population growth is given. The economist Julian Simon promotes the view that there is no environmental

  8. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Debs

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  9. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease: Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  10. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a ... blood "rusts" (turns into hemosiderin) giving the distinct color. A biopsy may be done to confirm the ...

  11. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  12. Technical Entrepreneurship and Technological Progress in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Procel, Jose

    This paper describes the Mexican economic environment in terms of general economic conditions from the 1940s to the present, the role of science and technology in industrial progress, and the promotion and support of small companies. The technical entrepreneur is identified as the missing link that would play an important part in the technological…

  13. 24 Abstract Introduction Despite impressive progress made in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Development, Regional Inequalities. Introduction. Despite impressive progress made in economic development, inequality still characterize the pattern of economic development in most parts of the World. A substantial proportion of the World's population remains in poverty and the gap between the richest and the poorest ...

  14. Long-run Determinants of Technological Progress in Nigeria Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.9 No.1 December 2013. 137. Long-run Determinants of ... economic literature but it has been ... growth is traceable to technological progress or Total factor productivity. Economic historians have argued that long-term growth of an economy is to a great extent.

  15. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF SOCIAL POLICY: QUESTIONS OF THE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Викторовна Быковская

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the reforms in Russia  society comes to an understanding of the priority of social policy, which is essential for the creation of normal living conditions of citizens, development and full use of their skills. In this context, the relevance is obvious social problems existing at the present stage of development of Russia.Today the problems of development and implementation of social policy - is rapidly developing area of research. Together with it, representatives of different areas of a science defend the rights to social policy. The general is that the economic component of social policy is present in most studies of different specialists.The economic essence of social policy is revealed through its functions, directions for forming and holding, development priorities of the state. The analysis shows that social policy, multifaceted process, multi-level and systemic phenomenon. The main objective of social policy – is raising the level and quality of life in order to stimulate economic growth and progressive social and economic development.Obviously, social policy and the economy are closely interrelated and interdependent. Social policies directly related to economic development. With the efficient use of methods, tools, instruments of social policy is provided economic growth and development of the state. Social policy is an indicator of socio-economic development. However, the modern economy cannot be effective unless it does not fulfill its main purpose - to meet the needs of citizens, ensure the growth of their standard of living and the national welfare.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-10

  16. Reconstructing Progressive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  17. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  18. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  19. Forest economics research at the Pacific Northwest Research Station, to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora

    2003-01-01

    The contributions for over 80 years by scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station to developments in economic theory, economic tools, policies, and economic issues are summarized. This is a story of progressive accomplishments set against a constantly changing background of economic and social events.

  20. A model of technological progress in the microprocessor industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Unni

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of technological progress in the microprocessor industry that connects the seemingly disparate engineering and economic measures of technological progress. Technological progress in the microprocessor industry is driven by the repeated adoption of higher quality vintages of capital equipment produced by the upstream semiconductor equipment industry. The model characterizes the optimal adoption decision of a microprocessor firm and the resulting rate ...

  1. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  2. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.

  3. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  4. The Nexus between Artificial Intelligence and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.; Noussair, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    This book is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the notion of the Singularity, a stage in development in which technological progress and economic growth increase at a near-infinite rate. Section 3 describes what artificial intelligence is and how it has been applied. Section 4 considers

  5. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  6. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  7. A Case of Adrenoleukodystrophy Presenting as Progressive Cerebellar Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunguk Jung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a hereditary neurological disorder affecting the nervous system and adrenal cortex. The phenotype of X-ALD ranges from the rapidly progressive cerebral form to milder adrenomyeloneuropathy. However, cerebellar manifestations are rare. We report a case of adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as progressive cerebellar dysfunction resembling olivopontocerebellar degeneration, with a review of the literature

  8. Progressive Multifocal Leuoencephalopathy(PML) in HIV Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parasitic, and neoplastic causes. Human immunodeficiency virus leucoencephalopathy (HIVL) is an uncommon and rapidly progressive form of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) that has remained poorly understood. Here we report a rare case of Progressive Multifocal Leuoencephalopathy (PML) in a case of HIV/AIDS who ...

  9. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  10. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  11. THE CHINESE ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN THE LAST 20 YEARS. AN ECONOMIC FREEDOM INDEX-BASED ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MICU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For much of human history, most individuals have lacked economic freedom and opportunity, condemning them to poverty and deprivation. Today, we live in the most prosperous time in human history. Poverty, sicknesses, and ignorance are receding throughout the world, due in large part to the advance of economic freedom. In 2015, the principles of economic freedom that have fueled this monumental progress are once again measured in the Index of Economic Freedom, In order to have an overall view on the evolution of the Chinese economic system, we have analysed the 10 components of the economic freedom index: financial freedom, investment freedom, commercial freedom, monetary freedom, freedom to make business, governmental expenses, ownership rights, tax freedom, labour market freedom, the corruption level.

  12. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  13. Does a Progressive PIT Stabilize the Economy? A Comparison of Progressive and Flat Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to examine the impact of progressive personal income tax rates and the effectiveness of this tax as an automatic economic stabilizer. The assessment of automatic stabilizers is based on the estimates of tax cyclical components. The study shows that the output elasticity of PIT is higher than one, which means that the analysed tax acts relatively efficiently as an automatic stabilizer. However, it was also observed that the tax progressivity is not the main reason of the effectiveness of a progressive PIT as an automatic stabilizer. The study shows that changes in progressive rates of PIT, contrary to widespread opinions, have little effect on the effectiveness of passive fiscal policy. Personal income tax acts as automatic stabilizer mostly due not to the progressive tax rates, but because of the sensitivity of employment to GDP fluctuations.

  14. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  15. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  16. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M. Ivic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Economic Growth mean constantly increasing volume of production in a country, or an increase in gross domestic product as the main quantitative indicators of production for a period of one year. Economic development is not only quantitative changes when it comes to the economic position of the country, but also qualitative changes (changing the economic structure, the emergence of new sectors and industries, new jobs, etc... They lead to a better and more complete satisfaction of all human needs. Production per capita is a measure of the ability of a society to achieve their goals of social and economic development, all in order to meet the constantly growing social needs. The increase in output per capita in economic theory is expressed as economic growth, without which no economic development, but does not have any economic growth to be a function of economic development.

  18. Factors of progress in reading literacy test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vitomir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to identify the factors which are most associated with the progress in reading literacy assessed in the PISA survey. In the preliminary sample, students from ten schools (N=235 were retested two years after the 2009 PISA original study. There were measured intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, school self-efficacy, epistemological beliefs, metacognitive strategies, socio-economic status, enjoyment and preference for reading and motivation and self-regulation. The examined factors explain 27% of the variance in reading literacy progress. Factors that contribute most to this progress are school self-efficacy, proper use of metacognitive strategies and low extrinsic motivation. Socio-economic status explained a negligible amount of variance, while some effect of type of school on progress in reading literacy (η2=7% was observed. Achievement in reading literacy is correlated with school marks. Students who attend secondary schools are more likely to make progress in reading literacy than those who attend vocational schools. An attempt was made to formulate the implications for education policy based on this research.

  19. Socio-economic significance of mangroves in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    Mangrove ecosystem is considered ecologically and economically important perhaps due to its high productivity. However, due to the lack of proper scientific knowledge as well as the rapid increase in various developmental pressures along the coastal...

  20. Czech Republic: A rapid transformation of fertility and family behaviour after the collapse of state socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kantorová

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the swift demise of the state-socialist regime in 1989, a profound transformation of family and fertility patterns has taken place in the Czech Republic. Family formation has been postponed and period fertility rates have fallen to very low levels, especially among young adults. Unmarried cohabitation has become relatively widespread and marriages have been progressively delayed or even foregone. These rapid shifts in family-related behaviour were primarily driven by a period change and resulted in a sharp discontinuity in cohort patterns of union formation and childbearing. We argue that the rapid change in family-related behaviour after 1990 was driven by a fundamental shift in the constraints and incentives for childbearing, which was conducive to later and more carefully planned family formation. The rapidity of observed changes can be explained as the outcome of a simultaneous occurrence of several factors, especially the expansion of higher education, the emergence of new opportunities competing with family life, increasing job competition, rising economic uncertainty in young adulthood, and changing partnership behaviour.

  1. Relapsing and Progressive Tumefactive Demyelinating Form of Central Nervous System Involvement in a Patient with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    White matter hyper intensities (WMHI) on MRI are not rare in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). In this presentation, WMHI were developed in both middle cerebellar peduncles and temporal white matter in a patient with PSS, and regressed after medication of high dose steroid. However, new lesions were developed in the subcortices of both precentral gyri, and progressed rapidly to tumefactive hyperintensity on MRI. We report an unusual relapsing and progressive tumefactive demyelinating form of central nervous system involvement in PSS.

  2. Economic diplomacy and the impact of energy issues on the international relations at the beginning of the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of state power in all times was and is the access to resources - land, water and energy. However, with technical and scientific progress, the rapid growth of industrial production, the transition from fossil fuels (coal and oil that determines the role and place in developing countries lies with a separate energy resources. The crucial role of hydrocarbons, which became the basis for the development of the modern economy, was mostly manifested during the Second World War, when the outcome of battles depended on largely stable supplies of crude oil and the possibility of producing fuel at scale. Highlighting the political component of energy security and growing interdependence between the economic and political aspects imposed by the necessity to analyze trends in international economic relations under current energy conditions.

  3. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  4. Fear of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Peter; Dinkel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fear of progression (or fear of recurrence) is an appropriate, rational response to the real threat of cancer and cancer treatments. However, elevated levels of fear of progression can become dysfunctional, affecting well-being, quality of life, and social functioning. Research has shown that fear of progression is one of the most frequent distress symptoms of patients with cancer and with other chronic diseases. As a clear consensus concerning clinically relevant states of fear of progression is currently lacking, it is difficult to provide a valid estimate of the rate of cancer patients who clearly suffer from fear of progression. However, recent systematic reviews suggest that probably 50 % of cancer patients experience moderate to severe fear of progression. Furthermore, many patients express unmet needs in dealing with the fear of cancer spreading. These results underline the necessity to provide effective psychological treatments for clinical levels of fear of progression. A few psychosocial interventions for treating fear of progression have been developed so far. Our own, targeted intervention study showed that dysfunctional fear of progression can be effectively treated with a brief group therapy.

  5. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  6. Study on the Coupling Coordination Degree between Metropolitan Economic System and Water Environmental System - Taking Beijing as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of metropolis is the inevitable outcome of the development of urbanization to a certain stage. The economy and society of metropolis are in the rapid development, but this process brings great pressure to the ecological environment, especially the water resources environment at the same time. In this paper, the relationship between metropolitan economic system and water environmental system is deeply studied, and the concept of “coupling” is introduced. Based on the framework of “pressure-state-response” (PSR, 12 detailed indexes, such as total population and water consumption per ten thousand Yuan GDP, were selected to construct four subsystems. The coordination degree measurement model has been used to calculate the degree of coupling between the economic system and water environmental system. On this basis, the following conclusions are drawn through the example of Beijing city: (1 In the process of metropolitan development, the economic system and the water environmental system are interrelated and there exist a complex coupling mechanism. (2 With the adjustment of economic structure and the progress of technology, the coupling index between the metropolitan economic system and the water environmental system has been increasing, and this process shows an upward trend

  7. Models of economic growth and development in the context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Countries like New Zealand, Iceland, and Denmark offer evidence of this. Models of African development such as the Lagos Plan of Action in terms of the whole continent are discussed within the context of existing impediments to such progress. Keywords: economic growth, economic development, human capital, growth ...

  8. Towards a better socio-economic development approach for Africa's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contends that Africa remains behind other continents with regards to human development and other related measures of socio-economic development. It questions the celebrated economic growth in African countries and posits that there has actually not been much progress in Africa and that the continent might ...

  9. Contemporaneous Household Economic Well-being Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... Population Economics, Vol. 11: 517–534. Card, David. 2001. Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent. Econometric Problems. Econometrica, Vol. 69(5): 1127-1160. Bloom DE, Canning D, and Sevilla J. 2004. The effect of health on economic growth: a production function approach.

  10. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Current scholarship on civil wars and transitions from war to peace has made significant progress in understanding the political dimensions of internal conflict. However, the economic motivations spurring political violence have been comparatively neglected. This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors ...

  11. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  12. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    as a result, among others, of the growing series of comparative information on educational achievement and development. Such reports can be seen as performances of the comparative logic of Modernity that operates differential positioning, not only among individuals but also among nations, with respect to what......I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed......, 2008, p. 29) that school mathematics has operated is a type of individuality where the subject is set in relation “to transcendental categories that seem to have no particular historical location or author to establish a home” (p. 30). In this way, subjects are inserted in a logic of quantification...

  13. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  14. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  15. [Additional qualification in health economics--a pre-condition for ENT leadership positions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnerdt, G; Schöffski, O; Mattheis, S; Hoffmann, T K; Lang, S

    2013-11-01

    The increasing medical-technical progress as well as the dramatic demographic changes cause problems with regard to rapid enlargement of medical service offers, allocation of resources and a financing shortfall in the German public health system. The economization in the German Health System can also be perceived in ENT departments. After performing an internet search about the rapidly growing market for qualifications measures in health economics, we hence conducted an anonymous survey for ENT senior doctors and directors of the 34 German University Departments to evaluate their attitude towards, as well as their expectation of such an add-on qualification. Since the German government finalized the health care reform in the year 2000 such qualification measures rapidly developed: amongst others, 26 postgraduate, extra-occupational master programs have been inaugurated. The anonymous survey was answered by 105 ENT doctors (63 senior doctors, 27 vice professors and 15 directors). 63% out of these 105 colleagues considered such an add-on qualification to be mandatory. 41% of the colleagues were already "add-on qualified" in that field, only 10 of them by means of a study program. 71 of 105 colleagues (68%) considered the add-on qualification to be advantageous for their future personal career. With regard to the designated contents of the study program, "Staff Management" was even prioritized to "Hospital Financing" and "Cost Accounting". Aspects of management and a (health-) economical basic knowledge became an integral part of the daily routine for "first-line management doctors" also in (University) ENT-departments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Prospects of Economic Integration among the ECO Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pervez Tahir

    2004-01-01

    Promotion of Intra-regional trade is the most important economic justification for regional economic blocs. This paper examines such prospects in the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) region, a grouping of ex-RCD and Central Asian States. It is shown that the progress is extremely slow and the time table fixed for the implementation of the ECO Trade Agreement is ambitious, given the lukewarm will to cooperate, the unsettled state of affairs in Afghanistan, and the dirigistic legacy of c...

  17. Factors of progress in reading literacy test

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Vitomir

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify the factors which are most associated with the progress in reading literacy assessed in the PISA survey. In the preliminary sample, students from ten schools (N=235) were retested two years after the 2009 PISA original study. There were measured intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, school self-efficacy, epistemological beliefs, metacognitive strategies, socio-economic status, enjoyment and preference for reading and motivation and self-regulation. Th...

  18. Progress in research on Chinese urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaolin, GU; Liya, WU; Cook, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive study on the progress in research on Chinese urbanization. On the basis of the concept and connotation of Chinese urbanization defined by Chinese scholars, the paper systematically collects the research results on the issues concerning urbanization in China from the different approaches of demography, geography, city planning, economics and history, reviewing the process of research on Chinese urbanization made both domestically and internationally. In this paper...

  19. New policy challenges on a changing economic landscape | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-27

    Jan 27, 2011 ... Profile of IDRC's Social and Economic Policy (SEP) program area. The current era of economic globalization has brought high expectations — but also some profound disappointments — to people in the developing world. Rapid growth, particularly on the part of the robust Asian economies of India and ...

  20. Socio-economic status, lifestyle and childhood obesity in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...

  1. The role of library in Nigeria's economic development process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the function of library as an organ of information dissemination and utilisation in Nigeria's economic development process. It emphasised the fact that adequate information that can facilitate rapid economic development in Nigeria can only be provided through the establishment and adequate funding of ...

  2. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  3. Progressive osseous heteroplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cu- taneous ossification during infancy and progressive ossification of subcutane- ous and deep connective tissue including muscle and fascia during childhood. It is at the severe end of a spectrum of Guanine Nucleotide-binding protein,.

  4. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  5. Business, Economics, Financial Sciences, and Management

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management (BEFM 2011)

    2012-01-01

    A series of papers on business, economics, and financial sciences, management selected from International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management are included in this volume.   Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.   The proceedings of BEFM2011 focuses on the various aspects of advances in Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management and provides a chance for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of Business, Economics, and Financial Scienc...

  6. Perspectives of economics – behavioural economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.

  7. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  8. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  9. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  10. Partners in Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Regina M. J.

    1981-01-01

    A key element for economic revitalization, the local labor market development, can be supported by colleges and universities in coordination with business and government. The Human Resources Management Center, a strategic model for managing economic dislocations, is described. (MLW)

  11. Economics and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan K.

    Economic matters are often entangled with interventions. Aid agencies need to understand where they can have the highest leverage, and where aid may cause harmful economic distortions. Humanitarian interventions in crises will be more effective if the economic and social root causes of the crisis are addressed as well. The root causes of insurgencies often include economic issues, particularly economic discrimination. Planners for military operations in a country need to know the economic side effects of military activities, including the effects of withdrawal. Government agencies trying to bring developed-nation investors into a developing country must understand, along with the potential investors, what the economic prospects of the economy are, and how safe an investment is (or is not). Economic modeling and analysis can assist in each of these cases.

  12. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  13. Botswana Journal of Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Botswana Journal of Economics is a professional journal established for the dissemination of contemporary economic issues–theoretical, methodological, and policy relevant–in the context of both the immediate environment and the wider international community.

  14. STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and analyzes scientific approaches of economists to the essence and contents of the economic mechanism. Proposals for methodological formation of economic mechanism structure are substantiated in the paper.

  15. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  16. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  17. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  18. Economics of Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Sinclair; De Filippi, Primavera; Potts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Claims blockchain is more than just ICT innovation, but facilitates new types of economic organization and governance. Suggests two approaches to economics of blockchain: innovation-centred and governance-centred. Argues that the governance approach — based in new institutional economics and public choice economics — is most promising, because it models blockchain as a new technology for creating spontaneous organizations, i.e. new types of economies. Illustrates this ...

  19. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  20. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  1. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research.

  2. The Economics of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohuan Lan; Ben Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an economic framework for examining how economic openness affects nationalism. Within a country, a region's level of nationalism varies according to its economic interests in its domestic market relative to its foreign market. A region's nationalism is strongest if the optimal size of its domestic market equals the size of its country. All else being equal, increasing a region's foreign trade reduces its economic interests in its domestic market and thus weakens its nation...

  3. Progress in research on Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kevin J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Hershey, Tamara; McNaught, Kevin St. P.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder commonly complicated by obsessions and compulsions, but defined by frequent unwanted movements (motor tics) and vocalizations (phonic tics) that develop in childhood or adolescence. In recent years, research on TS has progressed rapidly on several fronts. Inspired by the Fifth International Scientific Symposium on Tourette Syndrome, the articles in this special issue review advances in the phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of TS. PMID:25436182

  4. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. ECONOMICS OF COPYRIGHT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    The Emergence of Economic Analysis of Law. 1.1. Law and Economics: A Lasting Love Affair. Until recently, the overlapping academic interests of law and economics mostly comprised of the following areas: antitrust law, regulated industries, tax and determination of monetary damages. However, since the early 1960s, the.

  6. Shea Stadium: Economic Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norflus, David

    1978-01-01

    The author describes a course which links sports and economics. The course encompassed 28 lessons, which are listed, and which gave students the opportunity to work with charts, graphs, the Consumer Price Index, lifetime wages, and other economic data. A noticeable change in attitudes toward economics was demonstrated. (KC)

  7. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  8. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  9. Foundations of economic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the Schumpeterian approach to the development of economies in order to identify the core building blocks of a theory of endogenous economic change. Borders and insights are widened by combining concepts and findings from behavioral economics, from evolutionary economics, and from...

  10. Energy and Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenblum, Sidney

    This report reviews the economic impacts of the energy dilemma. Presented are viewpoints that have emerged relating to: (1) the desirability of economic growth; (2) the relationship between economic growth and energy usage; (3) the effects of energy wage in limiting or expanding the opportunities for growth; and (4) whether there is some sense in…

  11. Economics: It's Your Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Henry

    This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…

  12. Did Economic Inequality Cause the Economic Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Sukovic

    2014-01-01

    ... that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes...

  13. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadim Strielkowski; Evgeny Popov

    2017-01-01

    Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory...

  14. Positive and Negative Factors of Economic Development in Economic History of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong Min

    2017-01-01

    in countries with a developed economies and lead to an economic crisis. Conclusions and Relevance: for the last century, the changes that happened in the economic history of the Republic of Korea made it the model case of progressive economic development of developing countries. The history of Korea's economic development suggests presence of both positive and negative factors. Within the positive factors of the economic development of the Republic of Korea it is possible to note: planning of economic development, a potential for development of technology, ability to control currency, financial crisis management and free trade agreements. Negative factors for economic development were the loss of national sovereignty, disturbances in political, economic and social fields. In addition, people's desire to develop the national economy shows that the economic development could be accomplished successfully. 

  15. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2011-11-01

    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  16. Essays in Labor Economics and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovlev, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays on labor economics and development economics.In the first and second chapters, I examine determinants and consequences of alcohol consumption in Russia and quantify the effects of various public policies on mortality rates and on consumer welfare. For the past twenty years, Russia has confronted the Mortality Crisis - the life expectancy of Russian males has fallen by more than five years, and the mortality rate has increased by 50%. Alcohol abuse is wi...

  17. Neoclassical economic orthodoxy and the need for a new post-crisis economic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei JOSAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism is a social adaptive system that evolve, change and grow in response to the challenges of a rapidly changing economic environment. When capitalism is seriously threatened by a systemic crisis, a new version much better adapted to existing conditions appears. Critical analysis of the fundamental ideas underlying neoclassical economic theory shows that the capitalist system is fundamentally a dynamic and therefore static neoclassical models proved to be unsuitable for studying it. Contrary to neoclassical economic vision, the capitalist economy is not governed by immutable economic laws. Global systemic crisis of capitalism that began in 2007 has highlighted the need for a new economic paradigm on which to be built and to be performed a new version of capitalism, in line with the increasingly complex realities of a globalized and quick changing world.

  18. Introduction to health economics and decision-making: Is economics relevant for the frontline clinician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeree, Ron; Diaby, Vakaramoko

    2013-12-01

    In a climate of escalating demands for new health care services and significant constraints on new resources, the disciplines of health economics and health technology assessment (HTA) have increasingly been turned to as explicit evidence-based frameworks to help make tough health care access and reimbursement decisions. Health economics is the discipline of economics concerned with the efficient allocation of health care resources, essentially trying to maximize health benefits to society contingent upon available resources. HTA is a broader field drawing upon several disciplines, but which relies heavily upon the tools of health economics and economic evaluation. Traditionally, health economics and economic evaluation have been widely used at the political (macro) and local (meso) decision-making levels, and have progressively had an important role even at informing individual clinical decisions (micro level). The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to health economics and discuss its relevance to frontline clinicians. Particularly, the content of the paper will facilitate clinicians' understanding of the link between economics and their medical practice, and how clinical decision-making reflects on health care resource allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicians’ progress notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...

  20. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    education followed by two years of specialization within the same discipline. This idea is now being challenged on several fronts. For instance, it is becoming more common for Danish universities to offer interdisciplinary master programs. Also, the trend for greater internationalization in higher education...... sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet. University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic...... universities reflect on progression in education. The article distinguishes between different forms of progression....

  1. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  2. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  3. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  4. Values as Motivation Factors of Economic Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lačný

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reflection on the structure of values functioning as motivators of economic behaviour. Considering the principle of rational egoism the author describes three segments of crucial values, which seem to be fundamental, as a matter of the contemporary Euro-American economic value system – freedom and justice; responsibility and confidence; progress, prosperity and rationality. An important methodological basis of presented reflection is the Ethics of social consequences – dynamically developing consequentialist ethical theory, responding to the challenges arising in the field of applied ethics in the framework of efforts to solve practical problems of today's world.

  5. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  6. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  7. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  8. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing in speech while searching for words Having difficulty repeating phrases or sentences Nonfluent-agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty forming words Being hesitant ...

  9. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  10. From Life Cycle Costing to Economic Life Cycle Assessment—Introducing an Economic Impact Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Neugebauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic activities play a key role in human societies by providing goods and services through production, distribution, and exchange. At the same time, economic activities through common focus on short-term profitability may cause global crisis at all levels. The inclusion of three dimensions—environment, economy, and society—when measuring progress towards sustainable development has accordingly reached consensus. In this context, the Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA framework has been developed for assessing the sustainability performance of products through Life cycle assessment (LCA, Life cycle costing (LCC, and Social life cycle assessment (SLCA. Yet, the focus of common economic assessments, by means of LCC, is still on financial costs. However, as economic activities may have a wide range of positive and negative consequences, it seems particularly important to extend the scope of economic assessments. Foremost, as the limitation to monetary values triggers inconsistent implementation practice. Further aspects like missing assessment targets, uncertainty, common goods, or even missing ownership remain unconsidered. Therefore, we propose economic life cycle assessment (EcLCA for representing the economic pillar within the LCSA framework, following the requirements of ISO 14044, and introducing an economic impact pathway including midpoint and endpoint categories towards defined areas of protection (AoPs. We identify important target ratios by means of economic AoPs, which drive economic activities on the macro- and microeconomic level. Furthermore, we provide suggestions for midpoint and endpoint indicators representing the defined categories. With the presented EcLCA framework, a first step towards the inclusion of economic impacts within LCSA has been made. Relations between economic activities and resulting consequences are displayed, going beyond the cost-driven view of classical LCC. Further research and fine-tuning of

  11. Comparison of spectacle classical progressive and office progressive lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlík, Marek; Knollová, Libuse Nováková

    2013-04-01

    This paper elaborates on analysis of progressive spectacle lenses, to correct presbyopia, which are nowadays offered at the market. The paper describes different types of progressive lenses, their parameters, length and width of their progressive segments. It also describes degressive spectacles lenses--progressive lenses on middle and near distance. The main part of the paper is a comparison of functional differences among different types of progressive spectacles lenses. The paper also addresses correctness of choice of progressive lenses for different works and professions. Lastly, it elaborates on differences of centration of different types of progressive lenses and parameters for correct choice of glasses frame for progressive spectacles lenses.

  12. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  13. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  14. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  15. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  16. Individuals and identity in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the different conceptions of the individual that have emerged in recent new approaches in economics, including behavioral economics, experimental economics, social preferences approaches, game theory, neuroeconomics, evolutionary and complexity economics, and the capability

  17. China urges rapid growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-02-03

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong.

  18. The economics of employer versus individual mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, A B; Reinhardt, U E

    This paper reviews the economic implications of employer and individual health insurance mandates. Although the cost of meeting an employer mandate is nominally paid by employers, in the long run much of the cost may be shifted backward to employees in the form of lower wages. We also compare the consequences of hypothetical employer and individual health insurance mandates for families with different income levels. Depending on their structure, an employer mandate may be more or less progressive than an individual mandate.

  19. Prospects for Economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the curent state of economics and ruminates about its future course. Conjectures are offered about developments in economics research and also about the evolution of the profession. The discipline will become increasingly diverse both in its subject matter and in its analytical approaches. Much of the advance in economics science will come from those fusing theory with data, yet there are powerful forces attracting economists away from this central ground and toward the w...

  20. The Journals of Economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Stigler, George J; Stigler, Stephen M; Friedland, Claire

    1995-01-01

    The authors examine the principal journals of economics, with particular attention to the communication between journals, as reflected by interjournal citations during 1987-90, and the changes over the past century in the characteristics of the authors and the techniques they have used. The numerical results, and those of the statistical modeling of these results, reinforce importance of economic theory as an exporter of intellectual influence to applied economics. The study examines the degr...

  1. Practice and Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.; Murphy, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Economic geography has over the last decade become increasingly interested in the role of practice, conceptualised as the regularised or stabilised social actions through which economic agents organize or coordinate production, marketing, service provision, exchange and/or innovation activities. Interest in practice is most clearly manifest in a growing body of research concerned to conceptualise how the regularized social relations and interactions linking economic actors (e.g. entrepreneurs...

  2. Religion and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Barro, Robert J.; Rachel McCleary

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth has typically neglected the influence of religion. To fill this gap, we use international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, we use instrumental variables suggested by our analysis of systems in which church attendance and beliefs are the depende...

  3. Agroforestry Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.D. Godsey; D. Evan Mercer; Robert K. Grala; Stephen C. Grado; Janaki R.R. Alavalapati

    2009-01-01

    Essentially every living thing on Earth has applied the basic concepts of economics. That is, every living thing has had to use a limited set of resources to meet a minimum set of needs or wants. Although the study of economics is often confused with the study of markets or finance, economics is simply a social science that studies the choices people make. As a social...

  4. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  5. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  6. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...

  7. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  8. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  9. Models of Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the analysis of the goods flow.Keywords: Economic analysis, Models, Adoption of innovation

  10. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  11. Industrial Economics in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Møllgaard, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Based on diverse research methods, we trace and map industrial economics research in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the periode of 1880 to 1908. After describing this research in terms of key contributors, we argue that industrial economics developed rather unevenly in the Scandinavian countries....... Danish research was mainly theoretical and strongly oriented towards the international context, whereas Norwegian research was largely industry analysis with a strong leaning towards managerial economics. Swedish research in industrial economics is very scant until the end of the 1960s.JEL Code: B1, B2...

  12. Interpersonal and economic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, U G

    1971-01-29

    High population density and increased institutional specialization, which are relatively novel features of human society. have provided conditions for a more efficient exchange of universalistic resources, while decreasing the opportunity for exchanging particularistic ones. The parallel with physical environment is striking: in both cases technology has created new problems in the process of solving old ones. Whether it is natural resources or interpersonal resources, physical ecology or social ecology, recognizing and defining the new problem is the first step toward its solution. The importance of particularistic resources in solving problems of modern society has scarcely been recognized. Welfare institutions, for example, often require clients to lose status for the money they receive. This form of exchange deprives the client of a resource which is already scarce for him, thus further reducing his chances of autonomous performance as a resource exchanger in society. By ignoring the significance of particularistic resources for social functioning, we tend to see the solution of social problems exclusively in terms of a better distribution of economic resources. Improvement of education, for instance, is considered almost equivalent to allocating more money for schools. Truly money is one of the neighbors of information in the order, but the other one is status. Evidence to suggest that higher status improves educational achievement has, indeed, been repeatedly reported (26). The very mention of particularistic resources in social planning causes uneasiness and bafflement. The economist Levitan (27), for example, in reviewing the activities of VISTA (a program of the Office of Economic Opportunity), wonders how to evaluate goals such as dedication, involvement, and good feeling. The reluctance to include particularistic resources in social engineering will hopefully decrease as we improve techniques for their observation and measurement and as we begin to

  13. An ultrasensitive young interferometer handheld sensor for rapid virus detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ymeti, Aurel; Subramaniam, Vinod; Beumer, Tom A M; Kanger, Johannes S

    Future viral outbreaks are a major threat to societal and economic development throughout the world. A rapid, sensitive and easy-to-use test for viral infections is essential to prevent and control such viral pandemics. Furthermore, a compact, portable device is potentially very useful in remote or

  14. Profitability of a Smallholder Late Season Rapid Multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of increasing poultry manure rates on the soil physicochemical properties, crop productivity and economic returns to investment of late season rapid multiplication of cassava stem enterprise at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri in the humid ...

  15. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  17. Essays in health economics and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and

  18. Economic globalisation and economic justice: Covenanting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The premise of this article is that ethical moral formation or 'covenanting for justice' leads to action. The covenanting church itself, in conjunction with other movements, works for justice in all areas of life. The article uses the six aspects of ethical moral formation of Heinz Tödt to analyse some aspects of economic ...

  19. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory. We scrutinize and discuss the scientific principles of this institutional modelling that are increasingly postulated by the classics of institutional theory and find their way into the basics of the institutional economics. We propose scientific ideas concerning the new innovative approaches to institutional modelling. These ideas have been devised and developed on the basis of the results of our own original design, as well as on the formalisation and measurements of economic institutions, their functioning and evolution. Moreover, we consider the applied aspects of the institutional theory of modelling and employ them in our research for formalizing our results and maximising the practical outcome of our paper. Our results and findings might be useful for the researchers and stakeholders searching for the systematic and comprehensive description of institutional level modelling, the principles involved in this process and the main provisions of the institutional theory of economic modelling.

  20. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  1. Arachnoiditis ossificans with progressive syringomyelia and spinal arachnoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavlasopoulos, F; Stranjalis, G; Kouyialis, A T; Korfias, S; Sakas, D

    2007-06-01

    We present a 30-year-old man with progressive spastic paraparesis. Spinal imaging revealed extensive calcification of the thoracic cord and cauda equina arachnoid, an intradural extramedullary cyst and evidence of rapidly progressing syringomyelia. Radiological diagnosis was arachnoiditis ossificans and an attempt at surgical decompression was made because of progressive neurologic deterioration. Due to tenacious adhesion of the calcified plaques to the cord and roots, only cyst drainage was achieved; the patient had no clinical improvement. A literature review revealed only two other cases reported in the literature with co-existence of arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia. In none of the previous cases was there an intradural extramedullary arachnoid cyst, nor did the syrinx progress in such a rapid fashion. An attempt is made to explain possible pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this unusual pathology.

  2. Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Worrall; Leanne Egeland; Thomas Eager; Roy A. Mask; Erik W. Johnson; Philip A. Kemp; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Concentrated patches of recent trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality covered 56,091 ha of Colorado forests in 2006. Mortality has progressed rapidly. Area affected increased 58% between 2005 and 2006 on the Mancos-Dolores Ranger District, San Juan National Forest, where it equaled nearly 10% of the aspen cover type. In four stands that were...

  3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Brazis, Paul W

    2002-09-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a descriptive term for a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis. Significant pain, proptosis, or pupil involvement are not features of CPEO and should prompt evaluation for alternative etiologies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations are increasingly being recognized as the etiology for CPEO syndromes. Clinicians should recognize the specific syndromes associated with CPEO, characterized by variable systemic, neurologic, or other findings. Treatment is limited, but newer therapies are being investigated.

  4. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  5. Coconut lethal yellowing diseases: a phytoplasma threat to palms of global economic and social significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurr M Geoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of Bogia Coconut Syndrome in Papua New Guinea is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late 19th century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the 20th century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems.

  6. From Economic to Socio-economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractThere is no doubt that human life in the more prosperous countries has changed very rapidly during the last few centuries. The availability of many forms of comfort has increased at a high rate. To a considerable extent, the forces behind this change are increased scientific and

  7. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Global economic processes and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Radzievska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main trends in global economic development and impact thereof on Ukraine. A characteristic feature of the contemporary world is acceleration of globalization caused by achievements of the scientific and technological progress, which have provided technical means for successful overcoming the factors of time and space, whereby making the world more compact and ensuring the possibility of functioning as a single economic mechanism. Growing of opportunities for solving global problems is accompanied by aggravation of the latter such as: population growth, depletion of natural resources, deterioration of the environment, the mounting danger of climatic changes, potential failure to provide people with foods and potable water. Growth of social inequality in the world is also observed, as is increased differentiation of population by income level, which intensifies migration processes and thereby creates new problems related to coexistence of people belonging to different civilizations, cultures and value systems. An integral part of globalization is formation of regional associations which requires Ukraine to participate in this phase of globalization by means of becoming a member of a regional integration association with the purpose of improving its competitiveness and ensuring decent living for Ukrainian people under conditions of humanity functioning as a single planetary organism

  10. Essays in antitrust economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verouden, V.C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Competition law - or antitrust law, as it is called in the United States - is a field of law to which economic concepts, such as "restriction of competition" and "anti-competitive effect", are of central importance. This thesis analyses a number of such concepts, both from an economic and a legal

  11. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  12. Economics of professional football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation contains four chapters, all with a different topic that is of interest from a sports economic perspective. More specifically, from the economic perspective of professional football. Football is the most popular sport within Europe and the data that is used in the analyses stems

  13. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx...

  14. Teaching Writing in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author provides motivation and a template for integrating and teaching writing in a variety of economics courses: core theory or introductory courses, topic courses, and economic writing/research courses. For each assignment, pedagogical reasoning and syllabus integration are discussed. Additionally, the author shows that…

  15. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  16. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  17. Economics and agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Brown

    1993-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is an underlying theme in much of the literature dealing with the economics of agroforestry. Four major areas of concern for economic investigation into sustainable agroforestry systems — profitability, dynamics, externalities, and markets — are addressed using examples from the available literature. Finally, the social constraints that...

  18. Economics of Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...

  19. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  20. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...