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Sample records for rapid economic expansion

  1. eRME - Rapid Maxillary Expansion in the economic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Mahadevia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Rapid Maxillary Expansion constitutes a routine clinical procedure in orthodontics, involving separation of mid-palatine suture which is usually done with help of the Hyrax screw. However, because of its high cost, the use has been limited, especially in institutions. So, the purpose of this study was to construct an economical device which can expand the maxillary arch in growing patients. Materials and Methods: Six patients having constricted maxilla and posterior skeletal crossbite were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics. A unique, easy and simple alternative device for expanding the maxillary arch called economic Rapid Maxillary Expander (eRME has been fabricated at about one-tenth the cost of the conventional Hyrax. Pre- and post-treatment effects were statistically tested by using paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results and Conclusion: The study results showed an average expansion in canine, premolar and molar regions of 4.4 mm, 6.8 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, having significant difference pre-and post-treatment. Thus, it shows that maxillary expansion is efficiently possible with the application of this newly constructed device named eRME. This appliance also acts as a fixed retainer to avoid relapse, hence negating the need for a separate retainer.

  2. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  3. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes.

  4. Rapid maxillary expansion in contemporary orthodontic literature

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    Sabrina Mutinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed our retrospective research about rapid maxillary expansion performed in the early mixed dentition to summarize the results of different studies regarding maxillary dental arch width variation and crowding improvement in light of contemporary literature. The aim is to define the effects of treatments followed until the end of dental arch growth. In all studies, a Haas expander anchored to the deciduous dentition was used. The samples consisted of treated patients with and without a lateral crossbite and homogeneous untreated individuals as controls. Two additional control groups of adolescents and adults in dental Class 1 were also compared. As a result of the analysis, rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage to the deciduous dentition was found to be effective in increasing transverse width in intermolar and intercanine areas, and the change was preserved until the full permanent dentition stage. When performed before maxillary lateral incisors have fully erupted, this procedure allows for a rapid increase in the arch length in the anterior area and consequently, in the space available for permanent incisors with a stable reduction in crowding over time.

  5. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

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    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  6. DISRUPTING SHOCKS IN POSTWAR GLOBAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION

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    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coherence of the global economic system, created by its upswing in the first postwar decades, started to crumble in the ’70s. The destabilizing shocks affected the entire world, but in an uneven manner, in different geographical areas and at different times, being felt most acutely, with devastating economic and social effects, in Third World countries. Although the developed countries were affected as well, they always had means to combat or to diminish the adverse effects of the crises, leading to "gentler" consequences. This paper focuses on four main aspects in postwar global economic expansion, namely: the ’70s – the international monetary crisis and the oil shocks; the foreign debt crisis; the Latin American debt crisis, the Asian financial crises and the current global crisis.

  7. World NGL markets continue rapid expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-01

    The international LPG industry has expanded rapidly during the 1990s and undergone significant changes. LPG consumption has expanded at nearly twice the rate of world petroleum demand. In particular, LPG use in residential and commercial markets has more than doubled in many developing countries. Markets for LPG and other petroleum products have been opened in many countries, accelerating demand growth and creating investment opportunities in all downstream segments. This has led to an overall strengthening of global LPG pricing and the development of many new export gas-processing projects. The paper discusses world LPG demand in residential and commercial markets and in petrochemicals, world LPG supply, regional increases, international trade, the US situation in natural gas, NGL supply, and NGL demand

  8. Fragmentation of Ceramics in Rapid Expansion Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Spandan; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Rangaswamy, Krishnan

    The study of the fragmentation process goes back to more than a century, motivated primarily by problems related to mining and ore handling (Grady and Kipp, 1985). Various theories have been proposed to predict the fragmentation stress and the fragment size and distribution. But the investigations are generally case specific and relate to only a narrow set of fragmentation processes. A number of theoretical studies of dynamic fragmentation in a rapidly expanding body can be found in the literature. For example, the study summarized in (Grady, 1982) presents a model based on a simple energy balance concept between the surface energy released due to fracture and the kinetic energy of the fragments. Subsequent refinements of the energy balance model have been proposed by (Glenn and Chudnovsky, 1986), which take into account the strain energy of the fragments and specify a threshold stress below which no fragmentation occurs. These models assume that the fracture events are instantaneous and occur simultaneously. Evidently, these assumptions are quite restrictive and these models can not take into account the transient nature of the fragmentation process after the onset of fracture in the material. A more recent model proposed by (Miller et al., 1999) however takes into account this time-dependent nature of the fragmentation event and the distribution of flaws of various strengths in the original material.

  9. Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion: surgical and orthodontic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is to shed more light, from a number of perspectives, on surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). The primary questions this thesis set out to answer were; ‘is there a difference in stability between bone-borne and tooth-borne distraction?’ and ‘can

  10. The thermospheric effects of a rapid polar cap expansion

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    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available In a previous publication we used results from a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model to illustrate a new mechanism for the formation of a large-scale patch of ionisation arising from a rapid polar cap expansion. Here we describe the thermospheric response to that polar cap expansion, and to the ionospheric structure produced. The response is dominated by the energy and momentum input at the dayside throat during the expansion phase itself. These inputs give rise to a large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD that propagates both antisunward across the polar cap and equatorward at speeds much greater than both the ion drifts and the neutral winds. We concentrate only on the initially poleward travelling disturbance. The disturbance is manifested in the neutral temperature and wind fields, the height of the pressure level surfaces and in the neutral density at fixed heights. The thermospheric effects caused by the ionospheric structure produced during the expansion are hard to discern due to the dominating effects of the TAD.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interaction; modeling and forecasting; plasma convection.

  11. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  12. The Economic Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Carter C; Donohue, Julie M; Saltzman, Evan; Woods, Dulani; Eibner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act is a substantial reform of the U.S. health care insurance system. Using the RAND COMPARE model, researchers assessed the act's potential economic effects on Pennsylvania, factoring in an optional expansion of Medicaid, and found the state would enjoy significant net benefits. With or without the expansion of Medicaid, the act will increase insurance coverage to hundreds of thousands of Pennsylvanians, but the COMPARE model estimates that the expansion of Medicaid eligibility would cover an additional 350,000 people and bring more than $2 billion in federal spending into the state annually than if the state did not expand. Should the state expand Medicaid, the additional spending will add more than $3 billion a year to the state's GDP and support 35,000 jobs. But Medicaid expansion is not without cost for the state; the estimated cumulative effect on Pennsylvania's Medicaid spending will be $180 million higher with the expansion than without between 2014 and 2020. Substantial reductions in uncompensated care costs for hospitals are possible even without expansion, but savings to hospitals for uncompensated care funding are even larger with the Medicaid expansion, amounting to $550 million or more each year.

  13. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

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    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  14. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

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    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  15. [Piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion under local anesthesia].

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    Sun, Hao; Li, Biao; Sun, Hao; Liu, Zhixu; Wang, Xudong

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) under local anesthesia. SARME was performed on adults with maxillary transverse deficiency under local anesthesia with a piezosurgical device. Fourteen patients (six males and eight females) underwent lateral maxillary osteotomies, midpalatal osteotomies, and bilateral pterygomaxillary disjunction. The feelings of patients during the operation were determined through questionnaires. All patients underwent SARME in the out-patient operating room. The surgical procedures were completed under local anesthesia. All patients exhibited satisfactory tolerance. Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery was recently introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional tools of cranio-maxillofacial surgery for its technical characteristics of precision and safety. The device used was unique in that cutting action occurred when the tool was employed on mineralized tissues, but stoped on soft tissues. The results of the questionnaires showed that eight (57.14%) patients felt a mild sensation of ultrasonic vibration, tweleve (85.7 1%) felt mild tolerable pain and tooth soreness during surgery, and eleven (78.57%) felt little fear and hardly heard the ultrasonic sound. Preoperative and postoperative six months later measurements showed an evident effect of expansion. Piezosurgery enabled patients to undergo all the steps of SARME under local anesthesia, but more cases and longer follow-up are needed to verif ' the results.

  16. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years......With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...

  17. Rapid replacement of bridge deck expansion joints study - phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Bridge deck expansion joints are used to allow for movement of the bridge deck due to thermal expansion, dynamics loading, and : other factors. More recently, expansion joints have also been utilized to prevent the passage of winter de-icing chemical...

  18. Transmission economic expansion and congestion relief : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H.; Trinh, L.H.; Moore, M. [ABB Consulting, Raleigh, NC (United States); Brown, L.; Patel, K. [SDG and E, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Transmission capacity additions have lagged behind load growth and generation expansion in the United States. This paper provided an economic analysis of various transmission upgrade options designed to address anticipated congestion of the electricity grid. A market-based transmission planning method was used to assess the economics of transmission expansion. The analysis accounted for the minimum costs of generation dispatch to satisfy transmission constraints, as well as a locational marginal price for each bus in the system. Marginal congestion costs for all major transmission facilities were monitored and recorded. Hourly simulations of load, generation, and transmission system interactions were conducted. Contract costs and economic measures were then calculated for each scenario run. A case study for the Sunrise Powerlink project was used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. The study demonstrated that the Sunrise Powerlink project will eliminate significant congestion in California load centers. Results also showed that the analytical method provided critical information for decision-makers in weighing the costs with benefits for transmission projects. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Impact of FDI in economic expansion: The Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Loku

    2017-11-01

    financial institutions. The persistent trade deficit reflects a weak production base and poor international competitiveness. Reliance on remittances and the widespread informal economy additionally decrease employment incentives, resulting in low labour force participation, especially among women, and high unemployment rates, in particular among young and unskilled workers. Kosovo is at an early stage in building the capacity to cope with competitive pressures and market forces within the Union. No progress was made on improving the quality of education, which is a key driver for improving long-term growth and competitiveness. Foreign direct investment (FDI is widely recognized for its positive impacts on economic growth and transformation (Amerasinghe & Modesto, 2012. FDI may facilitate rapid economic growth in developing countries by increasing savings and investment and by transferring experiences, technologies, and know-how from developed countries (Mott aleba, & Kalirajan, 2010. The impact of FDI on growth may also positively aff ect poverty levels in the host country by increasing employment opportunities and wages (Klein, Aaaron and Hadjimichael, 2011. Kosovo is limited in its ability to attract foreign investment due to the lack of information distribution within global markets, poor international communication regarding its economic environment and opportunities for foreign investment, and the absence of a credit rating by a credible foreign rating agency. Foreign investment inflows have also been hindered by high degrees of corruption, slow and ineffective business environment reforms, lack of transparency, economic inactivity in many sectors, negative perception by foreign investors and diaspora populations, and the failure of institutions to implement and achieve their set objectives. The law has not been implemented because of various factors (such as: bureaucracy costs, long administrative procedures, bribery and favors and all of them have created

  20. Following Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion, Do Tooth-Borne or Bone-Borne Appliances Provide More Skeletal Expansion and Dental Expansion?

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    Hamedi-Sangsari, Adrien; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Carrasco, Lee

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare outcome measurements of skeletal and dental expansion with bone-borne (BB) versus tooth-borne (TB) appliances after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). This study was performed to provide quantitative measurements that will help the oral surgeon and orthodontist in selecting the appliance with, on average, the greatest amount of skeletal expansion and the least amount of dental expansion. A computerized database search was performed using PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar on publications in reputable oral surgery and orthodontic journals. A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed with the predictor variable of expansion appliance (TB vs BB) and outcome measurement of expansion (in millimeters). Of 487 articles retrieved from the 6 databases, 5 articles were included, 4 with cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) data and 1 with non-CBCT 3-dimensional cast data. There was a significant difference in skeletal expansion (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.30; P appliances. However, there was no significant difference in dental expansion (SMD, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.24 to 0.34; P = .03). According to the literature, to achieve more effective skeletal expansion and minimize dental expansion after SARPE, a BB appliance should be favored. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  2. Analyzing suitability for urban expansion under rapid coastal urbanization with remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Linanyungang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Reenberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 2000, Lianyungang's urbanization entered a period of rapid growth, spatially as well as economically. Rapid and intensive expansion of "construction land" imposed increasing pressures on regional environment. With the support of remote sensing data and GIS tools, this paper reports a...

  3. Rapid, global demographic expansions after the origins of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux, Christopher R; Henn, Brenna M; Mountain, Joanna L

    2011-04-12

    The invention of agriculture is widely assumed to have driven recent human population growth. However, direct genetic evidence for population growth after independent agricultural origins has been elusive. We estimated population sizes through time from a set of globally distributed whole mitochondrial genomes, after separating lineages associated with agricultural populations from those associated with hunter-gatherers. The coalescent-based analysis revealed strong evidence for distinct demographic expansions in Europe, southeastern Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa within the past 10,000 y. Estimates of the timing of population growth based on genetic data correspond neatly to dates for the initial origins of agriculture derived from archaeological evidence. Comparisons of rates of population growth through time reveal that the invention of agriculture facilitated a fivefold increase in population growth relative to more ancient expansions of hunter-gatherers.

  4. Rapid intraoperative tissue expansion with Foley catheter in a challenging cripple Hypospadias

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    Murat Cakmak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFailed hypospadiass cases may result in hypovascular, scarred penis with residual penile chordee and leave the patient with minimal residual skin for penile resurfacing and urethroplasty. Local tissue expansion has become a good alternative to provide skin for penis by using expanders however they require long periods of time for expansion. Besides, rapid tissue expansion was also described in different tissues. We used rapid intraoperative expansion technique by using a Foley catheter in a failed hypospadias case who had minimal residual skin secondary to infection and we concluded that rapid intraoperative tissue expansion with Foley catheter is an effective, feasible reconstructive method for easy dissection and penile resurfacing in failed hypospadiass cases.

  5. The Effects of Surgical Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SRME) on Vowel Formants

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    Sari, Emel; Kilic, Mehmet Akif

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surgical rapid maxillary expansion (SRME) on vowel production. The subjects included 12 patients, whose speech were considered perceptually normal, that had undergone surgical RME for expansion of a narrow maxilla. They uttered the following Turkish vowels, ([a], [[epsilon

  6. Photographic assessment of nasal morphology following rapid maxillary expansion in children

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    da SILVA FILHO, Omar Gabriel; LARA, Tulio Silva; AYUB, Priscila Vaz; OHASHI, Amanda Sayuri Cardoso; BERTOZ, Francisco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to use facial analysis to determine the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nasal morphology in children in the stages of primary and mixed dentition, with posterior cross-bite. Material and Methods Facial photographs (front view and profile) of 60 patients in the pre-expansion period, immediate post-expansion period and one year following rapid maxillary expansion with a Haas appliance were evaluated on 2 occasions by 3 experienced orthodontists independently, with a 2-week interval between evaluations. The examiners were instructed to assess nasal morphology and had no knowledge regarding the content of the study. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement (assessed using the Kappa statistic) was acceptable. Results From the analysis of the mode of the examiners' findings, no alterations in nasal morphology occurred regarding the following aspects: dorsum of nose, alar base, nasal width of middle third and nasal base. Alterations were only detected in the nasolabial angle in 1.64% of the patients between the pre-expansion and immediate post-expansion photographs. In 4.92% of the patients between the immediate post-expansion period and 1 year following expansion; and in 6.56% of the patients between the pre-expansion period and one year following expansion. Conclusion RME performed on children in stages of primary and mixed dentition did not have any impact on nasal morphology, as assessed using facial analysis. PMID:21986660

  7. Restoring the Economic Power of Russia through OFDI Expansion

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    Codruţa DURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When enterprises enter a new country they face the challenge to develop their acquisition and distribution systems. In this way modern management concepts are exported. Today, managers of multinational companies are more specialized in segmenting their activities and in finding optimal location for increasingly specialized forms of activity being able to adopt their products to local markets. These technological and managerial efforts have been extended by political that provided a larger opening than in previously closed economies. FDI is one of the most efficient means by which emerging markets become integrated to the global economy while FDI provides capital, technology and management know-how required by the restructuring of firms in the host economies. The propose of the paper is to analyze the growing importance of OFDIs from emerging markets underlining the fact that, in recent years, middle and low income countries, such as Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Malaysia, Russia and South Africa, have become important in the global geography of capital flows. From among the BRIC countries, our paper will provide insights into the Russian economy, focusing on its goal of becoming a major outward investing country on a global scale. The expansion of Russian corporations to abroad, and particularly to Europe, raised many questions regarding the motivations behind their internationalization and led to a common acknowledged belief that they were tools of regaining political hegemony rather than pure economic entities. Given the complexity of the subject, the main objective of our paper is to explore trends for Russian OFDI and their impact upon the new balance of the global economic power.

  8. Rapid Expansion of Phenylthiocarbamide Non-Tasters among Japanese Macaques.

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    Nami Suzuki-Hashido

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors (TAS2R proteins allow mammals to detect and avoid ingestion of toxins in food. Thus, TAS2Rs play an important role in food choice and are subject to complex natural selection pressures. In our previous study, we examined nucleotide variation in TAS2R38, a gene expressing bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, in 333 Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata from 9 local populations in Japan. We identified a PTC "non-taster" TAS2R38 allele in Japanese macaques that was caused by a loss of the start codon. This PTC non-taster allele was only found in a limited local population (the Kii area, at a frequency of 29%. In this study, we confirmed that this allele was present in only the Kii population by analyzing an additional 264 individuals from eight new populations. Using cellular and behavioral experiments, we found that this allele lost its receptor function for perceiving PTC. The nucleotide sequences of the allele including flanking regions (of about 10 kb from 23 chromosomes were identical, suggesting that a non-taster allele arose and expanded in the Kii population during the last 13,000 years. Genetic analyses of non-coding regions in Kii individuals and neighboring populations indicated that the high allele frequency in the Kii population could not be explained by demographic history, suggesting that positive selection resulted in a rapid increase in PTC non-tasters in the Kii population. The loss-of-function that occurred at the TAS2R38 locus presumably provided a fitness advantage to Japanese macaques in the Kii population. Because TAS2R38 ligands are often found in plants, this functional change in fitness is perhaps related to feeding habit specificity. These findings should provide valuable insights for elucidating adaptive evolutionary changes with respect to various environments in wild mammals.

  9. Position and stability of the mandibular incisors after rapid maxillary expansion

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    Darcy Flávio Nouer

    Full Text Available Objective: To make a cephalometric evaluation of the position and stability of the mandibular incisors immediately after rapid maxillaryexpansion and after a containment period of five months. Methods: The sample consisted of 21 schoolchildren, aged between 6 years and 11 months and 11 years, with mixed dentition, posterior reverse articulation (posterior cross bite, and erupted permanent first molars. The children were randomly divided into two groups: Group1 (composed of eleven children, in whom the encapsulated rapid maxilla expander was used, and Group 2 (composed of ten children, inwhom the conventional Hyrax expander was used. Three lateral teleradiographs of each individual were taken: before treatment, after rapid maxillary expansion, and after a containment period of five months. The cephalometric measurements used for analyzing the incisors were: /1.NB, /1-NB, /1-Line I, IMPA and /1-Jr. The data were submitted to the Dalhberg test, to calculate the error of repeatability, and to ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The result showed significant difference between the adopted mechanics, but showed no difference between the initial measures, those after rapid expansion of the maxilla and final measures for all the distances, except for /1-Jr. Conclusion: Rapid maxillary expansion, using the encapsulated appliance or Hyrax, caused no significant alteration in the distances: /1.NB, /1-NB, /1-Line I, IMPA; before, after rapid maxillary expansion and after containment.

  10. Truncal anaesthesia of the maxillary nerve for outpatient surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiony, M; Demitri, V; Costa, F; Politi, M; Cugini, U

    1998-10-01

    We present our experience of transcutaneous truncal anaesthesia of the maxillary nerve in association with transmucosal anaesthesia of the sphenopalatine ganglion in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. Twelve patients with a skeletal transverse discrepancy of the maxilla were treated in our department from 1994 to 1995. Maxillary transcutaneous nerve block was done with a Quincke 8 cm spinal needle together with transmucosal anaesthesia of the sphenopalatine ganglion. Mepivacaine without adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate 1/10 was used for truncal anaesthesia and lidocaine-prilocaine cream for transmucosal anaesthesia. A Le Fort I osteotomy, lateral nasal wall osteotomy, pterygomaxillary osteotomy, and a palatal osteotomy were done for all patients before the maxillary expansion. Total anaesthesia of the maxillary area facilitated the operations and appreciably reduced the amount of postoperative pain. The ease of achieving effective anaesthesia before and after operation and the absence of side-effects make this form of anaesthetic particularly useful in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

  11. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second

  12. Stability of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy: a long-term controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, Caterina; Franchi, Lorenzo; Defraia, Efisio; Mucedero, Manuela; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate the long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy in Class III subjects. Twenty-two subjects (9 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 9.2 years ± 1.6) with Class III disharmony were treated consecutively with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances. The patients were reevaluated at the end of the 2-phase treatment (mean age, 14.5 years ± 1.9) and then recalled about 8.5 years after the end of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask treatment (mean age, 18.7 years ± 2.1). Two groups of controls with untreated Class III malocclusion were used for statistical comparisons of the short-term and long-term intervals. Statistical comparisons were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test. In the long term, no significant differences in maxillary changes were recorded, whereas the treatment group showed significantly smaller increases in mandibular protrusion. The sagittal maxillomandibular skeletal variables maintained significant improvements in the treatment group vs the control groups. In the long term, rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy led to successful outcomes in about 73% of the Class III patients. Favorable skeletal changes were mainly due to significant improvements in the sagittal position of the mandible. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographic expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 10,000 years, humans have facilitated rapid range expansions of animal, plants and microorganisms, often accompanying agriculture’s spread. Three squash species were early domesticates in the New World. Their spreading cultivation out of the Southwest across much of today’s USA has bee...

  14. Effect of economic parameters on power generation expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilgen, Sueleyman Hakan; Hueseyin Erdem, Hasan; Cetin, Burhanettin; Volkan Akkaya, Ali; Dagdas, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    The increasing consumption of electricity within time forces countries to build additional power plants. Because of technical and economic differences of the additional power plants, economic methodologies are used to determine the best technology for the additional capacity. The annual levelized cost method is used for this purpose, and the technology giving the minimum value for the additional load range is chosen. However, the economic parameters such as interest rate, construction escalation, fuel escalation, maintenance escalation and discount factor can affect the annual levelized cost considerably and change the economic range of the plants. Determining the values of the economical parameters in the future is very difficult, especially in developing countries. For this reason, the analysis of the changing rates of the mentioned values is of great importance for the planners of the additional capacity. In this study, the changing rates of the economic parameters that influence the annual levelized cost of the alternative power plant types are discussed. The alternative power plants considered for the electricity generation sector of Turkey and the economic parameters dominating each plant type are determined. It is clearly seen that the annual levelized cost for additional power plants varies with the economic parameters. The results show that the economic parameters variation has to be taken into consideration in electricity generation planning

  15. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion in cleft patients resulting from the use of two different expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Fonseca Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME in cleft patients using two types of expanders. Methods: Twenty unilateral cleft lip and palate patients were randomly divided into two groups, according to the type of expander used: (I modified Hyrax and (II inverted Mini-Hyrax. A pretreatment cone-beam computed tomographic image (T0 was taken as part of the initial orthodontic records and three months after RME as need for bone graft planning (T1. Results: In general, there was no significant difference among groups (p > 0.05. Both showed significant transverse maxillary expansion (p 0.05. There was greater crown than apical expansion. Maxillary posterior expansion tended to be larger than anterior opening (p 0.05. Conclusions: The appliances tested are effective for transverse expansion of the maxilla. However, these appliances should be better indicated to cleft cases also presenting posterior transverse discrepancy, since there was greater expansion in the posterior maxillary region than in the anterior one.

  16. Modified hyrax splint for rapid maxillary expansion in esthetically concerned patients

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    Sarabjeet Singh Sandhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction either with or without maxillary expansion. The routine procedure for rapid maxillary expansion includes banding on first premolars/first deciduous molars and the permanent first molars. However in some patients who are esthetically very conscious, banding of the first premolar would not be a good esthetic option. So for such circumstances we have designed a modified hyrax splint, which does not need the first premolars to be banded.

  17. Protected areas and agricultural expansion: Biodiversity conservation versus economic growth in the Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Mayra Cristina Prado de; Mello, Kaline de; Toppa, Rogério Hartung

    2017-03-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands. The results showed that the landscape patterns were affected by the economic cycles. The predominant crop surrounding the protected area is sugar cane, which increased by 39% during this period, followed by citrus. This landscape change is connected to the Brazilian oil crisis in 1973. The rapid expansion of sugar cane was largely driven by Brazil's biofuel program, the "Proálcool" (pro-alcohol), a project in 1975 that mixed ethanol with gas for automotive fuel. The forest loss occurred mainly between 1971 and 1988, decreasing the forest cover from 17% in 1971 to 12.7% in 2008. Most of the forest patches are smaller than 50 ha and has low connectivity. Throughout the years, the fragments in the buffer zone have become smaller and with an elongated shape, and the park has become isolated. This forest fragmentation process and the predominance of monoculture lands in the buffer zone threaten the protected areas, and can represent a barrier for these areas to provide the effective biodiversity conservation. The measures proposed are necessary to ensure the capability of this ecosystem to sustain its original biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Koreksi gigitan terbalik posterior dan anterior dengan alat cekat rapid maxillary expansion dan elastik intermaksila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Dewati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with anterior and posterior crossbite usually have a complaint in aesthetic and masticatory function. It could caused by bad habits and hereditary factors which made worse condition. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to report the use of orthodontic appliance rapid maxillary expansion (RPE and intermaxillary elastic to correct posterior and anterior crossbite in teenage patient. Case: A fourteen years-old teenage female patient came to Dental Hospital Dentistry Universitas Airlangga with case of anterior posterior cross bite and unerupted permanent teeth. Case management: The case was treated using orthodontic fixed appliance rapid maxillary expansion (RPE and followed by intermaxillary elastics. The posterior cross bite treatment took 4 weeks used of orthodontic fixed appliance RPE, while, treatment of anterior cross bite which used intermaxillary elactic was done within three month to achieved normal occlusion. Conclusion: This case report showed that the orthodontic appliance rapid maxillary expansion (RPE and intermaxillary elastic could be used to correct posterior and anterior crossbite.Latar belakang: Anak dengan gigitan terbalik anterior dan posterior pada umumnya mempunyai keluhan dalam hal estetik dan fungsi pengunyahan. Kondisi gigitan terbalik biasanya disebabkan oleh adanya kebiasaan buruk dan faktor keturunan yang semakin memperparah keadaan tersebut. Tujuan: Laporan kasus ini melaporkan pemakaian alat cekat rapid maxillary expansion (RPE dan elastik intermaksila untuk mengkoreksi gigitan terbalik posterior dan anterior pada anak remaja. Kasus: Pasien remaja perempuan berusia 14 tahun datang ke Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Airlangga Surabaya dengan kasus gigitan terbalik anterior posterior dan terdapat gigi permanen yang tidak tumbuh. Tatalaksana kasus: Perawatan yang dilakukan adalah koreksi gigitan terbalik dengan menggunakan alat ortodonsia cekat rapid maxillary

  19. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  20. Three-Dimensional Force Measurements During Rapid Palatal Expansion in Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Goeckner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment approach because the forces applied in the three dimensions are indeterminate. To enable optimal and individualized treatment, it is essential to measure the three-dimensional (3D forces and displacements created by the expander. This paper proposes a method for performing these 3D measurements using a single embedded strain sensor, combining experimental measurements of strain in the palatal expander with 3D finite element analysis (FEA. The method is demonstrated using the maxillary jaw from a freshly euthanized pig (Sus scrofa and a hyrax-design rapid palatal expander (RPE appliance with integrated strain gage. The strain gage measurements are recorded using a computer interface, following which the expansion forces and extent of expansion are estimated by FEA. A total activation of 2.0 mm results in peak total force of about 100 N—almost entirely along the direction of expansion. The results also indicate that more than 85% of the input activation is immediately transferred to the palate and/or teeth. These studies demonstrate a method for assessing and individualizing expansion magnitudes and forces during orthopedic expansion of the maxilla. This provides the basis for further development of smart orthodontic appliances that provide real-time readouts of forces and movements, which will allow personalized, optimal treatment.

  1. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  2. APPLING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUE TO MONITORING SPATIAL EXPANSION OF IMPORTANT CITIES IN CHINA-INDOCHINA PENINSULA ECONOMIC CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since twentieth Century, the process of economic globalization has made great progress, and Southeast Asia has developed rapidly under the background of international industrial transferring. In this paper, the 6 important nodes cities in China - Indochina Peninsula along the economic corridor are took as study area. The main data is time series Landsat data. The method of object-oriented random forest classification was used to extract the classification results of study area from 2000 to 2015. The urban expansion of the node cities was evaluated by calculating the expansion speed of the impervious surface and the landscape pattern metrics. The results indicated that the method of object oriented random forest classification can effectively extract the urban impervious surface. the overall accuracy is over 81 %, and the Kappa coefficient is over 0.82. In the past 15 years, the expansion speed of Vientiane city was fastest in 6 countries. The area of urban impervious surface expanded 8 times than that of 2000.The pattern of expansion is summarized as “gather first-diffuse then”, “diffuse first-gather then” and “gather”. Overall, the process of urbanization of these cities are still in the rising period.

  3. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  4. Motives of enterprises’ expansion abroad during the global financial and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for facing up the competitors and the wish to build the competitive advantage on the market contribute to enterprises’ expansion on foreign markets. Motives lying behind the enterprise management decision when starting expansion abroad vary and they depend on an individual market situation of the enterprise. They can also evolve in time. The decision about enterprise expansion may be dictated by the will to make advantage of chances which appear on the market. Nevertheless, it also happens that adverse conditions of the enterprise external environment force its internationalization. Motives of foreign expansion can be classified in many ways. This article describes four main groups of motives: market, costs-related, supplies and strategic ones. The second part of this paper analyses changes in enterprises’ motives of expansion during the global financial and economic crisis.

  5. Economic and Environmental Consequences of Widespread Expansion of Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Gaurav

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the sustainability of an expansion in solar energy subject to resource constraints of Indium. Coal and natural gas are taken as competitors for solar in the energy market. The consumer electronics market also competes with solar PV production because of Indium's use in the manufacturing of LCD screens. A partial equilibrium model is made which determines the rate of extraction of indium, coal and natural gas endogenously. Consumer demand is modeled by the use of cost shares. Generation of electricity and production of LCDs are modeled using Constant Elasticity of Substitution functions. Initial production capacity for both electricity and LCD is considered in the model. The model then endogenously determines the level of investment required. Model simulations are performed to predict the extraction paths and production levels for a timeline of 100 years. A sensitivity analysis is performed to see the reaction of the model to changes in consumer demand and learning rates in solar energy. The response of the model to imposition of various emission caps is also shown. Results of the model show that indium scarcity prevents solar from expanding significantly to a level where it can take over from non-renewable sources of energy. Increased research in solar technologies would not be of much help unless more Indium is available, either by recycling of solar PVs and LCDs or searching for alternate technologies to manufacture LCD screes. Emission caps are able to control excessive usage of fossil fuels and preserve them for a longer time.

  6. Analyzing suitability for urban expansion under rapid coastal urbanization with remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Lianyungang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Reenberg, Anette; Sun, Xiang

    2010-10-01

    Beginning in 2000, Lianyungang's urbanization entered a period of rapid growth, spatially as well as economically. Rapid and intensive expansion of "construction land" imposed increasing pressures on regional environment. With the support of remote sensing data and GIS tools, this paper reports a "present-capacity-potential" integrated suitability analysis framework, in order to characterize and evaluate the suitability of urban expansion in Lianyungang. We found that during the rapid coastal urbanization process from 2000 to 2008, the characteristics of physical expansion in the study area were characterized by a combination of high-density expansion and sprawling development. The land use conversion driven by urbanization and industrialization has not occurred only in city districts, but also the surrounding areas that were spatially absorbed by urban growth, while closely associated and greatly influenced by the explosive growth of industrial establishment. The over-consumption of land resources in the areas with low environmental carrying capacity, particularly in the eastern coastal area, should be strictly controlled. Compared to conventional land suitability analysis methods, the proposed integrated approach could better review the potential environmental impacts of urban expansion and provide guidance for decision makers.

  7. Novel micronisation β-carotene using rapid expansion supercritical solution with co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Le Anh

    2017-09-01

    Rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) is the most common approach of pharmaceutical pacticle forming methods using supercritical fluids. The RESS method is a technology producing a small solid product with a very narrow particle size distribution, organic solvent-free particles. This process is also simple and easy to control the operating parameters in comparision with other ways based on supercritical techniques. In this study, β-carotene, a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits, has been forming by RESS. In addition, the size and morphology effect of four different RESS parameters including co-solvent, extraction temperature, and extraction pressure and expansion nozzle temperature has surveyed. The particle size distribution has been determined by using laser diffraction experiment. SEM has conducted to analyze the surface structure, DSC and FTIR for thermal and chemical structure analysis.

  8. Economic expansion and increase in labout market formality: a poaching approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique L. Corseuil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between economic expansion and the degree of formalization for the Brazilian labour market in the recent period. We present a theoretical framework that attempts to explain this relationship through the dynamics of firms hiring strategies. The main predictions are: the share of formal employment rises as the unemployment rate falls, and that the formal-informal wage gap increases, at least at the beginning of the economic expansion. In the empirical part, we use longitudinal microdata from a Brazilian household survey to check whether these two predictions are confirmed. To a large extent our results corroborate both predictions.

  9. Asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion in true unilateral crossbite malocclusion: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the short-term effects of the asymmetric rapid maxillary (ARME) appliance on the vertical, sagittal, and transverse planes in patients with true unilateral posterior crossbite. Subjects were divided into two groups. The treatment group was comprised of 21 patients with unilateral posterior crossbite (mean age  =  13.3 ± 2.1 years). Members of this group were treated with the ARME appliance. The control group was comprised of 17 patients with Angle Class I who were kept under observation (mean age  =  12.3 ± 0.8 years). Lateral and frontal cephalograms were taken before the expansion (T1), immediately after expansion (T2), and at postexpansion retention (T3) in the treatment group and at preobservation (T1) and postobservation (T2) in the control group. A total of 34 measurements were assessed on cephalograms. For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon test and analysis of covariance were used. The ARME appliance produced significant increases in nasal, maxillary base, upper arch, and lower arch dimensions (P ARME appliance created asymmetric increments in the transversal dimensions of the nose, maxilla, and upper arch in the short term. Asymmetric expansion therapy for subjects with unilateral maxillary deficiency may provide satisfactory outcomes in adolescents, with the exception of mandibular arch expansion. The triangular pattern of expansion caused clockwise rotation of the mandible and the occlusal plane and produced significant alterations in the vertical facial dimensions, whereas it created no displacement in maxilla in the sagittal plane.

  10. Orthodontic Treatment with Rapid Maxillary Expansion for Treating a Boy with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungrip Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This case report shows that orthodontic treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME is an effective treatment option for managing pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. An 11-year-old boy with severe pediatric OSA received comprehensive orthodontic treatment with RME. Four sleep studies were done: before orthodontic treatment, after RME, just after comprehensive orthodontic treatment and at the 2-year and 5-month follow-up. Polysomnographic findings showed that the orthodontic treatment with RME was successful for managing severe OSA in the patient.

  11. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of power generation expansion plan of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awopone, Albert K.; Zobaa, Ahmed F.; Banuenumah, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the current electrical generation expansion plan of Ghana and compares it with proposed expansion pathways with higher penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies. An adaptation of Schwartz's Scenario Methodology was used to develop the scenarios which were then analysed using the Long-range Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model. Each of the scenarios represents policy options for generation expansion in Ghana up to 2040. Energy, economic and environmental analysis of the three alternative scenarios compared to the base scenarios was undertaken. Sensitivity results show that, if the country were to follow the generation expansion path described in the renewable energy scenarios, it could reap economic benefits of 0.5–13.23% depending on the developments in fuel prices and renewable technology capital cost. The analysis further quantifies benefits to be derived from a reduction in Greenhouse gases of the scenarios. Policy implications for the generation system of Ghana based on the results are also discussed. - Highlights: • LEAP demand projection for Ghana from 2010 to 2014. • Develop scenarios using an adaptation of Schwartz’s scenario approach. • Develop LEAP model for generation scenario. • Each scenario represents possible generation expansion strategy. • High renewable energy systems penetration results in net economic and environmental benefits.

  12. Anchorage onto deciduous teeth: effectiveness of early rapid maxillary expansion in increasing dental arch dimension and improving anterior crowding

    OpenAIRE

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Manfredi, Mario; Guiducci, Antonio; Denotti, Gloria; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Anchorage onto permanent dentition is a common procedure in rapid maxillary expansion. However, replacing first permanent molars with the second deciduous molars seems to be an option to reduce some negative side effects during orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental effect of rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage exclusively onto deciduous teeth performed in the first period of transition. Methods Twenty patients with a lateral cross-bite tre...

  13. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Tiansheng; Yin, Xiao; Zhang, Chengling; Chen, Jia; Tian, Yanping; Liu, Jinliang

    2017-08-29

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3'-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other available Chinese isolates. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai'an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent. The genetic structure of Turnip mosaic virus population reveals the rapid expansion of a new emergent lineage in China.

  15. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  17. Impact of rapid maxillary expansion on nasomaxillary complex volume in mouth-breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cappellette Jr.

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the volumetric changes that occur in the nasomaxillary complex of mouth-breathing patients with transverse maxillary deficiency subjected to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. Methods: This was a controlled, prospective intervention study involving 38 mouth-breathing patients presenting with transverse maxillary deficiency, regardless of malocclusion type or race. Twenty-three of them comprised the experimental group, which was composed of 11 (47.8% boys, and 12 (52.2% girls, with a mean age of 9.6 years, ranging from 6.4 to 14.2 years and standard deviation of 2.3 years; and 15 of them comprised the control group, composed of 9 (60% boys and 6 (40% girls with an mean age of 10.5 years, ranging from 8.0 to 13.6 years, and standard deviation of 1.9 years. All patients were scanned (CT according to a standard protocol: Initial CT (T1, and CT three months thereafter (T2, and the patients in the experimental group were treated with RME using a Hyrax expander for the correction of maxillary deficiency during the T1-T2 interval. The CT scans were manipulated using Dolphin® Imaging version 11.7 software for total and partial volumetric assessment of the nasomaxillary complex. Results: The results revealed that in the experimental group there was a significant increase in the size of the structures of interest compared to the control group, both in general aspect and in specific regions. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME provided a significant expansion in all the structures of the nasomaxillary complex (nasal cavity, oropharynx, right and left maxillary sinuses.

  18. Protecting tropical forests from the rapid expansion of rubber using carbon payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Thomas, Eleanor M; Edwards, David P; Bebber, Daniel P; Chhang, Phourin; Diment, Alex N; Evans, Tom D; Lambrick, Frances H; Maxwell, James F; Nut, Menghor; O'Kelly, Hannah J; Theilade, Ida; Dolman, Paul M

    2018-03-02

    Expansion of Hevea brasiliensis rubber plantations is a resurgent driver of deforestation, carbon emissions, and biodiversity loss in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian rubber extent is massive, equivalent to 67% of oil palm, with rapid further expansion predicted. Results-based carbon finance could dis-incentivise forest conversion to rubber, but efficacy will be limited unless payments match, or at least approach, the costs of avoided deforestation. These include opportunity costs (timber and rubber profits), plus carbon finance scheme setup (transaction) and implementation costs. Using comprehensive Cambodian forest data, exploring scenarios of selective logging and conversion, and assuming land-use choice is based on net present value, we find that carbon prices of $30-$51 per tCO 2 are needed to break even against costs, higher than those currently paid on carbon markets or through carbon funds. To defend forests from rubber, either carbon prices must be increased, or other strategies are needed, such as corporate zero-deforestation pledges, and governmental regulation and enforcement of forest protection.

  19. Rapid maxillary expansion effects: An alternative assessment method by means of cone-beam tomography

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    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop a method to assess the changes in palatal and lingual cross-sectional areas in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample comprised 31 Class I malocclusion individuals submitted to RME and divided into two groups treated with Haas (17 patients and Hyrax (14 patients expanders. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired at T0 (before expansion and T1 (six months after screw stabilization. Maxillary and mandibular cross-sectional areas were assessed at first permanent molars and first premolars regions and compared at T0 and T1. Mandibular occlusal area was also analyzed. RESULTS: Maxillary cross-sectional areas increased in 56.18 mm2 and 44.32 mm2 for the posterior and anterior regions. These values were smaller for the mandible, representing augmentation of 40.32 mm2 and 39.91 mm2 for posterior and anterior sections. No differences were found when comparing both expanders. Mandibular occlusal area increased 43.99mm2 and mandibular incisors proclined. Increments of 1.74 mm and 1.7 mm occurred in mandibular intermolar and interpremolar distances. These same distances presented increments of 5.5 mm and 5.57 mm for the maxillary arch. CONCLUSION: Occlusal and cross-sectional areas increased significantly after RME. The method described seems to be reliable and precise to assess intraoral area changes.

  20. Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion for managing arch perimeter in an adult patient

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    Amanda Carneiro da Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Etiology of dental crowding may be related to arch constriction in diverse dimensions, and an appropriate manipulation of arch perimeter by intervening in basal bone discrepancies cases, may be a key for crowding relief, especially when incisors movement is limited due to underlying pathology, periodontal issues or restrictions related to soft tissue profile. Objectives: This case report illustrates a 24-year old woman, with maxillary transverse deficiency, upper and lower arches crowding, Class II, division 1, subdivision right relationship, previous upper incisors traumatic episode and straight profile. A non-surgical and non-extraction treatment approach was feasible due to the miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion technique (MARPE. Methods: The MARPE appliance consisted of a conventional Hyrax expander supported by four orthodontic miniscrews. A slow expansion protocol was adopted, with an overall of 40 days of activation and a 3-month retention period. Intrusive traction miniscrew-anchored mechanics were used for correcting the Class II subdivision relationship, managing lower arch perimeter and midline deviation before including the upper central incisors. Results: Post-treatment records show an intermolar width increase of 5 mm, bilateral Class I molar and canine relationships, upper and lower crowding resolution, coincident dental midlines and proper intercuspation. Conclusions: The MARPE is an effective treatment approach for managing arch-perimeter deficiencies related to maxillary transverse discrepancies in adult patients.

  1. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Fernandes, Mariana dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years) were obtained at treatment onset (T1), three months after SARME (T2) and 6 months after expansion (T3). The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards. PMID:26154457

  2. DOES INTRAVENOUS TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS DURING SURGICALLY ASSISTED RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION?

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    Emine AKBAŞ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA in reducing blood loss during surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE procedure. Subjects and Methods: A total of 34 patients (12 male, 22 female who had been treated surgically under general anesthesia with SARPE including pterygoid disjunction for transverse maxillary deficiency (TMD were included in this study. The study group (n=17 received intravenous (IV TXA 10 mg/kg as a preoperative bolus; the control group (n=17 received normal saline solution. Preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit values, intraoperative blood loss, and any blood product transfusion were recorded. Results: Blood loss during SARPE was statistically significantly less in the study group than the control group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Preoperative IV administration of TXA can effectively control blood loss during when SARPE with pterygoid disjunction is performed.

  3. A Case of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema after Rapid Pleural Evacuation

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    SH Shahbazi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pulmonary edema after chest tube insertion is a rare complication and is associated with high mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is not clear, although causes such as decrease in surfactant and inflammatory process have been defined. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the mortality. This study introduces a case of re-expansion pulmonary edema after rapid pleural evacuation. Case: The case is a 4.5 y/o boy, a case of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed respiratory distress after surgery (Total Correction in ICU of Namazi Hospital in 1385. Chest X ray showed pneumothorax of left lung. For the patient, chest tube was inserted and the symptoms improved. After few hours the patient developed tachypnea, tachycardia, and CXR showed pulmonary edema of left lung. Appropriate treatment was done for the patient and his condition improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema after sudden evacuation of pleura is a rare phenomenon and early diagnosis decreases the mortality.

  4. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenhouwer, Nicky; Wilschut, Rutger A; Williams, Jennifer L; van der Putten, Wim H; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species' current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species' ability to shift their range with climate change may therefore depend on how populations evolve in response to such novel environmental conditions. However, due to the recent nature of thus far observed range expansions, the role of rapid adaptation during climate change migration is only beginning to be understood. Here, we evaluated evolution during the recent native range expansion of the annual plant Dittrichia graveolens, which is spreading northward in Europe from the Mediterranean region. We examined genetically based differentiation between core and edge populations in their phenology, a trait that is likely under selection with shorter growing seasons and greater seasonality at northern latitudes. In parallel common garden experiments at range edges in Switzerland and the Netherlands, we grew plants from Dutch, Swiss, and central and southern French populations. Population genetic analysis following RAD-sequencing of these populations supported the hypothesized central France origins of the Swiss and Dutch range edge populations. We found that in both common gardens, northern plants flowered up to 4 weeks earlier than southern plants. This differentiation in phenology extended from the core of the range to the Netherlands, a region only reached from central France over approximately the last 50 years. Fitness decreased as plants flowered later, supporting the hypothesized benefits of earlier flowering at the range edge. Our results suggest that native range expanding populations can rapidly adapt to novel environmental conditions in the expanded range, potentially promoting their ability to spread. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

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    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  6. Franchising contract – a modern juridical and economic instrument for business expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Florina Popa; Andreea Gabriela Ponorîca

    2012-01-01

    Development of trade, as well as its dynamics in the context of globalization, have created the premises of acceleration in the commercial distribution networks expansion, with immediate effects in the sphere of law. Transgression, moreover, was predictable and any legal implication in economics, as well that of the judiciary system in the economy can't be ruled out. Among the commercial agreements, franchising has experienced one of the most spectacular developments of all kinds of business,...

  7. Role of the domestic market and export-expansion development in economic growth”

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    Myroslava Munko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the issue of domestic market expansion within the context of the country’s economic growth. With the assistance of the Kalman filter she analyzes the effect of internal and external factors on the balance of external accounts — current and financial operations. Establishing the asymmetrical effect of domestic demand on the balance of external accounts (similarly, it concerns a series of exogenous factors, she substantiates the inadvisability of stimulating consumer demand at the expense of external borrowings. The author offers recommendations for self-sufficient animation of economic growth without upsetting the equilibrium of the external account.

  8. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

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    Patrícia Feitosa Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks.

  9. The impacts of gaming expansion on economic growth: a theoretical reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Siu, Ricardo Chi Sen

    2010-06-01

    This paper employs a general equilibrium framework to analyze the effects on economic growth of global expansions in casino gaming, which exports gambling services largely to non-residents. Both domestic and foreign investments in the gaming sector bring in not only substantial revenues but also positive spillover effects on related sectors and even on the entire local economy. However, an over-expansion of commercial gambling may lead to deterioration in the terms of trade with an adverse impact on real income. If this situation persists, it would not be impossible for immiserizing growth to occur. As a highly profitable sector, casino gaming may enable its operators to diversify out of this risk if they invest retained profits in non-gaming sectors to cash in on the spillover effects it has created. The gaming-dominant economy can then be directed on a more balanced and sustainable growth path, and will become less susceptible to business cycles. Indeed, economic experiences in the world's major casino resorts are consistent basically with this argument for diversification. We believe that after the current global crisis fades away, economic growth and resulting surges in global demand for gambling services can provide further opportunities for the expansion of existing casino resorts and the development of new gaming markets.

  10. Interceptive treatment of palatal impaction of maxillary canines with rapid maxillary expansion: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Mucedero, Manuela; Leonardi, Maria; Cozza, Paola

    2009-11-01

    Our aim in this prospective randomized clinical study was to assess the prevalence rate of eruption of palatally displaced canines, diagnosed at an early developmental stage with posteroanterior radiographs and consequently treated by rapid maxillary expansion. A sample of 60 subjects in the early mixed dentition with palatally displaced canines diagnosed on posteroanterior radiographs was enrolled in the trial. Their age range at the first observation (T1) was 7.6 to 9.6 years, with a prepubertal stage of skeletal maturity (CS1 or CS2). The 60 subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment group (TG, 35 subjects) or the no-treatment group (NTG, 25 subjects). The TG was treated with a banded rapid maxillary expander; after expansion, all patients were retained with the expander in place for 6 months. Thereafter, the expander was removed, and the patients wore a retention plate at night for a year. The NTG received no treatment. All subjects were reevaluated in the early permanent dentition (T2) (postpubertal CS4). The number of dropouts was recorded. The main outcome recorded at T2 was successful or unsuccessful eruption of the maxillary permanent canines. The starting forms at T1 for measurements on posteroanterior and panoramic films were compared in the 2 groups with the Mann-Whitney U test (P <0.05). The prevalence rates of successful and unsuccessful treatments in the TG were compared with those in NTG with chi-square tests (P <0.05). From T1 to T2, there were 3 dropouts in each group. The final sample comprised 32 subjects in the TG and 22 subjects in the NTG. No statistically significant differences were found for any variable at T1. The prevalence rates of successful eruption of the maxillary canines were 65.7% (21 subjects) in the TG and 13.6% (3 subjects) in the NTG. The comparison was statistically significant (chi-square = 12.4; P <0.001). Subjects with palatally displaced canines in the early mixed dentition do not have transverse deficiency of the

  11. Immediate impact of rapid maxillary expansion on upper airway dimensions and on the quality of life of mouth breathers

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    Edna Namiko Izuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term tomographic changes in the upper airway dimensions and quality of life of mouth breathers after rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: A total of 25 mouth breathers with maxillary atresia and a mean age of 10.5 years old were assessed by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and a standardized quality of life questionnaire answered by patients' parents/legal guardians before and immediately after rapid maxillary expansion. RESULTS: Rapid maxillary expansion resulted in similar and significant expansion in the width of anterior (2.8 mm, p < 0.001 and posterior nasal floor (2.8 mm, p < 0.001. Although nasopharynx and nasal cavities airway volumes significantly increased (+1646.1 mm3, p < 0.001, oropharynx volume increase was not statistically significant (+1450.6 mm3, p = 0.066. The results of the quality of life questionnaire indicated that soon after rapid maxillary expansion, patients' respiratory symptoms significantly decreased in relation to their initial respiratory conditions. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that RME produces significant dimensional increase in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Additionally, it also positively impacts the quality of life of mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia.

  12. Digital radiographic evaluation of the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion

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    Maria de Fátima Batista de Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the density of the midpalatal suture by means of digital radiographs three months after retention to evaluate if this period of retention is really sufficient for bone repair. Materials and Methods: This prospective study consisted of 31 patients (11 girls and 20 boys in the mixed or permanent dentition stage, treated using a tooth-tissue borne expanders (Haas. Occlusal digital radiographs were taken at three stages: prior to rapid maxillary expansion (Stage I; immediately after desired maxillary expansion (Stage II; and after three months of retention (Stage III. Radiographs were taken on a dental X-ray machine, set at 70 kVp and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.04 s. A phosphor storage plate system, imaging plate size n. 2 (35 × 45 × 1.6 mm, was used. Three regions (A, B and C measured 0.02 mm² were selected for optical density analysis. The difference between the measurements was evaluated with the paired t-test. Results: The optical density was reduced at Stages II and III compared with Stage I. Between-stage comparison showed statistically significant changes for all variables (P < 0.05, with the highest mean optical density at Stage I and the lowest at Stage II, in all groups. Actually, there was an increase in optical density between Stages II and III, but they are reduced compared with Stage I. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that bone formation did not occur as expected, and that a longer retention period for bone repair may be necessary.

  13. China's economic expansion and the 'sustainability of sustainability': a Žižekian-Lacanian view

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    Antonio Gelis Filho

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a Žižekian-Lacanian interpretation of an interesting socio-economic triangle that has so far gained little recognition: the Discourse of Sustainability -Capitalism -China's Economic Expansion. It is sustained here that those three sides are connected and together they build a narrative that is self-perpetuating -at least up to a point. The Lacanian theory of discourse is applied to unveil a less obvious side of that relationship : the discourse of sustainability, as it is presented today is but a discourse of self-indulgence, since most of its versions discuss the possibility of "sustainable consumption", neutralizing the much more powerful discourse of "reducing consumption". China's economic success derives, in that sense from its ability to find a niche as the provider of consumption possibilities for Westerners.

  14. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

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    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  15. Rapid expansion and pseudo spectral implementation for reverse time migration in VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C; Ursin, Bjø rn; Stoffa, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    In isotropic media, we use the scalar acoustic wave equation to perform reverse time migration (RTM) of the recorded pressure wavefield data. In anisotropic media, P- and SV-waves are coupled, and the elastic wave equation should be used for RTM. For computational efficiency, a pseudo-acoustic wave equation is often used. This may be solved using a coupled system of second-order partial differential equations. We solve these using a pseudo spectral method and the rapid expansion method (REM) for the explicit time marching. This method generates a degenerate SV-wave in addition to the P-wave arrivals of interest. To avoid this problem, the elastic wave equation for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media can be split into separate wave equations for P- and SV-waves. These separate wave equations are stable, and they can be effectively used to model and migrate seismic data in VTI media where |ε- δ| is small. The artifact for the SV-wave has also been removed. The independent pseudo-differential wave equations can be solved one for each mode using the pseudo spectral method for the spatial derivatives and the REM for the explicit time advance of the wavefield. We show numerically stable and high-resolution modeling and RTM results for the pure P-wave mode in VTI media. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

  16. Rapid expansion and pseudo spectral implementation for reverse time migration in VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C

    2012-04-24

    In isotropic media, we use the scalar acoustic wave equation to perform reverse time migration (RTM) of the recorded pressure wavefield data. In anisotropic media, P- and SV-waves are coupled, and the elastic wave equation should be used for RTM. For computational efficiency, a pseudo-acoustic wave equation is often used. This may be solved using a coupled system of second-order partial differential equations. We solve these using a pseudo spectral method and the rapid expansion method (REM) for the explicit time marching. This method generates a degenerate SV-wave in addition to the P-wave arrivals of interest. To avoid this problem, the elastic wave equation for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media can be split into separate wave equations for P- and SV-waves. These separate wave equations are stable, and they can be effectively used to model and migrate seismic data in VTI media where |ε- δ| is small. The artifact for the SV-wave has also been removed. The independent pseudo-differential wave equations can be solved one for each mode using the pseudo spectral method for the spatial derivatives and the REM for the explicit time advance of the wavefield. We show numerically stable and high-resolution modeling and RTM results for the pure P-wave mode in VTI media. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

  17. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

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    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  18. Modified SARME (Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) in Conjunction with Orthodontic Treatment-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Sagar; Chitra, Prasad; Rao, Sadam Srinivas; Bindra, Sukhvinder

    2015-10-01

    Transverse maxillary hypoplasia or maxillary constriction in conjunction with unilateral or bilateral posterior cross bites is a common finding in cleft palate patients. These situations are also commonly encountered in adults who have not had recourse to orthodontic treatment in childhood. In adults, after ossification of the mid palatal suture is complete, the accepted means of correcting transverse skeletal discrepancies is by Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SARME). The disadvantage of this technique in the Indian scenario is reduced patient acceptance and increased treatment costs. Le Fort-I down fracture and mid palatal suture sectioning requires hospitalization and increases morbidity. A case of a 21-year-old non-cleft male who presented with Class I malocclusion with transverse skeletal discrepancy and bilateral posterior cross bites is presented. A modified SAARME technique was performed without pterygomaxillary disjunction, as an outpatient procedure. The results obtained were satisfactory and the desired amount of transverse skeletal correction was achieved. The patient was discharged the same day. The technique can be used to successfully treat a large number of patients in India with maxillary skeletal transverse problems with increased predictability, reduced costs and morbidity and higher rates of acceptance.

  19. Comparison of two protocols for maxillary protraction: bone anchors versus face mask with rapid maxillary expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.; De Clerck, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the active treatment effects for maxillary advancement induced by bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) and the active treatment effects for face mask in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM). Materials and Methods This is a study on consecutively treated patients. The changes in dentoskeletal cephalometric variables from start of treatment (T1) to end of active treatment (T2) with an average T1–T2 interval of about 1 year were contrasted in a BAMP sample of 21 subjects with a RME/FM sample of 34 patients. All subjects were prepubertal at T1. Statistical comparison was performed with t-tests for independent samples. Results The BAMP protocol produced significantly larger maxillary advancement than the RME/FM therapy (with a difference of 2 mm to 3 mm). Mandibular sagittal changes were similar, while vertical changes were better controlled with BAMP. The sagittal intermaxillary relationships improved 2.5 mm more in the BAMP patients. Additional favorable outcomes of BAMP treatment were the lack of clockwise rotation of the mandible as well as a lack of retroclination of the lower incisors. Conclusions The hypothesis is rejected. The BAMP protocol produced significantly larger maxillary advancement than the RME/FM therapy. PMID:20578848

  20. Comparison of the effects of sedation and general anesthesia in surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satilmis, Tulin; Ugurlu, Faysal; Garip, Hasan; Sener, Bedrettin C; Goker, Kamil

    2011-06-01

    To compare the effects of sedation and general anesthesia for surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). This randomized prospective study included 30 patients who were scheduled for SARPE, and was performed between January 2008 to February 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were allocated into Group S - midazolam + fentanyl sedation (n=15), and Group G - general anesthesia (n=15). Hemodynamic parameters, duration of anesthesia, surgery, recovery time, time to discharge, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores at 30 minutes (min), one hour (hr), 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, first consumption of analgesic time, total amount of consumption of analgesics, patient and surgeon satisfaction, nausea, and vomiting were recorded. Analgesic time was significantly longer in Group S (p=0.008), and total analgesic consumption was significantly lower in Group S than in Group G (p=0.031). Patient satisfaction was statistically higher in Group S (p=0.035). At 30 min, one hr, and 12 hrs, VAS satisfaction scores in Group S were statistically lower than those in Group G, and at 4 hrs and 24 hrs there was no statistical difference in VAS scores for both groups. The use of sedation for outpatient SARPE resulted in lower pain scores at discharge, lower analgesic consumption, and greater patient satisfaction.

  1. A bilinear elastic constitutive model applied for midpalatal suture behavior during rapid maxillary expansion

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    Larissa Carvalho Trojan Serpe

    Full Text Available Introduction : This study aims to evaluate the influence of the biomechanical behavior of the midpalatal suture (MPS during the rapid maxillary expansion (RME when modeled by the Finite Element Method. Methods Four simulation alternatives are discussed and, for each analysis, the suture is considered as a functional unit with a different mechanical behavior: (i without MPS elements, (ii MPS with Young's modulus (E equal to 1 MPa, (ii MPS with E equal to 0.01 MPa and (iv MPS with bilinear elastic behavior. Results The stress analysis showed that, when MPS is not considered in the model, stress peaks are reduced in magnitude and their distribution is restricted to a smaller area when compared to the model with the inclusion of MPS (E=1 MPa. The increased suture stiffness also has a direct influence on MPS displacements after 30 expander activations. Conclusion The consideration of the MPS in RME computer models influences greatly the calculated displacements between the suture bone ends, even as the stress levels in maxillary structures. Furthermore, as proposed for the described model, the elastic bilinear behavior assigned to MPS allows coherent prediction of stresses and displacements results, being a good representation for this suture overall behavior.

  2. The evidence of the rugoscopy effectiveness as a human identification method in patients submitted to rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Ana A; Scoralick, Raquel A; Naressi, Suely C M; Moraes, Mari E L; Daruge, Eduardo; Daruge, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of rugoscopy as a human identification method, even when the patient is submitted to rapid palatal expansion, which in theory would introduce doubt. With this intent, the Rugoscopic Identity was obtained for each subject using the classification formula proposed by Santos based on the intra-oral casts made before and after treatment from patients who were subjected to palatal expansion. The casts were labeled with the patients' initials and randomly arranged for studying. The palatine rugae kept the same patterns in every case studied. The technical error of the intra-evaluator measurement provided a confidence interval of 95%, making rugoscopy a reliable identification method for patients who were submitted to rapid palatal expansion, because even in the presence of intra-oral changes owing to the use of palatal expanders, the palatine rugae retained the biological and technical requirements for the human identification process. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Three-dimensional prospective evaluation of tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nada, R.M.; Fudalej, P.S.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Mostafa, Y.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To three-dimensionally (3D) assess the long-term effects of tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 45 consecutive skeletally mature non-syndromic patients with transverse maxillary

  4. LED phototherapy on midpalatal suture after rapid maxilla expansion: a Raman spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Cristiane B.; Habib, Fernando Antonio L.; de Araújo, Telma M.; dos Santos, Jean N.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Barbosa, Artur Felipe S.; de Castro, Isabele Cardoso V.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    A quick bone formation after maxillary expansion would reduce treatment timeand the biomodulating effects of LED light could contribute for it. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of LED phototherapy on the acceleration of bone formation at the midpalatal suture after maxilla expansion. Thirty rats divided into 6 groups were used on the study at 2 time points - 7 days: Control; Expansion; and Expansion + LED; and 14 days: Expansion; Expansion + LED in the first week; Expansion and LED in the first and second weeks. LED irradiation occurred at every 48 h during 2 weeks. Expansion was accomplished using a spatula and maintained with a triple helicoid of 0.020" stainless steel orthodontic wire. A LED light (λ850 ± 10nm, 150mW ± 10mW, spot of 0.5cm2, t=120 sec, SAEF of 18J/cm2) was applied in one point in the midpalatal suture immediately behind the upper incisors. Near infrared Raman spectroscopic analysis of the suture region was carried and data submitted to statistical analyzes (p≤0.05). Raman spectrum analysis demonstrated that irradiation increased hydroxyapatite in the midpalatal suture after expansion. The results of this indicate that LED irradiation; have a positive biomodulation contributing to the acceleration of bone formation in the midpalatal suture after expansion procedure.

  5. Treatment resistant adolescent depression with upper airway resistance syndrome treated with rapid palatal expansion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of treatment-resistant depression in which the patient was evaluated for sleep disordered breathing as the cause and in which rapid palatal expansion to permanently treat the sleep disordered breathing produced a prolonged symptom-free period off medication. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sleep disorders center with chronic severe depression that was no longer responsive to medication but that had recently responded to electroconvulsive therapy. Ancillary, persistent symptoms included mild insomnia, moderate to severe fatigue, mild sleepiness and severe anxiety treated with medication. Our patient had no history of snoring or witnessed apnea, but polysomnography was consistent with upper airway resistance syndrome. Although our patient did not have an orthodontic indication for rapid palatal expansion, rapid palatal expansion was performed as a treatment of his upper airway resistance syndrome. Following rapid palatal expansion, our patient experienced a marked improvement of his sleep quality, anxiety, fatigue and sleepiness. His improvement has been maintained off all psychotropic medication and his depression has remained in remission for approximately two years following his electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions This case report introduces the possibility that unrecognized sleep disordered breathing may play a role in adolescent treatment-resistant depression. The symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome are non-specific enough that every adolescent with depression, even those responding to medication, may have underlying sleep disordered breathing. In such patients, rapid palatal expansion, by widening the upper airway and improving airflow during sleep, may produce a prolonged improvement of symptoms and a tapering of medication. Psychiatrists treating adolescents may benefit from having another treatment option for

  6. Changes in soft tissue nasal widths associated with rapid maxillary expansion in prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bret M; McNamara, James A; Bandeen, Roger L; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate changes in the soft tissue width of the nose induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Data on greater alar cartilage (GAC) and alar base (AB) widths were compared with a normative sample within the same age range. This prospective study consisted of an RME sample of 79 patients treated with an RME protocol. Mean age at the start of RME treatment was 13.5 years; average duration of treatment was 6.7 months. Patients were grouped into prepubertal and postpubertal groups based on their cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage. AB and GAC widths were determined at three separate time points. The normative sample consisted of 437 orthodontically untreated whites, aged 10-16 years. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine group differences. In addition, independent sample t-tests were used to compare posttreatment nasal width values vs the untreated normative sample. Increases in AB and GAC widths of the nose in the RME sample were less than 1.5 mm. No significant differences were noted in width changes between the prepubertal and postpubertal subgroups. Comparisons of T3 values showed that on average nasal width increases were greater in the RME group than in untreated norms by 1.7 mm for the GAC measure (statistically significant), and by less than 1 mm for the AB measure. RME has no significant clinical effects on the widths of the apical base and the greater alar cartilage of the nose; no differences were observed between the two maturational subgroups.

  7. Allogeneic cell therapy bioprocess economics and optimization: single-use cell expansion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaria, Ana S; Hassan, Sally; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Rowley, Jon; Warren, Kim; Vanek, Philip; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    For allogeneic cell therapies to reach their therapeutic potential, challenges related to achieving scalable and robust manufacturing processes will need to be addressed. A particular challenge is producing lot-sizes capable of meeting commercial demands of up to 10(9) cells/dose for large patient numbers due to the current limitations of expansion technologies. This article describes the application of a decisional tool to identify the most cost-effective expansion technologies for different scales of production as well as current gaps in the technology capabilities for allogeneic cell therapy manufacture. The tool integrates bioprocess economics with optimization to assess the economic competitiveness of planar and microcarrier-based cell expansion technologies. Visualization methods were used to identify the production scales where planar technologies will cease to be cost-effective and where microcarrier-based bioreactors become the only option. The tool outputs also predict that for the industry to be sustainable for high demand scenarios, significant increases will likely be needed in the performance capabilities of microcarrier-based systems. These data are presented using a technology S-curve as well as windows of operation to identify the combination of cell productivities and scale of single-use bioreactors required to meet future lot sizes. The modeling insights can be used to identify where future R&D investment should be focused to improve the performance of the most promising technologies so that they become a robust and scalable option that enables the cell therapy industry reach commercially relevant lot sizes. The tool outputs can facilitate decision-making very early on in development and be used to predict, and better manage, the risk of process changes needed as products proceed through the development pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Volumetric changes of the nose and nasal airway 2 years after tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nada, R.M.; Loon, B. van; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Maal, T.J.J.; Koning, M.J.J. de; Mostafa, Y.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of bone-borne and tooth-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion on the volumes of the nose and nasal airway 2 yr after maxillary expansion. This prospective cohort study included 32 patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia. Expansion was

  9. Rapid replacement of bridge deck expansion joints study - phase I : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This initial research phase focused on documenting the current : means and methods of bridge expansion joint deterioration, : maintenance, and replacement and on identifying improvements : through all of the input gathered.

  10. Alveolar bone changes after rapid maxillary expansion with tooth-born appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Antonino; Barbato, Ersilia; Cosentino, Leandro; Ferraro, Claudia Maria; Leonardi, Rosalia

    2017-08-10

    During rapid maxillary expansion (RME), heavy forces are transmitted to the maxilla by the anchored teeth causing buccal inclination and buccal bone loss of posterior teeth. To systematically review the literature in order to investigate whether RME causes periodontal sequelae, assessed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Fifteen electronic databases and reference lists of studies were searched up to March 2017. To be included in the systematic review, articles must be human studies on growing subjects, with transversal maxillary deficiency treated with RME and with assessment of buccal bone loss by CBCT images. Only randomized and non-randomized trials were included. Two authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Study characteristics (study design, sample size, age, sex, skeletal maturity, type of appliance, daily activation, evaluated linear measurements, observation period, CBCT settings), and study outcomes (loss of buccal bone thickness and marginal bone) were reported according to the PRISMA statement. On the basis of the applied inclusion criteria, only six articles, three randomized clinical trials and three controlled clinical trials were included. An individual analysis of the selected articles was undertaken. The risks of bias of the six trials were scored as medium to low. The results of the present systematic review are based on a limited number of studies and only one study included a control group. In all considered studies, significant loss of buccal bone thickness and marginal bone level were observed in anchored teeth, following RME. Further prospective studies correlating the radiological data of bone loss to the periodontal soft tissues reaction after RME are required. A preliminary evaluation of the patient-related risk factors for RR may be advisable when considering to administering RME. This systematic review was registered in the National Institute of Health Research database with an

  11. The expansion of the education market and economization of education system: sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klyov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ attention is drawn to the phenomenon of marketing and economization, and the expansion of the education market. It is noted that universities and research institutes, hospitals and schools, the military and the church, newspapers and television stations, museums and opera houses – all of them are completely different types of organizations, but as well as several others over the past decades were subjects of economization. It is considered the concept of commodification (converting the product into a commodity in relation to subsistence production, quasi­goods, fake goods, real goods and fictitious capital. Overall, it is analyzed the understanding of the market economy of K. Polanyi, the role of information, knowledge and intellect in the post­industrial economy. It is alleged that in such circumstances, knowledge takes the form of the product. As knowledge is collectively produced and hasn’t got any deficiency (from an economic point of view, it is not competitive, it obtains the commodity form, being artificially scarce. The article is observed that the market mindset has a profound impact on the education system: from elementary to high school education goal is to collect as much information as possible for the purposes of the market.

  12. Evaluation of the rapid and slow maxillary expansion using cone-beam computed tomography: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da S. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the dental, dentoalveolar, and skeletal changes occurring right after the rapid maxillary expansion (RME and slow maxillary expansion (SME treatment using Haas-type expander. METHODS: All subjects performed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT before installation of expanders (T1 and right after screw stabilization (T2. Patients who did not follow the research parameters were excluded. The final sample resulted in 21 patients in RME group (mean age of 8.43 years and 16 patients in SME group (mean age of 8.70 years. Based on the skewness and kurtosis statistics, the variables were judged to be normally distributed and paired t-test and student t-test were performed at significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Intermolar angle changed significantly due to treatment and RME showed greater buccal tipping than SME. RME showed significant changes in other four measurements due to treatment: maxilla moved forward and mandible showed backward rotation and, at transversal level both skeletal and dentoalveolar showed significant changes due to maxillary expansion. SME showed significant dentoalveolar changes due to maxillary expansion. CONCLUSIONS: Only intermolar angle showed significant difference between the two modalities of maxillary expansion with greater buccal tipping for RME. Also, RME produced skeletal maxillary expansion and SME did not. Both maxillary expansion modalities were efficient to promote transversal gain at dentoalveolar level. Sagittal and vertical measurements did not show differences between groups, but RME promoted a forward movement of the maxilla and backward rotation of the mandible.

  13. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva G, R.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  14. The economics of renewable energy expansion in rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, Uwe; Meisner, Craig; Murray, Siobhan; Wheeler, David

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating development in Sub-Saharan Africa will require massive expansion of access to electricity-currently reaching only about one third of households. This paper explores how essential economic development might be reconciled with the need to keep carbon emissions in check. We develop a geographically explicit framework and use spatial modeling and cost estimates from recent engineering studies to determine where stand-alone renewable energy generation is a cost effective alternative to centralized grid supply. Our results suggest that decentralized renewable energy will likely play an important role in expanding rural energy access. However, it will be the lowest cost option for a minority of households in Africa, even when likely cost reductions over the next 20 years are considered. Decentralized renewables are competitive mostly in remote and rural areas, while grid connected supply dominates denser areas where the majority of households reside. These findings underscore the need to decarbonize the fuel mix for centralized power generation as it expands in Africa. - Research highlights: → Expansion of electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a development priority. → Low carbon options are important to reduce GHG emissions growth and avoid lock-ins. → Spatially explicit cost modeling guides choice of supply options. → Decentralized renewables are lowest cost for a significant minority of households. → Grid supply remains attractive, suggesting focus on decarbonizing centralized supply.

  15. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  16. Sprawl and mega-events: Economic growth and recent urban expansion in a city losing its competitive edge (Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new context of contemporary cities, local competitiveness for financial resources has grown more than ever, resulting in cities characterised by important socioeconomic transformations. Earlier studies addressed the relation between urban expansion, socioeconomic development and mega-events only for specific areas and types of urban growth, often overlooking the role of mega-events in fuelling urban sprawl. As the host of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece is a paradigmatic example for emerging cities hosting mega-events due to the close interconnection between the Olympics, infrastructure development and urban sprawl. This article connects the latent relationship between economic expansion driven by the Olympic Games and laissez-faire urbanism to the long-term unregulated urban expansion characterising Athens’s development. By providing room for the original wave of sprawl, the resulting socioeconomic context is interpreted as a signal of the weakness of the “competitive city” framework in poorly planned and long-deregulated urban contexts such as Athens. A comprehensive analysis of recent phases of economic growth and discontinuous urban expansion thus provides further insight into understanding sprawl processes in today’s cities, and helps distinguish the morphological patterns and socioeconomic dynamics that characterise urban expansion during sequential cycles of economic expansion and recession.

  17. Investigation of char strength and expansion properties of an intumescent coating exposed to rapid heating rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2013-01-01

    , char properties, measured at room temperature, were dependent on the preceding storage conditions (in air or in a desiccator). The char was found to have the highest mechanical strength against compression in the outer crust facing the heat source. For thin (147μm) free coating films, a tendency...... with respect to the mechanical resistance against compression, degree of expansion, and residual mass fraction. Experimental results show that when using this type of shock heating, the mechanical resistance of the char against compression cannot meaningfully be correlated to the expansion factor. In addition...

  18. Relapse and stability of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, an anatomical biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Schulten, A.J.M.; van der Wal, K.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This anatomic biomechanical study was undertaken to gain insight into the underlining mechanism of tipping of the maxillary segments during transverse expansion using tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices. Materials and Methods: An anatomic biomechanical study was performed on 10

  19. Franchising contract – a modern juridical and economic instrument for business expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florina POPA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of trade, as well as its dynamics in the context of globalization, have created the premises of acceleration in the commercial distribution networks expansion, with immediate effects in the sphere of law. Transgression, moreover, was predictable and any legal implication in economics, as well that of the judiciary system in the economy can't be ruled out. Among the commercial agreements, franchising has experienced one of the most spectacular developments of all kinds of business, due to the favorable context in which it developed. In this paper we aim to analyze the essential elements of franchising, based on the legal phenomenon rather than on the economic one. This article also examines the behavior of existing and future entrepreneurs regarding the possibility of implementing this legal instrument. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, even if, according to the statistics, the franchise contract has successfully imposed itself in the business world, there is enough reticence in adopting it as a development measure.

  20. Bilateral cross-bite treated by repeated rapid maxillary expansions: a 17-year follow-up case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, M; Mazzotta, L; Caprioglio, A

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the clinical results after the repeated application of a Haas expander for rapid maxillary expansion (RME) anchored onto deciduous teeth in a 7-year-old patient that presented bilateral cross-bite, superior crowding and no space for permanent lateral incisors eruption. A first Haas expander was applied to the patient. She was told to activate it once a day, each activation was equal to 0.20 mm. After the first RME, the bilateral cross-bite was solved but still there was not enough space for lateral incisor eruption. A second and then a third Haas expander were applied, with the same activation protocol as the first one, in order to gain space in the anterior region and to achieve proper eruption of the lateral incisors. The patient was then treated with fixed appliances. At debonding the patient presented well aligned arch-forms: space for lateral incisor eruption was gained and superior crowding was solved. Bilateral cross-bite was also corrected. She was seen again 10 years and 17 years after expansions: she showed no relapse and presented a good functional occlusion that had remained stable, and an aesthetically pleasant smile, however she exhibited gingival recessions. Repeated rapid maxillary expansion, anchored onto deciduous teeth, performed in early mixed dentition represents a safe and successful treatment to correct severe bilateral cross- bites and to create space for maxillary incisor eruption.

  1. Economic impacts of bus rapid transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has generated great interest across the United States. There are more than 20 BRT : systems in existence, and more are in the planning stage (including in Detroit). Within the next few years, BRT will be plann...

  2. Theoretical calculation of rapid x-ray transients and radius expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Sparks, W.; Truran, J.; Kenyon, S.

    1984-01-01

    We present the results of a calculation of a thermonuclear runaway on a 10 km neutron star which produced a precursor, radius expansion, and after the envelope had begun to shrink, a seconds x-ray burst about 2500 second later. Although such an event has not yet been observed, decreasing the initial envelope mass should bring the calculations into better agreement with the observations

  3. Rapid expansion of T cells: Effects of culture and cryopreservation and importance of short-term cell recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Arian; Ullenhag, Gustav; Wagenius, Gunnar; Tötterman, Thomas H; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2013-06-01

    Successful cell therapy relies on the identification and mass expansion of functional cells for infusion. Cryopreservation of cells is an inevitable step in most cell therapies which also entails consequences for the frozen cells. This study assessed the impact of cryopreservation and the widely used protocol for rapid expansion of T lymphocytes. The effects on cell viability, immunocompetence and the impact on apoptotic and immunosuppressive marker expression were analyzed using validated assays. Cryopreservation of lymphocytes during the rapid expansion protocol did not affect cell viability. Lymphocytes that underwent mass expansion or culture in high dose IL-2 were unable to respond to PHA stimulation by intracellular ATP production immediately after thawing (ATP = 16 ± 11 ng/ml). However, their reactivity to PHA was regained within 48 hours of recovery (ATP = 356 ± 61 ng/ml). Analysis of mRNA levels revealed downregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 at all time points. Culture in high dose IL-2 led to upregulation of p73 and BCL-2 mRNA levels while FoxP3 expression was elevated after culture in IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. FoxP3 levels decreased after short-term recovery without IL-2 or stimulation. Antigen specificity, as determined by IFNγ secretion, was unaffected by cryopreservation but was completely lost after addition of high dose IL-2 and artificial TCR stimuli. In conclusion, allowing short-time recovery of mass expanded and cryopreserved cells before reinfusion could enhance the outcome of adoptive cell therapy as the cells regain immune competence and specificity.

  4. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao SY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shuya Zhao,1,* Xuxia Wang,2,* Na Li,3 Yun Chen,1 Yuran Su,1 Jun Zhang1 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Stomatology, Shandong University; 3Department of Orthodontics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of strontium ranelate on bone regeneration in the mid-palatal suture in response to rapid maxillary expansion (RME.Methods: Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, ie, an expansion only (EO group, an expansion plus strontium ranelate (SE group, and a control group. An orthodontic appliance was set between the right and left upper molars of rats with an initial expansive force of 0.98 N. Rats in the SE group were administered strontium ranelate (600 mg/kg body weight and then euthanized in batches on days 4, 7, and 10. Morphological changes in the mid-palatal suture were investigated using micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining after RME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the suture was also examined to evaluate bone formation in the mid-palatal suture. Image-Pro Plus software was then used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation at the P<0.05 level.Results: With expansive force, the mid-palatal suture was expanded, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 between the SE and EO groups. The bone volume of the suture decreased after RME, but was higher in the SE group than in the EO group on days 7 and 10. Further, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the SE group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: Strontium ranelate may hasten new bone formation in the expanded mid-palatal suture, which may be therapeutically

  5. Construction area expansion in relation to economic-demographic development and land resource in the Pearl River Delta of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zhijia; Huang, Heqing; Werners, Saskia E.; Yan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1979, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China has experienced rapid socioeconomic development along with a fast expansion of construction area. Affected by both natural and human factors, a complex interdependency is found among the regional changes in construction area, GDP and population. A

  6. Modified custom made J-hook for maxillary protraction in a rapid maxillary expansion appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithesh Kumar Kodoth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple yet innovative attaching the J-hook along with an rapid maxillary appliance for the protraction of maxilla is presented. The proposed method not only simplifies construction but also is equally effective.

  7. [Jarmo T. Kotilainen. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World ] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World. XVIII. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. Oma töös vaatleb autor ka Rootsi Läänemere-provintside linnade Riia, Tallinna, Narva ja Nyeni tähtsust Venemaa väliskaubanduses.

  8. Determining How Tertiary Education and Human Capital Formation Influenced Economic Expansion in Israel, Japan, and Norway from 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkbrenner, Erin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have calculated the relationship between human capital development and economic output by various means of econometric modeling and by use of numerous indicators under the context of an assortment of human capital theory. This study was conducted to identify new interpretations of the expansion of human capital in the form of tertiary…

  9. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  10. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  11. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid maxillary expansion (RME is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal.

  12. Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with piezosurgery versus oscillating saw and chisel osteotomy - a randomized prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Majeed; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Madiha; Piffkó, Jozsef; Kater, Wolfgang

    2013-02-17

    Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional sharp instruments used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because of its precision and safety. The piezosurgery medical device allows the efficient cutting of mineralized tissues with minimal trauma to soft tissues. Piezoelectric osteotome has found its role in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), a procedure well established to correct transverse maxillary discrepancies. The advantages include minimal risk to critical anatomic structures. The purpose of this clinical comparative study (CIS 2007-237-M) was to present the advantages of the piezoelectric cut as a minimally invasive device in surgically assisted, rapid maxillary expansion by protecting the maxillary sinus mucosal lining. Thirty patients (18 females and 12 males) at the age of 18 to 54 underwent a surgically assisted palatal expansion of the maxilla with a combined orthodontic and surgical approach. The patients were randomly divided into two separate treatment groups. While Group 1 received conventional surgery using an oscillating saw, Group 2 was treated with piezosurgery. The following parameters were examined: blood pressure, blood values, required medication, bleeding level in the maxillary sinus, duration of inpatient stay, duration of surgery and height of body temperature. The results displayed no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding laboratory blood values and inpatient stay. The duration of surgery revealed a significant discrepancy. Deploying piezosurgery took the surgeon an average of 10 minutes longer than working with a conventional-saw technique. However, the observation of the bleeding level in the paranasal sinus presented a major and statistically significant advantage of piezosurgery: on average the bleeding level was one category above the one of the remaining patients. This method of piezoelectric surgery with all its advantages is going

  13. Anchorage onto deciduous teeth: effectiveness of early rapid maxillary expansion in increasing dental arch dimension and improving anterior crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Manfredi, Mario; Guiducci, Antonio; Denotti, Gloria; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage onto permanent dentition is a common procedure in rapid maxillary expansion. However, replacing first permanent molars with the second deciduous molars seems to be an option to reduce some negative side effects during orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental effect of rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage exclusively onto deciduous teeth performed in the first period of transition. Twenty patients with a lateral cross-bite treated exclusively by a Haas expander in early mixed dentition were retrospectively analyzed before treatment, at appliance removal, and at 21 months out of retention. The sagittal and transverse dimensions, together with the inter-canine arch and irregularity index, were digitally measured on scanned images of dental casts. The patients were compared with three balanced control groups (in total, 60 individuals) matched for gender. Two control groups had the same canine dental class as the treated group at T1, were in the inter-transitional period, and either had or lacked a lateral cross-bite. The last control group was comprised of adolescents in permanent dentition with a dental class I. The statistical analysis was performed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA for paired data and one-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Mann-Whitney test for independent measures (α-level p dentition), the dental arch dimensions of treated patients were similar to those of adolescents with a dental class I and significantly wider than those of patients with a lateral cross-bite. Also, the anterior irregularity index was lower among patients who had undergone expansion treatments than in all untreated study participants. The Haas expander anchored to the deciduous teeth is effective in increasing the dental arch width in patients with a lateral cross-bite. The dimensions of the dental arch were modified earlier toward the values of the permanent dentition.

  14. Thin-plate spline analysis of the short- and long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Cameron, Christopher G; Kutcipal, Elizabeth A; McNamara, James A

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the shape of the maxillary and circummaxillary structures by means of thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. The sample consisted of 42 patients who were compared with a control sample of 20 subjects. The treated subjects underwent Haas-type RME, followed by fixed appliance therapy. Postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms were analysed for each treated subject at T1 (pre-treatment), T2 (immediate post-expansion), and T3 (long-term observation), and were available at T1 and T3 for the control group (CG). The mean age at T1 was 11 years and 10 months for both groups. The mean chronological ages at T3 were 20 years, 6 months for the treated group (TG) and 17 years, 8 months for the control group. The study focused on shape changes in the maxillary, nasal, zygomatic, and orbital regions. TPS analysis revealed significant shape changes in the TG. They consisted of an upward and lateral displacement of the two halves of the naso-maxillary complex as a result of active expansion in the short-term, and normalization of maxillary shape in the transverse dimension in the long-term (the initial transverse deficiency of the maxilla in the treated group was eliminated by RME therapy both in the short- and long-term). At the end of the observation period, the nasal cavities were larger when compared with both their pre-expansion configuration and the final configuration in the controls. RME with the Haas appliance appears to be an efficient therapeutic means to induce permanent favourable changes in the shape of the naso-maxillary complex.

  15. Socio-economic status by rapid appraisal is highly correlated with mortality risks in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to

  16. Health impacts of rapid economic changes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Harnvoravongchai, P; Pitayarangsarit, S; Kasemsup, V

    2000-09-01

    The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major social implications for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, changing expenditure patterns, and child abandonment. The crisis increased poverty incidence by 1 million, of whom 54% were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-term health impact of the crisis, using existing data and some special surveys and interviews for 2 years during 1998-99. The health impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household health expenditure reduced by 24% in real terms; among the poorer households, institutional care was replaced by self-medication. The pre-crisis rising trend in expenditure on alcohol and tobacco consumption was reversed. Immunization spending and coverage were sustained at a very high level after the crisis, but reports of increases in diphtheria and pertussis indicate declining programme quality. An increase in malaria, despite budget increases, had many causes but was mainly due to reduced programme effectiveness. STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward trend. Rates of HIV risky sexual behaviour were higher among conscripts than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower condom use with casual partners. HIV serosurveillance showed a continuation of the pre-crisis downward trend among commercial sex workers (CSW, both brothel and non-brothel based), pregnant women and donated blood; this trend was slightly reversed among male STD patients and more among intravenous drug users. Condom coverage among brothel based CSW continued to increase to 97.5%, despite a 72% budget cut in free condom distribution. Poverty and lack of insurance coverage are two major determinants of absence of or inadequate antenatal care, and low birthweight. The Low Income Scheme could not adequately cover the poor but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a health safety net role for maternal and child health. Low birthweight and

  17. Long vigil in Athabasca oil sands culminates in rapid expansion plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-05-01

    Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. needs to earn $40 million or more per year to get a reasonable return on the investment, vice president and general manager R.D. Humphreys told delegates at the Petroleum Accountants Society of W. Canada annual conference at Jasper Park Lodge. The conference then was ''the Alberta Oil Sands.'' Sun Oil Co. has taken no return yet, but has paid off the loans and taken shares in return so it owns nearly all the equity capital. The operation is not really breaking even at present, but should improve because GCOS is getting the full effect of the oil price increase under the original royalty agreement with the Alberta government. It is hoped that this will enable the company to recoup an accumulated deficit of more than $90 million. Money is the biggest problem for the current expansion designed to raise production to the authorized 65,000 bpd. Manpower is second and delivery of materials third. There is a lead time of 15 to 18 mo. on critical materials. Over the long term, tailings disposal is the greatest single problem facing all oil sands operators.

  18. Simultaneous formation and micronization of pharmaceutical cocrystals by rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Katrin C; Paisana, Maria; Wahl, Martin A

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the RESS process as a means of simultaneous micronization and cocrystallization of a model drug with poor aqueous solubility. 1:1 cocrystals of ibuprofen (IBU) and nicotinamide (NA) were produced with a pilot scale unit for RESS processing.IBU and NA were dissolved in scCO2 at 30 MPa and 50°C. After 24 h, the supercritical solution was expanded at a medium CO2 flow rate of 3.8 kg/h during 60 min into an expansion vessel kept at ambient conditions. Cocrystals were identified with DSC, XRD and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and further characterized by SEM, specific surface area, wetting ability, solubility and dissolution testing. Judging by DSC, XRD and CRM, cocrystals with high purity could be produced with the RESS technique. Micronization via RESS was successful, since the specific surface area of RESS cocrystals was increased almost tenfold in comparison to cocrystals produced by slow solvent evaporation. Due to the additional micronization, the mean dissolution time of IBU from RESS cocrystals was decreased. RESS cocrystallization offers the advantage of combining micronization and cocrystallization in a single production step. For drugs with dissolution-limited bioavailability, RESS cocrystallization may therefore be a superior approach in comparison to established cocrystallization techniques.

  19. Rapid diversification of falcons (Aves: Falconidae) due to expansion of open habitats in the Late Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Johnson, Jeff A; Mindell, David P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how and why lineages diversify is central to understanding the origins of biological diversity. The avian family Falconidae (caracaras, forest-falcons, falcons) has an uneven distribution of species among multiple well-supported clades, and provides a useful system for testing hypotheses about diversification rate and correlation with environmental changes. We analyzed eight independent loci for 1-7 individuals from each of the 64 currently recognized Falconidae species, together with two fossil falconid temporal calibrations, to assess phylogeny, absolute divergence times and potential shifts in diversification rate. Our analyses supported similar diversification ages in the Early to Middle Miocene for the three traditional subfamilies, Herpetotherinae, Polyborinae and Falconinae. We estimated that divergences within the subfamily Falconinae began about 16mya and divergences within the most species-rich genus, Falco, including about 60% of all Falconidae species, began about 7.5mya. We found evidence for a significant increase in diversification rate at the basal phylogenetic node for the genus Falco, and the timing for this rate shift correlates generally with expansion of C4 grasslands beginning around the Miocene/Pliocene transition. Concomitantly, Falco lineages that are distributed primarily in grassland or savannah habitats, as opposed to woodlands, and exhibit migratory, as opposed to sedentary, behavior experienced a higher diversification rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Rapid expansion of preexisting nonleukemic hematopoietic clones frequently follows induction therapy for de novo AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terrence N; Miller, Christopher A; Klco, Jeffery M; Petti, Allegra; Demeter, Ryan; Helton, Nichole M; Li, Tiandao; Fulton, Robert S; Heath, Sharon E; Mardis, Elaine R; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F; Walter, Matthew J; Welch, John S; Graubert, Timothy A; Wilson, Richard K; Ley, Timothy J; Link, Daniel C

    2016-02-18

    There is interest in using leukemia-gene panels and next-generation sequencing to assess acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) response to induction chemotherapy. Studies have shown that patients with AML in morphologic remission may continue to have clonal hematopoiesis with populations closely related to the founding AML clone and that this confers an increased risk of relapse. However, it remains unknown how induction chemotherapy influences the clonal evolution of a patient's nonleukemic hematopoietic population. Here, we report that 5 of 15 patients with genetic clearance of their founding AML clone after induction chemotherapy had a concomitant expansion of a hematopoietic population unrelated to the initial AML. These populations frequently harbored somatic mutations in genes recurrently mutated in AML or myelodysplastic syndromes and were detectable at very low frequencies at the time of AML diagnosis. These results suggest that nonleukemic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, harboring specific aging-acquired mutations, may have a competitive fitness advantage after induction chemotherapy, expand, and persist long after the completion of chemotherapy. Although the clinical importance of these "rising" clones remains to be determined, it will be important to distinguish them from leukemia-related populations when assessing for molecular responses to induction chemotherapy. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Rapid expansion and fracture of metallic cylinders driven by explosive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, T.; Fujiwara, K.; Abe, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2004-01-01

    Smooth walled tubular specimens of stainless steel and low-carbon steels were explosively expanded to fragmentation. The driver was a column of the high explosive PETN inserted into the central bore and initiated by exploding a fine copper wire using a discharge current from a high-voltage capacitor bank. The variation of wall thickness and the effect of different explosive driver diameters are reported. A fully charged casing model was also exploded with initiation at the end surface for comparison. Streak and framing photos show both radially and axially symmetric expansion of cylinders at average strain rates of above 104 s-1 and a wall velocity of 417-1550 m/s. Some framing photos indicate the initiation and spacing of fractures during the bursting of the cylinders. Hydro codes have been applied to simulate the experimental behavior of the cylinders, examining numerical stresses, deformation and fracture criteria. Most of the fragments were successfully recovered inside a cushion-filled chamber, and the circumferential fracture spacing of measured fragments is investigated using a fragmentation model

  2. Reaction of the nasal septal cartilage to rapid expansion of the maxillary dental arch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisaka, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    1) In the control group, in which maxillary expansion was not performed, the cell proliferation and uptake of [ 3 H] proline in the septal cartilage were found to be more remarkable at the area of the septoethmoidal junction than other areas of the cartilage. In the experimental group, however, higher activity of the cell proliferation and more intense uptake of [ 3 H] proline were found at the area adjacent to the septoethmoidal junction than the control, while no change was observed in other areas of the septal cartilage. 2) The cartilaginous cells at the septoethmoidal junction represented the columnar pattern in their alignment and the cells were classified into five zones according to their morphological characteristics, i.e. resting, proliferative, transitional, hypertrophic and erosion zones. 3) Distribution of the labeled nuclei with [methyl- 3 H] thymidine was confined almost to the proliferative and transitional zones. In these two zones, the cell proliferation indicated by labeling index increased about 50% in the experimental group as compared with the control. 4) Uptake of [ 3 H] proline was the highest in the transitional zone followed by the proliferative zone. Uptake of [ 3 H] proline indicated by grain counts/2000 μm 2 increased about 50% in the transitional zone and about 30% in the proliferative zone respectively in the experimental group as compared with control. 5) The septo-premaxillary ligament named by Latham (1970) was found also in rats to arise from the perichondrium of antero-inferior portion of the nasal septum, to course postero-inferiorly and to insert into the anterior portion of the premaxillary bones. Uptake of [ 3 H] proline indicated by grain counts/400 μm 2 increased about 30% in the area of insertion of the ligament in the experimental group as compared with the control. (J.P.N.)

  3. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  4. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L A; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-08

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo's old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  5. Rapid palatal expansion effects on mandibular transverse dimensions in unilateral posterior crossbite patients: a three-dimensional digital imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ugolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate indirect effects on mandibular arch dimensions, 1 year after rapid palatal expansion (RPE therapy. Methods Thirty-three patients in mixed dentition (mean age 8.8 years showing unilateral posterior crossbite and maxillary deficiency were treated with a RPE (Haas type cemented on the first permanent molars. Treatment protocol consisted of two turns per day until slight overcorrection of the molar transverse relationship occurred. The Haas expander was kept on the teeth as a passive retainer for an average of 6 months. Study models were taken prior (T1 and 15 months on average (T2 after expansion. A control group of 15 untreated subjects with maxillary deficiency (mean age 8.3 years was also recorded with a 12-month interval. Stone casts were digitized with a 3D scanner (3Shape, DK. Results In the treated group, both mandibular intermolar distance (+1.9 mm and mandibular molar angulation (+9° increased. Mandibular incisor angulation showed an increase of 1.9°. There was little effect on intercanine distance and canine angulation. Controls showed a reduction in transverse arch dimension and a decrease in molar and canine angulation values. Conclusions RPE protocol has indirect widening effects on the mandibular incisors and first molars.

  6. Study of instantaneous unsteady heat transfer in a rapid compression-expansion machine using zero dimensional k- ε turbulence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshan, Y.; Karim, G. A.; Mansouri, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, the instantaneous unsteady heat transfer within a pneumatically driven rapid compression-expansion machine that offers simple, well-controlled and known boundary conditions was studied. Values of the instantaneous apparent overall heat flux from the cylinder gas to the wall surfaces were calculated using a thermodynamics analysis of the experimentally measured pressure and volume temporal development. Corresponding heat flux values were also calculated through the application of a zero-dimensional k- ε turbulence model the characteristic velocity is a contribution of turbulence kinetic energy, mean kinetic energy of charged air into cylinder and piston motion for the calculation of Reynolds, Nusselt and Prandtl numbers. Comparison of the zero-dimensional k- ε turbulence model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement for all compression ratios

  7. Mandibular dental arch short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes after slow or rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur César de Medeiros Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes of the mandibular dental arch after slow (SME or rapid (RME maxillary expansion in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. Methods: An electronic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for article selection included randomized controlled trials and prospective studies written in English, with no restriction of year of publication, involving patients who underwent SME or RME during the mixed or early permanent dentitions. A double-blind search of articles was performed by two reviewers. Initially, the title and the abstract of the studies were read, and their references were also hand-searched for possible missing studies. A methodological quality scoring scale was used to analyze the selected articles. Results: The search retrieved 373 articles, but only 6 were selected for review after application of the eligibility and exclusion criteria. Non-clinically significant spontaneous dentoalveolar changes of approximately 1mm were found in the mandibular dental arch in the short and long-term, after slow or rapid maxillary expansions. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between treated and control groups. Conclusions: There is enough evidence to conclude that negligible short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes tend to occur in the mandibular dental arch after SME or RME in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. More randomized studies with appropriate control group are required to better evaluate this issue.

  8. Plaque index and gingival index during rapid maxillary expansion of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olívia Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess, during rapid maxillary expansion, the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate(UCLP using Hyrax (HX or inverted mini-Hyrax (IMHX rapid maxillary expanders (RME considering patients’ sex and age. Methods: PI (Quigley Index modified by Turesky et al and GI (Löe and Silness of 28 UCLP (11 females; 17 males: aged 8 to 15 years submitted to daily RME activation were assessed before (T0 and 7 (T1, 28 (T2 and 90 (T3 days after activation. Log-linear models and Bonferroni correction were performed to analyze possible differences in PI and GI between RME, sexes or age groups over time. Results: Intra-group comparison revealed significant increases in PI of patients using HX (T0 < T2, IMHX (T0 < T3; T1< T3, males (T0 < T1; T0 < T2; T0 < T3 or aged 12-15 years (T0 < T1; T0 < T2; T0 < T3, and in GI of patients using IMHX (T0 < T3; T1 < T3, females (T1 < T3; T2 < T3 or aged 12-15 years (T0 < T3; T2 < T3. One inter-group difference in GI according to patients’ age (8-11 < 12-15; T1 was observed. Conclusions: Since a single difference between groups was encountered, the results of this study indicated that PI and GI during maxillary expansion were similar between HX and IMHX, sexes and the analyzed age groups. Therefore, orthodontists can use these RME in UCLP patients according to the patient’s necessity or their preferences.

  9. Environmentally benign formation of polymeric microspheres by rapid expansion of supercritical carbon dioxide solution with a nonsolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, K; Mishima, K; Umemoto, H; Yamaguchi, S

    2001-10-15

    A novel method is reported for forming polymer microparticles, which reduce atmospheric emissions of environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds such as toluene and xylene used as paint solvent in paint industry. The polymer microparticles have formed through rapid expansion from supercritical solution with a nonsolvent (RESS-N). Solubilization of poly(styrene)-b-(poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly (glycidyl methacrylate)) copolymer(PS-b-(PMMA-co-PGMA), MW = 5000, PS/PMMA/PGMA = 2/5/3), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, M. W = 4000), bisphenol A type epoxy resin (EP, MW = 3000), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA; MW = 15000, 75000, 120000), and poly(oxyalkylene) alkylphenyl ether (MW = 4000) in carbon dioxide (CO2) was achieved with the use of small alcohols as cosolvents. The solubility of the PS-b-(PMMA-co-PGMA) is extremely low in either CO2 or ethanol but becomes 20 wt % in a mixture of the two. Because ethanol is a nonsolvent for the polymer, it can be used as a cosolvent in rapid expansion from supercritical solution to produce 1-3 microm particles that do not agglomerate. Obtained polymer particles by RESS-N were applied as powder coatings. The resulting coatings have a smooth and coherent film. The particle size distribution of microspheres was controlled by changing the polymer concentration, preexpansion pressure, temperature, and injection distance. The feed compositions were more effective than the other factors in controlling the particle size. The polymeric microparticles formed by RESS-N method can be utilized to make the thin coating film without anytoxic organic solvents and/or surfactants.

  10. Evaporation variability of Nam Co Lake in the Tibetan Plateau and its role in recent rapid lake expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Szilagyi, Jozsef; Niu, Guo-Yue; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhang, Teng; Wang, Binbin; Wu, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the majority of the lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) started to expand rapidly since the late 1990s. However, the causes are still not well known. For Nam Co, being a closed lake with no outflow, evaporation (EL) over the lake surface is the only way water may leave the lake. Therefore, quantifying EL is key for investigating the mechanism of lake expansion in the TP. EL can be quantified by Penman- and/or bulk-transfer-type models, requiring only net radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed for inputs. However, interpolation of wind speed data may be laden with great uncertainty due to extremely sparse ground meteorological observations, the highly heterogeneous landscape and lake-land breeze effects. Here, evaporation of Nam Co Lake was investigated within the 1979-2012 period at a monthly time-scale using the complementary relationship lake evaporation (CRLE) model which does not require wind speed data. Validations by in-situ observations of E601B pan evaporation rates at the shore of Nam Co Lake as well as measured EL over an adjacent small lake using eddy covariance technique suggest that CRLE is capable of simulating EL well since it implicitly considers wind effects on evaporation via its vapor transfer coefficient. The multi-year average of annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake is 635 mm. From 1979 to 2012, annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake expressed a very slight decreasing trend. However, a more significant decrease in EL occurred during 1998-2008 at a rate of -12 mm yr-1. Based on water-level readings, this significant decrease in lake evaporation was found to be responsible for approximately 4% of the reported rapid water level increase and areal expansion of Nam Co Lake during the same period.

  11. Controlled auto-ignition characteristics of methane-air mixture in a rapid intake compression and expansion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyubaek; Jeong, Dongsoo [Engine Research Team, Eco-Machinery Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Moon, Gunfeel [Department of Clean Environmental system, University of Science and Technology, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea); Bae, Choongsik [Engine Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 GuSeong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    The characteristics of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) were investigated with a methane-air mixture and simulated residual gas, that represents internal exhaust gas recirculation (IEGR). Supply systems were additionally installed on the conventional rapid compression machine (RCM), and this modified machine - a rapid intake compression and expansion machine (RICEM) - was able to simulate an intake stroke for the evaluation of controlled auto-ignition with fuel-air mixture. The fuel-air mixture and the simulated residual gas were introduced separately into the combustion chamber through the spool valves. Various IEGR rates and temperatures of the IEGR gas were tested. The initial reaction and the development in controlled auto-ignition combustion were compared with spark-ignited combustion by visualization with a high-speed digital camera. Under the controlled auto-ignition operation, multi-point ignition and faster combustion were observed. With increasing the temperature of IEGR gas, the auto-ignition timing was advanced and burning duration was shortened. The higher rate of IEGR had the same effects on the combustion of the controlled auto-ignition. However, this trend was reversed with more than 47 per cent of IEGR. (author)

  12. Economic Growth and Expansion of China’s Urban Land Area: Evidence from Administrative Data and Night Lights, 1993–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gibson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic growth, expansion of urban land area and the broader issue of cultivated land conversion in China has been closely examined for the late 1980s and 1990s. Much less is known about recent urban expansion and if the effects of economic growth on this expansion have changed over time. This paper updates estimates of urban expansion for China and examines the relationship with city economic growth for 1993–2012. To see if patterns are robust to different types of evidence, administrative data on the area of 225 urban cores are compared to estimates of brightly lit areas from remotely sensed night lights. The trend annual expansion rate in lit area is 8% and was significantly faster in the decade to 2002 than in the most recent decade. Expansion is slower according to administrative data, at just 5% per annum, with no change in unconditional expansion rates between decades, while conditional expansion rates have declined. The elasticity of area with respect to city economic output is about 0.3. Over time, expansion of urban land area is becoming less responsive to the growth of the local non-agricultural population.

  13. Changes in occlusal relationships in mixed dentition patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Franchi, Lorenzo; Guest, Susan S; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-03-01

    To prospectively measure occlusal changes in mixed dentition patients who underwent a standardized early expansion protocol. The treatment sample consisted of 500 patients who were assigned to three groups according to molar relationship: Class I (n = 204), end-to-end (n = 166), and Class II (n = 130). All patients were treated with a bonded rapid maxillary expander (RME) followed by a removable maintenance plate and a transpalatal arch. Mean age at the start of treatment was 8.8 years (T(1)), with a pre-phase 2 treatment cephalogram (T(2)) taken 3.7 years later. The control sample consisted of the cephalometric records of 188 untreated subjects (Class 1, n = 79; end-to-end, n = 51; Class II, n = 58). The largest change in molar relationship was noted when the Class II treatment group (1.8 mm) was compared with the matched control group (0.3 mm). A positive change was seen in 81% of the Class II treatment group, with almost half of the group improving by > or = 2.0 mm. The end-to-end treatment group had a positive change of 1.4 mm, compared with a control value of 0.6 mm, and the Class I group of about 1 mm compared with controls, who remained unchanged (0.1 mm). Skeletal changes were not significant when any of the groups were compared with controls. The expansion protocol had a significantly favorable effect on the sagittal occlusal relationships of Class II, end-to-end, and Class I patients treated in the early mixed dentition.

  14. The effects of micro-implant assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) on the nasomaxillary complex--a finite element method (FEM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnis, Matt; Chu, Howard; Youssef, George; Wu, Kimberley W; Machado, Andre Wilson; Moon, Won

    2014-08-29

    Orthodontic palatal expansion appliances have been widely used with satisfactory and, most often, predictable clinical results. Recently, clinicians have successfully utilized micro-implants with palatal expander designs to work as anchors to the palate to achieve more efficient skeletal expansion and to decrease undesired dental effects. The purpose of the study was to use finite element method (FEM) to determine the stress distribution and displacement within the craniofacial complex when simulated conventional and micro-implant-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) expansion forces are applied to the maxilla. The simulated stress distribution produced within the palate and maxillary buttresses in addition to the displacement and rotation of the maxilla could then be analyzed to determine if micro-implants aid in skeletal expansion. A three-dimensional (3D) mesh model of the cranium with associated maxillary sutures was developed using computed tomography (CT) images and Mimics modeling software. To compare transverse expansion stresses in rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and MARPE, expansion forces were distributed to differing points on the maxilla and evaluated with ANSYS simulation software. The stresses distributed from forces applied to the maxillary teeth are distributed mainly along the trajectories of the three maxillary buttresses. In comparison, the MARPE showed tension and compression directed to the palate, while showing less rotation, and tipping of the maxillary complex. In addition, the conventional hyrax displayed a rotation of the maxilla around the teeth as opposed to the midpalatal suture of the MARPE. This data suggests that the MARPE causes the maxilla to bend laterally, while preventing unwanted rotation of the complex. In conclusion, the MARPE may be beneficial for hyperdivergent patients, or those that have already experienced closure of the midpalatal suture, who require palatal expansion and would worsen from buccal tipping of the teeth

  15. A biofuel-based cogeneration plant in a natural gas expansion system: An energetic and economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Marco; Modica, Stefano; Portoraro, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Natural Gas Turbo Expander system with a rapeseed oil fueled CHP is studied. • The experimental data of the plant are considered in the analyses. • The energetic index of performance shows the attractiveness of the plant. • Incentives and fuel price volatility effects on economic profitability are analysed. - Abstract: The paper deals with an analysis of the energetic and economic performance of a City Gas Station (CGS) plant, made up of a rapeseed oil cogenerator coupled to a turbo-expansion system for the reduction of natural gas pressure, which is currently in operation in Italy. Although this kind of systems concept is well known, the plant can be considered unusual because the heat needed to pre-heat the gas before its expansion is obtained from a renewable source. The aim of the paper is to analyse the energetic efficiency of the plant and its economic viability, which is affected to a great extent by subsidizing energy policies and by the volatility of vegetable oil prices. All the evaluations have been based on a real set of experimental data.

  16. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  17. German Economic Expansion under the Conditions of the European Debt Crisis and Military-Political Conflict in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Кухтин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.

  18. Technical and economic evaluation of voltage level in transmission network expansion planning using GA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilzadeh, S.; Kazemi, A.; Shayeghi, H.; Madavi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning is an important part of power system planning. Its task is to determine an optimal network configuration according to load growth. It determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be installed. Up to now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem, but in all of these methods, the STNEP problem has been solved regardless of voltage level of the lines. In this paper, due to different voltage levels in the transmission network, which cause different annual losses, STNEP has been studied considering the voltage level of the transmission lines and the network loss using the genetic algorithm (GA). Finally, the proposed idea has been examined on Garvers 6 bus network. The results show that considering the loss in a network with different voltage levels decreases the operational costs considerably, and the network satisfies the requirement of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers

  19. Characterization of Diesel and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine using OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sundar Rajan; Srinivasan, Kalyan Kumar; Stegmeir, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Direct-injection compression ignition combustion of diesel and gasoline were studied in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) using high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The RCEM (bore = 84 mm, stroke = 110-250 mm) was used to simulate engine-like operating conditions at the start of fuel injection. The fuels were supplied by a high-pressure fuel cart with an air-over-fuel pressure amplification system capable of providing fuel injection pressures up to 2000 bar. A production diesel fuel injector was modified to provide a single fuel spray for both diesel and gasoline operation. Time-resolved combustion pressure in the RCEM was measured using a Kistler piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted on the cylinder head and the instantaneous piston displacement was measured using an inductive linear displacement sensor (0.05 mm resolution). Time-resolved, line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence images were obtained using a Phantom V611 CMOS camera (20.9 kHz @ 512 x 512 pixel resolution, ~ 48 μs time resolution) coupled with a short wave pass filter (cut-off ~ 348 nm). The instantaneous OH* distributions, which indicate high temperature flame regions within the combustion chamber, were used to discern the characteristic differences between diesel and gasoline compression ignition combustion. The authors gratefully acknowledge facilities support for the present work from the Energy Institute at Mississippi State University.

  20. Cephalometric variables used to predict the success of interceptive treatment with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nóbrega Nardoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prognosis is the main limitation of interceptive treatment of Class III malocclusions. The interceptive procedures of rapid maxillary expansion (RME and face mask therapy performed in early mixed dentition are capable of achieving immediate overcorrection and maintenance of facial and occlusal morphology for a few years. Individuals presenting minimal acceptable faces at growth completion are potential candidates for compensatory orthodontic treatment, while those with facial involvement should be submitted to orthodontic decompensation for orthognathic surgery. OBJECTIVES: To investigate cephalometric variables that might predict the outcomes of orthopedic treatment with RME and face mask therapy (FM. METHODS: Cephalometric analysis of 26 Class III patients (mean age of 8 years and 4 months was performed at treatment onset and after a mean period of 6 years and 10 months at pubertal growth completion, including a subjective facial analysis. Patients was divided into two groups: success group (21 individuals and failure group (5 individuals. Discriminant analysis was applied to the cephalometric values at treatment onset. Two predictor variables were found by stepwise procedure. RESULTS: Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion may have unfavorable prognosis at growth completion whenever initial cephalometric analysis reveals increased lower anterior facial height (LAFH combined with reduced angle between the condylar axis and the mandibular plane (CondAx.MP. CONCLUSION: The results of treatment with RME and face mask therapy at growth completion in Class III patients could be predicted with a probability of 88.5%.

  1. Transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex one year after rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention: A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Luz Baratieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT scans the transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME using Haas expander in comparison to untreated individuals. This prospective controlled clinical study assessed 30 subjects (18 boys and 12 girls with mixed dentition and during pubertal growth. The treated group was submitted to RME with Haas expander, retention for six months and a six-month follow-up after removal. The control group matched the treated group in terms of age and sex distribution. CBCT scans were taken at treatment onset and one year after the expander was activated. Maxillary first molars (U6 width, right and left U6 angulation, maxillary alveolar width, maxillary basal width, palatal alveolar width, palatal base width, right and left alveolar angulation, palatal area, nasal base width, nasal cavity width and inferior nasal cavity area on the posterior, middle and anterior coronal slices were measured with Dolphin Imaging Software(r 11.5, except for the first two variables which were performed only on the posterior slice. All transverse dimensions increased significantly (P 0.05. Results suggest that increase of molar, maxillary, palatal and nasal transverse dimensions was stable in comparison to the control group one year after treatment with RME.

  2. Rapid maxillary expansion versus middle ear tube placement: Comparison of hearing improvements in children with resistance otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Nihat; Yörük, Özgür; Kılıç, Songül Cömert; Çatal, Gülhan; Kurt, Sezgin

    2016-09-01

    To test the null hypothesis that there are significant differences in hearing improvements of children with resistance otitis media with effusion (OME) who undergo a rapid maxillary expansion (RME) procedure or ventilation tube placement. Forty-two children between 4.5 and 15 years old were divided into three groups: RME, ventilation tube, and control groups. The RME group consisted of 15 children with maxillary constriction and resistance OME that indicated ventilation tube placement. The ventilation tube group consisted of 16 children for whom ventilation tube placement was indicated but no maxillary constriction. The control group consisted of 11 children with no orthodontic and/or rhinologic problems. Hearing thresholds were evaluated with three audiometric records: (1) before RME/ventilation tube placement (T0); (2) after RME/ventilation tube placement (T1), and (3) after an observation period of 10 months (T2). The control group was matched to these periods, except T1. Hearing thresholds decreased significantly in both the RME and ventilation tube groups (P .05). Slight changes were observed in the control groups. The null hypothesis was rejected. RME showed similar effects as ventilation tube placement for release of otitis media and improvement of hearing thresholds levels. RME should be preferred as a first treatment option for children with maxillary constriction and resistance OME.

  3. Rapid shear alignment of sub-10 nm cylinder-forming block copolymer films based on thermal expansion mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Samuel M.; Gadelrab, Karim R.; G, Amir Tavakkoli K.; Ross, Caroline A.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Berggren, Karl K.

    2018-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) provided by shear-stress can produce aligned sub-10 nm structures over large areas for applications in integrated circuits, next-generation data storage, and plasmonic structures. In this work, we present a fast, versatile BCP shear-alignment process based on coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch of the BCP film, a rigid top coat and a substrate. Monolayer and bilayer cylindrical microdomains of poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) aligned preferentially in-plane and orthogonal to naturally-forming or engineered cracks in the top coat film, allowing for orientation control over 1 cm2 substrates. Annealing temperatures, up to 275 °C, provided low-defect alignment up to 2 mm away from cracks for rapid (<1 min) annealing times. Finite-element simulations of the stress as a function of annealing time, annealing temperature, and distance from cracks showed that shear stress during the cooling phase of the thermal annealing was critical for the observed microdomain alignment.

  4. Cephalometric variables predicting the long-term success or failure of combined rapid maxillary expansion and facial mask therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to select a model of cephalometric variables to predict the results of early treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by comprehensive treatment with fixed appliances. Lateral cephalograms of 42 patients (20 boys, 22 girls) with Class III malocclusion were analyzed at the start of treatment (mean age 8 years 6 months +/- 2 years, at stage I in cervical vertebral maturation). All patients were reevaluated after a mean period of 6 years 6 months (at stage IV or V in cervical vertebral maturation) that included active treatment plus retention. At this time, the sample was divided into 2 groups according to occlusal criteria: a successful group (30 patients) and an unsuccessful group (12 patients). Discriminant analysis was applied to select pretreatment predictive variables of long-term treatment outcome. Stepwise variable selection of the cephalometric measurements at the first observation identified 3 predictive variables. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion might be unfavorable over the long term when a patient's pretreatment cephalometric records exhibit a long mandibular ramus (ie, increased posterior facial height), an acute cranial base angle, and a steep mandibular plane angle. On the basis of the equation generated by the multivariate statistical method, the outcome of interceptive orthopedic treatment for each new patient with Class III malocclusion can be predicted with a probability error of 16.7%.

  5. IBO Case Report: Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Combined Rapid Maxillary Expansion: Facemask Therapy and 5-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Surana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency in an adolescent girl, using combined rapid maxillary expansion-facemask approach, followed by comprehensive fixed appliance mechanotherapy. Excellent long-term stability is demonstrated up to 5 years post-treatment.

  6. Three-dimensional evaluation of soft tissue changes in the orofacial region after tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nada, R.M.; Loon, B. van; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Mostafa, Y.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Schols, J.G.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to three-dimensionally assess soft tissue changes in the orofacial region following tooth-borne and bone-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 40 skeletally mature patients with

  7. Expansion of environmental impact assessment for eco-efficiency evaluation of China's economic sectors: An economic input-output based frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhencheng; Wang, Jigan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-09-01

    Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO 2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal. Moreover, Construction sector is found to be the destination of the largest sector-to-sector environmental impact flows for the five impact categories and make the most contributions to the total environmental impacts. Another key finding is that Agriculture sector is both the largest net exporter and the greatest contributor for water withdrawal category. DEA results indicate that seven sectors are eco-efficient while over 70% of China's economic sectors are inefficient and require significant improvements. The average target improvements range between 23.30% and 35.06% depending on the impact category. Further sensitivity analysis reveals that the average sensitivity ratios vary from 7.7% to 15.7% among the six impact categories, which are found to be negatively correlated with their improvement potentials. Finally, several policy recommendations are made to mitigate environmental impacts of China's economic sectors and improve their eco-efficiency levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development, rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system, rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training, this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work, there are following problems. (1) Accounting behavior is not standard, and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; (2) Internal control is not ...

  9. Effect of the laser and light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on midpalatal suture bone formation after rapid maxilla expansion: a Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Cristiane Becher; Habib, Fernando Antonio Lima; de Araújo, Telma Martins; Aragão, Juliana Silveira; Gomes, Rafael Soares; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Silveira, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of laser or light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on the bone formation at the midpalatal suture after rapid maxilla expansion. Twenty young adult male rats were divided into four groups with 8 days of experimental time: group 1, no treatment; group 2, expansion; group 3, expansion and laser irradiation; and group 4, expansion and LED irradiation. In groups 3 and 4, light irradiation was in the first, third, and fifth experimental days. In all groups, the expansion was accomplished with a helicoid 0.020" stainless steel orthodontic spring. A diode laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW, spot of 0.04 cm(2), t = 257 s, spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) of 18 J/cm(2)) or a LED (λ850 nm, 150 mW ± 10 mW, spot of 0.5 cm(2), t = 120 s, SAEF of 18 J/cm(2)) were used. The samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy carried out at midpalatal suture and at the cortical area close to the suture. Two Raman shifts were analyzed: ∼ 960 (phosphate hydroxyapatite) and ∼ 1,450 cm(-1) (lipids and protein). Data was submitted to statistical analysis. Significant statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found in the hydroxyapatite (CHA) peaks among the expansion group and the expansion and laser or LED groups. The LED group presented higher mean peak values of CHA. No statistical differences were found between the treated groups as for collagen deposition, although LED also presented higher mean peak values. The results of this study using Raman spectral analysis indicate that laser and LED light irradiation improves deposition of CHA in the midpalatal suture after orthopedic expansion.

  10. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic  are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals  in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015.  Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of  sustainable development system in

  11. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  12. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ramchandra Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol.

  13. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 3: environmental impact assessment: socio-economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-02-01

    Anticipated social and economic effects from the construction and operation of the proposed Cold Lake Expansion Project in Alberta were described. The regions and communities that would be directly affected by the project were identified and project impacts with respect to the following areas were analyzed: population and demographics, local economy and labour force, education, health, social and recreational services, protective and emergency services, physical community infrastructure, real estate, and current community planning and land use initiatives. The main sources of information used for the analysis were public statistical data compiled by Statistics Canada, provincial government statistics and municipal planning documents. The overall social impact of the project was expected to range from low to medium. 50 refs., 44 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Environmental and economic appraisal of power generation capacity expansion plan in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2010-01-01

    The power sector in Nigeria is undergoing structural reforms aimed at improving and expanding the current grid generation capacity and distribution network. The Government has injected huge funds into this sector while also granting licences to private companies for the provision of electricity. It is also aiming to increase electricity generation capacity to 25,000 MW by 2020 from the current installed capacity of 6500 MW while also pledging to connect 75% of the population to the grid from the current 40% by 2025. This paper sets out to analyse the implications of the energy policy in Nigeria and presents the life cycle environmental and economic analysis of the current and future electricity sector. The results show that all the life cycle impacts and economic costs increase significantly over the time-period (2003-2030), but at different rates depending on the types of technologies deployed. Renewables such as large hydro and solar proposed by the Government have a potential to reduce the overall life cycle environmental impacts from the electricity mix, considering their lower environmental impacts compared to fossil-fuels. However, this requires a five-fold increase in grid investments from the current US$1.7 billion per year to US$9.40 billion by 2030.

  15. Human Mobility Analysis for Extracting Local Interactions under Rapid Socio-Economic Transformation in Dawei, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Kimijima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides knowledge about impacts of a socio-economic transformation in a rapidly urbanizing environment. This study assesses a long-term mobility data which uses a face-to-face questionnaire and GPS logger-based method of data collection for extracting socio-economic impacts from the rapid transformation. Conversion of mobility related information such as travel distance, direction, and time from the questionnaire survey into spatiotemporal information was carried out by developing an algorithm. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study in Dawei Special Economic Zone, Myanmar was conducted. The results show that the questionnaire-based mobility data can be associated with GPS-based mobility data and diverse mobility patterns are found for different social groups in the stage of urban formation. The results enabled an understanding of the human dynamics in interactions, which can be used for monitoring rural sustainability and its challenges in the future with the background of the accelerated project development in the area.

  16. Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Spiller, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost effectiveness of this approach. Previous studies do not, however, consider the entire sanitation system from collection to treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the economic performance of three sanitation systems with different scales and systems characteristics under a variety of urban development pathways. Three systems are studied: (I) a centralised conventional activated sludge treatment, (II) a community on site source separation grey water and black water treatment and (III) a hybrid with grey water treatment at neighbourhood scale and black water treatment off site. A modelling approach is taken that combines a simulation of greenfield urban growth, a model of the wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure design properties and a model that translates design parameters into discounted asset lifetime costs. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the economic performance under uncertain development trends. Results show that the conventional system outperforms both of the other systems when total discounted lifetime costs are assessed, because it benefits from economies of scale. However, when population growth is lower than expected, the source-separated system is more cost effective, because of reduced idle capacity. The hybrid system is not competitive under any circumstance due to the costly double piping and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid and economical data acquisition in ultrafast frequency-resolved spectroscopy using choppers and a microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Monahan, Daniele M; Fleming, Graham

    2016-08-08

    Spectrometers and cameras are used in ultrafast spectroscopy to achieve high resolution in both time and frequency domains. Frequency-resolved signals from the camera pixels cannot be processed by common lock-in amplifiers, which have only a limited number of input channels. Here we demonstrate a rapid and economical method that achieves the function of a lock-in amplifier using mechanical choppers and a programmable microcontroller. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness by performing a frequency-resolved pump-probe measurement on the dye Nile Blue in solution.

  18. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  19. Economic comparison of HVDC transmission and coal transport for Kalimantan - Sulawesi power system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2016-01-01

    Due to the load characteristics on many regions in Indonesia, the electrical system is often inefficient. In areas far from an interconnected network, for example isolated island, the choice of low cost fueled plants such as coal can not be applied, while the oil fueled has a very high generation cost and high burdened on subsidies. As a result, those area are still use oil fueled plant by limiting the generator flame time and consumers do not receive satisfactory service. This paper aims to analyze the extent to which the benefit of HVDC transmission system from Kalimantan to Sulawesi so that consumers could get better services and able to produce in order to improve their welfare. The method used in this analysis is a literature study and perform calculations based on existing formula. The result shows that in term of direct cost, HVDC system which covers transmission line, converter and loses cost, yield in a range of 0.46 - 0.60 USD¢/kWh for the capacity within 500 - 2000 Mwe. While coal transportation cost is in the range of 0.544 - 0.645 USD¢/kWh for long barge between 270 - 300 feet. Therefore, for the region of Indonesia which consist lots of islands and remote areas, power supply using HVDC transmission from area with more evolved electrical system could enable more economical, so that remote region also got excellent electrical services to improve the well-being and incomes of the population. (author)

  20. Surgical management of cross-bites in orthognathic surgery: Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) versus two-piece maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberger, Robin; Gander, Evelyn; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Engel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The surgical treatment of cross-bites includes surgically-assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) or maxillary-bipartition during bimaxillary surgery. This study evaluates and compares the changes in the teeth and lower nasal passage, as well as the stability of the expansion. The measurements were performed on the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 32 patients with transverse (width) deficiencies of the maxilla. To expand the maxilla, 12 patients underwent the two-piece maxilla method, while 20 patients received SARME. The mean distraction width for SARME was 6.8 mm (SD 3.7), while that for the two-piece maxilla was 4.1 mm (SD 1.6). The expansion with SARME was over the entire length of the maxilla, from anterior to posterior, whereas the expansion of the two-piece patient group was only in the posterior part of the maxilla. The segments of the maxilla opened nearly parallel in SARME, while they were reverse V-shaped in the two-piece maxilla, from anterior to posterior. A key point in the planning of combined orthodontic-orthognathic therapy with surgical correction of a cross-bite is the precise determination of the area where the width needs to be increased, and the amount of correction needed to treat the patient using minimal surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-Ling; Xiang, Bao; Wang, Bao-Liang; Jin, Xia; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2014-04-01

    This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region.

  2. Technical and economic feasibility of development innovative technological solutions for expansion the adjustment range of high-power CCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andryushin, A. V.; Burtsev, S. Y.; Andryushin, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of technical and parametric constraints on the adjustment range of highpower CCP and recommended technological solutions in the technical literature for their elimination. Established that in the conditions of toughening the requirements for economy, reliability and maneuverability on the part of the system operator with the participation of CCP in control the frequency and power in the power system, existing methods do not ensure the fulfillment of these requirements. The current situation in the energy sector — the lack of highly manoeuvrable power equipment leads to the need participate in control of power consumption diagrams for all types of power plants, including CCP, although initially they were intended primarily for basic loads. Large-scale research conducted at the department of Automated control systems of technological processes, showed the possibility of a significant expansion of the adjustment range of CCP when it operating in the condensing mode and in the heating mode. The report presents the main results of these research for example the CCP-450 and CCP-450T. Various technological solutions are considered: when CCP in the condensation mode — the use of bypass steam distribution schemes, the transfer of a part of the steam turbine into a low-steam mode; when CCP operation in the heating mode — bypass steam distribution and the transfer CCP to gas turbine unit — power heating plants mode with the transfer the steam turbine to the motor mode. Data on the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed innovative technological solutions are presented in comparison with the methods used to solve this problem, which are used in practice, such as passing through the failures of the electric load graphs by transferring the CCP to the mode of operation with incomplete equipment. When comparing, both the economics, and the maneuverability and reliability of the equipment are considered.

  3. The expansion of nuclear power vs. a more economical use of energy as solutions to the CO2-problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of nuclear power in managing the CO 2 problem is one of the hotly debated topics in energy and environmental policies. For a foreseeable time, nuclear power is the only abundant energy source free from CO 2 , the use of which can even be intensified if and when necessary. The concepts in energy policy and the environmental strategies in this fact is taken into account are currently being compared by energy critics in quantitative and financial terms with energy conservation as a more economical way of using energy that would make the expansion of nuclear power appear a relatively ineffective and much too expensive way of averting the climatic catastrophe. Especially the climatologist Professor W. Bach, member of the Committee of Inquiry set up by the German Federal Parliament to investigate ways and means of protecting the climate, expressed himself to that effect last year. His opinion is based on a study by D. Keepin and G. Katz written in 1988 at the Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado, the center of action of A. Lovins. That study is the subject of this comment. (orig.) [de

  4. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  5. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozheng; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  6. Validation of a screening tool for the rapid and reliable detection of CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions in FMR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basehore, Monica J; Marlowe, Natalia M; Jones, Julie R; Behlendorf, Deborah E; Laver, Thomas A; Friez, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Most individuals with intellectual disability and/or autism are tested for Fragile X syndrome at some point in their lifetime. Greater than 99% of individuals with Fragile X have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat motif in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, and diagnostic testing involves determining the size of the CGG repeat as well as methylation status when an expansion is present. Using a previously described triplet repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction, we have performed additional validation studies using two cohorts with previous diagnostic testing results available for comparison purposes. The first cohort (n=88) consisted of both males and females and had a high percentage of abnormal samples, while the second cohort (n=624) consisted of only females and was not enriched for expansion mutations. Data from each cohort were completely concordant with the results previously obtained during the course of diagnostic testing. This study further demonstrates the utility of using laboratory-developed triplet repeat-primed FMR1 testing in a clinical setting.

  7. Assessment of the dental and skeletal effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion screw and Hyrax screw on craniofacial structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the skeletal and dental effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion (RME appliance and Hyrax RME appliance on the craniofacial structures. Materials and Methods: The sample of the study included 12 patients with constricted maxillary arches. Acrylic bonded type of attachment was used for both groups. Changes in sagittal, vertical, and transverse relationship were assessed with lateral and frontal cephalograms, respectively. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured with stone models. Pre- and immediate post-treatment records were statistically analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Since the data pertaining to intercanine width and intermolar width were normally distributed, parametric test of signifi cance (unpaired t-test was used to compare them. Results: Results showed that Hyrax presented with signifi cantly greater increments for both nasal cavity width and maxillary width when compared to fan-type RME. Both groups had retroclination of incisors. The increase in the intercanine width was almost similar in both groups. Conclusion: Fan-type RME caused only minimal expansion of the intermolar width when compared to the Hyrax. The ratio between the intercanine and intermolar width expansion was nearly 4:1 in the fan-type RME and 0.75:1 in Hyrax.

  8. Rapid and selective expansion of nonclonotypic T cells in regulatory T cell-deficient, foreign antigen-specific TCR-transgenic scurfy mice: antigen-dependent expansion and TCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Ju, Angela Chiao-Ying; Kung, John T; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-11-15

    Foreign Ag-specific TCR-transgenic (Tg) mice contain a small fraction of T cells bearing the endogenous Vbeta and Valpha chains as well as a population expressing an intermediate level of Tg TCR. Importantly, these minor nonclonotypic populations contain > or = 99% of the CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and, despite low overall Treg expression, peripheral tolerance is maintained. In the OT-II TCR (OVA-specific, Vbeta5(high)Valpha2(high)) Tg scurfy (Sf) mice (OT-II Sf) that lack Treg, nonclonotypic T cells markedly expanded in the periphery but not in the thymus. Expanded T cells expressed memory/effector phenotype and were enriched in blood and inflamed lungs. In contrast, Vbeta5(high)Valpha2(high) clonotypic T cells were not expanded, displayed the naive phenotype, and found mainly in the lymph nodes. Importantly, Vbeta5(neg) T cells were able to transfer multiorgan inflammation in Rag1(-/-) recipients. T cells bearing dual TCR (dual Vbeta or dual Valpha) were demonstrated frequently in the Vbeta5(int) and Valpha2(int) populations. Our study demonstrated that in the absence of Treg, the lack of peripheral expansion of clonotypic T cells is due to the absence of its high-affinity Ag OVA. Thus, the rapid expansion of nonclonotypic T cells in OT-II Sf mice must require Ag (self and foreign) with sufficient affinity. Our study has implications with respect to the roles of Ag and dual TCR in the selection and regulation of Treg and Treg-controlled Ag-dependent T cell expansion in TCR Tg and TCR Tg Sf mice, respectively.

  9. Economic evaluation of pipeline construction and capacity expansion projects; Avaliacao economica dos projetos de construcao e expansao de um gasoduto de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Leandro Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, two investment projects that are characteristic of the recent phase of the Brazilian natural gas industry were economically valued, taking into account the government going Thermoelectric Priority Program or PPT: economical design of a gas pipeline, to be built and operated by a Proprietary Carrier, where the interest variable is the transport tariff that will remunerate the investment and pipeline expansion through compressor stations, sponsored by the only shipper in the system, as it aims at selling gas to a thermoelectric plant, where the interest variable is the net present value of the project. In both cases, some sensitive analyses of the interest variable to variables that carry greater uncertainty are presented. Results show that pipeline expansion is viable. (author)

  10. The costs of wind power. Socio-economic costs of expansion of wind power; Vindkraftens pris. Samfundsoekonomiske omkostninger ved udbygning af vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busk, R.; Larsen, Anderse; Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, Uffe; Pade, L.L.; Mulvad Jeppesen, L. [Inst. for Miljoevurdering (Denmark); Munksgaard, J. [Amternes of Kommunernes Forskningsinst. (Denmark)

    2007-08-28

    This report was prepared in order to inform the basis for making energy policy decisions, particularly in with respect to Denmark's goals for renewable energy and wind power. The report estimates the socio-economic costs of expanding Danish wind power to a share of 30, 40 and 50%, respectively, of the electricity consumption by 2025. The report also analyses barriers to and instruments for the expansion of Danish wind power. The main analysis is a socio-economic cost analysis which includes, among other factors, costs of investments, infrastructure and tax distortion losses. (au)

  11. Strategic camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion (mandibular prognathism) using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Lin, Lu; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the camouflage treatment that successfully improved the facial profile of a patient with a skeletal Class III malocclusion using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with chief complaints of crooked teeth and a protruded jaw. Camouflage treatment was chosen because she rejected orthognathic surgery under general anesthesia. A hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander with palatal mini-implants was used to correct the transverse discrepancy, and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy was conducted to achieve proper overjet with normal incisal inclination and to improve her lip and chin profile. As a result, a Class I occlusion with a favorable inclination of the anterior teeth and a good esthetic profile was achieved with no adverse effects. Therefore, the hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy can be considered effective camouflage treatment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion, providing improved inclination of the dentition and lip profile. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost......-efficient light control system. Plant dry matter production was in all cases linear related to DLI, despite changes in daily light duration and light intensity of supplemental light suggesting that DLI is the main limiting factor for the prediction of production time in optimal temperature conditions. The results......Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...

  13. Thin-plate spline analysis of treatment effects of rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy in early Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; McNamara, J A

    1999-06-01

    An effective morphometric method (thin-plate spline analysis) was applied to evaluate shape changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 23 children with Class III malocclusions in the early mixed dentition treated with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy, and compared with a sample of 17 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. Significant treatment-induced changes involved both the maxilla and the mandible. Major deformations consisted of forward displacement of the maxillary complex from the pterygoid region and of anterior morphogenetic rotation of the mandible, due to a significant upward and forward direction of growth of the mandibular condyle. Significant differences in size changes due to reduced increments in mandibular dimensions were associated with significant shape changes in the treated group.

  14. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C.

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species’ dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large ‘central’ population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations. PMID:27064784

  15. Mapping deforestation and urban expansion in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from pre- to post-war economic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R; Huang, Jingfeng; Kamara, Alimamy A

    2016-08-01

    Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone has experienced vast land-cover changes over the past three decades. In Sierra Leone, however, availability of updated land-cover data is still a problem even for environmental managers. This study was therefore, conducted to provide up-to-date land-cover data for Freetown. Multi-temporal Landsat data at 1986, 2001, and 2015 were obtained, and a maximum likelihood supervised classification was employed. Eight land-cover classes or categories were recognized as follows: water, wetland, built-up, dense forest, sparse forest, grassland, barren, and mangrove. Land-cover changes were mapped via post-classification change detection. The persistence, gain, and loss of each land-cover class, and selected land conversions were also quantified. An overall classification accuracy of 87.3 % and a Kappa statistic of 0.85 were obtained for the 2015 map. From 1986 to 2015, water, built-up, grassland, and barren had net gains, whereas forests, wetlands, and mangrove had net loses. Conversion analyses among forests, grassland, and built-up show that built-up had targeted grassland and avoided forests. This study also revealed that, the overall land-cover change at 2001-2015 was higher (28.5 %) than that recorded at 1986-2001 (20.9 %). This is attributable to the population increase in Freetown and the high economic growth and infrastructural development recorded countrywide after the civil war. In view of the rapid land-cover change and its associated environmental impacts, this study recommends the enactment of policies that would strike a balance between urbanization and environmental sustainability in Freetown.

  16. Modeling Urban Expansion in Bangkok Metropolitan Region Using Demographic–Economic Data through Cellular Automata-Markov Chain and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudech Losiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.

  17. The economics of different dynamics of renewable expansion in the European context. A model-based analysis; Die Oekonomik unterschiedlicher Ausbaudynamiken erneuerbarer Energien im europaeischen Kontext. Eine modellbasierte Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissen, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the development and application of a suitable method for the quantification of economic repercussions of different dynamics of renewable expansion within Europe under consideration of the relevant framework. The realistic evaluation of the cost effects of different dynamics of renewable expansion requires a detailed illustration of the current economic, technical, political and social framework conditions of the renewables in Europe considerably.

  18. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy; Riesgos economicos de la expansion de la capacidad de generacion de energia electrica: impacto de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva G, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  19. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  20. Targeting Employment Expansion, Economic Growth and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Outlines of an Alternative Economic Programme for the Region

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Robert Pollin

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the elements of a development-targeted economic framework aimed at creating decent employment opportunities as a strategy for realizing core human development goals in Africa. Four policy areas form the core of the paper: monetary policy and inflation, exchange rate policy, development finance and financial sector reforms, and public investment and fiscal policy. This paper draws heavily on three large UNDP-sponsored studies of employment-oriented economic policies in Keny...

  1. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion and transpalatal arch treatment associated with deciduous canine extraction on the eruption of palatally displaced canines: A 2-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano; McNamara, James A

    2011-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of rapid maxillary expansion and transpalatal arch therapy combined with deciduous canine extraction on the eruption rate of palatally displaced canines (PDCs) in patients in the late mixed dentition in a 2-center prospective study. Seventy subjects were enrolled based on PDCs diagnosed on panoramic radiographs. The treatment group (TG, 40 subjects) underwent RME followed by TPA therapy and extraction of the deciduous canines. The control group (CG, 30 subjects) received no orthodontic treatment. At the start of the trial, panoramic radiographs and dental casts were compared between the TG and the CG with the Mann-Whitney U test (P anomalies was reported. No statistically significant difference was found for any measurement at the start of the trial between the 2 groups. The prevalence rates of eruption of the maxillary canines were 80% for the TG and 28% in the CG, a statistically significant difference (chi-square =16.26, P mixed dentition with PDCs. Pretreatment variables indicating success of treatment on the eruption of PDCs were less severe sectors of displacement, prepubertal stages of skeletal maturity, and open root apices of PDCs. Several dental anomalies were associated significantly with PDCs, thus confirming the genetic etiology of this eruption disturbance. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Properties of chicken manure pyrolysis bio-oil blended with diesel and its combustion characteristics in RCEM, Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil (bio-oil was produced from chicken manure in a pilot-scale pyrolysis facility. The raw bio-oil had a very high viscosity and sediments which made direct application to diesel engines difficult. The bio-oil was blended with diesel fuel with 25% and 75% volumetric ratio at the normal temperature, named as blend 25. A rapid compression and expansion machine was used for a combustion test under the experimental condition corresponding to the medium operation point of a light duty diesel engine using diesel fuel, and blend 25 for comparison. The injection related pressure signal and cylinder pressure signal were instantaneously picked up to analyze the combustion characteristics in addition to the measurement of NOx and smoke emissions. Blend 25 resulted in reduction of the smoke emission by 80% and improvements of the apparent combustion efficiency while the NOx emission increased by 40%. A discussion was done based on the analysis results of combustion.

  3. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  4. New Statistical Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Landmark Configurations Obtained with Cone-Beam CT: Basic Features and Clinical Application for Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Jennifer; Lagravere, Manuel O.; Major, Paul W.; Heo, Giseon [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    To describe a statistical method of three-dimensional landmark configuration data and apply it to an orthodontic data set comparing two types of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatments. Landmark configurations obtained from cone beam CT scans were used to represent patients in two types (please describe what were two types) of RME groups and a control group over four time points. A method using tools from persistent homology and dimensionality reduction is presented and used to identify variability between the subjects. The analysis was in agreement with previous results using conventional methods, which found significant differences between treatment groups and the control, but no distinction between the types of treatment. Additionally, it was found that second molar eruption varied considerably between the subjects, and this has not been evaluated in previous analyses. This method of analysis allows entire configurations to be considered as a whole, and does not require specific inter-landmark distances or angles to be selected. Sources of variability present themselves, without having to be individually sought after. This method is suggested as an additional tool for the analysis of landmark configuration data.

  5. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  6. Sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular block after rapid sequence intubation: a systematic review and economic assessment†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D.; Paulden, M.; Paton, F.; Heirs, M.; Duffy, S.; Hunter, J. M.; Sculpher, M.; Woolacott, N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sugammadex 16 mg kg−1 can be used for the immediate reversal of neuromuscular block 3 min after administration of rocuronium and could be used in place of succinylcholine for emergency intubation. We have systematically reviewed the efficacy and cost-effectiveness and made an economic assessment of sugammadex for immediate reversal. The economic assessment investigated whether sugammadex appears cost-effective under various assumptions about the value of any reduction in recovery time with sugammadex, the likelihood of a ‘can't intubate, can't ventilate’ (CICV) event, the age of the patient, and the length of the procedure. Three trials were included in the efficacy review. Sugammadex administered 3 or 5 min after rocuronium produced markedly faster recovery than placebo or spontaneous recovery from succinylcholine-induced block. No published economic evaluations were found. Our economic analyses showed that sugammadex appears more cost-effective, where the value of any reduction in recovery time is greater, where the reduction in mortality compared with succinylcholine is greater, and where the patient is younger, for lower probabilities of a CICV event and for long procedures which do not require profound block throughout. Because of the lack of evidence, the value of some parameters remains unknown, which makes it difficult to provide a definitive assessment of the cost-effectiveness of sugammadex in practice. The use of sugammadex in combination with high-dose rocuronium is efficacious. Further research is needed to clarify key parameters in the analysis and to allow a fuller economic assessment. PMID:20937718

  7. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ramírez-Hurtado

    Full Text Available The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work's specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market's potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country's socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization.

  8. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  9. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work’s specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market’s potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country’s socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization. PMID:29293596

  10. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Hurtado, José M; Berbel-Pineda, Juan M; Palacios-Florencio, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work's specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market's potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country's socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization.

  11. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  12. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  13. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  14. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  15. Economic Benefit of Introducing a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Kano State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. A.; Afolabi, S.; Nda, M.; Daura, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to know the variables use in quantifying economic benefits of public transport project, contribution of public transport to economic productivity This paper attempts to provide a Road User Cost (RUC) comparison of current usage of Buses and Cars in three different stages which are the present time, do nothing and the introduction of new modes. Vehicle operating cost (VOC), value of time (VOT), pollution cost, accident cost and environmental cost are calculated in other to know the benefits for their abilities to ensure accessibility and mobility, reduce accidents and reduce environmental loss. The study stretch involves an 11.1 km of 2-lane divided carriageway road connecting Kabuga bus stop to Janguza market. Social costs which included accident costs, accident cost of cars (private modes) were found to be 50 times the accident cost of bus accidents. California Air Resource Board (CARB) model was adopted to evaluate Environmental costs. The total road user costs were then obtained to provide comparative evaluation among the study modes. Furthermore, the multiple future scenarios were created to provide understanding about the need for inclusion of other modes. In this regard, this paper provided a framework for the cost evaluation for an urban area and results indicate that buses are more cost-effective in transportation of equivalent number of passengers.

  16. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  17. Economic impact of rapid diagnostic methods in Clinical Microbiology: Price of the test or overall clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The need to reduce the time it takes to establish a microbiological diagnosis and the emergence of new molecular microbiology and proteomic technologies has fuelled the development of rapid and point-of-care techniques, as well as the so-called point-of-care laboratories. These laboratories are responsible for conducting both techniques partially to response to the outsourcing of the conventional hospital laboratories. Their introduction has not always been accompanied with economic studies that address their cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility, but rather tend to be limited to the unit price of the test. The latter, influenced by the purchase procedure, does not usually have a regulated reference value in the same way that medicines do. The cost-effectiveness studies that have recently been conducted on mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of bacteraemia and the use of antimicrobials have had the greatest clinical impact and may act as a model for future economic studies on rapid and point-of-care tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. The economic case for low-carbon development in rapidly growing developing world cities: A case study of Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Gouldson, Andy; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Papargyropoulou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Where costs or risks are higher, evidence is lacking or supporting institutions are less developed, policymakers can struggle to make the case for low-carbon investment. This is especially the case in developing world cities where decision-makers struggle to keep up with the pace and scale of change. Focusing on Palembang in Indonesia, this paper considers the economic case for proactive investment in low-carbon development. We find that a rapidly growing industrial city in a developing country can reduce emissions by 24.1% in 2025, relative to business as usual levels, with investments of USD405.6 million that would reduce energy expenditure in the city by USD436.8 million. Emissions from the regional grid could be reduced by 12.2% in 2025, relative to business as usual trends, with investments of USD2.9 billion that would generate annual savings of USD175 million. These estimates understate the savings from reduced expenditure on energy subsidies and energy infrastructure. The compelling economic case for mainstreaming climate mitigation in this developing country city suggests that the constraints on climate action can be political and institutional rather than economic. There is therefore a need for more effective energy governance to drive the transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic case for low carbon investment in a developing world city. • Cost-effective measures could reduce emissions by 24.1% relative to BAU levels. • These pay for themselves in <1 year and generate savings throughout their lifetime. • Further savings come from reduced expenditure on energy infrastructure, subsidies. • Limitations on climate action seem to be political/institutional – not economic

  19. REDISCOVERING MISES-HAYEK MONETARY AND BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY IN LIGHT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS: CREDIT EXPANSION AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BOOM AND BUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  20. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  1. Novel HPTLC and UV-AUC analyses: For simple, economical, and rapid determination of Zileuton racemate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh B. Ganorkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel, simple, rapid and reliable High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC and UV-spectroscopic area under curve (UV-AUC methods were developed and validated for the analysis of zileuton racemate in bulk and in in-house tablet formulation. HPTLC quantitation of zileuton was done by UV detection at 260 nm and analysis was performed on (20 × 10 cm aluminium sheets precoated with silica gel 60-F254 (E. Merck as stationary phase and toluene–methanol–glacial acetic acid (3.5:1.5:0.1 v/v as mobile phase. Quantitation by HPTLC method was performed over the concentration range of 200–1200 ng/band. The HPTLC method resulted into a compact and well resolved band for zileuton at retention factor (Rf of 0.51 ± 0.02. Linear regression analysis data for calibration of HPTLC method represented a good linear relationship with regression coefficient; r2 = 0.997. UV-AUC method was developed using sodium lauryl sulphate (0.05 M as a hydrotropic agent to enhance water solubility and area was determined at a wavelength range in between 248.40 and 271.0 nm. Correlation coefficient for UV-AUC analysis was found to be r2 = 0.999. The developed UV-AUC method depicted a fine linear relationship for zileuton racemate in a concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL. Both the developed methods were validated for precision, robustness, ruggedness, accuracy, sensitivity as per guidelines laid by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH. Statistical analysis proved that the developed methods were precise, robust, sensitive and accurate and can be used effectively for the analysis of zileuton in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. Cast Off expansion plan by rapid improvement through Optimization tool design, Tool Parameters and using Six Sigma’s ECRS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.; Saravanan, R.

    2017-03-01

    Powerful management concepts step-up the quality of the product, time saving in producing the product thereby increase the production rate, improves tools and techniques, work culture, work place and employee motivation and morale. In this paper discussed about the case study of optimizing the tool design, tool parameters to cast off expansion plan according ECRS technique. The proposed designs and optimal tool parameters yielded best results and meet the customer demand without expansion plan. Hence the work yielded huge savings of money (direct and indirect cost), time and improved the motivation and more of employees significantly.

  3. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Keeping up with early springs: rapid range expansion in an avian herbivore incurs a mismatch between reproductive timing and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Jeugd, H.P.; Eichhorn, Goetz; Litvin, K.E.; Stahl, J.; Larsson, K.; van der Graaf, A.J.; Drent, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Within three decades, the barnacle goose population wintering on the European mainland has dramatically increased in numbers and extended its breeding range. The expansion has occurred both within the Arctic as well as by the colonization of temperate areas. Studies of performance of individuals in

  5. Keeping up with early springs : rapid range expansion in an avian herbivore incurs a mismatch between reproductive timing and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Jeugd, Henk P.; Eichhorn, Gotz; Litvin, Konstantin E.; Stahl, Julia; Larsson, Kjell; Van Der Graaf, Alexandra J.; Drent, Rudi H.

    Within three decades, the barnacle goose population wintering on the European mainland has dramatically increased in numbers and extended its breeding range. The expansion has occurred both within the Arctic as well as by the colonization of temperate areas. Studies of performance of individuals in

  6. A phase I feasibility study of multi-modality imaging assessing rapid expansion of marrow fat and decreased bone mineral density in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Arentsen, Luke; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Brown, Keenan; Bolan, Pat; Ghebre, Rahel G; Downs, Levi; Shanley, Ryan; Hansen, Karen E; Minenko, Anne G; Takhashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Zhang, Yan; Geller, Melissa; Reynolds, Margaret; Lee, Chung K; Blaes, Anne H; Allen, Sharon; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Le, Chap; Froelich, Jerry; Rosen, Clifford; Yee, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for fractures, but lack of effective and economical biomarkers limits quantitative assessments of marrow fat (MF), bone mineral density (BMD) and their relation in response to cytotoxic cancer treatment. We report dual energy CT (DECT) imaging, commonly used for cancer diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, as a novel biomarker of MF and BMD. We validated DECT in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and verified with water-fat MRI (WF-MRI), quantitative CT (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Basis material composition framework was validated using water and small-chain alcohols simulating different components of bone marrow. Histologic validation was achieved by measuring percent adipocyte in the cadaver vertebrae and compared with DECT and WF-MRI. For a phase I trial, sixteen patients with gynecologic malignancies (treated with oophorectomy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) underwent DECT, QCT, WF-MRI and DXA before and 12months after treatment. BMD and MF percent and distribution were quantified in the lumbar vertebrae and the right femoral neck. Measured precision (3mg/cm(3)) was sufficient to distinguish test solutions. Adiposity in cadaver bone histology was highly correlated with MF measured using DECT and WF-MRI (r=0.80 and 0.77, respectively). In the clinical trial, DECT showed high overall correlation (r=0.77, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) with WF-MRI. MF increased significantly after treatment (p<0.002). Chemotherapy and radiation caused greater increases in MF than oophorectomy (p<0.032). L4 BMD decreased 14% by DECT, 20% by QCT, but only 5% by DXA (p<0.002 for all). At baseline, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between MF and BMD which was dramatically attenuated after treatment. Our study demonstrated that DECT, similar to WF-MRI, can accurately measure marrow adiposity. Both imaging modalities show rapid increase in MF following cancer treatment. Our results suggest that MF and

  7. Health workforce planning and service expansion during an economic crisis: A case study of the national breast screening programme in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S M; Tyrrell, E; Johnson, B; Healy, O; Perry, I J; Normand, C

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to estimate the workforce and resource implications of the proposed age extension of the national breast screening programme, under the economic constraints of reduced health budgets and staffing levels in the Irish health system. Using a mixed method design, a purposive sample of 20 participants were interviewed and data were analysed thematically (June-September 2012). Quantitative data (programme-level activity data, screening activity, staffing levels and screening plans) were used to model potential workload and resource requirements. The analysis indicates that over 90% operational efficiency was achieved throughout the first six months of 2012. Accounting for maternity leave (10%) and sick leave (3.5%), 16.1 additional radiographers (whole time equivalent) would be required for the workload created by the age extension of the screening programme, at 90% operational efficiency. The results suggest that service expansion is possible with relatively minimal additional radiography resources if the efficiency of the skill mix and the use of equipment are improved. Investing in the appropriate skill mix should not be limited to clinical groups but should also include administrative staff to manage and support the service. Workload modelling may contribute to improved health workforce planning and service efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  9. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  10. Accelerated production of antigen-specific T-cells for pre-clinical and clinical applications using Gas-permeable Rapid Expansion cultureware (G-Rex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan F.; Brenner, Lara J.; Gerdemann, Ulrike; Ngo, Minhtran C.; Sili, Uluhan; Liu, Hao; Wilson, John; Dotti, Gianpietro; Heslop, Helen E.; Leen, Ann M.; Rooney, Cliona M.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical manufacture of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) for adoptive immunotherapy is limited by the complexity and time required to produce large numbers with the desired function and specificity. The culture conditions required are rigorous, and in some cases only achieved in 2cm2 wells in which cell growth is limited by gas exchange, nutrients and waste accumulation. Bioreactors developed to overcome these issues tend to be complex, expensive and not always conducive to CTL growth. We observed that antigen-specific CTL undergo seven to ten divisions post-stimulation. However the expected CTL numbers were achieved only in the first week of culture. By recreating the culture conditions present during this first week - low frequency of antigen-specific T-cells and high frequency of feeder cells - we were able to increase CTL expansion to expected levels which could be sustained for several weeks without affecting phenotype or function. However, the number of 24-well plates needed was excessive and cultures required frequent media changes, increasing complexity and manufacturing costs. Therefore, we evaluated novel gas-permeable culture devices (G-Rex) with a silicone membrane at the base allowing gas exchange to occur uninhibited by depth of medium above. This system effectively supports the expansion of CTL and actually increases output by up to 20-fold while decreasing required technician time. Importantly, this amplified cell expansion is not due to more cell divisions but to reduced cell death. This bioprocess optimization increased T-cell output while decreasing the complexity and cost of CTL manufacture, making cell therapy more accessible. PMID:20445351

  11. The Direct and Indirect Impact of Pharmaceutical Industry in Economic Expansion and Job Creation: Evidence from Bootstrapping and Normal Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Raheem Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research article is to examine the role of Pakistan’s pharmaceutical industry in job creation opportunities, with the sacred intention to eradicate poverty, and expansion in economic activities. This research is quantitative in nature, and the data is directly gathered through closed-ended questionnaires from 300 respondents. Besides predictors’, four mediating variables have also been taken into consideration that contribute indirectly in job creation opportunities. Bootstrapping and Normal theory methods have been employed in order to examine the impact of predictors’ and mediating variables. The result of this research confirmed that pharmaceutical industry plays a vital role in job creation in Pakistan. It is further concluded that the pharmaceutical industry has a direct and significant impact in job creation by providing indigenous and direct job opportunities in sales, marketing, and other supporting departments for both skilled and unskilled workers. Pharmaceutical industry also provides indirect job opportunities through other industries, which are very much linked with this industry, such as: pharmaceutical distributors, dealers, retailers, wholesalers, hotel industry, and event management industry. It is also determined that pharmaceutical industry is acting like knowledge and skills imparting institutions. Therefore, skilled-based training and organizational learning are major mediating variables that transform unskilled people into human assets, which further trigger the future job prospects. Since pharmaceutical industry is one of the biggest industries in Pakistan, providing plenteous opportunities of new jobs with consistent growth. Thus, mediating variables such as motivation and interpersonal influence also preceded an active role in new job creation

  12. Power system generation expansion planning using the maximum principle and analytical production cost model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.Y.; Park, Y.M.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the electric utility demand in most countries has increased rapidly, with a doubling of approximately 10 years in the case of developing countries. In order to meet this growth in demand, the planners of expansion policies were concerned with obtaining expansion pans which dictate what new generation facilities to add and when to add them. This paper reports that, however, the practical planning problem is extremely difficult and complex, and required many hours of the planner's time even though the alternatives examined were extremely limited. In this connection, increased motivation for more sophisticated techniques of valuating utility expansion policies has been developed during the past decade. Among them, the long-range generation expansion planning is to select the most economical and reliable generation expansion plans in order to meet future power demand over a long period of time subject to a multitude of technical, economical, and social constraints

  13. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: protocol standardization and database expansion for rapid identification of clinically important molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Saikat; Singh, Pankaj; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2017-12-01

    To standardize the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry protocols and expansion of existing Bruker Biotyper database for mold identification. Four different sample preparation methods (protocol A, B, C and D) were evaluated. On analyzing each protein extraction method, reliable identification and best log scores were achieved through protocol D. The same protocol was used to identify 153 clinical isolates. Of these 153, 123 (80.3%) were accurately identified by using existing database and remaining 30 (19.7%) were not identified due to unavailability in database. On inclusion of missing main spectrum profile in existing database, all 153 isolates were identified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry can be used for routine identification of clinically important molds.

  15. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  16. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  17. Paradigm shift for golden times. Change on energy requires a rapid grid expansion; Paradigmenwechsel fuer goldene Zeiten. Energiewende erfordert raschen Netzausbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphues, Stephan [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the recently published report, the International Energy Agency (Paris, France) resumes that the global gas consumption can increase by more than 50 % up to 2035. The reasons for this rapid increase include: flexible use, best CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and long-term availability. The final report of the Ethics Commission 'Energy security' comes to the conclusion that natural gas energy will have a supporting function in Germany. Nationally and internationally, it is assumed that gas is an essential part of the energy supply of the next decades.

  18. Correlations between Socioeconomic Drivers and Indicators of Urban Expansion: Evidence from the Heavily Urbanised Shanghai Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban expansion resulting in increased impervious surfaces causes a series of urban environmental problems, e.g., the urban heat island and urban forest fragmentation. Urban expansion is a serious threat to human quality of life and living environments. It has been studied from a variety of aspects, but its driving factors and time series expansion characteristics (i.e., expansion intensity, pattern and direction need to be better explained in order to devise more effective management strategies. This study examined how social and economic factors are linked in driving urban expansion. Based on multi-temporal aerial images, a rapid urban expansion period, 2000–2010, in Shanghai was analysed. The urban area expanded from 1770.36 to 2855.44 km2 in the period, with a mean annual expansion rate of 108.51 km2. Urban expansion in 2000–2005 (40.42% was much faster than in 2005–2010 (14.86%, and its direction was southeast, southwest and south. The main pattern was edge expansion in both sub-periods. Social factors, especially population density, significantly affected urban expansion. These findings can help understand the urban expansion process and its driving factors, which has important implications for urban planning and management in Shanghai and similar cities.

  19. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  20. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  1. Profiling of gene duplication patterns of sequenced teleost genomes: evidence for rapid lineage-specific genome expansion mediated by recent tandem duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lewis, Joshua; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-06-15

    Gene duplication has had a major impact on genome evolution. Localized (or tandem) duplication resulting from unequal crossing over and whole genome duplication are believed to be the two dominant mechanisms contributing to vertebrate genome evolution. While much scrutiny has been directed toward discerning patterns indicative of whole-genome duplication events in teleost species, less attention has been paid to the continuous nature of gene duplications and their impact on the size, gene content, functional diversity, and overall architecture of teleost genomes. Here, using a Markov clustering algorithm directed approach we catalogue and analyze patterns of gene duplication in the four model teleost species with chromosomal coordinates: zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon. Our analyses based on set size, duplication type, synonymous substitution rate (Ks), and gene ontology emphasize shared and lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution via gene duplication. Most strikingly, our analyses highlight the extraordinary duplication and retention rate of recent duplicates in zebrafish and their likely role in the structural and functional expansion of the zebrafish genome. We find that the zebrafish genome is remarkable in its large number of duplicated genes, small duplicate set size, biased Ks distribution toward minimal mutational divergence, and proportion of tandem and intra-chromosomal duplicates when compared with the other teleost model genomes. The observed gene duplication patterns have played significant roles in shaping the architecture of teleost genomes and appear to have contributed to the recent functional diversification and divergence of important physiological processes in zebrafish. We have analyzed gene duplication patterns and duplication types among the available teleost genomes and found that a large number of genes were tandemly and intrachromosomally duplicated, suggesting their origin of independent and continuous duplication

  2. Expansão rápida da maxila ancorada em implantes: uma nova proposta para expansão ortopédica na dentadura permanente Rapid maxillary expansion anchored by implants: a new proposal to orthopedic expansion in the permanent dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este trabalho apresenta um método para expansão ortopédica da maxila, na dentadura permanente, utilizando implantes como ancoragem. METODOLOGIA: detalharam-se os procedimentos cirúrgicos e laboratoriais da confecção de um expansor com ancoragem dento-óssea em crânio seco humano. Dois implantes de titânio foram colocados na região anterior do palato, e o parafuso Hyrax adaptado de modo que a expansão ancorou-se nos implantes e nos primeiros molares permanentes. RESULTADOS: o experimento laboratorial em crânio seco mostrou que o procedimento apresenta-se anatômica e operacionalmente viável. Os implantes suportaram a força gerada pela ativação do parafuso expansor, redundando na separação transversal das hemimaxilas. CONCLUSÕES: vislumbra-se que a expansão rápida da maxila ancorada em implantes (ERMAI poderá potencializar a eficiência da expansão ortopédica, assim como reduzir o custo periodontal dos procedimentos convencionais de expansão. Futuros estudos clínicos são necessários para testar essas hipóteses.AIM: This study presents a method for maxillary orthopedic expansion, in the permanent dentition, using implants as anchorage. METHODS: Surgical and laboratorial procedures for the construction of a tooth-bone-borne expansor was detailed in a human dry skull. Two titanium implants were placed in the anterior region of the palate and a Hyrax screw was adapted in a way that the expansion was anchored both on the palatal implants and on permanent first molars. RESULTS: The laboratorial experiment in dry skull showed that the procedure is operationally and anatomically possible. The implants supported the force generated by the expansion screw activation and the maxilla halves were transversally split. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion anchored on implants can increase the efficiency of orthopedic expansion and decrease the periodontal sequela caused by conventional RME. Further clinical studies are

  3. Expansion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1985-10-01

    A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)

  4. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.

  5. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira

    2017-10-30

    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p Economic growth in Mongolia from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increase in the effect of social determinants of child health; whilst focused policy improved access to immunisation. Children with less educated mothers and lower household incomes should be targeted in interventions to reduce health inequity.

  6. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika; Prishchepov, Alexander; Lambin, Eric F; Radeloff, Volker C

    2011-01-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  7. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  8. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  9. Survey on the Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing for Infectious Diseases Surveillance: Rapid Expansion of European National Capacities, 2015–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Revez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing (WGS has become an essential tool for public health surveillance and molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases and antimicrobial drug resistance. It provides precise geographical delineation of spread and enables incidence monitoring of pathogens at genotype level. Coupled with epidemiological and environmental investigations, it delivers ultimate resolution for tracing sources of epidemic infections. To ascertain the level of implementation of WGS-based typing for national public health surveillance and investigation of prioritized diseases in the European Union (EU/European Economic Area (EEA, two surveys were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The surveys were designed to determine the national public health reference laboratories’ access to WGS and operational WGS-based typing capacity for national surveillance of selected foodborne pathogens, antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and vaccine-preventable diseases identified as priorities for European genomic surveillance. Twenty-eight and twenty-nine out of the 30 EU/EEA countries participated in the survey in 2015 and 2016, respectively. National public health reference laboratories in 22 and 25 countries had access to WGS-based typing for public health applications in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Reported reasons for limited or no access were lack of funding, staff, and expertise. Illumina technology was the most frequently used followed by Ion Torrent technology. The access to bioinformatics expertise and competence for routine WGS data analysis was limited. By mid-2016, half of the EU/EEA countries were using WGS analysis either as first- or second-line typing method for surveillance of the pathogens and antibiotic resistance issues identified as EU priorities. The sampling frame as well as bioinformatics analysis varied by pathogen/resistance issue and country. Core genome multilocus allelic profiling, also called cgMLST, was the most frequently used annotation

  10. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  11. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F; Carlson, Kimberly M; Fagan, Matthew E; DeFries, Ruth S; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H; Macedo, Marcia N; Curran, Lisa M; Dyer, George A; Gibbs, Holly K; Morton, Douglas C; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  12. Health inequalities during 20 years of rapid economic development in China (1980-2000): a mortality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, XiaoYing; Song, XinMing; Chen, Gong; You, YunZhong; Ren, Qiang; Liu, JuFen; Zhang, Lei; Tan, LingFang; Wei, JiHong; Chen, QiuYuan

    2011-08-01

    To examine the influence of China's economic reforms on population health and regional mortality rates. Longitudinal study measuring the mortality trends and their regional variations. Using data from the three most recent national censuses, we used the model life table to adjust the mortality levels within the population for each census, and to calculate life expectancy. We then examined the variation in patterns of mortality and population health by economic status, region and gender from 1980-2000. Life expectancy varied with economic status, province, and gender. Results showed that, although life expectancy in China had increased overall since the early 1980s, regional differences became more pronounced. Life expectancy for populations who live in the eastern coastal provinces are greater than those in the western regions. Differences in life expectancy are primarily related to differences in regional economic development, which in turn exacerbate regional health inequalities. Therefore, it is necessary to improve economic development in less developed regions and to improve health policies and the public health system that address the needs of everyone. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrasting patterns of urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Parés-Ramos, Isabel K; Aide, T Mitchell

    2013-02-01

    The global urban population is increasing rapidly, but patterns of urban expansion differ greatly among countries. Urban transition theory predicts that the shift from low to high urbanization depends on a country's history and level of economic development. This study describes urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009. Urban dynamics were analyzed by combining nighttime lights and census data from 4032 municipalities. High-lit areas (>52-63 pixel values) were correlated with urban populations across municipalities and years (R (2) > 0.90). Analyses showed that between 1992 and 2009 Bolivia and Ecuador had rapid population growth and rapidly increasing high-lit areas, while Peru and Colombia had lower rates of population growth and urbanization (i.e., expansion of high-lit areas). We demonstrate how nighttime lights can be a useful tool, providing a homogeneous platform for multi-scale analyses of urban growth.

  14. Economics of Privacy: Users'€™ Attitudes and Economic Impact of Information Privacy Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Frik, Alisa

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of three essays within the field of economics of information privacy examined through the lens of behavioral and experimental economics. Rapid development and expansion of Internet, mobile and network technologies in the last decades has provided multitudinous opportunities and benefits to both business and society proposing the customized services and personalized offers at a relatively low price and high speed. However, such innovations and progress have al...

  15. Avaliação da expansão rápida da maxila por meio da tomografia computadorizada: relato de um caso Computed tomography evaluation of rapid maxillary expansion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os efeitos dentoesqueléticos e periodontais da expansão rápida da maxila (ERM, avaliados por meio da tomografia computadorizada (TC, em uma jovem de 11,6 anos de idade com má oclusão de Classe I e mordida cruzada posterior unilateral funcional. Durante a fase ativa da ERM, o expansor dentossuportado com parafuso Hyrax foi ativado 7mm. A paciente submeteu-se ao exame de TC helicoidal, antes da expansão e após a remoção do aparelho expansor, findo o período de três meses de contenção. Realizaram-se cortes axiais, de um milímetro de espessura, paralelamente ao plano palatino, englobando as regiões dentoalveolar e basal da maxila, até o terço inferior da cavidade nasal. Utilizando-se o recurso de reconstruções multiplanares, mensuraram-se pelo método computadorizado: as dimensões transversas maxilares, a inclinação dos dentes posteriores, a espessura das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual, e o nível da crista óssea alveolar vestibular. A expansão rápida da maaxila ocasionou um significante aumento transverso em todas as regiões aferidas, com magnitude decrescente do arco dentário para a base óssea. Os dentes posteriores foram movimentados para vestibular, com um componente de inclinação e translação associados. Tal efeito ortodôntico ocasionou uma redução na espessura da tábua óssea vestibular, e um concomitante aumento na espessura da tábua óssea lingual. Após a expansão, observou-se o desenvolvimento de deiscências ósseas por vestibular dos dentes de ancoragem.This paper presents a computed tomography (CT evaluation of rapid maxillary expansion dentoskeletal and periodontal effects, in a 11.6 year-old girl presenting Class I malocclusion with posterior unilateral crossbite. The tooth-borne expander with Hyrax screw was activated 7-mm. The patient was submitted to helicoidal CT scan before expansion and after the three-month retention period when the expander was removed. Axial

  16. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Global economic-biophysical assessment of midterm scenarios for agricultural markets—biofuel policies, dietary patterns, cropland expansion, and productivity growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Ruth; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Mauser, Wolfram

    2018-02-01

    Land-use decisions are made at the local level. They are influenced both by local factors and by global drivers and trends. These will most likely change over time e.g. due to political shocks, market developments or climate change. Hence, their influence should be taken into account when analysing and projecting local land-use decisions. We provide a set of mid-term scenarios of global drivers (until 2030) for use in regional and local studies on agriculture and land-use. In a participatory process, four important drivers are identified by experts from globally distributed regional studies: biofuel policies, increase in preferences for meat and dairy products in Asia, cropland expansion into uncultivated areas, and changes in agricultural productivity growth. Their impact on possible future developments of global and regional agricultural markets are analysed with a modelling framework consisting of a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop growth model. The business as usual (BAU) scenario causes production and prices of crops to rise over time. It also leads to a conversion of pasture land to cropland. Under different scenarios, global price changes range between -42 and +4% in 2030 compared to the BAU. An abolishment of biofuel targets does not significantly improve food security while an increased agricultural productivity and cropland expansion have a stronger impact on changes in food production and prices.

  18. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  19. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hollywood’s Global Outlook: Economic Expansionism and Production Strategy La perspective mondiale d’Hollywood : expansion économique et stratégique de production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolwenn Mingant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le milieu des années soixante, l’importance du marché extérieur pour les  majors américaines a beaucoup varié. Marché mineur à la fin des années soixante-dix et dans les années quatre-vingt, il prend de plus en plus d’importance depuis le début des années quatre-vingt dix. L’arrivée de nouvelles technologies ainsi que l’ouverture de nouveaux territoires sont les deux phénomènes qui expliquent ce regain d’importance. Depuis le début des années quatre-vingt dix, les majors se sont donc lancées dans une nouvelle vague d’expansion économique mondiale. La question centrale de cet article est alors la suivante. Le désir qu’ont les majors hollywoodiennes d’expansion économique mondiale a-t-il une influence sur leurs choix de production, et, en particulier, a-t-il une influence sur le caractère national des films produits? En suivant pas à pas la façon dont Hollywood observe le marché extérieur depuis quarante ans, puis sa tendance croissante à prendre en compte dans les choix de production les goûts du public étranger, nous nous poserons inévitablement la question des conséquences culturelles de ces pratiques économiques, autour des notions d’universalité, d’internationalisation et d’identité nationale, jusqu’à ce que finalement se révèle à nous une nouvelle identité hollywoodienne: Glocalwood.

  1. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  2. Avaliação cefalométrica da estabilidade pós-expansão rápida da maxila assistida cirurgicamente Cephalometric evaluation of the post surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Scattaregi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as possíveis alterações e a estabilidade dentária e esquelética no sentido transversal, bem como as possíveis alterações verticais da face (AFAI, produzidas pela Expansão Rápida da Maxila Assistida Cirurgicamente (ERMAC. MÉTODOS: a amostra selecionada para este estudo retrospectivo foi composta por 60 telerradiografias em norma frontal, de 15 pacientes, sendo 6 do gênero masculino e 9 do gênero feminino, com média de idades de 23 anos e 3 meses. O disjuntor Hyrax foi instalado e o procedimento cirúrgico adotado envolveu a separação da sutura palatina mediana e não-abordagem da sutura pterigomaxilar. A ativação foi realizada do terceiro dias após a cirurgia até o término da expansão, determinada por critérios clínicos. Todos os pacientes foram radiografados nas fases pré-expansão (T1; pós-expansão imediata (T2; 3 meses pós-expansão, com o próprio disjuntor como contenção (T3; e 6 meses pós-expansão, com a placa removível de acrílico como contenção (T4. Medidas lineares foram obtidas a partir dos traçados cefalométricos gerados por um programa computadorizado (Radiocef Studio 2 e analisadas estatisticamente pelos testes de variância (ANOVA e Tukey ao nível de 5% de significância. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: concluiu-se que a ERMAC produziu aumentos estatisticamente significativos da cavidade nasal, da largura maxilar e da distância intermolares superiores, de T1 para T2, os quais se mantiveram em T3 e T4. A largura facial e as distâncias intermolares inferiores não apresentaram alterações após a ERMAC. Avaliando o comportamento vertical da face, notou-se um aumento da AFAI nas fases T1 para T2, que diminuiu após a contenção de 3 meses (T3 e permaneceu estável em T4, embora aumentada se comparada com T1.AIM: This study evaluated the stability of the dental and skeletal changes produced by the Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SARME in transversal and vertical

  3. Pushing the Limits: The Pattern and Dynamics of Rubber Monoculture Expansion in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Chen

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing car industry in China has led to an equally rapid expansion of monoculture rubber in many regions of South East Asia. Xishuangbanna, the second largest rubber planting area in China, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, supplies about 37% of the domestic natural rubber production. There, high income possibilities from rubber drive a dramatic expansion of monoculture plantations which poses a threat to natural forests. For the first time we mapped rubber plantations in and outside protected areas and their net present value for the years 1988, 2002 (Landsat, 30 m resolution and 2010 (RapidEye, 5 m resolution. The purpose of our study was to better understand the pattern and dynamics of the expansion of rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna, as well as its economic prospects and conservation impacts. We found that 1 the area of rubber plantations was 4.5% of the total area of Xishuangbanna in 1988, 9.9% in 2002, and 22.2% in 2010; 2 rubber monoculture expanded to higher elevations and onto steeper slopes between 1988 and 2010; 3 the proportion of rubber plantations with medium economic potential dropped from 57% between 1988 and 2002 to 47% in 2010, while the proportion of plantations with lower economic potential had increased from 30% to 40%; and 4 nearly 10% of the total area of nature reserves within Xishuangbanna has been converted to rubber monoculture by 2010. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the rapid expansion of rubber plantations into higher elevations, steeper terrain, and into nature reserves (where most of the remaining forests of Xishuangbanna are located poses a serious threat to biodiversity and environmental services while not producing the expected economic returns. Therefore, it is essential that local governments develop long-term land use strategies for balancing economic benefits with environmental sustainability, as well as for assisting farmers with the selection of land suitable

  4. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  5. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  6. Thermal economical analysis of plants configuration proposed for expansion of a thermoelectric power plant; Analise termoeconomica de configuracoes de plantas propostas para a expansao de uma usina termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Fabiano P.; Romao Junior, Ricardo A.; Mashiba, Marcos H.S.; Dib, Fernando H.; Maia, Cassio R.M.; Ramos, Ricardo A.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira (FEIS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: pagliosa@dem.feis.unesp.br; fhdib@aluno.feis.unesp.br; rarjunior@aluno.feis.unesp.br; mashiba@dem.feis.unesp.br; cassio@dem.feis.unesp.br; ramos@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper performs thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses applied to a thermoelectric natural gas primarily open cycle power plant and posteriorly operating at combined cycle, with heat recovery steam generator with 1, 2 and 3 pressure level respectively. For the system thermodynamic, mass conservation, entropy and exergy balance equations are applied, considering a control volume for each equipment composing the plant. Using thermoeconomic analysis it is possible to evaluate the reflexes of the capital and fuel costs on the composition of the electricity generated, through the exergy fluxes, the exergy unitary costs and the exergoeconomic costs (US$/MWh), besides the costs for the produced powers. The plant is still submitted to known techniques of investment analysis for economical viability verification taking into account the investment and natural gas costs and the energy sales.

  7. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e anteroposteriores associadas ao uso do expansor maxilar com cobertura oclusal Cephalometric evaluation of vertical and anteroposterior changes associated with the use of bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moara De Rossi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: os aparelhos expansores maxilares com cobertura oclusal têm sido sugeridos para controlar o aumento na dimensão vertical da face após a expansão rápida da maxila, porém ainda não há um consenso na literatura sobre seus reais efeitos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações cefalométricas verticais e anteroposteriores associadas à expansão da maxila realizada com o aparelho expansor com cobertura oclusal. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta por 25 crianças, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 6 e 10 anos, portadoras de mordida cruzada posterior esquelética. Após a expansão maxilar, o próprio aparelho expansor foi utilizado como contenção fixa. Foram analisadas telerradiografias em norma lateral tomadas antes do início do tratamento e após a remoção do aparelho expansor. CONCLUSÃO: com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que o uso do aparelho expansor com cobertura oclusal não alterou significativamente as medidas cefalométricas verticais e anteroposteriores das crianças.INTRODUCTION: Bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliances have been suggested to control increases in the vertical dimension of the face after rapid maxillary expansion but there is still no consensus in the literature concerning its actual effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vertical and anteroposterior cephalometric changes associated with maxillary expansion performed using bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliances. METHODS: The sample consisted of 25 children of both genders, aged between 6 and 10 years old, with skeletal posterior crossbite. After maxillary expansion, the expansion appliance itself was used for fixed retention. Were analyzed lateral teleradiographs taken prior to treatment onset and after removal of the expansion appliance. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the use of bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance did not significantly

  8. Radial expansion and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei

  9. Between a rock and a hard place: Economic expansion and social responsibility in UK media discourses on the global alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mary; Hawkins, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Transnational alcohol corporations (TACs) employ a range of strategies to achieve their business objectives, including attempts to frame perceptions of their activities in media debates. TACs aim to achieve a favourable regulatory environment by presenting themselves as socially responsible actors. However, the need to secure financial investment means they must also emphasise their potential for growth. This article investigates tensions between these objectives in coverage of the global alcohol industry in the UK print media. This article examines coverage of the world's four largest TACs in five British daily newspapers and one industry publication between March 2012 and February 2013. 477 articles were identified for analysis through keyword searches of the LexisNexis database. Thematic coding of articles was conducted using Nvivo software. Two conflicting framings of the alcohol industry emerge from our analysis. The first presents TACs as socially responsible actors; key partners to government in reducing alcohol-related harms. This is targeted at policy-makers and the public in an attempt to shape policy debates. The second framing highlights TACs' potential for economic growth by establishing new markets and identifying new customer bases. This is targeted at an audience of potential investors. A fundamental contradiction lies at the heart of these framings, reflecting the tensions that exist between TACs' political and financial strategies. Alcohol industry involvement in policy-making thus involves a fundamental conflict of interests. Consequently, the UK government should reassess the prominence it currently affords to the industry in the development and delivery of alcohol policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is China ready for its nuclear expansion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yun; Rengifo, Christhian; Hinze, Jonathan; Chen, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    China's rapid pace of nuclear energy growth is unique, and its impact on the global nuclear market as both a customer and potential future supplier is already tremendous and will continue to expand. It is crucial to understand this energy policy development and its impact on various global areas. Unfortunately, there is relatively limited English-language information available about China's nuclear power industry and its current development. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the Chinese nuclear energy program and policy, reviewing its past, present, likely future developments, as well as to consider potential challenges that deserve further attention. This paper will explore reasons that have caused the existing industry, describe China's nuclear bureaucracy and decision making process to understand how different stakeholders play a role in China's nuclear energy development. This study concludes that China's existing nuclear program and industry, in combination with its current stable economic and political environment, provides a sound foundation for the planned nuclear expansion. However, challenges which are crucial to the success of the nuclear expansion will need to be addressed. (author)

  11. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  13. Population aging: opportunity for business expansion, an invitational paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) International Workshop on Adaptation to Population Aging Issues, July 17, 2017, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensberg, Mary Beth

    2018-04-10

    A longer life brings opportunities for older adults and their families as well as for their communities. Commercial businesses can be successful in innovating on these opportunities and achieving business expansion when they better understand the market dynamics and spectrum of older adults as consumers and view them more as assets rather than as burdens to society. While there is no "typical" older adult consumer, some traits, characteristics, and physical realities may be more common, including those related to family and community, the shopping experience, brand marketing and packaging, food and nutrition, and health. The opportunities of longer life are impacted by health and underscore the importance of positive, healthy aging-related behaviors like good nutrition and active lifestyles. Healthy aging also requires a sustained commitment and action from country leaders to formulate evidence-based polices--like systematic nutrition screening and intervention-and healthcare workforce training and education that can strengthen and support an active aging population. In addition, governments should consider engaging commercial businesses to help set sustainable policies that can advance products for older adults. Finally, governments should set national and local goals to incentivize commercial business development and investment in public-private partnerships to improve quality of care, promote healthy aging, and impact outcomes for noncommunicable diseases, ultimately benefitting population health for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries.

  14. Spatial Linkage and Urban Expansion: AN Urban Agglomeration View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L. M.; Tang, X.; Liu, X. P.

    2017-09-01

    Urban expansion displays different characteristics in each period. From the perspective of the urban agglomeration, studying the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion plays an important role in understanding the complex relationship between urban expansion and network structure of urban agglomeration. We analyze urban expansion in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRD) through accessibility to and spatial interaction intensity from core cities as well as accessibility of road network. Results show that: (1) Correlation between urban expansion intensity and spatial indicators such as location and space syntax variables is remarkable and positive, while it decreases after rapid expansion. (2) Urban expansion velocity displays a positive correlation with spatial indicators mentioned above in the first (1980-1990) and second (1990-2000) period. However, it exhibits a negative relationship in the third period (2000-2010), i.e., cities located in the periphery of urban agglomeration developing more quickly. Consequently, the hypothesis of convergence of urban expansion in rapid expansion stage is put forward. (3) Results of Zipf's law and Gibrat's law show urban expansion in YRD displays a convergent trend in rapid expansion stage, small and medium-sized cities growing faster. This study shows that spatial linkage plays an important but evolving role in urban expansion within the urban agglomeration. In addition, it serves as a reference to the planning of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration and regulation of urban expansion of other urban agglomerations.

  15. Previsibilidade de sucesso na disjunção palatina avaliada pelo estágio de maturação esquelética: estudo piloto Sucess predictability in rapid maxillary expansion when assessed by skeletal growth maturation phase: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende de Albuquerque

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a proposta deste estudo foi determinar se a previsibilidade de sucesso da disjunção palatina está correlacionada a algum evento de maturidade esquelética que determine o final do crescimento geral do organismo. METODOLOGIA: utilizando o conhecimento dos estágios de maturação esquelética visualizados por radiografia de mão e punho e registrados em um gráfico do surto de crescimento puberal, foram avaliados dezenove pacientes de ambos os gêneros, com idades variando de dez anos e três meses a vinte e oito anos e quatro meses, supervisionados por análises clínicas e radiográficas específicas antes e após o procedimento de disjunção palatina. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: pode-se afirmar que não foi possível determinar a previsibilidade de sucesso da disjunção palatina quando esta foi correlacionada com a ossificação total do osso rádio.AIM: to evaluate the possibility of rapid maxillary expansion in patients who have reached the decisive event of facial growth ending (total fusion of the radius. METHODS: the study was held using esqueletal maturation data from hand and wrist x-ray plotted in a puberal growth spurt graph from nineteen patients of both genders at ages ranging from ten years and three months to twenty-eight years and four months surveilled by specific clinical and radiographic analysis before and after the rapid maxillary expansion procedure. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: it could be concluded that it was not possible to establish a successful correlation between total fusion of radius with rapid maxillary expansion.

  16. The Economic and Social Consequences of Gambling on the Tourism Industry in Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Weng U

    2007-01-01

    Macau is known as the Eastern Monte Carlo, her main industry of gambling makes Macau a rapid economic expansion and brings Macau a lot of job opportunities. However, in recent years, crime and negative social impacts have increased as a result of this industry. Gambling making Macau's economic structure lopsided and fragile as well as bring a series of social problems to Macau. This dissertation illustrates both the positive and negative impacts that Macau's gambling industry is having on int...

  17. Decennial plan of expansion 1994-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Decennial Plan of Expansion 1994-2003 of Electric sector reproduces the results of the studies occurred during the planning cycle of 1992/93 from the Coordinator Groups of the Electric System Planning. Based in the market forecasting, economic-financier and time for finishing the the works, the Decennial Plan of Expansion presents the schedule of the main generation and transmission works for the next ten years, the annual spend in generation, transmission and distribution, the costs of expansion and the evaluation of attending conditions in electric system in Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  18. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Avaliação do efeito da expansão rápida da maxila na via aérea superior, por meio da nasofibroscopia: descrição da técnica e relato de caso Evaluation of the effect of rapid maxillary expansion on the upper airway using nasofibroscopy: case report and description of the technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilsson Pedro Jorge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste artigo é avaliar o efeito da expansão rápida da maxila (ERM na via aérea superior. Por intermédio de um caso clínico, será relatado como indivíduos com atresia da maxila e com comprometimento da função naso-respiratória podem beneficiar-se com a ERM. Para entender melhor as alterações morfológicas decorrentes do paciente com problemas respiratórios, deve-se conhecer a anatomia e a fisiologia do sistema respiratório. Entretanto, não se pode esquecer que o tratamento deste paciente é multidisciplinar, envolvendo o ortodontista, otorrinolaringologista e a fonoaudióloga.The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the effect of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the upper airway. A clinical case is presented to describe how patients with atresic maxilla and reduced naso-respiratory function can have benefits from rapid maxillary expansion. In order to better understand the morphological alterations present in patients with respiratory disorders, it is necessary to understand the respiratory system's anatomy and physiology. However, it is relevant to mention that this patient undergoes a multidisciplinary treatment, involving the orthodontist, the otorhinolaryngologist and the phonoaudiologist.

  20. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, IOL; Schooling, CM; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM

    2013-01-01

    Background:With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong.Methods:Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups) to 2020 in Hong Kong using Po...

  1. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  2. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy; Die Strategie des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien. Eine Untersuchung der Preissetzungsstrategie des EEGs aus Sicht einer evolutorisch-kybernetischen Theorie der Wirtschaftspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Fabian

    2015-11-01

    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  3. 77 FR 63837 - Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement to One Grantee Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... provision of subsidized employment, family reunification, and economic stability services to formerly... achieve social and economic self- sufficiency. Activities include the provision of economic stability... activities: Healthy marriage, responsible parenting, and economic stability. The program expansion supplement...

  4. Monitoring urban expansion and its effects on land use and land cover changes in Guangzhou city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Li, Shuyuan; Yu, Shixiao

    2016-01-01

    There are widespread concerns about urban sprawl in China. In response, modeling and assessing urban expansion and subsequent land use and land cover (LULC) changes have become important approaches to support decisions about appropriate development and land resource use. Guangzhou, a major metropolitan city in South China, has experienced rapid urbanization and great economic growth in the past few decades. This study applied a series of Landsat images to assess the urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes over 35 years, from 1979 to 2013. From start to end, urban expansion increased by 1512.24 km(2) with an annual growth rate of 11.25 %. There were four stages of urban growth: low rates from 1979 to 1990, increased rates from 1990 to 2001, high rates from 2001 to 2009, and steady increased rates from 2009 to 2013. There were also three different urban growth types in these different stages: edge-expansion growth, infilling growth, and spontaneous growth. Other land cover, such as cropland, forest, and mosaics of cropland and natural vegetation, were severely impacted as a result. To analyze these changes, we used landscape metrics to characterize the changes in the spatial patterns across the Guangzhou landscape and the impacts of urban growth on other types of land cover. The significant changes in LULC and urban expansion were highly correlated with economic development, population growth, technical progress, policy elements, and other similar indexes.

  5. Chemical graph-theoretic cluster expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A general computationally amenable chemico-graph-theoretic cluster expansion method is suggested as a paradigm for incorporation of chemical structure concepts in a systematic manner. The cluster expansion approach is presented in a formalism general enough to cover a variety of empirical, semiempirical, and even ab initio applications. Formally such approaches for the utilization of chemical structure-related concepts may be viewed as discrete analogues of Taylor series expansions. The efficacy of the chemical structure concepts then is simply bound up in the rate of convergence of the cluster expansions. In many empirical applications, e.g., boiling points, chromatographic separation coefficients, and biological activities, this rate of convergence has been observed to be quite rapid. More note will be made here of quantum chemical applications. Relations to questions concerning size extensivity of energies and size consistency of wave functions are addressed

  6. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  7. The stagnation of electric system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M. dos

    1989-01-01

    The main works in the Brazilian electric sector in 1988 is presented, mentioning the fault of financier resources. The electric power tariffs by a real economical cost are also cited, allowing some advantages that can resolve the investment problem in the electric power expansion. (author)

  8. Economic growth of the United States: perspective and prospective. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricant, S

    1979-01-01

    A post-World War II analysis of the potential for US economic expansion projects a continuation of the basic social and economic expectations and international relations and of the upward trend of labor input, labor productivity, and national output. How economic growth of the future will differ as a result of global changes in population and resources is examined in the context of other national objectives. The rapid increase in labor productivity during the postwar period was taken in the form of income rather than leisure. This led to a growth of goods and real per capita income as well as higher standards of living, education, and economic stability. The implications for future growth indicate the need to slow the growth of the national product in line with the rate of population growth. The improved welfare of the people should be the overall goal of which economic growth is one component. 23 tables. (DCK)

  9. Bifurcations of a class of singular biological economic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue; Zhang Qingling; Zhang Yue

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies systematically a prey-predator singular biological economic model with time delay. It shows that this model exhibits two bifurcation phenomena when the economic profit is zero. One is transcritical bifurcation which changes the stability of the system, and the other is singular induced bifurcation which indicates that zero economic profit brings impulse, i.e., rapid expansion of the population in biological explanation. On the other hand, if the economic profit is positive, at a critical value of bifurcation parameter, the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation, i.e., the increase of delay destabilizes the system and bifurcates into small amplitude periodic solution. Finally, by using Matlab software, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained here. In addition, we study numerically that the system undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation when the bifurcation parameter goes through critical value of positive economic profit.

  10. The evolutionary nature of narratives about expansion and sustenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The 200 years since the start of the industrial era has been a period of rapid and almost unbroken economic growth in much of the world, based upon exponentially increasing use of energy and water resources and the atmospheric commons. It is axiomatic that exponential growth cannot continue forever on a finite planet, leading to an emerging collision between the presently irresistible force of economic growth and the immovable reality of the finitude of Planet Earth. This has led to the a contest between two broad narratives about humans and their planet in the 21st century, an "expansion" narrative framed around the paramount need for economic growth, and a "sustenance" narrative framed around the paramount need to protect an increasingly fragile natural world. Many features of recent public discourse, including the acceleration of the news cycle and the echo-chamber effect of interactive social media, have driven these narratives to become progressively more mutually antagonistic and incompatible. Here I explore the idea that narratives (in the sense of stories that empower actions) are meme sequences that evolve through diversification, selection and adaptation. This memetic evolution can be understood and, to some extent, influenced. An analogy might be with the influence exerted by human selection over centuries on the gene pool of domesticated animals and plants. In shaping our shared future, the evolutionary contest between "expansion" and "sustenance" narratives is just as important as the dynamics of the natural world. The future therefore depends upon the evolution of more subtle and resilient narratives about human-earth interactions. A selection test for these narratives is their ability to empower a transition to a society that lives within the means of a finite planet and improves global wellbeing at the same time. My own recent experience is that scientists alone are not very good at shaping narratives to pass this fitness test, and the participation

  11. Did the Higgs boson drive the universe's expansion?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Higgs boson has been moonlighting. Not content with its day job of giving other particles their mass, it may also have driven the expansion of the early universe, given a little tinkering, according to two separate studies. Soon after the big bang the early universe is believed to have undergone a period of rapid expansion, known as inflation.

  12. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  13. Expansion of U. S. uranium enrichment capacity. Final environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic, and technological costs and benefits of postulated expansion of U. S. enrichment capacity through the year 2000 and reasonably available alternatives to such expansion are described. Both the gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion methods for the enrichment of uranium are considered in this impact assessment. (JGB)

  14. China's Soft Power Expansion in Africa through Industrialisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China's Soft Power Expansion in Africa through Industrialisation: ... growth on the African continent, and the Chinese government believes its own experience ... to export-led economic growth, technology transfer and job creation, among other ...

  15. Assessing the economic impact of public investment in Malaysia: a case study on MyRapid Transit project using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Meenachi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis is the question of whether public investment in transport infrastructure contributes positively to Malaysia’s economic growth and welfare. Although there are strong analytical reasons to believe that public investment spending is one of the important variables that influence growth, there remains significant uncertainty about its actual degree of influence. In Malaysia, whenever there is a collapse in domestic demand, government spending becomes an important m...

  16. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  17. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymann, G.A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten

  18. Expansion and growth in Chinese cities, 1978–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A; Mertes, C M

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that compact versus more sprawling urban forms can have very different environmental impacts. As the Chinese population continues to rapidly urbanize, the size, shape, and configuration of cities in China will undoubtedly change to accommodate expansion of housing, industry, and commerce, causing direct and indirect environmental impacts at multiple scales. It is therefore imperative to understand how urban areas are evolving as socio-economic reforms in China are implemented across different regions. This paper compares trends in 142 Chinese cities (including 17 agglomerations) to understand urban expansion and population growth following reforms, 1978–2010. The results show that cities tripled in size, while doubling in population over the same period. In coastal areas targeted by early policies, urban land increased 4–5 times since 1978, for all city sizes. Large agglomerations are the primary consumers of land in coastal and western regions, each adding an average of 450 km 2 during the study period, while small-medium cities consumed an average 20 km 2 . Although populations in these agglomerations increased an average 1.3 million, 2000–2010, cities within 100 km of each agglomeration grew >1.8 million collectively. Proximity to large agglomerations contributed to the growth of small-medium cities, especially in western regions. (paper)

  19. Strategic Expansion Models in Academic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Rajni; Yang, Wei T; Tannir, Habib; Parikh, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In response to economic pressures, academic institutions in the United States and their radiology practices, are expanding into the community to build a larger network, thereby driving growth and achieving economies of scale. These economies of scale are being achieved variously via brick-and-mortar construction, community practice acquisition, and partnership-based network expansion. We describe and compare these three expansion models within a 4-part framework of: (1) upfront investment; (2) profitability impact; (3) brand impact; and (4) risk of execution. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ossificação da sutura palatina mediana após o procedimento de expansão rápida da maxila: estudo radiográfico Midpalatal suture ossification post rapid palatal expansion: a radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho tem como objetivo acompanhar radiograficamente a evolução da ossificação da sutura palatina mediana em pacientes submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila, bem como comprovar a validade de se avaliar a neoformação óssea através deste exame complementar de diagnóstico. METODOLOGIA: a amostra constou de 38 pacientes no estágio de dentadura mista que se submeteram ao protocolo de expansão rápida da maxila, sendo 2/4 de volta pela manhã e 2/4 de volta à noite, totalizando 1 volta completa por dia, compreendendo um período de 7 dias. RESULTADOS: radiografias oclusais de maxila tomadas no pós-tratamento evidenciaram uma variação individual quanto ao período necessário para a completa neoformação óssea da sutura palatina mediana. A imagem radiográfica apresentou-se como um método confiável para a determinação da época correta de remoção do aparelho expansor. Tendo em vista a estabilidade pós-tratamento a longo prazo, o aparelho expansor deve ser removido somente após a completa ossificação da sutura. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados revelaram que são necessários mais de três meses para que o processo de ossificação e reorganização sutural se processe após o procedimento de expansão rápida da maxila.OBJECTIVE: the current study aims at following up radiographically the evolution of the midpalatal suture during the expansion procedure since the opening of the suture until bone formation. METHODS: the sample comprised 38 patients in the mixed dentition stage submitted to the rapid palatal expansion protocol of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies. RESULTS: it was observed an individual variation on the period of bone ossification of the midpalatal suture, which justifies the radiographic follow-up as determinant for the appliance removal. Due to long-term post-treatment stability, the expander should be removed after the new suture is completely formed. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men. The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  2. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  3. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The economic case for low carbon waste management in rapidly growing cities in the developing world: The case of Palembang, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Colenbrander, Sarah; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Gouldson, Andy; Tin, Lee Chew

    2015-11-01

    The provision of appropriate waste management is not only an indicator of development but also of broader sustainability. This is particularly relevant to expanding cities in developing countries faced with rising waste generation and associated environmental health problems. Despite these urgent issues, city authorities often lack the evidence required to make well-informed decisions. This study evaluates the carbon and economic performance of low-carbon measures in the waste sector at a city level, within the context of a developing country. Palembang in Indonesia is used as a case of a medium-sized city in a newly industrialized country, with relevance to other similar cities in the developing world. Evidence suggests that the waste sector can achieve substantial carbon emission reductions, and become a carbon sink, in a cost effective way. Hence there is an economic case for a low carbon development path for Palembang, and possibly for other cities in developing and developed countries facing similar challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  6. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  7. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  8. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  9. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  10. An Asian dilemma. Modernising the electricity sector in China and India in the context of rapid economic growth and the concern for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.; Vlasblom, J.; Kroeze, C. (eds.)

    2001-12-01

    The research question dealt with in this report is: What are the feasible policy and technology options to modernise the electricity sector in China and India taking into account the supply and demand for electricity and given the conflict between the need for economic growth and the need to anticipate future developments in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions? The project essentially integrates three methodological approaches, a scenario approach, a bottom-up technology approach and an institutional cum stakeholder approach. Following an initial appraisal of the 'business-as-usual' scenario for the electricity sector for both countries, a range of policy and technology options was identified, as well as their potential and technical, economic and political feasibility. These options were combined and compared to the business-as-usual scenario to develop emission reduction scenarios for China and India and were tested with stakeholders to identify their feasibility and to assess the potential of using instruments at national and international level to facilitate their implementation. Although some measures have a high technical potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in both countries, these are not seen as particularly feasible by the stakeholders. For example end use efficiency has a very high technical emission to reduce emissions but is not given much priority in China and India (especially in the small-scale sector). Efficiency improvement in power plants and in transmission and distribution can also yield results in terms of emission reductions but are not seen as important in China. The report discusses the barriers and opportunities in relation to the various options. refs.

  11. Thermal expansion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)

  12. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Monetary Policy Shocks and Industrial Output in Nigeria: A Dynamic Effect .... most studies have focused on monetary policy and economic growth, they have paid less ..... Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Economics Obafemi Awolowo, Ile- .... “Differential Impacts of Export Expansion on Economic Growth in the.

  13. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  14. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  15. Avaliação transversal e vertical da maxila, após expansão rápida, utilizando um método de padronização das radiografias póstero-anteriores Transversal and vertical maxillary evaluation, after rapid expansion, using a standardization method for posteroanterior radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: na presente pesquisa utilizou-se o aparelho Hyrax tendo como objetivo avaliar as alterações transversais e verticais da maxila. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes de ambos os gêneros, entre 7 e 11 anos de idade, que apresentavam mordida cruzada posterior uni ou bilateral. METODOLOGIA: foram realizadas telerradiografias em norma frontal (PA antes e após a expansão. A fim de evitar que a falta de padronização dessas radiografias pudesse influenciar nos resultados, idealizou-se um método de padronização para tais radiografias. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados mostraram que a correção da mordida cruzada posterior com o aparelho Hyrax, que ocorreu em todos os casos, foi em função tanto da abertura da sutura palatina mediana como também da inclinação dos molares. A medida JgE-JgD relacionada com a expansão maxilar aumentou significantemente em todos os casos tratados. Nas avaliações dentárias, as medidas verticais não apresentaram diferenças significantes, ao contrário das medidas transversais (FTE-FTD; FBE-FBD; LO.BTE; LO.BTD; BTE.BTD. A largura da cavidade nasal também aumentou significantemente (CNE-CND. O método de padronização proposto permite, portanto, utilizar as medidas que avaliam a expansão rápida da maxila, através das radiografias póstero-anteriores, com segurança, também no sentido vertical.AIM: in the atresia maxillary cases, the most indicated treatment is rapid maxillary expansion that can be achieved by different therapies. In the present research the Hyrax appliance was used in order to evaluate the transverse and vertical outcomes in maxillary base. METHODS: twenty patients of both gender, from 7 to 11 years old, presenting uni or bilateral posterior crossbite were selected. Posteroanterior radiographs were performed before and after expansion. These radiographs were standardized in order to avoid that problems with lack of standardization influence the results. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

  16. Expansion planning for electrical generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The guidebook outlines the general principles of electric power system planning in the context of energy and economic planning in general. It describes the complexities of electric system expansion planning that are due to the time dependence of the problem and the interrelation between the main components of the electric system (generation, transmission and distribution). Load forecasting methods are discussed and the principal models currently used for electric system expansion planning presented. Technical and economic information on power plants is given. Constraints imposed on power system planning by plant characteristics (particularly nuclear power plants) are discussed, as well as factors such as transmission system development, environmental considerations, availability of manpower and financial resources that may affect the proposed plan. A bibliography supplements the references that appear in each chapter, and a comprehensive glossary defines terms used in the guidebook

  17. Lace expansion for dummies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady

    2018-01-01

    We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier

  18. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  19. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  20. Economics of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham; Difiglio, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the economic challenges faced by both nuclear power and “new” renewable electricity technologies. The assessment reflects the need to incorporate new renewables into power grids and issues faced in dispatching power and their effect on traditional electricity technologies as well as the need for transmission extension and/or grid reinforcement. Wider introduction of smart grids and the likely demise of nuclear in some OECD countries are bound to enhance the future prospects for new renewables. However, their immediate future expansion will depend on continued subsidies, which are becoming difficult to sustain in present economic circumstances. Development of large energy storage facilities and carbon pricing could significantly enhance future renewable energy prospects. Correspondingly, expanding renewable energy, in spite of their popularity with some governments and sections of the public, is likely to face challenges which will slow their present rapid progress. Nuclear is now shied away from in many industrialized countries and having mixed prospects in developing economies. In many instances, it suffers from high initial costs, long lead times and often excessive construction delays. Nuclear power also faces challenging risks – investment as well as regulatory. In contrast to renewables, its share of global energy consumption is declining. - Highlights: •Renewables are increasing their energy share. •Renewables system cost is higher than their production cost. •Nuclear share is not increasing and their costs are not reduced. •Discount rate and subsidies are important in economics of renewables and nuclear.

  1. NICE recommendations for the assessment of stable chest pain: assessing the early economic and service impact in the rapid-access chest pain service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Reza; Raga, Santosh; Abdool, Ali; Disney, Andrew; Wong, Peter; Davis, Gershan K

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, guidelines published by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) suggested a change in the way patients with stable chest pain of suspected cardiac origin were investigated. These guidelines removed exercise treadmill testing from routine use and introduced cardiac CT to regular use. To investigate whether these guidelines had improved our service provision by reducing the number of further investigations required to make a diagnosis, and to see if our costs had increased now that the less expensive exercise treadmill tests were not recommended. Clinic letters were used to assess patients pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease for two six-month cohorts of consecutive patients seen in the rapid access chest pain clinic (January-June 2010 and July-December 2011) using NICE published methodology, and to ascertain which investigations patients had. Using NICE modelled costs, we generated comparative hypothetical costs for each cohort and an average cost per patient. In the January-June 2010 cohort, 435 patients with chest pain were seen, and in July-December 2011, 334 patients were seen. In the pre-NICE guidelines cohort, 23% of patients required two investigations as compared with 11.4% in the post-NICE guidelines cohort, with no patient requiring three investigations as compared with 3% in the original cohort. There was no significant increase in costs per patient in the post-NICE guidance group. Implementing NICE guidance reduced the number of investigations needed per patient, and did not prove more expensive for our department in the short term.

  2. The Gulf Cooperation Council countries – economic structures, recent developments and role in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sturm; Jan Strasky; Petra Adolf; Dominik Peschel

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of high and rising oil prices since 2003, the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have seen dynamic economic development, enhancing their role in the global economy as investors and trade partners. Real GDP growth has been buoyant, with non-oil activity expanding faster than oil GDP. Macroeconomic developments have also been characterised by large fiscal and current account surpluses as a result of rising oil revenues, notwithstanding fiscal expansion and rapid imp...

  3. A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L.M.V.G.; Pereira, M.V.F.; Nunes, A.

    1989-01-01

    A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational resource. Some expansions of this methodology are been investigated: the probabilistic one and the expansion with financier restriction. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 7 figs

  4. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834319

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such

  6. Evaluation of Two Different Rapid Maxillary Expansion Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow ..... incisors were covered with acrylic resin [Figure 1]. The occlusal surfaces ... Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer Orthodontic Band Cement; 3M.

  7. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  8. Expansion of the uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report forms the response of the government of Ontario to an earlier report issued by an Envrionmental Assessment Board. Specifically, the report deals with the rapid growth of the town of Elliot Lake due to expansion of several uranium mine-mill operations. Rapid growth of small communities presents considerable problems in providing housing, essential services, and educational facilities. Several specific actions taken by the government to help the town cope with rapid growth are presented. (O.T.)

  9. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  10. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  11. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  12. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  13. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  14. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  15. Longitudinal expansion of field line dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, O.; Hayashi, K.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the substorm expansions that started at 1155 UT 10 August 1994 in the midnight sector focusing on the longitudinal (eastward) expansion of field line dipolarization in the auroral zone. Eastward expansion of the dipolarization region was observed in all of the H, D, and Z components. The dipolarization that started at 1155 UT (0027 MLT) from 260° of geomagnetic longitude (CMO) expanded to 351°(PBQ) in about 48 min. The expansion velocity was 0.03-0.04°/s, or 1.9 km/s at 62°N of geomagnetic latitude. The dipolarization region expanding to the east was accompanied by a bipolar event at the leading edge of the expansion in latitudes equatorward of the westward electrojet (WEJ). In the midnight sector at the onset meridian, the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MAP) on board geosynchronous satellite L9 measured electrons and ions between 10 eV and 40 keV. We conclude from the satellite observations that this dipolarization was characterized by the evolution of temperature anisotropies, an increase of the electron and ion temperatures, and a rapid change in the symmetry axis of the temperature tensor. The field line dipolarization and its longitudinal expansion were interpreted in terms of the slow MHD mode triggered by the current disruption. We propose a new magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (MI-coupling) mechanism based on the scenario that transmitted westward electric fields from the magnetosphere in association with expanding dipolarization produced electrostatic potential (negative) in the ionosphere through differences in the mobility of collisional ions and collisionless electrons. The field-aligned currents that emerged from the negative potential region are arranged in a concentric pattern around the negative potential region, upward toward the center and downward on the peripheral.

  16. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  17. Convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion for helium-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrashkevich, A.G.; Abrashkevich, D.G.; Pojda, V.Yu.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Kaschiev, M.S.; Puzynin, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion has been studied numerically. The spectral problems arising after separation of variables are solved by the finite-difference and finite element methods. The energies of the ground and some doubly excited staes of a hydrogen ion are calculated in the six-channel approximation within the 10 -4 a.u. accuracy. Obtained results demonstrate a rapid convergence of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion. 14 refs.; 5 tabs

  18. A Comparison of Dental and Skeletal Changes Between Rapid Palatal Expansion and Nickel Titanium Palatal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-03

    increases in the posterior and anterior implants of 0.42 mm/year and 0,14 mm/year, respectively. Korn •je and Baumrind also found no evidence to...0.23 mm/year, respectively. Also reporting asymmetric growth of the maxilla, Bjork and Skieller,34 and Korn and Baumrind observed posterior midpalatal...Skieller V. Growth in width of the maxilla studied by the implant method. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 1974;8:26-33. 35. Korn EL, Baumrind S

  19. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Duong H; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001-2006 and 2006-2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries.

  20. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001–2006 and 2006–2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries. PMID:29734346

  1. Territorial expansion and primary state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles S

    2010-04-20

    A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion model, is presented and assessed with archaeological data from six areas where primary states emerged in antiquity: Mesoamerica, Peru, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. In each case, the evidence shows a close correspondence in time between the first appearance of state institutions and the earliest expansion of the state's political-economic control to regions lying more than a day's round-trip from the capital. Although additional research will add detail and clarity to the empirical record, the results to date are consistent with the territorial-expansion model, which argues that the success of such long-distance expansion not only demanded the bureaucratization of central authority but also helped provide the resources necessary to underwrite this administrative transformation.

  2. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  3. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  4. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2007-01-01

    .... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...

  5. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  6. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  7. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  8. Modeling urban expansion in Yangon, Myanmar using Landsat time-series and stereo GeoEye Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    This research proposed a methodology to model the urban expansion based dynamic statistical model using Landsat and GeoEye Images. Landsat Time-Series from 1978 to 2010 have been applied to extract land covers from the past to the present. Stereo GeoEye Images have been employed to obtain the height of the building. The class translation was obtained by observing land cover from the past to the present. The height of the building can be used to detect the center of the urban area (mainly commercial area). It was assumed that the class translation and the distance of multi-centers of the urban area also the distance of the roads affect the urban growth. The urban expansion model based on the dynamic statistical model was defined to refer to three factors; (1) the class translation, (2) the distance of the multicenters of the urban areas, and (3) the distance from the roads. Estimation and prediction of urban expansion by using our model were formulated and expressed in this research. The experimental area was set up in Yangon, Myanmar. Since it is the major of country's economic with more than five million population and the urban areas have rapidly increased. The experimental results indicated that our model of urban expansion estimated urban growth in both estimation and prediction steps in efficiency.

  9. The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Wangpimool

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.

  10. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  11. Avaliação das alterações dentárias na maxila em pacientes submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila assistida cirurgicamente sem o envolvimento da sutura pterigomaxilar Assessment of maxillary dental changes in patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with no involvement of pterygoid blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Pelucio Camara

    2009-12-01

    appliance in patients who underwent surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME, as well as the effectiveness of the surgical technique used. The sample was composed of 34 pairs of cast models, of 17 patients - 6 males and 11 females. METHODS: The measurements were performed on cast models, by measuring the changes on the vertical and transversal planes. The surgical procedure used was the lateral osteotomy on maxillary walls with no involvement of the pterygoid blade, osteotomy of nasal spine on dental midline (anterior central incisors, chisel separation of palatine suture, and separation of the nasal septum. The activation was initiated on the third postoperative day, consisting of two activations, one in the morning and another at night. RESULTS: There were statistically significant expansions in the regions of canines, first and second premolars, first molars, and second molars; respectively, 6.03 mm, 9.82 mm, 8.66 mm, 9.72 mm, and 5.67 mm. The evaluation of the behavior of the support teeth of the expansion appliance regarding the inclination of the dental crowns has shown that an asymmetric vestibularization had taken place, because the values found for the first molars were 6.89º (right and 9.56º (left; the values for the first premolars were 4.74º (left and 3.26º (right; this last value was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical technique used in this research has been shown to be efficient to obtain maxillary transversal alterations, and there was dental-alveolar inclination of the support teeth of the expansion appliance.

  12. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  13. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  14. Financial Development Following Economic Growth: The Chinese Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan il Park

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth based on Chinese experiences during the period of 1979~2000. This study places more emphasis on the causality running from economic growth to financThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth based on Chinese experiences during the period of 1979~2000. This study places more emphasis on the causality running from economic growth to financial development contrary to the mainstream view, which asserts that the well-functioning financial systems exert a large positive impact on economic growth via two channels- capital accumulation and technological innovations. The reverse causality is postulated by considering two factors in developments of the country's financial system. Firstly, this paper argues that the rapid accumulation of financial assets and the remarkable expansion of the financial system during the examined period are due primarily to income rises and changes in industrial structures rather than inefficient financial reforms. Secondly, it is recognized in this study that various financial reform measures undertaken by the state since 1994 are emerged endogenously in response to Chinese financial disorders and macroeconomic imbalances built up during the 1979~93 period. This line of thinking is not following the mainstream view in which financial reforms are regarded as policy variables (or exogenous variables in promoting economic growth. These two factors imply that the causality may run from economic growth to financial development at least in China.

  15. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, M; Mahalov, A; Moustaoui, M

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of natural to urban land forms imparts influence on local and regional hydroclimate via modification of the surface energy and water balance, and consideration of such effects due to rapidly expanding megapolitan areas is necessary in light of the growing global share of urban inhabitants. Based on a suite of ensemble-based, multi-year simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we quantify seasonally varying hydroclimatic impacts of the most rapidly expanding megapolitan area in the US: Arizona’s Sun Corridor, centered upon the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Using a scenario-based urban expansion approach that accounts for the full range of Sun Corridor growth uncertainty through 2050, we show that built environment induced warming for the maximum development scenario is greatest during the summer season (regionally averaged warming over AZ exceeds 1 °C). Warming remains significant during the spring and fall seasons (regionally averaged warming over AZ approaches 0.9 °C during both seasons), and is least during the winter season (regionally averaged warming over AZ of 0.5 °C). Impacts from a minimum expansion scenario are reduced, with regionally averaged warming ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 °C for all seasons except winter, when no warming impacts are diagnosed. Integration of highly reflective cool roofs within the built environment, increasingly recognized as a cost-effective option intended to offset the warming influence of urban complexes, reduces urban-induced warming considerably. However, impacts on the hydrologic cycle are aggravated via enhanced evapotranspiration reduction, leading to a 4% total accumulated precipitation decrease relative to the non-adaptive maximum expansion scenario. Our results highlight potentially unintended consequences of this adaptation approach within rapidly expanding megapolitan areas, and emphasize the need for undeniably sustainable development paths that account for

  16. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan.

  17. Principles of Thermal Expansion in Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Guy; Medford, Aaron; Conlon, Maricate; Tether, Allison; Romanoski, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    bridging Al-O-Si oxygens, (C) plagioclase (11,12,13) and (D) Ba-K feldspars (12) where coupled substitution across the series produces expansion behavior that rapidly transitions from one control to the other. Generally, thermal expansion coefficients vary linearly as functions of room-temperature volume between the relevant end members. Thus, the thermal expansion of any feldspar can be estimated simply from knowledge of its chemical system and room-temperature volume. References cited: (1) Hovis, Morabito, Spooner, Mott, Person, Henderson, Roux & Harlov (2008) American Mineralogist 93, 1568-1573. (2) Hovis & Graeme-Barber (1997) American Mineralogist 82, 158-164. (3) Hovis, Brennan, Keohane & Crelling (1999) The Canadian Mineralogist 37, 701-709. (4) Henderson (1984) Progress in Experimental Petrology, N.E.R.C. Report 6, 78-83. (5) Benna, Tribaudino & Bruno (1999) American Mineralogist 84, 120-129. (6) Lowenstein (1954) American Mineralogist 39, 92 -96. (7) Megaw, Kempster & Radosolovich (1962) Acta Crystallographica 15, 1017-1035. (8) Newham & Megaw (1960) Acta Crystallographica 13, 303-312. (9) Pauling (1929) Journal of the American Chemical Society 51, 1010-1026. (10) Gibbs, Rosso, Cox & Boisen (2003) Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 30, 317-320. (11) Grundy & Brown (1974) In The Feldspars, Eds. MacKenzie & Zussman, 163-173. (12) Hovis, Medford, Conlon, Tether & Romanoski (in review) American Mineralogist. (13) Tribaudino, Angel, Camara, Nestola, Pasqual, & Margiolaki (in review) Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology.

  18. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  19. A two-parameter family of double-power-law biorthonormal potential-density expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Edward J.; Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn

    2018-05-01

    We present a two-parameter family of biorthonormal double-power-law potential-density expansions. Both the potential and density are given in closed analytic form and may be rapidly computed via recurrence relations. We show that this family encompasses all the known analytic biorthonormal expansions: the Zhao expansions (themselves generalizations of ones found earlier by Hernquist & Ostriker and by Clutton-Brock) and the recently discovered Lilley et al. (2017a) expansion. Our new two-parameter family includes expansions based around many familiar spherical density profiles as zeroth-order models, including the γ models and the Jaffe model. It also contains a basis expansion that reproduces the famous Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile at zeroth order. The new basis expansions have been found via a systematic methodology which has wide applications in finding other new expansions. In the process, we also uncovered a novel integral transform solution to Poisson's equation.

  20. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  1. Leptodermous expansion of finite-nucleus incompressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the influence of higher-order terms in the leptodermous expansion used to extract the incompressibility K v of infinite nuclear matter from data on the breathing mode of finite nuclei. The terms we calculate are the curvature term K cv A -2/3 , the surface-symmetry term K ss I 2 A -1/3 , the quartic volume-symmetry term K 4 I 4 , and a Coulomb-exchange term. Working within the framework of the scaling model we derive expressions for their coefficients in terms of quantities that are defined for infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter. We calculate these coefficients for four different Skyrme-type forces, using the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation. With the same forces we also calculate the incompressibility K (A, I) for a number of finite nuclei, fit the results to the leptodermous expansion, and thereby extract new results for the same coefficients. The comparison of the two calculations shows that the leptodermous expansion is converging rapidly. Of the new terms, the term K 4 I 4 is quite negligible, the curvature term should be included, and we discuss to what extent the other higher-order terms are significant. (orig.)

  2. Renormalization group and Mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-02-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory by Goepfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear sigma-model, and elsewhere. (orig.)

  3. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  4. Renormalization group and mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U (1) lattice gauge theory by Gopfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear σ-model, and elsewhere

  5. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  6. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region

  7. The Government Response to the Private Sector Expansion in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Kwiek, Marek; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Boer, Harry; File, Jon; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2017-01-01

    One of the trademarks of transformation of Polish higher education is its tumultuous and inconsistent path of development driven by the rapid growth of private sector higher education. Such an expansion has been often described as a ‘sudden, shocking and unplanned’ phenomenon which revolutionized

  8. Bilateral Re-Expansion Pulmonary Oedema– When the Cure Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a potentially fatal consequence of rapid reexpansion of a lung, which has been collapsed due to a pleural effusion or a pneumothorax. Case Report: We report a very unusual case in which the patient initially developed ipsilateral followed by contralateral pulmonary ...

  9. Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronhofer, E A; Gut, S; Altermatt, F

    2017-12-01

    Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. Although it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of increased movement at low densities at range margins using highly replicated and controlled range expansion experiments across multiple genotypes of the protist model system Tetrahymena thermophila. Although rare, we found evolutionary changes during range expansions even in the absence of initial standing genetic variation. Range expansions led to the evolution of negatively density-dependent movement at range margins. In addition, we report the evolution of increased intrastrain competitive ability and concurrently decreased population growth rates in range cores. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding movement and dispersal as evolving reaction norms and plastic life-history traits of central relevance for range expansions, biological invasions and the dynamics of spatially structured systems in general. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Dynamics of modular expansion joints: The Martinus Nijhoff Bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuada Coelho, B.A.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Leendertz, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Modular expansion joints are structures that are submitted to severe fatigue load conditions. This may lead to unexpected premature damage of the structure which, besides the economic cost of repair, may limit the regular service of the bridge. To better understand the dynamic behaviour of modular

  11. Reflexions on the expansion of nuclear generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Juliana de Moraes Marreco de

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses the pros and cons of the nuclear generation in Brazil, involving in a large discussion the technological perspectives both economic, social and environmental. The objective is to rise the main questions about the polemical nuclear expansion in Brazil

  12. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia : serving people, planet and profit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a more holistic understanding of how drivers at various levels interplay and continue to feed the expansion of oil palm plantations with its associated land use/cover change (LUCC) particularly deforestation, local economic development and people’s livelihoods. Recent

  13. The Expansion of Education: A Brazilian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, David N.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of educational expansion in Brazil between 1940 and 1980 indicates that, in most circumstances, enrollment rates were positively related to urbanization, diversification of the occupational structure, and aggregate economic growth. States experiencing heavy in-migration showed a negative effect of migration on enrollment rates during…

  14. South African Corporations and post-Apartheid Expansion in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the early 2000s, South African mining and industrial corporations, financial institutions and even some medium-sized enterprises have once again asserted their role as a dominant force in the SADC region. South Africa's economic expansion is sometimes portrayed as a one-way process, where local environments and ...

  15. Wigner-Kirkwood expansion of the phase-space density for half infinite nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, M.; Schuck, P.

    1987-01-01

    The phase space distribution of half infinite nuclear matter is expanded in a ℎ-series analogous to the low temperature expansion of the Fermi function. Besides the usual Wigner-Kirkwood expansion, oscillatory terms are derived. In the case of a Woods-Saxon potential, a smallness parameter is defined, which determines the convergence of the series and explains the very rapid convergence of the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion for average (nuclear) binding energies

  16. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  17. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  18. Cycles of Expansion in Higher Education 1870-1985: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windolf, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between business cycles and expansion in higher education in 1870-1985 is analyzed and compared for Germany, Italy, France, the United States, and Japan. In most countries, expansion corresponded to economic recession. Spectral analysis, used to explore the cyclical character of the phenomenon, was found to be a powerful…

  19. The Denationalization of Education and the Expansion of the International Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the expansion of international education focusing on International Baccalaureate (IB) schools in England, France, Israel, Argentina, and Chile. As a whole, conditions such as economic globalization and neoliberal education policies favor the expansion of IB schools. Certain national contexts and educational traditions encourage…

  20. The expansion of higher education: A consideration of control, funding and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bathmaker, A.-M.

    2003-01-01

    Since the Robbins Report of 1963, higher education in the UK has undergone major expansion, changing it from an elite to a mass system. This chapter explores the changing socio-economic context in which this transformation has taken place, and considers how the expansion of higher education has raised issues of control, quality and funding.

  1. Expansion of U.S. uranium enrichment capacity. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    Reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic, and technological costs and benefits of postulated expansion of U. S. enrichment capacity through the year 2000 and reasonably available alternatives to such expansion are described. Both the gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion methods for the enrichment of uranium are considered in this impact assessment

  2. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are analyzed when consumers are faced with restricted choice sets. Results suggest that possible government mandates on the consumption of E-10 and E-85 diminish welfare of individuals belonging to the segment 'Conventional Gasoline Acceptor'. Similarly, individuals belonging to 'Ethanol Acceptor' segment experience welfare losses if corn grain ethanol is not available as an alternative transportation fuel. Ethanol is increasingly being used as a gasoline oxygenate and a volume extender in the refinery and blender industry in the U.S. This paper estimates refinery and blender factor demand and evaluates price responsiveness of inputs. The study also develops and tests hypotheses regarding existence of structural change in the industry's demand for inputs. It determines whether there is a common shift point and adjustment rate for structural change in all the refinery and blender inputs by using gradual switching multivariate regression techniques and maximum likelihood methods. Results suggest a structural change in factor demand for inputs in the industry that occurs at different points and rates. Results also suggest that the demand for inputs, except for capital and unfinished oil, has become more inelastic over time.

  3. Impact of FDI in economic expansion: The Kosovo case

    OpenAIRE

    Afrim Loku; Nadire Loku; Nora Vizdik

    2017-01-01

    The Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008. Kosovo's neighbor to the north, Serbia does not recognize it as a sovereign state, but has begun to normalize relations in accordance with the Brussels Agreement of April 2013. With a population of 1.8 million and land area 6,765 square miles, landlocked Kosovo is considered Europe’s poorest country, yet it does have some mineral and coal deposits. Kosovo’s official unemployment rate is 35.3 percent, although some estimates are...

  4. Pipeline network expansion crucial to economic development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Kiran Kumar; Tandon, Anil; Sati, Vipin Chandra [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Sadiq Nagar, New Delhi (India)

    2008-07-01

    Oil Sector plays a crucial role in the development of a country and provides the required balance and stability to the economy. Though traditionally coal has had the largest share in the energy basket in India, oil and gas as a source of energy have gradually gained importance and it is expected that oil and gas will continue to command a significant share in the years to come. Transportation of oil and gas by pipelines, which are recognized worldwide as the most reliable and cost effective mode for transportation is a developing business in India. With the increasing demand for oil and gas, a necessity has arisen for according priority attention to develop a well-spread out pipeline network throughout the country so as to facilitate efficient transportation to various consumption centres. The country has already opened its doors to private sector within the country as well as to multinationals. Thus, considerable scope exists not only for making investments but also for consultants, equipment and material manufacturers/suppliers and contractors for providing their services to the Indian pipeline industry. With growth of the economy, the opportunities for investment in the Indian pipeline industry are likely to improve further. (author)

  5. EXPANSION OF RUSSIAN MNCs CONTINUES: THE M&A ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the expansion of Russian MNCs in the world and especially in Europe. Thus, after an introduction about the role of MNCs in the context of economic globalization we have presented theoretically the expansion levers of MNCs through mergers and acquisitions. The largest part of the work aims at analyzing the way Russian MNCs were able to expand their activities in most countries in Europe and North America, the allocation of foreign investments in the economic sectors in which MNCs are prevailing and especially in the field of extraction and processing such natural resources as gas, oil, coal and steel. At the end of the paper we have outlined a structure of MNCs and we have pointed out the importance of these companies for the economic development and growth.

  6. The benefits of transmission expansions in the competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresesti, Paola; Calisti, Roberto; Cazzol, Maria Vittoria; Gatti, Antonio; Vaiani, Andrea; Vailati, Riccardo; Provenzano, Dario

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative method for assessing simultaneously technical and economic benefits of transmission expansions. This method takes into account the new needs of the transmission planning process for competitive electricity markets, in which benefits of major transmission expansions include: (a) improved reliability, (b) increased availability of efficient supply and (c) increased competition among suppliers. The fundamental elements of the REliability and MARKet (REMARK) tool, which we implemented based on the aforementioned method, are: a yearly probabilistic simulation of power system operation; use of the non-sequential Monte Carlo method to pick the operational status of the network elements; full network representation; adoption of the simplified direct current model; quantitative assessment of the reliability benefits through the expected energy not supplied index; simulation of the strategic behaviour of suppliers based on a simplified model that correlates the price-cost mark-up to structural market variables (residual supply index and demand); a quantitative assessment of ''economic'' benefits through the calculation of the social welfare index. A test case application of the tool on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system shows that the method can assess benefits of transmission expansions, in addition to the overall social perspective, for each market zone as well as separately for consumers, producers and transmission system operators. The results emphasize that the effect of transmission expansions in mitigating market power may be significant and that a simple and traditional cost-based approach may lead to a wrong evaluation of benefits given by transmission expansions. (author)

  7. China urges rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  8. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  9. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  10. Estimates of expansion time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure

  11. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  12. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  13. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  14. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  15. Economic Effect on the Plutonium Cycle of Employing {sup 235}U in Fast Reactor Start-Up; Incidence Economique du Demarrage des Reacteurs Rapides a l'Aide d'Uranium-235 sur le Cycle du Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dievoet, J.; Egleme, M.; Hermans, L. [BELGONUCLEAIRE, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    Preliminary results are presented of a study carried out under an agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government to evaluate the advantages of loading fast reactors with {sup 235}U. There are several ways of starting up a fast reactor with {sup 235}U: (1) the reactor can be operated entirely with enriched uranium, the plutonium produced being used to start up and operate other reactors; in this case the uranium is recycled within the reactor and more enriched uranium is added; (2) the plutonium produced can be partly recycled within the reactor together with the uranium; in this case the reactor is transformed gradually into a plutonium reactor. These two procedures can be combined and applied simultaneously in different enrichment zones of the same reactor, enriched uranium being added, for example, to the internal zone and plutonium recycled in the external zone. The method of reprocessing the fuel is also a complicating factor, depending on whether the core and the axial breeding blankets are reprocessed together or separately. Similarly, where a reactor has several enrichment zones, these can likewise be reprocessed either together or separately. The calculations are performed with the help of a code that uses the equivalence coefficients defined by Baker and Ross for the part relating to the characteristics of successive reactors, and the discounted fuel cycle cost method for the economic part. In the first stage of this work a rough analysis was made. The reloading of each zone was assumed to be carried out in a single operation, and the time spent by the fuel elements out of pile was ignored. In a later stage, progressive reloading by batches will be considered, with allowance for fabrication and reprocessing times, etc. The most interesting results relate to variations in fuel composition (plutonium content, isotopic composition) from one cycle to another, variations in the fuel cycle characteristics (doubling time, loading and unloading

  16. Economic conversion: The US experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of the Second World War, our country experienced what economists have called open-quotes The Great Conversionclose quotes or open-quotes The Great Disarmament.close quotes Following that period and until the beginning of the Viet-Nam War was a time marked by economic expansion and boom. Since those years, there have been several periods during which bases were closed and defense spending was slowed. For the communities going through these transitions, again there was economic expansion. A recent survey reports that, within the last 25 years, over 100 communities redeveloped their economic base and experienced, not catastrophy as they expected, but a period of economic growth. Jobs were not lost but nearly doubled. Small businesses and educational institutions multiplied. Building starts accelerated. The survey attributed this economic growth to proper planning, increased awareness of the need for job training and education, diversification of economic activity, and an ownership on the part of the citizens in their collective economic future. The lesson for us should be that realigning our community economic priorities away from such a strong emphasis on military spending and toward a diverse and productive civilian economy brings economic health. We are relearning this lesson in the redevelopment of Lowry Air Force Base and the transition of Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant from a weapons manufacturing mission to one of cleanup

  17. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  18. Análise morfológica do arco superior de portadores de fissura labiopalatal submetidos a diferentes protocolos de expansão rápida maxilar: avaliação das alterações maxilares Morphological analysis of the maxillary arch in patients with cleft lip and palate submitted to different protocols of rapid maxillary expansion: maxillary alterations evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Massuia de Souza

    2009-10-01

    transverse dimensions of maxillary dental arches by analysis of the dental casts of 15 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate who presented sagittal and transverse maxillary constriction and were submitted to two distinct protocols of rapid maxillary expansion. METHODS: Seven patients were submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME by the conventional activation protocol (Group 1, and the others were treated by the protocol proposed by Liou and Tsai in 2005, with alternated expansion and constriction (Group 2. Both groups were later submitted to maxillary protraction with facial mask. Dental casts were obtained at two periods: before placement of a modified Haas expander (T1 and after 24 weeks of treatment (T2. Transverse distances were measured with a digital caliper to register the distances between first upper premolars (anterior area and first upper molars (posterior area. Data were statistically analyzed by the Student's t test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Both protocols were equally effective, since no differences were observed between the groups as to the transverse increasing achieved.

  19. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  20. A year of expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The activities of the Agency are directed towards the generation of nuclear power and the applications of nuclear radiation as well as to ensure that the atomic energy throughout the world to which the Agency lends its assistance, does not constitute a hazard to health and safety or a threat to security and peace. Therefore the Agency's annual report points out that the production and use of radioisotopes and the eventual generation of economic nuclear power, under safe and secure conditions, continue to be the main objectives of most of the Agency's work. The primary role of the Agency is that of assistance, guidance and coordination. Such assistance can take various forms, one of the most important being the provision of experts and equipment to help particular projects. Again, valuable assistance can be given by an exchange of information, so that all countries, with varying degrees of development, may enjoy the benefits of the latest advances in research and technology. In some cases, the international body itself can give an impetus to research and technical development and fill the gaps in existing knowledge. Furthermore, it can help in laying the foundations of development by arranging the training of technical personnel. And above all, it can render substantial assistance by arranging and co-ordinating the supply of nuclear materials and equipment in a manner that would best meet the needs of all Member States and reduce the chances of retarded or unbalanced development in particular areas. The scope of the Agency has continued to expand including not only the establishment of health and safety standards and the evolution of international conventions and safeguards procedures but also and exchange of scientific and technical information among all nations. The Agency has sent out several teams of experts to different areas to make preliminary surveys of conditions and needs. By June 1959, 62 requests for technical assistance had been received by the Agency

  1. Expansão rápida da maxila: análise da densidade radiográfica da sutura palatina mediana e sua correlação nos estágios de neoformação óssea, por meio de imagem digitalizada Rapid maxillary expansion: radiographic analysis of the midpalatal suture density and its correlation in the osteogenesis stages by digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milleni Campos Fernandes Martins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a neoformação óssea da sutura palatina mediana em diferentes fases do procedimento de expansão rápida da maxila por meio de imagem digitalizada e comparar a densidade radiográfica das diferentes áreas selecionadas ao longo dessa sutura nos períodos estabelecidos. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 23 indivíduos, na faixa etária de 9 a 12 anos, que foram submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila de acordo com um protocolo que consistiu, inicialmente, em uma volta completa no parafuso, seguida por ¼ de volta pela manhã e ¼ de volta à noite, durante duas semanas. Foram obtidas 69 radiografias oclusais em diferentes momentos do procedimento, as quais passaram pelo processo de digitalização via scanner e, posteriormente, foram submetidas ao programa Digora for Windows 5.6, para a realização das leituras de densidade radiográfica. RESULTADOS: em todas as fases do procedimento, os valores obtidos dos níveis de cinza foram, em média, diferentes entre si, comprovando uma recuperação óssea parcial da sutura palatina mediana. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados revelaram que são necessários mais de três meses para a completa recuperação sutural após a expansão rápida da maxila e que o método utilizado para a leitura das densidades mostrou-se fiel, devido à sua capacidade de exibir detalhes. Portanto, conclui-se que o expansor deve ser removido somente após a total recuperação óssea sutural, a fim de evitar as recidivas.AIM: To evaluate the new bone formation of the midpalatal suture in different phases of the rapid maxillary expansion procedure by means of the scanned image and to compare the radiographic density of the different selected areas along this suture in predetermined periods. METHODS: The sample consisted of 23 individuals, aged from 9 to 12 years who underwent rapid maxillary expansion in accordance with a protocol which consisted initially of a full turn on the screw, followed by ¼ turn by

  2. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  3. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  4. The loop expansion as a divergent-power-series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, N.

    1981-01-01

    The loop expansion should be divergent, possibly an asymptotic one, in the Euclidean path integral formulation. This consideration is important in applications of the symmetric and mass-independent renormalization. The [1,1] Pade approximant is calculated in a PHI 4 model. Its classical vacua may be not truely stable for nonzero coupling constant. (author)

  5. Issues of health economics in the practice of radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, C.V.

    2002-01-01

    There has been a rapid expansion of radiation oncology services in developing countries over the past decade. The question arises of how far, how fast and which technology should be introduced and expanded and yet remain sustainable. The problem can be reduced to a simple issue of an increasing number of cancer cases (refer S. Whelan), hence increasing demand for radiotherapy in less-developed countries while the current resources for treatment are at present concentrated in well-developed countries. By 2015 there will be a shortfall of 10,000 teletherapy machines for providing radiotherapy. Micro- and macro-economic aspects that affect development of radiotherapy in developing countries are discussed

  6. Cosmological expansion and local physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed

  7. Temperature expansions for magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangemi, D.; Dunne, G.

    1996-01-01

    We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the T=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  8. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  9. Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies

  10. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  11. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  12. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world s largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  13. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  14. Asymptotic Expansions - Methods and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, R.

    1999-01-01

    Different viewpoints on the asymptotic expansion of Feynman diagrams are reviewed. The relations between the field theoretic and diagrammatic approaches are sketched. The focus is on problems with large masses or large external momenta. Several recent applications also for other limiting cases are touched upon. Finally, the pros and cons of the different approaches are briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  16. The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...

  17. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  18. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  19. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  20. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M; Yokoyama, R; Yasuda, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The rates and financing of electric sector expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiganer, L.; Coutinho, L.H.S.A.; Dias, L.E.N.; Silva Pegado, P.A. da; Foletto, N.S.; Guerreiro, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The current economic and political crisis of Brazilian society reach the several productive sectors that compose the national economy, and among them the electric sector. An adequate rate policy, new ways of getting resources to its financing, costs reduction, and the increase of internal generation of resources, are the objective of this work, that evaluates and evidences these questions in order to their repercussion in financing of electric sector expansion. (C.M.)

  2. Loss Aversion, Team Relocations, and Major League Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Brad; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Professional sports teams receive large public subsidies for new facility construction. Empirical research suggests that these subsidies cannot be justified by tangible or intangible economic benefits. We develop a model of bargaining between local governments and teams over subsidies that includes league expansion decisions. The model features loss aversion by fans that captures lost utility when a team leaves a city. The model predicts that teams exploit this loss aversion to extract larger...

  3. A simulation environment for dry-expansion evaporators with application to the design of autotuning control algorithms for electronic expansion valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Padova, via Gradenigo 6/B, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cecchinato, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica, Universita di Padova, via Venezia 1, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper some results of a research project aimed at deriving high-performance, adaptive control algorithms for electronic expansion valves (EEVs) to be used in finned-coiled, dry-expansion evaporators for refrigeration systems are reported. With the aim of developing a software environment that can be used for controller design, rapid prototyping, optimization of data collection and test design, virtual prototyping approach to design was adopted. The development of a distributed dynamic simulation model of the evaporator coupled with an electronic expansion valve, and its use for deriving autotuning PID control algorithms is described. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of this kind of approach. (author)

  4. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  5. Future fuel choices in Asia - the economics of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The greatest opportunities for foreign private sector involvement in gas-based power in Asia exist in the less developed countries. Factors contributing to these opportunities include rapid economic growth, increased environmental concern, the need for private sector finance and technology to sustain economic growth, an excess of under-developed gas reserves and continued advances in the efficiency of gas turbine combined cycle power generation. A tripling of gas demand is expected in Asia over the period 1992 to 2000 in meeting 100-120 GW of the new power capacity of 700 GW necessary to sustain planned economic growth. Supply costs are likely to be high, however. Despite the current excess of undeveloped reserves in Asia, these will not be sufficient to meet the demand, will be relatively expensive to develop and are often remote from the market centres. Greater dependence on liquefied natural gas from outside the region is inescapable. The economics of gas-fired production is also threatened by the prospective emergence of more efficient coal-based technologies. A fundamental change in gas contracting practices, recognizing the long term incremental avoided cost of power utilities, is needed in the face of high supply costs. The role of the private sector is crucial to the realisation of the fundamental environmental and technical advantages of gas-based power in Asia but there are difficulties to be overcome in the investment framework before a significant expansion in private projects can occur. (7 figures) (UK)

  6. Comparison of district heating expansion potential based on consumer-economy or socio-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundahl, Lars; Nielsen, Steffen; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a high share of district heating is an important part of a future sustainable energy system or smart energy system with a high renewable energy penetration. These studies also show socio-economic benefits of expanding the district heating coverage. However, in order...... to implement such an expansion, district heating needs to be economically feasible for the heat consumers. This aspect is often not investigated and hence it is unknown if calculations based on consumer-economy, where tax payment is included, will yield the same potential of expansion. This study identifies...... the differences in the expansion potential of district heating calculated with a socio-economic and a consumer-economic approach, respectively, in a case study of Denmark. By also investigating the consumer-economy of expanding district heating, a deeper insight is obtained of possible locations for expanding...

  7. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  8. Production expansion continues to accelerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production

  9. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...

  10. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  11. Local Officials Guide to Defense Economic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    and existing data - economic overview, economic resources, higher education, financial resources, physical infrastructure, real estate, and economic...markets, enlarging facilities and moving to new physical plants in the same community are all key potential business retention and expansion strategies...technology transfer and collaboration between the school and local business. ENDNOTES ŕ "Retooling Your Local Economy." A coursebook written by tlyett Palma

  12. Rapid Urbanization and Implications for Flood Risk Management in Hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, China: The Foshan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Wei-Chun; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2008-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkage between rapid urbanization and flood risk in the hinterlands of the Pearl River Delta, P.R. China. Foshan, a typical hinterland city in the Pearl River Delta region, was selected as a case study. Land use and cover change in Foshan during 1988-2003 was analyzed using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, analysis on historical hydrological data during 1962-2005 was performed. Results show that rapid urbanization has resulted in losses of farmland, forest and shrub since 1988. In addition, in order to compensate or offset the loss of farmland due to rapid urban expansion, more than 30 % of the forest and 20 % of the shrub areas were transformed into farmlands. Inevitably, both the urban and agricultural lands increased the pressure on the drainage systems. Furthermore, over the past decades human activities such as dredging up the floodways, excavating sand and building water facilities in the rivers, significantly changed the hydrological conditions, and therefore impaired the rivers' capacity to buffer floods. Lessons from the Foshan case implied that, in addition to natural processes, human activities driven by socio-economic factors should be considered responsible for the recently increasing level of flood risks. Both economically and environmentally, it is irrational and impractical to encourage encroachment of lands vulnerable to floods. It is also realistic and urgent to effectively prevent and control the adverse ecological consequences of urbanization and economic activities for building their wealth and prominence.

  13. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  14. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  15. A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.

  16. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  17. Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

  18. Fiscal sustainability and contingent liabilities from recent credit expansions in South Korea and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Valderrama

    2005-01-01

    While South Korea and Thailand had relatively sustainable fiscal policies prior to the Asian crisis, the long-term cost of the bailout of their financial sectors amounted to an estimated 30 to 40 percent of output, which was largely financed by public borrowing. The recent credit expansions in South Korea and Thailand have created new contingent liabilities for the governments of the two countries. This paper evaluates the impact of these rapid credit expansions on the sustainability of fisca...

  19. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  20. Engineered artificial antigen presenting cells facilitate direct and efficient expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coukos George

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a standardized platform for the rapid expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs with anti-tumor function from patients with limited TIL numbers or tumor tissues challenges their clinical application. Methods To facilitate adoptive immunotherapy, we applied genetically-engineered K562 cell-based artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs for the direct and rapid expansion of TILs isolated from primary cancer specimens. Results TILs outgrown in IL-2 undergo rapid, CD28-independent expansion in response to aAPC stimulation that requires provision of exogenous IL-2 cytokine support. aAPCs induce numerical expansion of TILs that is statistically similar to an established rapid expansion method at a 100-fold lower feeder cell to TIL ratio, and greater than those achievable using anti-CD3/CD28 activation beads or extended IL-2 culture. aAPC-expanded TILs undergo numerical expansion of tumor antigen-specific cells, remain amenable to secondary aAPC-based expansion, and have low CD4/CD8 ratios and FOXP3+ CD4+ cell frequencies. TILs can also be expanded directly from fresh enzyme-digested tumor specimens when pulsed with aAPCs. These "young" TILs are tumor-reactive, positively skewed in CD8+ lymphocyte composition, CD28 and CD27 expression, and contain fewer FOXP3+ T cells compared to parallel IL-2 cultures. Conclusion Genetically-enhanced aAPCs represent a standardized, "off-the-shelf" platform for the direct ex vivo expansion of TILs of suitable number, phenotype and function for use in adoptive immunotherapy.

  1. Consolidated challenge to social demand for resilient platforms- lessons from Uber's global expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, C.; Naveed, K.; Neittaanmäki, P.; Fox, B.

    2017-01-01

    Many in the industry see the ride-sharing company Uber as the crown jewel of information and communication technology (ICT) particularly of the digital service platform and sharing economy. Uber has been exploring the new frontier of the ICT-driven disruptive business model (IDBM) and succeeded in its global expansion to over 479 cities in more than 75 countries worldwide in June of 2016. Such rapid expansion provides constructive insights regarding the significance of IDBM, not only in t...

  2. Consolidated challenge to social demand for resilient platforms : Lessons from Uber's global expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Naveed, Kashif; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Fox, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Many in the industry see the ride-sharing company Uber as the significant advancement through information and communication technology (ICT) particularly of the digital service platform and sharing economy. Uber has been exploring the new frontier of the ICT-driven disruptive business model (IDBM) and succeeded in its global expansion to over 479 cities in more than 75 countries worldwide in June of 2016. Such rapid expansion provides constructive insights regarding the significance of ID...

  3. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samat, N

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth

  4. Detection of hydrodynamic expansion in ultrashort pulse laser ellipsometric pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikami, Hidetoshi; Yoneda, Hitoki; Ueda, Ken-ichi; More, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    In ultrashort-pulse laser interaction with solid target materials, the target rapidly heats, melts, evaporates, and begins to expand as a vapor or plasma. The onset of hydrodynamic expansion following surface evaporation is a switching point, where the dominant physics changes from temperature dependence of the solid dielectric function to refraction by the dense vapor cloud. We propose and demonstrate a method to analyze reflection data to identify this onset of target expansion. We use two of the Stokes parameters obtained from ellipsometric pump-probe measurements to determine a dielectric function with an assumption of no expansion. We use this dielectric function to predict the full set of reflectivity measurements. If there is a sharply defined target interface, this method reproduces the experimental data. When the plasma expansion is no longer negligible, the prediction deviates from the experimental measurements. This comparison shows when the plasma expansion is no longer negligible

  5. Evolution of cultural landscape in the Northern Bohemian coal mining region on the background of socio-economic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerabek, M.

    1994-01-01

    The NW part of Bohemia belongs to the most intensely exploited territories, both from the functional and ecological standpoints. In a sense, it is an open air laboratory, offering many topics to be discussed, researched and solved. The author strives to give a sociogeographical outline of the current state, with respect to the landscape evolution. This picture focuses on historical developments in recent decades as well. Rapid economic expansion of the examined territory started in the second half of the 19th century, having followed the pre-industrial period. A similar abrupt change of social and economic structures occurred 100 years later, in the post-war period. It was the growth of open-cast brown coal mining and corresponding activities (especially coal-fired plants) which resulted in large scale environmental disturbances and affected the settlement system and health of the population. Thus, further economic and ecological development should be based on a reclamation of the previous state. 4 refs

  6. Growth And Expansion Of Women-Owned Home-Based Business

    OpenAIRE

    John Breen; Stan Karanasios

    2010-01-01

    Home-based business (HBB) growth and expansion has been approached from the perspective of the increase in numbers of HBBs and the economic multiplier effect. However, little is known concerning the actual growth and expansion of the individual HBBs in terms of increase in turnover and sales, number of employees, increase in products and services, return on investment and market share. This is particularly true when narrowed to a specific demographic group, such as women-owned HBBs. This pape...

  7. The Elgar companion to social economics : Second edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, John B.; Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Social economics is a dynamic and growing field that emphasizes the key roles social values play in the economy and economic life. This second edition of the Elgar Companion to Social Economics revises all chapters from the first edition, and adds important new chapters to reflect the expansion and

  8. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  9. Transmission expansion in Argentina 4: A review of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen C.; Skerk, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 Argentina's electricity reform provided an innovative approach to transmission expansion. In particular, major expansions were determined by the Public Contest method - that is, by votes of transmission users rather than by the transmission company or the regulatory body - and then put out to competitive tender. This paper reviews the overall performance of that policy. There was substantial new transmission investment, especially in control systems and transformers rather than extra-high-voltage lines: an achievement of the policy lies in making better use of the existing transmission system. The number and value of Public Contest transmission expansion projects were steadily growing over time until Argentina's economic crisis, particularly at sub-transmission level. Transactions costs were not a problem in the Public Contest method: the median number of voters was 5, and the process was generally characterised by harmony between participants rather than by discord. Distribution companies supported rather than obstructed the process, though there was scope to improve the provincial regulatory framework. There was effective competition to build and operate the expansions, with a median of 3 bids for each and the incumbent winning less than one fifth. Such competition roughly halved the cost of new lines. This contrasts with lines built under the present Federal Transmission Plan at two and a half times the previous cost

  10. Sensitivity analysis in electric system expansion planning study using DECADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, D.; Lopez Lopez, I.

    1998-01-01

    To cover the increasing electricity demand as a key economic and social factor of development, it is necessary to have adequate expansion police. The delay in installation of certain capabilities produces electricity deficit. In other hand, construction of oversized capacities generates excessive costs. Therefore it is important to acquire or develop adequate methodologies according to the country specific conditions to carry out electric expansion planning studies. The goal is to chose optimal solutions in order to reach sustainable development using owns energy resources and preserving the environment. In the paper the Decades methodology is used for electricity system expansion planning. Premises and main assumptions for the calculations are presented. Some electric system expansion cases are evaluated. We also present the results of a sensibility study varying the discount rate, loss of load probability energy not served cost, fuel availability and fuel and investment costs. The reliability criteria currently not used in Cuban electric system are evaluated. We discuss the results and display the conclusions and recommendations

  11. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  12. Thermal expansion of LATGS crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Kandil, S.H.; Hamed, A.E.; Stankowska, J.

    1989-04-01

    The thermal expansion of triglycine sulphate crystals doped with L-α alanine (LATGS) has been studied around the phase transition temperature (30-60 deg. C) using thermomechanical analysis TMA. With increasing the content of admixture, the transition temperature (T c ) was shifted towards higher values, while the relative changes in the dimension of the crystals (ΔL/L 0 ) of the studied directions varied both in the para- and ferroelectric phases. The transition width in the case of doped crystals was found to be broad, and this broadening increases with increasing the content of L-α alanine. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  13. Contribution of thermal expansion and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I.Pursky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the experimental results obtained for the isobaric thermal conductivity of rare gas solids (RGS. The isobaric thermal conductivity of RGS has been analysed within Debye approximation with regard to the effect of thermal expansion. The suggested model takes into consideration the fact that thermal conductivity is determined by U-processes while above the phonon mobility edge it is determined by "diffusive" modes migrating randomly from site to site. The mobility edge ω0 is determined from the condition that the phonon mean-free path restricted by the U-processes cannot be smaller than half of the phonon wavelength.

  14. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  15. Two Decades of Negative Thermal Expansion Research: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Cora

    2012-01-01

    Negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have become a rapidly growing area of research over the past two decades. The initial discovery of materials displaying NTE over a large temperature range, combined with elucidation of the mechanism behind this unusual property, was followed by predictions that these materials will find use in various applications through controlled thermal expansion composites. While some patents have been filed and devices built, a number of obstacles have prevented the widespread implementation of NTE materials to date. This paper reviews NTE materials that contract due to transverse atomic vibrations, their potential for use in controlled thermal expansion composites, and known problems that could interfere with such applications. PMID:28817027

  16. Multi-criteria Generation-Expansion Planning with Carbon dioxide emissions and Nuclear Safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hun Gyu; Kim, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    A multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) method is developed to aid decision makers in Generation Expansion planning and management. Traditionally, the prime objective of an electric utility's generation-expansion planning has been to determine the minimum cost supply plans that meet expected demands over a planning horizon (typically 10 to 30 years). Today, however, the nature of decision environments has changed substantially. Increased policy attention is given to solve the multiple tradeoff function including environmental and social factors as well as economic one related to nuclear power expansion. In order to deal with this MCDM problem, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model is applied

  17. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  18. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  19. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  20. Nonperturbative path integral expansion II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Feynman path integral representation of the 2-point function for a self-interacting Bose field is investigated using an expansion ('Path Integral Expansion', PIE) of the exponential of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This leads to a series - illustrated by a graph scheme - involving successively a coupling of more and more points of the lattice space commonly employed in the evaluation of path integrals. The values of the individual PIE graphs depend of course on the lattice constant. Two methods - Pade approximation and Borel-type extrapolation - are proposed to extract information about the continuum limit from a finite-order PIE. A more flexible PIE is possible by expanding besides the kinetic term a suitably chosen part of the interaction term too. In particular, if the co-expanded part is a mass term the calculation becomes only slightly more complicated than in the original formulation and the appearance of the graph scheme is unchanged. A significant reduction of the number of graphs and an improvement of the convergence of the PIE can be achieved by performing certain sums over an infinity of graph elements. (author)

  1. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  2. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  3. Uruguay; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Uruguay during the 1990s. Real GDP expanded on average by more than 4 percent a year in 1990–94 and fell by 2½ percent in 1995. The rapid growth of output during 1990–94 reflected buoyant external demand from Uruguay’s main trading partners (Argentina and Brazil), as well as progress in strengthening the public finances, reducing wage indexation, opening the economy, and curtailing government intervention. Consumer price inflation fell steadily fr...

  4. Separable expansions for local potentials with Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    If two particles are interacting via a short range potential and a repulsive Coulomb potential the t matrix can be written as a sum of the Coulomb and the ''nuclear'' t matrices. In order to solve the three-nucleon problem with Coulomb interactions usually we need a separable representation of this ''nuclear'' t matrix. A recently proposed method for finding a separable expansion for local potentials is here extended to find a rapidly convergent separable expansion, with analytic form factors, for the ''nuclear'' part of the t matrix of a local potential, in the presence of Coulomb interactions. The method is illustrated for a two-term Malfliet-Tjon potential. In each rank the ''nuclear'' phase shift is close to the corresponding phase shift when the Coulomb interaction is switched off

  5. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid.

  6. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Ran Shen; Hao Kuang; Feng-Xia Hu; Hui Wu; Qing-Zhen Huang; Fei-Xiang Liang; Kai-Ming Qiao; Jia Li; Jing Wang; Yao Liu; Lei Zhang; Min He; Ying Zhang; Wen-Liang Zuo; Ji-Rong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE o...

  7. Exploring the Early Structure of a Rapidly Decompressed Particle Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Heather; Adrian, R. J.; Clarke, Amanda; Johnson, Blair; Arizona State University Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Rapid expansion of dense, pressurized beds of fine particles subjected to rapid reduction of the external pressure is studied in a vertical shock tube. A near-sonic expansion wave impinges on the particle bed-gas interface and rapidly unloads the particle bed. A high-speed video camera captures events occurring during bed expansion. The particle bed does not expand homogeneously, but breaks down into horizontal slabs and then transforms into a cellular-type structure. There are several key parameters that affect the particle bed evolution, including particle size and initial bed height. Analyses of this bed structure evolution from experiments with varying particle sizes and initial bed heights is presented. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science and Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  8. Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

    2000-10-01

    The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

  9. Analysis of the influence of the expansion of the South American electric system in emissions of greenhouse gases; Analise da influencia da expansao do sistema eletrico Sul-Americano nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, Annemarlen Gehrke [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Blesl, Markus [Institute of Economics and the Rational Use of Energie (IER), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    South America combines economic and population growth with a consequent rapid increase in electricity demand. This can only be covered by building new power plants, use of the remaining renewable potential and expansion of transmission lines. The expansion of supply in all regions, with reliable generation and transmission systems is the greatest challenge for the continent in order to reduce social differences and not to curb economic development. To support the energy planning the application of system models represents useful method. This paper intends to analyze the expansion effect of power plant parks in regard of greenhouse gases emissions using a regionalized model system 'TIMES (The Integrated Markal - EFOM System)'. The model includes 10 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) with their respective power parks and transmission lines, demand divided in sectors, potential use of renewable energy sources, gas pipelines and possibilities of new interconnections within and between countries. As results are obtained the future installed capacity and generation according the energy use, greenhouse gases emissions, as well as the investments needed to expand the electric system in different scenarios. (author)

  10. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  11. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  12. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  13. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  14. Flood risk and adaptation strategies under climate change and urban expansion: A probabilistic analysis using global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2015-12-15

    An accurate understanding of flood risk and its drivers is crucial for effective risk management. Detailed risk projections, including uncertainties, are however rarely available, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents a method that integrates recent advances in global-scale modeling of flood hazard and land change, which enables the probabilistic analysis of future trends in national-scale flood risk. We demonstrate its application to Indonesia. We develop 1000 spatially-explicit projections of urban expansion from 2000 to 2030 that account for uncertainty associated with population and economic growth projections, as well as uncertainty in where urban land change may occur. The projections show that the urban extent increases by 215%-357% (5th and 95th percentiles). Urban expansion is particularly rapid on Java, which accounts for 79% of the national increase. From 2000 to 2030, increases in exposure will elevate flood risk by, on average, 76% and 120% for river and coastal floods. While sea level rise will further increase the exposure-induced trend by 19%-37%, the response of river floods to climate change is highly uncertain. However, as urban expansion is the main driver of future risk, the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly urgent, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Using probabilistic urban projections, we show that spatial planning can be a very effective adaptation strategy. Our study emphasizes that global data can be used successfully for probabilistic risk assessment in data-scarce countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  16. THE EXPANSION OF THE RITZ-CARLTON® ON FOREIGN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Răzvan DOBAI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of globalization drives the companies’ pursuit to expand on foreign markets for various reasons. In this paper it will be analysed the expansion on non-US markets of the Ritz-Carlton®, a hotel company with tradition, being known for its services quality. The analysis takes into consideration the opening year of the hotels in the Latin American, European, Middle Eastern, Central and South Asian and AsiaPacific market, trying to correlate the expansion on certain areas and locations with the American foreign policy regarding those regions, one of the essential factors being the improvement and development of economic ties which led to an interdependence between the main actors of the current international affairs arena. Under these circumstances, there were created favourable environments for the hotel to expand on foreign markets. Last but not least, by serving international business people conducting their affairs worldwide and contributing in tightening the economic relations among countries, such a hotel chain is indirectly part of the economic and soft power of a country.

  17. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  18. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  19. On the Equisummability of Hermite and Fourier Expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove an equisummability result for the Fourier expansions and Hermite expansions as well as special Hermite expansions. We also prove the uniform boundedness of the Bochner-Riesz means associated to the Hermite expansions for polyradial functions.

  20. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  1. Global Economy under the Current Economic Crisis Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu Ioana-Iulica; Talmaciu Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In the current context in which countries in the world search new solutions and strategies to counteract the negative effects generated by the worst economic crisis in the last 80 years, the globalisation rises polemics and controversies regarding the causes that lead to the expansion of the crisis. May it be, the current economic crisis, a consequence of the globalisation? Beyond the contradictory answers, the globalisation must be seen in essence as a stimulating and expansion factor of the...

  2. Avaliação cefalométrica radiográfica da posição craniocervical de pacientes orientados em posição natural da cabeça pré e pós-expansão rápida da maxila Cephalometric radiographic evaluation of the craniocervical position of patients oriented in natural head position before and after the rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belini Augusto Villalba Freire-Maia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eventual alteração na posição craniocervical de pacientes orientados na Posição Natural da Cabeça (PNC, após o procedimento de expansão rápida da maxila (ERM. Utilizaram-se telerradiografias em norma lateral, selecionadas do acervo de documentação da Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo, de 20 pacientes, com idades entre 5 a 11 anos (média de 9,0 anos, sendo 7 do gênero masculino e 13 do feminino, obtidas no início do tratamento e imediatamente após a fase ativa da expansão da maxila. Os pacientes eram portadores de atresia da maxila e foram tratados com aparelho disjuntor tipo Biederman modificado. A partir dos cefalogramas pré e pós-ERM foram obtidas as grandezas angulares craniovertical (SN.VER, craniocervical (OPT.SN e CVT.SN, cervicohorizontal (OPT.HOR, CVT.HOR e o ângulo da curvatura cervical (OPT.CVT. Após análise estatística e interpretação dos resultados obtidos concluímos que a posição da cabeça não apresentou alteração estatisticamente significativa. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os gêneros quando comparadas as fases pré e pós-ERM para as grandezas estudadas. O método de obtenção de telerradiografias laterais em Orientação Natural da Cabeça mostrou-se confiável e reproduzível na amostra estudada, mesmo na presença de intervenção ortodôntica-ortopédica entre as séries de radiografias.The aim of this study was to evaluate the eventual alteration in the craniocervical position of patients, oriented in the Natural Head Position (NHP, after the rapid maxillary expansion (RME procedure. We have used lateral radiographs, selected from the documentation file of the Preventive Orthodontics Clinic, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo. Our sample consisted of 20 patients (7M:13F, with ages ranging from 5.08 up to 11.08 years (mean of 9,0. The

  3. [Tissular expansion in giant congenital nevi treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Nuoi, V; Francois-Fiquet, C; Diner, P; Sergent, B; Zazurca, F; Franchi, G; Buis, J; Vazquez, M-P; Picard, A; Kadlub, N

    2014-08-01

    Surgical management of giant melanotic naevi remains a surgical challenge. Tissue expansion provides tissue of the same quality for the repair of defects. The aim of this study is to review tissular expansion for giant melanotic naevi. We conducted a retrospective study from 2000 to 2012. All children patients who underwent a tissular expansion for giant congenital naevi had been included. Epidemiological data, surgical procedure, complication rate and results had been analysed. Thirty-tree patients had been included; they underwent 61 procedures with 79 tissular-expansion prosthesis. Previous surgery, mostly simple excision had been performed before tissular expansion. Complete naevus excision had been performed in 63.3% of the cases. Complications occurred in 45% of the cases, however in 50% of them were minor. Iterative surgery increased the complication rate. Tissular expansion is a valuable option for giant congenital naevus. However, complication rate remained high, especially when iterative surgery is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  5. Simulation program for multiple expansion Stirling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Weiss, M.; Fauvel, R.; Reader, G.; Bingham, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple expansion Stirling machines have been a topic of interest at the University of Calgary for some years. Recently a second-order computer simulation program with integral graphics package for Stirling cryocoolers with up to four stages of expansion were developed and made available to the Stirling community. Adaptation of the program to multiple expansion Stirling power systems is anticipated. This paper briefly introduces the program and presents a specimen result

  6. Semiclassical expansions for confined N fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivine, H.; Martorell, J.; Casas, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new derivation of the Wigner Kirkwood expansion for N-fermion systems is presented, showing explicitly the connection to the WKB approximation for a single level. This allows to study separately the two ansatz required to obtain the semiclassical expansions: the asymptotic expansions in powers of ℎ and the smoothing of quantal effects. We discuss the one dimensional and three dimensional, with spherical symmetry, cases. Applications for standard potentials used in nuclear physics are described in detail

  7. Thermal and hygroscopic expansion characteristics of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Puxi; Chang, Wen-shao; Ansell, Martin P.; Bowen, Chris R.; Chew, John Y. M.; Adamak, Vana i

    2017-01-01

    The expansion and contraction of bamboo caused by temperature and moisture variations must be evaluated\\ud if bamboo is to be utilised as a building material. However, detailed expansion data, especially data in the ascent and\\ud descent processes of temperature and moisture are unexplored. The aim of this study is to investigate the expansion\\ud characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo) in ascent and descent processes of temperature and moisture.\\ud The measurement of linear ther...

  8. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  9. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  10. Thermal expansion in small metallic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    An anomalously low thermal expansion observable in small particles is attributed to extending effect of the shell. It is shown that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the oxide-film-coated aluminium particles calculated using elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of massive materials agres well with those measured experimentally. The linear dilatation of the shell, its stress to rupture and the values of the structural tension are estimated vs the temperature

  11. Disjoint sum expansion method in FTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Keqiang

    1987-01-01

    An expansion formula for transforming boolean algebraic expressions into disjoint form was proved. Based on this expansion formula, a method for transforming system failure function into disjoint form was devised. The fact that the expansion can be done for several elements simulatneously makes the method flexible and fast. Some examples from fault tree analysis (FTA) and network analysis were examined by the new method to show its algorithm and its merit. Besides, by means of the proved expansion formula some boolean algebraic relations can proved very easily

  12. Thermal expansion of L-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, B.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Céolin, R.; Rietveld, I. B.

    2017-04-01

    The specific volume of vitamin C has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction as a function of temperature from 110 K up to complete degradation around 440 K. Its thermal expansion is relatively small in comparison with other organic compounds with an expansivity α v of 1.2(3) × 10-4 K-1. The structure consists of strongly bound molecules in the ac plane through a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The thermal expansion is anisotropic. Along the b axis, the expansion has most leeway and is about 10 times larger than in the other directions.

  13. Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs

  14. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  15. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  16. Electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa. A trivariate causality test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M. [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA, 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa. We incorporate the employment rate as an intermittent variable in the bivariate model between electricity consumption and economic growth - thereby creating a simple trivariate causality framework. Our empirical results show that there is a distinct bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa. In addition, the results show that employment in South Africa Granger-causes economic growth. The results apply irrespective of whether the causality is estimated in the short-run or in the long-run formulation. The study, therefore, recommends that policies geared towards the expansion of the electricity infrastructure should be intensified in South Africa in order to cope with the increasing demand exerted by the country's strong economic growth and rapid industrialisation programme. This will certainly enable the country to avoid unprecedented power outages similar to those experienced in the country in mid-January 2008. (author)

  17. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  18. Investigation of droplet nucleation in CCS relevant systems – design and testing of the expansion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenský Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique in-house designed experimental apparatus for investigation of nucleation of droplets in CCS relevant systems is being developed by the present team. The apparatus allows simulating various processes relevant to CCS technologies. Gaseous mixtures with CO2 are prepared in a Mixture Preparation Device (MPD based on accurate adjustment of flow rates of individual components [EPJ Web of Conferences 143, 02140 (2017]. The mixture then flows into an expansion chamber, where it undergoes a rapid adiabatic expansion. As a consequence of adiabatic cooling, the mixture becomes supersaturated and nucleation and simultaneous growth of droplets occurs. In this study, we describe the design and testing of the expansion part of the experimental setup. The rapid expansion was realized using two valve systems, one for low pressures (up to 0.7 MPa and the other for high pressures (up to 10 MPa. A challenge for a proper design of the expansion system is avoiding acoustic oscillations. These can occur either in the mode of Helmholtz resonator, where the compressible gas in the chamber acts as a spring and the rapidly moving gas in the valve system as a mass, or in the “flute” mode, where acoustic waves are generated in a long outlet tubing.

  19. Investigation of droplet nucleation in CCS relevant systems - design and testing of the expansion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenský, Miroslav; Hrubý, Jan; Vinš, Václav; Hykl, Jiří; Šmíd, Bohuslav

    2018-06-01

    A unique in-house designed experimental apparatus for investigation of nucleation of droplets in CCS relevant systems is being developed by the present team. The apparatus allows simulating various processes relevant to CCS technologies. Gaseous mixtures with CO2 are prepared in a Mixture Preparation Device (MPD) based on accurate adjustment of flow rates of individual components [EPJ Web of Conferences 143, 02140 (2017)]. The mixture then flows into an expansion chamber, where it undergoes a rapid adiabatic expansion. As a consequence of adiabatic cooling, the mixture becomes supersaturated and nucleation and simultaneous growth of droplets occurs. In this study, we describe the design and testing of the expansion part of the experimental setup. The rapid expansion was realized using two valve systems, one for low pressures (up to 0.7 MPa) and the other for high pressures (up to 10 MPa). A challenge for a proper design of the expansion system is avoiding acoustic oscillations. These can occur either in the mode of Helmholtz resonator, where the compressible gas in the chamber acts as a spring and the rapidly moving gas in the valve system as a mass, or in the "flute" mode, where acoustic waves are generated in a long outlet tubing.

  20. Czech Republic: A rapid transformation of fertility and family behaviour after the collapse of state socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kantorová

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the swift demise of the state-socialist regime in 1989, a profound transformation of family and fertility patterns has taken place in the Czech Republic. Family formation has been postponed and period fertility rates have fallen to very low levels, especially among young adults. Unmarried cohabitation has become relatively widespread and marriages have been progressively delayed or even foregone. These rapid shifts in family-related behaviour were primarily driven by a period change and resulted in a sharp discontinuity in cohort patterns of union formation and childbearing. We argue that the rapid change in family-related behaviour after 1990 was driven by a fundamental shift in the constraints and incentives for childbearing, which was conducive to later and more carefully planned family formation. The rapidity of observed changes can be explained as the outcome of a simultaneous occurrence of several factors, especially the expansion of higher education, the emergence of new opportunities competing with family life, increasing job competition, rising economic uncertainty in young adulthood, and changing partnership behaviour.

  1. Public Debt and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Peng Lee; Yan-Ling Ng

    2015-01-01

    Public debt in the Malaysia increased because of fiscal expansions. This study examines whether public debt contributed to the economic growth in Malaysia over the period 1991 to 2013. It also examines whether other indicators of debt burden, such as budget deficit, budget expenditure, and external debt service and government consumption, have an impact on economic growth. The results of this study are consistent with the existing literature that found a negative association between diet and ...

  2. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  3. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  4. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  5. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  6. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  7. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  8. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  9. A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning; Um modelo computacional para determinacao de alternativas de expansao de custo minimo em planejamento de sistemas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, L M.V.G.; Pereira, M V.F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, A [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational resource. Some expansions of this methodology are been investigated: the probabilistic one and the expansion with financier restriction. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 7 figs.

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of the orbit expansion effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, A.A.; Denisov, Yu.N.; Dmitrievskij, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Calculation and experiment results of investigations on the orbit expansion effect in the periodic magnetic structures are considered. Experiments, conducted with the use of ring cyclotron electron model, have shown, that the orbit expansion effect leads to the beam cross section radial size increase. This phenomenon was eliminated through the introduction of correction coils, which provide for the required low harmonic phase and value change in the whole acceleration area. Energy spread leads to the spreading of beam in the expansion area. Numeric calculations show, that for the electron model used the relative energy spread must be less than 10 -3 . The conclusion is drawn, that the only real possibility to obtain an accelerated beam with such an energy spread is to perform the ''flat-top'' regime. Equipment for cyclotron electron model RF supply is developed and produced to realise this regime. Particle dinamics calculation in the ''flat-top'' regime and the first experiments have shown, that acceleration asymmetry leads to the rapid coherent oscillation swing in the centre up to the amplitude of 6-7 sm

  11. The cost of uncertainty in capacity expansion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenhung Wang [National Chung Cheng Univ., Dept. of Business Administration, Chia-Yi (Taiwan); Sparrow, F.T. [Purdue Univ., School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The goals of this paper are to present a two-stage programming model of the capacity expansion problem under uncertainty of demand and explore the impact of the uncertainty on cost. The model is a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model with the consideration of uncertainty used to maximise the expected presented value of utility profits over the planning horizon, under the constraints of rate of return and reserve margin regulation. The results reveal that the uncertainty harms the profit seriously. In this paper both microeconomics and mathematical programming are used to analyse the problem. We try to observe the economic behaviour of the utility with uncertainty involved. We also investigate the influence on the cost of uncertainty of each economic parameter. (Author)

  12. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Imperial Oil Resources Limited applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for approval to expand its operations at Cold Lake, Alberta and to construct and operate an electrical power plant and electrical generator substation. Imperial Oil also applied to the Alberta Environmental Protection Branch to prepare the site for a new central plant for the expansion. The company also requested a short-term groundwater withdrawal permit to provide temporary water supply for start-up. Imperial Oil claims that the project is in the public interests given the project's social, environmental and economic effects. Imperial Oil submitted this 4 volume document in support of their application. The documentation includes a project description, an environmental impact assessment, a biophysical and resource use assessment, a socio-economic assessment, and environmental baseline studies. The project is scheduled for start-up in late 1999 at a total cost of at least $440 million. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  14. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  15. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  16. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining pra...

  17. Correction of complete maxillary crossbite with severe crowding using Hyrax expansion and fixed appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Manosudprasit, Montian; Pisek, Poonsak; Leelasinjaroen, Pornnapha

    2013-09-01

    An 18-year-old Thai man who presented with a secondary cleft palate, maxillary hypoplasia and severe crowding was treated by rapid maxillary expansion and fixed orthodontic appliances. Initial assessment found skeletal Class III malrelationship and dental Class II malocclusion with anterior and bilateral posterior crossbites. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was planned using a rapid maxillary expansion appliance and correcting crowding with extraction all four premolar teeth. A Hyrax appliance and vertical loop arch wire were placed for maxillary arch expansion of 9.5 mms at first molars and canines, and 5.5 mms at the premolars and obtained positive overjet. Both acceptable skeletal and soft tissue relationships and satisfactory occlusion were produced. After 14 months of postoperative follow-up, the occlusal result was stable and no skeletal reversals could be detected.

  18. Transverse expansion and dileptons from the rho-peak in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.; Neumann, J.J.; Seibert, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors calculate the transverse-mass distribution of lepton pairs in the ρ - ω peak. An equation of state with a strong first order phase transition is assumed. They focus on the baryon-free central rapidity region, and couple a boost-invariant longitudinal expansion to a cylindrically symmetric transverse expansion to model the dynamics of central collisions. In the absence of transverse expansion, the fit temperature of the resulting dilepton spectra provided a good thermometer for the critical temperature. Assuming thermal equilibrium throughout the collision, they study the effect of transverse expansion on the spectra. They allow deviations from chemical equilibrium in the high-temperature phase by appropriately parametrizing the equation of state. The freeze-out dependence is also studied. They calculate dilepton production vs. transverse-mass as a function of the critical temperature for these different scenarios

  19. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  20. The δ expansion for stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Cooper, F.; Milton, K.A.; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912; Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexic o 87545; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklaho ma 73019)

    1989-01-01

    Using a recently proposed perturbation expansion called the δ expansion, we show how to solve the Langevin equation associated with a gphi 4 field theory. We illustrate the technique in zero- and one-dimensional space-time, and then generalize this approach to d dimensions