Sample records for rapid dome growth

  1. Remodelling of the palatal dome following rapid maxillary expansion (RME): laser scan-quantifications during a low growth period. (United States)

    Muchitsch, A P; Winsauer, H; Wendl, B; Pichelmayer, M; Kuljuh, E; Szalay, A; Muchitsch, M


    To evaluate changes in the palatal vault after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with bonded splint appliances. The sample comprised 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) with mixed dentition (mean age 8.3 years; range 6.4-10.4 years). Following expansion, the splint appliance was used as a retainer for 6 months and then removed. Study casts were taken before RME (T0) and when the appliance was removed (T1). Then, 3D laser scans were taken to build complete 3D jaw models. Frontal cross sections were constructed at 53-63, 55-65 and 16-26, exported as coordinates, and finite element calculated to quantify their area, width and height. Maxillary length was also determined. Paired t-tests indicated statistically significant increases in the average palatal width (T1-T0=6.53-6.79 mm) and cross-sectional area (T1-T0=20.39-21.39 mm2) after RME (p0.99 (pmaxillary expansion distinctly increased mean palatal widths and cross-sectional areas. However, palatal height (55-65) and maxillary length decreased to a small extent. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Modeling of spatial variations of growth within apical domes by means of the growth tensor. II. Growth specified on dome surface

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    Zygmunt Hejnowicz


    Full Text Available Variations of the elemental relative rate of growth are modeled for parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic domes of shoot apices by using the growth tensor in a suitable curvilinear coordinate system when the mode of area growth on the dome surface is known. Variations of growth rates within the domes are obtained in forms of computer-made maps for the following variants of growth on the dome surface: (1 constant meridional growth rate, (2 isotropic area growth, (3 anisotropy of area growth which becomes more intensive with increasing distance from the vertex. In variants 1 and 2 a maximum of volumetric growth rate appears in the center of the dome. Such a distribution of growth seems to be unrealistic. However, the corresponding growth tensors are interesting because they can be used in combination with other growth tensors to get the expected minimum volumetric growth rate in the dome center.

  3. Geometry of shoot apical dome and distribution of growth rates

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    Jerzy Nakielski


    Full Text Available The distribution of the relative elementary rate of growth (RERG in apical domes of various shapes and patterns of displacement lines can be analytically examined. The geometry of these domes may be described by parabolas of n-th order, the variant of the distribution of linear growth rate should be established along any displacement line (e.g. along the axis and then the RERG can be studied as the function depending on the position coordinates and the parameter n. Such investigations of several aplical domes of various shapes have been performed. The results confirm the occurrence of the minimum of relative, elementary growth rate (in volume in the subapical region of the dome independently of the type of geometry (n parabola order.

  4. Spatial variations of growth within domes having different patterns of principal growth directions

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    Jerzy Nakielski


    Full Text Available Growth rate variations for two paraboloidal domes: A and B, identical when seen from the outside but differing in the internal pattern of principal growth directions, were modeled by means of the growth tensor and a natural coordinate system. In dome A periclinal trajectories in the axial plane were given by confocal parabolas (as in a tunical dome, in dome B by parabolas converging to the vertex (as in a dome without a tunica. Accordingly, two natural coordinate systems, namely paraboloidal for A and convergent parabolic for B, were used. In both cases, the rate of growth in area on the surfaces of domes was assumed to be isotropic and identical in corresponding points. It appears that distributions of growth rates within domes A and B are similar in their peripheral and central parts and different only in their distal regions. In the latter, growth rates are relatively large; the maximum relative rate of growth in volume is around the geometric focus in dome A, and on the surface around the vertex in dome B.

  5. The Chaitén rhyolite lava dome: Eruption sequence, lava dome volumes, rapid effusion rates and source of the rhyolite magma (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Burton, William C.; Munoz, Jorge; Griswold, Julia P.; Lara, Luis E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Valenzuela, Carolina E.


    We use geologic field mapping and sampling, photogrammetric analysis of oblique aerial photographs, and digital elevation models to document the 2008-2009 eruptive sequence at Chaitén Volcano and to estimate volumes and effusion rates for the lava dome. We also present geochemical and petrologic data that contribute to understanding the source of the rhyolite and its unusually rapid effusion rates. The eruption consisted of five major phases: 1. An explosive phase (1-11 May 2008); 2. A transitional phase (11-31 May 2008) in which low-altitude tephra columns and simultaneous lava extrusion took place; 3. An exogenous lava flow phase (June-September 2008); 4. A spine extrusion and endogenous growth phase (October 2008-February 2009); and 5. A mainly endogenous growth phase that began after the collapse of a prominent Peléean spine on 19 February 2009 and continued until the end of the eruption (late 2009 or possibly earliest 2010). The 2008-2009 rhyolite lava dome has a total volume of approximately 0.8 km3. The effusion rate averaged 66 m3s-1 during the first two weeks and averaged 45 m3s-1 for the first four months of the eruption, during which 0.5 km3 of rhyolite lava was erupted. These are among the highest rates measured world-wide for historical eruptions of silicic lava. Chaitén’s 2008-2009 lava is phenocryst-poor obsidian and microcrystalline rhyolite with 75.3±0.3% SiO2. The lava was erupted at relatively high temperature and is remarkably similar in composition and petrography to Chaitén’s pre-historic rhyolite. The rhyolite’s normative composition plots close to that of low pressure (100-200 MPa) minimum melts in the granite system, consistent with estimates of approximately 5 to 10 km source depths based on phase equilibria and geodetic studies. Calcic plagioclase, magnesian orthopyroxene and aluminous amphibole among the sparse phenocrysts suggest derivation of the rhyolite by melt extraction from a more mafic magmatic mush. High temperature

  6. Growth rates of lava domes with respect to viscosity of magmas

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    I. Yokoyama


    Full Text Available In the discussion of lava dome formation, viscosity of magma plays an important role. Measurements of viscosity of magmas in field and laboratory are briefly summarized. The types of lava dome emplacements are classified into two, squeeze- and spine-type, by kinetic processes. The squeeze-type is the formation of a dome as a result of squeezes of magma through conduits and the latter is solidified magma forced to ascend by underlying fluid magma. An important parameter in the formation of such lava domes is their growth rates. Lava domes of squeeze-type are governed by the Hagen-Poiseuille Law which involves their viscosoties and other eruption parameters. At present, the real viscosity of magmas at the site of lava dome is still inaccessible. In order to avoid uncertainty in viscosity of magmas, a conception of «macroscopic viscosity» is proposed, which involves effects of chemical components, mainly SiO2 and volatile material, crystals and temperature, and their changes with time. Lava dome formations during the 20th century are briefly examined and their growth rates are estimated. The relationship between the growth rates and the SiO2 content of the magma is statistically studied, and the macroscopic viscosity is empirically expressed as a function of SiO2 content. The linearity between the two parameters is reasonably interpreted. This means that formation processes of lava domes are dominantly controlled by macroscopic viscosity of magma.

  7. A low-cost method applicable worldwide for remotely mapping lava dome growth (United States)

    Chaussard, Estelle


    Lava dome growth and collapse represents both a significant hazard, as it can trigger pyroclastic density currents, and a monitoring challenge, limiting monitoring to a few known active volcanoes. Here, I propose a new differencing technique based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) amplitude images to quantify the extent of lava dome growth. This differencing technique, which is both low cost and can be utilized worldwide, is applied to SAR amplitude images at Mount St. Helens and validated using 2004-2008 aerial photography observations. Difference of amplitude images accurately characterize the dome growth location. The low ground resolution of the 2004-2008 SAR data leads to underestimation by 10 to 15% of the dome extent, but the accuracy of this method will increase with the improved resolution of current and future SAR missions. Amplitude images are a low-level SAR product available from all SAR satellites, mostly freely, making the proposed method ideal for systematic, low-cost monitoring of lava dome growth worldwide with minimum processing required.

  8. Problems of rapid growth. (United States)

    Kim, T D


    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  9. Correlation of eruptive products, Volcán Azufral, Colombia: Implications for rapid emplacement of domes and pyroclastic flow units (United States)

    Williams, Matthew; Bursik, M. I.; Cortes, G. P.; Garcia, A. M.


    The eruptive history and morphology of Azufral Volcano, Colombia, is explored and analyzed to provide a more complete picture of past eruptions, as well as to infer what eruption styles may occur in the future. Through the use of principal component analysis on Fe-Ti oxides, domes can be correlated to the pyroclastic deposits, enabling the identification of a full eruptive sequence. The findings suggest that eruptive activity at Azufral Volcano is largely explosive, experiencing long periods of quiescence, punctuated by short periods of pyroclastic activity and volcanic debris avalanches. Geomorphology of the dome complex is reinterpreted to better understand the sequence of dome growth. This reinterpretation, along with geochemical analysis and comparison via PCA, allows for reclassification of a major deposit, originally thought to be a juvenile block-and-ash flow, as a volcanic debris avalanche.

  10. China urges rapid growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, S.


    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong.

  11. Talar Dome Lesion (United States)

    ... Please enable Javascript in your browser. Talar Dome Lesion What Is a Talar Dome Lesion? The ankle joint is composed of the bottom ... on the specific case. Complications of Talar Dome Lesions Depending on the amount of damage to the ...

  12. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity? (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J


    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  13. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

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    Wei-Lian Sun


    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  14. Evolution of a complex isolated dome system, Cerro Pizarro, central México (United States)

    Riggs, Nancy; Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo

    Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin, located in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Cerro Pizarro erupted 1.1 km3 of magma at about 220 ka. Activity of Cerro Pizarro started with vent-clearing explosions at some depth; the resultant deposits contain clasts of local basement rocks, including Cretaceous limestone, 0.46-Ma welded tuff, and basaltic lava. Subsequent explosive eruptions during earliest dome growth produced an alternating sequence of surge and fallout layers from an inferred small dome. As the dome grew both vertically and laterally, it developed an external glassy carapace due to rapid chilling. Instability of the dome during emplacement caused the partial gravitational collapse of its flanks producing various block-and-ash-flow deposits. After a brief period of repose, re-injection of magma caused formation of a cryptodome with pronounced deformation of the vitrophyric dome and the underlying units to orientations as steep as near vertical. This stage began apparently as a gas-poor eruption and no explosive phases accompanied the emplacement of the cryptodome. Soon after emplacement of the cryptodome, however, the western flank of the edifice catastrophically collapsed, causing a debris avalanche. A hiatus in eruptive activity was marked by erosion of the cone and emplacement of ignimbrite derived from a caldera to the north of Cerro Pizarro. The final growth of the dome growth produced its present shape; this growth was accompanied by multiple eruptions producing surge and fallout deposits that mantle the topography around Cerro Pizarro. The evolution of the Cerro Pizarro dome holds aspects in common with classic dome models and with larger stratovolcano systems. We suggest that models that predict a simple evolution for domes fail to account for possibilities in evolutionary paths. Specifically, the formation of a cryptodome in the early stages of dome formation may be far more common than

  15. Growth of the 2004-2006 lava-dome complex at Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 9 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 (United States)

    Vallance, James W.; Schneider, David J.; Schilling, Steve P.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.


    The eruption of Mount St. Helens from 2004 to 2006 has comprised extrusion of solid lava spines whose growth patterns were shaped by a large space south of the 1980-86 dome that was occupied by the unique combination of glacial ice, concealed subglacial slopes, the crater walls, and relics of previous spines. The eruption beginning September 2004 can be divided (as of April 2006) into five phases: (1) predome deformation and phreatic activity, (2) initial extrusion of spines, (3) recumbent spine growth and repeated breakup, (4) southward extrusion across previous dome debris, and (5) normal faulting of the phase 4 dome to form a depression, a shift to westward extrusion and overthrusting of earlier phase 5 products. Overall, steady spine extrusion gradually slowed from 6 m3/s in November 2004 to 0.6 m3/s in February 2006.

  16. Characteristics and sources of tephra layers in the EPICA-Dome C ice record (East Antarctica): Implications for past atmospheric circulation and ice core stratigraphic correlations [rapid communication (United States)

    Narcisi, B.; Petit, J. R.; Delmonte, B.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Maggi, V.


    Thirteen discrete air-fall tephra layers were identified in the last 200,000-yr section of the EPICA-Dome C ice record drilled in the East Antarctic plateau (75°06'S, 123°21'E). Quantitative grain size, glass particle morphology, and the grain-discrete major element composition of the glass fraction of these layers were investigated. Through comparison with literature data on the rock composition of Quaternary volcanic centres located within and around Antarctica, five tephra layers were attributed to South Sandwich volcanoes in the South Atlantic Ocean, two to South Shetland volcanoes (northern Antarctic Peninsula), two to Andean volcanoes, and four to Antarctic (Marie Byrd Land and Melbourne) provinces. The abundance of layers originating in the southern part of the Atlantic confirms that westerly atmospheric circulation spiralling towards East Antarctica prevailed over the last 200 ka. Moreover, the record of events from Antarctic centres suggests that atmospheric trajectories from West to East Antarctica can also be significant. A few ash layers are geochemically distinct and appear equivalent to levels from Vostok and Dome Fuji deep ice records, located ca. 600 km and ca. 2000 km, respectively, from Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. These layers provide unambiguous markers for future correlation with other Antarctic ice cores and circumpolar marine climatic records. They also provide reliable constraints to get a common timescale by glaciological modelling, and represent a first step towards absolute ice core dating.

  17. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

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    Pšeničny Viljem


    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  18. Millennium Dome publikupuuduses

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    Londoni Millennium Dome toob iga nädal umbes 7 miljonit krooni kahjumit. Valitsusel on plaanis laenata Dome'ile 60 miljonit naela. Jennie Page'i asemele kutsuti direktoriks Pariisi Eurodisney juht Pierre-Yves Gerbeau. Inglise riiklike muuseumide ja kunstigaleriide tasuta külastatavaks muutmine alates aastast 2002 jääb ära.


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    Izis Salvador Pinto


    Full Text Available Domes have existed for centuries, from ancient domed structures such as Igloos to contemporary domes such as the Eden Project. However, over the years there has been a gradual shift in construction of long-span domes, from the use of opaque and heavy materials, to the use of transparent and lightweight structures. The development in material technology provides the opportunity to reduce the weight of materials and structures to be lightweight and highstrength, saving energy, fuel, and contributing to the low carbon agenda. The progress in materials science and the evolution in the technology of construction and manufacturing in architecture make the utopian ideas of the past into a reality. Domes with Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE cushions as cladding system are lightweight and transparent structures. ETFE is a cost-effective, environmentally friendly material. The advantages of ETFE, compared to glass, is that ETFE is one per cent of the weight of glass, transmits more light and costs far less to instal. Furthermore, this material does not degrade under ultraviolet light and is unaffected by atmospheric pollutants. This paper presents an overview of contemporary long-span domes constructed with lightweight materials, from the domes in buildings, to the possibility of achieving large city-dome enclosures.

  20. The Longevity of Lava Dome Eruptions

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    Wolpert, Robert L; Calder, Eliza S


    Understanding the duration of past, on-going and future volcanic eruptions is an important scientific goal and a key societal need. We present a new methodology for forecasting the duration of on-going and future lava dome eruptions based on a database (DomeHaz) recently compiled by the authors. The database includes duration and composition for 177 such eruptions, with "eruption" defined as the period encompassing individual episodes of dome growth along with associated quiescent periods during which extrusion pauses but unrest continues. In a key finding we show that probability distributions for dome eruption durations are both heavy-tailed and composition-dependent. We construct Objective Bayes statistical models featuring heavy-tailed Generalized Pareto distributions with composition-specific parameters to make forecasts about the durations of new and on-going eruptions that depend on both eruption duration-to-date and composition. Our Bayesian predictive distributions reflect both uncertainty about mode...

  1. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth (United States)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.


    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (∆ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of ∆ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, ∆ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence ∆ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  2. Rapid Population Growth and its Implication for Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide concern has recently focused on the negative aspects of rapid population growth for the' future as regards natural and non-renewable re- sources, energy and the environment. A United. Nations sponsored international conference on. "Environment and Development" was held in Brazil. inJune 1992 to focus ...

  3. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

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    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev


    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  4. Population priorities: the challenge of continued rapid population growth. (United States)

    Turner, Adair


    Rapid population growth continues in the least developed countries. The revisionist case that rapid population could be overcome by technology, that population density was advantageous, that capital shallowing is not a vital concern and that empirical investigations had not proved a correlation between high population growth and low per capita income was both empirically and theoretically flawed. In the modern world, population density does not play the role it did in nineteenth-century Europe and rates of growth in some of today's least developed nations are four times than those in nineteenth-century Europe, and without major accumulation of capital per capita, no major economy has or is likely to make the low- to middle-income transition. Though not sufficient, capital accumulation for growth is absolutely essential to economic growth. While there are good reasons for objecting to the enforced nature of the Chinese one-child policy, we should not underestimate the positive impact which that policy has almost certainly had and will have over the next several decades on Chinese economic performance. And a valid reticence about telling developing countries that they must contain fertility should not lead us to underestimate the severely adverse impact of high fertility rates on the economic performance and prospects of many countries in Africa and the Middle East.

  5. Regional Rapid Growth in Cities and Urbanization in Thailand

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    Thanadorn Phuttharak


    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in Thailand, along with its impact, to understand the dynamics of urbanization and how it affects cities. The study selected UdonThani Province, Thailand, as a case study. This study collected data from academic and semi-academic documents, semi-structured interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, and group discussion. The informants were residents within municipalities, government, and private officers related to city development, and NGOs. The results found that the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in UdonThani province include: 1 historic events from World War II to the Cold War; 2 events during the Vietnam War; 3 Capitalist policies; and 4 the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. The study also found impacts of regional rapid growth in UdonThani province including 1 land use change; 2 economic and societal change; 3 road and traffic problems; and 4 waste disposal problems.

  6. New Approaches to Inferences for Steep-Sided Domes on Venus (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen; Stofan, Ellen


    New mathematical approaches for the relaxation and emplacement of viscous lava domes are presented and applied to steep-sided domes on Venus. A similarity solution approach is applied to the governing equation for fluid flow in a cylindrical geometry for two distinct scenarios. In the first scenario, dome relaxation is explored assuming a constant volume of fluid (i.e. lava) has been rapidly emplaced onto the surface. Cooling of lava is represented by a time-variable viscosity and singularities inherent in previous models for dome relaxation have been eliminated. At the onset of relaxation, bulk dynamic viscosities lie in the range between 10(exp 10) - 10(exp 16) Pa s, consistent with basaltic-andesite to rhyolitic compositions. Plausible relaxation times range from 5 to 5000 years, depending on initial lava viscosity. The first scenario, however, is only valid during the final stages of dome relaxation and does not consider the time taken for lava to be extruded onto the surface. In the second scenario, emplacement and growth of a steep-sided dome is considered when the volume of lava on the surface increases over time (i.e. time-variable volume approach). The volumetric flow rate may depend on an arbitrary power of the dome thickness, thus embracing Newtonian as well as other rheologies for describing terrestrial and planetary mass flows. The approach can be used to distinguish between basic flow rate models for fluid emplacement. The formalism results in radial expansion of a dome proportional to t(sup 1/2), consistent with the diffusive nature of the governing equation. The flow at the front is shown to thicken as the front advances for a constant rate of lava supply. Emplacement times are intimately correlated with the bulk rheology. Comparison of the theoretical profiles with the shape of a typical dome on Venus indicates that a Newtonian bulk rheology is most appropriate, consistent with prior studies. However, results here suggest a bulk dynamic viscosity

  7. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom


    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  8. Morphodynamics of dome dunes under unimodal wind regimes (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clement; Rozier, Olivier


    Dome dunes are isolated sand piles with a rounded shape and no slip face. They are not only incipient or disappearing dunes, they can also reach a giant size and form dome-dune fields. Nevertheless, unlike other types of dunes, they have not been the subject of intense research, certainly because they result from complex multidirectional wind regimes. Here we analyze the morphodynamics of dome dunes under unimodal wind regimes. From numerical modeling using a normal distribution of sand flux orientation, we show that the transition from barchan to dome dunes occur when the standard deviation is larger than 40°. As confirmed by sand flux roses of dome-dune fields in arid deserts on Earth, it corresponds to RDP/DP-value of 0.8 (RDP/DP is the ratio between the resultant drift potential and the drift potential). Both in the field and in the numerical model, the transition from barchan to dome-dunes can also be captured from the coefficient of variation of the planar dune shape. Not surprisingly, smaller dome dunes are faster than larger ones. However, the dependence of dune migration rate on the RDP-value changes according to the presence or absence of slip faces because of the speed-up effect. Transient finger dunes may develop in dome-dune fields, but they rapidly break-up into smaller bodies. This shows that, contrary to bidirectional wind regimes, a large dispersion of sand flux orientation is not efficient in building longitudinal dunes.

  9. Computer simulation of rapid crystal growth under microgravity (United States)

    Hisada, Yasuhiro; Saito, Osami; Mitachi, Koshi; Nishinaga, Tatau

    We are planning to grow a Ge single crystal under microgravity by the TR-IA rocket in 1992. The furnace temperature should be controlled so as to finish the crystal growth in a quite short time interval (about 6 min). This study deals with the computer simulation of rapid crystal growth in space to find the proper conditions for the experiment. The crystal growth process is influenced by various physical phenomena such as heat conduction, natural and Marangoni convections, phase change, and radiation from the furnace. In this study, a 2D simulation with axial symmetry is carried out, taking into account the radiation field with a specific temperature distribution of the furnace wall. The simulation program consists of four modules. The first module is applied for the calculation of the parabolic partial differential equation by using the control volume method. The second one evaluates implicitly the phase change by the enthalpy method. The third one is for computing the heat flux from surface by radiation. The last one is for calculating with the Monte Carlo method the view factors which are necessary to obtain the heat flux.

  10. Late-Pleistocene flank collapse triggered by dome growth at Tacaná volcano, México-Guatemala, and its relationship to the regional stress regime (United States)

    Macías, J. L.; Arce, J. L.; García-Palomo, A.; Mora, J. C.; Layer, P. W.; Espíndola, J. M.


    During late Pleistocene time, the extrusion of an andesitic dome at the summit of Tacaná volcano caused the collapse of its northwestern flank. The stratocone collapse was nearly parallel to the σ min stress direction suggesting that failure was controlled by the regional stress field. The event produced a debris avalanche that was channelized in the San Rafael River and moved 8 km downstream. The deposit covered a minimum area of 4 km2, had a volume of 0.8 ± 0.5 km3, with an H/L (vertical drop to horizontal transport distance ratio) of ~0.35, defining a degree of mobility that is atypical for volcanic debris avalanches. The flank failure undermined the summit dome leading to its collapse and the generation of a series of block-and-ash flows that were emplaced in quick succession and covered the avalanche surface. The collapse event left a 600-m-wide summit amphitheatre with a 30-degree opening to the northwest, and >200 m thick debris that blocked the San Rafael River. Remobilization of this material produced debris flows that eroded the primary deposits and cascaded into the Coatán River. After the collapse, the activity of Tacaná continued with the emission of the Agua Zarca lava flow dated at 10 ± 6 ka (40Ar/39Ar), and pyroclastic surges dated at 10,610 + 330/-315 yr BP (14C), which provide a minimum age for the collapse event. During the Holocene, Tacaná has been very active producing explosive and effusive eruptions that ended with the extrusion of two summit domes that today occupy the amphitheatre. The 1950 and 1986 phreatic outbursts occurred along the Pleistocene collapse scar. Currently ~300,000 inhabitants live within a 35 km radius of Tacaná, and could conceivably be impacted by future events of similar magnitude.

  11. Rapid black hole growth under anisotropic radiation feedback (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yajima, Hidenobu; Omukai, Kazuyuki


    Discovery of high-redshift (z > 6) supermassive black holes (BHs) may indicate that the rapid (or super-Eddington) gas accretion has aided their quick growth. Here, we study such rapid accretion of the primordial gas on to intermediate-mass (102-105 M⊙) BHs under anisotropic radiation feedback. We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations that solve the flow structure across the Bondi radius, from far outside of the Bondi radius down to a central part that is larger than a circum-BH accretion disc. The radiation from the unresolved circum-BH disc is analytically modelled considering self-shadowing effect. We show that the flow settles into a steady state, where the flow structure consists of two distinct parts: (1) bipolar ionized outflowing regions, where the gas is pushed outward by thermal gas pressure and super-Eddington radiation pressure, and (2) an equatorial neutral inflowing region, where the gas falls towards the central BH without affected by radiation feedback. The resulting accretion rate is much higher than that in the case of isotropic radiation, far exceeding the Eddington-limited rate to reach a value slightly lower than the Bondi one. The opening angle of the equatorial inflowing region is determined by the luminosity and directional dependence of the central radiation. We find that photoevaporation from its surfaces set the critical opening angle of about 10° below which the accretion to the BH is quenched. We suggest that the shadowing effect allows even stellar-remnant BHs to grow rapidly enough to become high-redshift supermassive BHs.

  12. Rapid growth of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using ultrasonic irradiation. (United States)

    Rouhani, Parvaneh; Taghavinia, Nima; Rouhani, Shohre


    A rapid, environmental friendly and low-cost method to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is proposed. In this method, hydroxyapatite is produced in a sonicated pseudo-body solution. The sonication time was found effective in the formation of the crystalline phase of nanoparticles. In our experimental condition, 15 min sonication resulted in the most pure hydroxyapatite phase. Also it was shown that growth temperature is a crucial factor and hydroxyapatite crystallizes only at 37 degrees C. The particles formed by sonication were generally smaller and more spherical than those obtained without sonication. Sonication increased the hydroxyapatite crystal growth rate up to 5.5 times compared to non-sonication condition. The comparison between the specific surface area of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained by sonication and without sonication demonstrated that sonication increased the specific surface area from 63 m(2)/g to 107 m(2)/g and decreased the size of nanoparticles from 30 nm to 18 nm. Analysis on the pore structure demonstrated that the fractal structures obtained with and without sonication were considerably different. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magma ascent and lava dome evolution at Volcán de Colima, Mexico (United States)

    Varley, N. R.; Arámbula, R.; Lavallée, Y.; Bernstein, M.; Ryan, A. G.; Maskell, A.


    The transition between explosive and effusive activity can be triggered by subtle variations in parameters which dictate the efficiency and speed of degassing from an ascending magma body. Indirect methods have to be utilized to constrain these parameters, to test and refine numerical models, which ultimately permit a more powerful interpretation of monitoring data. Recent activity at Volcán de Colima has included many transitions between different regimes, offering a great opportunity to examine conduit processes. Explosive activity peaked in 2005 with 30 Vulcanian eruptions producing pyroclastic flows, some reaching >5km from the volcano. Each event was associated with a swarm of long-period (LP) seismic events. A poor correlation between swarm characteristics and the size of the explosion suggests independence between the source mechanisms of each phenomenon. The LP events were divided into 10 families, all of which reappeared in different swarms and the majority continued to occur after the Vulcanian explosion. This is evidence of the complexity of the upper edifice, with the source regions for the LP events remaining unaffected by the explosions. We believe they are produced by brittle deformation once a certain strain-rate threshold has been surpassed. The explosions were associated with rapidly ascending magma bodies that were degassing and crystallizing near the surface, each one being destroyed in the subsequent explosion. Magma sometimes reached the crater, with small short-lived domes being observed. In some cases a post-explosion increase in amplitude of the LP events might have reflected an increase in effusion rate after an unloading of material higher in the vent. Volcán de Colima has produced 5 episodes of effusive activity in the last 11 years. These have been of variable duration and intensity, with over 2 orders of magnitude variation in the effusion rate. The current phase has been characterised by a remarkably sustained (from Jan. 07 to at

  14. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These factors include religious beliefs, customs and traditions, among others. The discourse also examined the various communication types in Africa and their appropriateness in educating Africans and their governments on the need to control high rate of population growth. Ironically, medical facilities available in African ...

  15. A rare large right atrial myxoma with rapid growth rate. (United States)

    Kelly, Shawn C; Steffen, Kelly; Stys, Adam T


    Atrial myxomas are the most common benign intracavitary cardiac neoplasms. They most frequently occur in the left atrium. Right atrial tumors are rare, comprising 20 percent of myxomas achieving an incidence of 0.02 percent. Due to their rarity, right atrial tumor development and associated clinical symptoms has not been well described. The classical clinical triad for the presentation of left atrial myxomas--heart failure, embolic events, and constitutional symptoms--may not be applicable to right sided tumors. Also, natural development of myxoma is not well described, as surgical resection is the common practice. Previously ascribed growth rates of myxomas refer mostly to left atrial ones, as right atrial tumors are rare. We present a case of right atrial myxoma with growth rates exceeding those previously described.

  16. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors. (United States)

    Shaw, R P


    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  17. Identifying and inventorying cypress domes in the Florida panhandle using Landsat imagery (United States)

    Calaminus, Andre Kyle

    Cypress domes are swamp ecosystems dominated by pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens), a conifer native to North America. Cypress domes can be found in flatland depressions throughout the southeast United States, hydrologically separated from other water bodies. Threatened by urbanization and land use change, these unique ecosystems have experienced degradation, destruction, and habitat loss over the past few decades. While many domes have been identified in central and southern Florida, literature is lacking on cypress domes found in the Florida panhandle. Cypress domes within the Florida panhandle were located, inventoried, and analyzed for landscape patterns, including size and shape. Additionally, the cypress dome areas were subject to pixel change detection for temporal comparison of dome size from 2000 to 2013. Using satellite imagery from the Landsat 8 spacecraft, support vector machine classification, and publicly available data, a total of 1,568 cypress domes were found to exist in the Florida panhandle, with a mean area of 1.28 hectares, ranging from a minimum of 0.13 ha to a maximum of 4.95 ha, occupying 19.79 km2, or 0.078% of the panhandle study area. A change detection analysis over the 13 year period show a net gain of 284.63 ha in cypress dome growth.

  18. Rapid growth of left atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation. (United States)

    Rubio Alvarez, José; Martinez de Alegria, Anxo; Sierra Quiroga, Juan; Adrio Nazar, Belen; Rubio Taboada, Carola; Martinez Comendador, José Manuel


    Atrial myxoma is the most common benign tumor of the heart, but its appearance after radiofrequency ablation is very rare. We report a case in which an asymptomatic, rapidly growing cardiac myxoma arose in the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation. Two months after the procedure, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, performed to evaluate the right ventricular anatomy, revealed a 10 × 10-mm mass (assumed to be a thrombus) attached to the patient's left atrial septum. Three months later, transthoracic echocardiography revealed a larger mass, and the patient was diagnosed with myxoma. Two days later, a 20 × 20-mm myxoma weighing 37 g was excised. To our knowledge, the appearance of an atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation has been reported only once before. Whether tumor development is related to such ablation or is merely a coincidence is uncertain, but myxomas have developed after other instances of cardiac trauma.

  19. Surfaces Self-Assembly and Rapid Growth of Amyloid Fibrils (United States)

    Lin, Yichih; Petersson, E. James; Fakhraai, Zahra


    The mechanism of surface-mediated fibrillization has been considered as a key issue in understanding the origins of the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In vitro, amyloid proteins fold through nucleation-elongation process. There is a critical concentration for early nucleating stage. However, some studies indicate that surfaces can modulate the fibril's formation under physiological conditions, even when the concentration is much lower than the critical concentration. Here, we use a label-free procedure to monitor the growth of fibrils across many length scales. We show that near a surface, the fibrillization process appears to bypass the nucleation step and fibrils grow through a self-assembly mechanism instead. We control and measure the pre-fibrillar morphology at different stages of this process on various surfaces. The interplay between the surface concentration and diffusion constant can help identify the detailed mechanisms of surface-mediated fibril growth, which remains largely unexplored. Our works provide a new insight in designing new probes and therapies. Supported by the National Institute On Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P30AG010124.

  20. Studies of the suitability of salt domes in east Texas basin for geologic isolation of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.


    The suitability of salt domes in the east Texas basin (Tyler basin), Texas, for long-term isolation of nulear wastes is being evaluated. The major issues concern hydrogeologic and tectonic stability of the domes and potential natural resources in the basin. These issues are being approached by integration of dome-specific and regional hydrogeolgic, geologic, geomorphic, and remote-sensing investigations. Hydrogeologic studies are evaluating basinal hydrogeology and ground-water flow around the domes in order to determine the degree to which salt domes may be dissolving, their rates of solution, and the orientation of saline plumes in the fresh-water aquifers. Subsurface geologic studies are being conducted: (1) to determine the size and shape of specific salt domes, the geology of the strata immediately surrounding the domes, and the regional geology of the east Texas basin; (2) to understand the geologic history of dome growth and basin infilling; and (3) to evaluate potential natural resources. Geomorphic and surficial geology studies are determining whether there has been any dome growth or tectonic movement in the basin during the Quaternary. Remote-sensing studies are being conducted to determine: (1) if dome uplift has altered regional lineation patterns in Quaternary sediments; and (2) whether drainage density indicates Quaternary structural movement. On the basis of the screening criteria of Brunton et al (1978), Oakwood and Keechi domes have been chosen as possible candidate domes. Twenty-three domes have been eliminated because of insufficient size, too great a depth to salt, major hydrocarbon production, or previous use (such as liquid propane storage or salt mining or brining). Detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphic investigations are now being conducted around Oakwood and Keechi salt domes. (JMT)

  1. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel


    and peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 60 °C, while minimum and maximum temperatures were 40 and 75 °C. The pH response was alkalitolerant with optimum pH at 7.4 and 8.5 depending on the growth medium. The distinct feature of rapid proliferation and endospore formation may allow the novel...

  2. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa


    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  3. Foldable dome climate measurements and thermal properties (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.


    As part of a larger project for measuring various aspects of foldable domes in the context of EST and with support of the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, we have collected over a year of continuous temperature and humidity measurements, both inside and outside the domes of the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma5 and the GREGOR telescope on Tenerife.6 In addition, we have measured the wind field around each dome. Although the structure of both domes is similar, the DOT dome has a single layer of cloth, and is situated on top of an open tower. In contrast, the GREGOR dome has a double layer of cloth, and is situated on top of a tower-shaped building. These differences result in large differences in temperature and humidity insulation when the dome is closed. We will present the changes in temperature and humidity one can expect for each dome within one day, and the statistics for the variations throughout a year. In addition, we will show that the main advantage of a foldable dome is the near instantaneous equilibration of the air inside the volume originally enclosed by the dome and that of the environment outside the dome. This property allows one to operate a telescope without needing expensive air conditioning and dome skin temperature control in order to limit dome and shell seeing effects. The measurements give also information about the weather fluctuations at the sites of the domes. It was observed that on small time scales the temperature fluctuations are significantly greater during the day than during the night.

  4. Rapid growth reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in growth rate, cold resistance and stress proteins. (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan


    Physiological costs of rapid growth may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal rates. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid growth is largely unexplored. Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval growth rates in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID GROWTH: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher growth rates. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.

  5. The rapid analysis of fungal growth in the presence of inhibitory effects


    Williams, Tyson


    For fungal contamination of foodstuffs, there are no fast, reliable, automated techniques to examine growth, nor have any predictive models been developed to describe the growth in the same way as for bacteria. Traditional plating methods can take 3 to 7 days to get adequate results depending on the fungal species utilised and well over a month for challenge testing, an unacceptable delay especially for the food industry. In this study two rapid analysis techniques were investi...

  6. Demonstrated rapid growth of a corpus callosum cavernous angioma within a short period of time. (United States)

    Ozer, E; Yücesoy, K; Kalemci, O


    Cavernous angiomas are uncommon central nervous system vascular malformations. They occur in the corpus callosum very rarely. In this study we report a case of corpus callosum cavernous angioma which demonstrated rapid growth within a short period of time. Corpus callosum cavernous angiomas have distinct features regarding growth and should be treated more carefully by giving more importance to surgical removal rather than a conservative approach.

  7. Low-Temperature and Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene with Ethane. (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Rui, Dingran; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Mingzhan; Tan, Congwei; Kang, Ning; Wei, Di; Xu, H Q; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan


    Future applications of graphene rely highly on the production of large-area high-quality graphene, especially large single-crystalline graphene, due to the reduction of defects caused by grain boundaries. However, current large single-crystalline graphene growing methodologies are suffering from low growth rate and as a result, industrial graphene production is always confronted by high energy consumption, which is primarily caused by high growth temperature and long growth time. Herein, a new growth condition achieved via ethane being the carbon feedstock to achieve low-temperature yet rapid growth of large single-crystalline graphene is reported. Ethane condition gives a growth rate about four times faster than methane, achieving about 420 µm min(-1) for the growth of sub-centimeter graphene single crystals at temperature about 1000 °C. In addition, the temperature threshold to obtain graphene using ethane can be reduced to 750 °C, lower than the general growth temperature threshold (about 1000 °C) with methane on copper foil. Meanwhile ethane always keeps higher graphene growth rate than methane under the same growth temperature. This study demonstrates that ethane is indeed a potential carbon source for efficient growth of large single-crystalline graphene, thus paves the way for graphene in high-end electronical and optoelectronical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Magmatic degassing, lava dome extrusion, and explosions from Mount Cleveland volcano, Alaska, 2011–2015: Insight into the continuous nature of volcanic activity over multi-year timescales (United States)

    Werner, Cynthia; Kern, Christoph; Coppola, Diego; Lyons, John; Kelly, Peter; Wallace, Kristi; Schneider, David; Wessels, Rick


    Mount Cleveland volcano (1730 m) is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, Alaska, but heightened activity is rarely accompanied by geophysical signals, which makes interpretation of the activity difficult. In this study, we combine volcanic gas emissions measured for the first time in August 2015 with longer-term measurements of thermal output and lava extrusion rates between 2011 and 2015 calculated from MODIS satellite data with the aim to develop a better understanding of the nature of volcanic activity at Mount Cleveland. Degassing measurements were made in the month following two explosive events (21 July and 7 August 2015) and during a period of new dome growth in the summit crater. SO2 emission rates ranged from 400 to 860 t d− 1 and CO2/SO2 ratios were volcano. Rapid increases in the cumulative thermal output were often coincident with visual confirmation of dome growth or accumulations of tephra in the crater. The average rate of lava extrusion calculated for 9 periods of rapid increase in thermal output was 0.28 m3 s− 1, and the total volume extruded from 2011 to 2015 was 1.9–5.8 Mm3. The thermal output from the lava extrusion events only accounts for roughly half of the thermal budget, suggesting a continued presence of shallow magma in the upper conduit, likely driven by convection. Axisymmetric dome morphology and occasional drain back of lava into the conduit suggests low-viscosity magmas drive volcanism at Mount Cleveland. It follows also that only small overpressures can be maintained given the small domes and fluid magmas, which is consistent with the low explosivity of most of Mount Cleveland's eruptions. Changes between phases of dome growth and explosive activity are somewhat unpredictable and likely result from plugs that are related to the dome obtaining a critical dimension, or from small variations in the magma ascent rate that lead to crystallization-induced blockages in the upper conduit, thereby reducing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashkan


    Full Text Available Persian master builders had introduced an architectural innovation which had an imperishable effect on dome architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: surmounting a dome on squinches. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective of Persian domes as the most significant feature of Eastern domes in the Middle East. As opposed to previous general historic studies, this paper introduces a new analytical approach directed towards analysis of architectural concepts and stylistic attributes of Persian domes based on an epistemological premise of their space syntax. By analytic reviewing of examples, the paper addresses the origin of Persian domes, their formal morphological constitutions, and their typological forms based on the diversity of the external shell over the specific timeline, from the pre-Islamic era through the Qajar period in Iran. The study of the Persian dome’s characteristics can illustrate undiscovered information about the essences of developing dome constructions in the Middle East. It can also establish new design standards regarding the frameworks of domical building configurations to be used for creating typological diversity in dome design and to renew the morphological principles of the traditional dome compositions in contemporary architectural designs. Finally, the insights gained can inform conservation efforts on domical structures in the region and elsewhere.

  10. Governing Rapid Growth in Asia: State-led Development in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-W. Ngo (Tak-Wing)


    textabstractRapid growth in Asia has often been explained in terms of effective policies pursued by a “developmental state”. In particular, countries in East Asia are said to be characterized by the presence of a strong state with technocratic capacity and social embeddedness. This inaugural address

  11. Nitric Acid and Benomyl Stimulate Rapid Height Growth of Longleaf Pine (United States)

    A.G. Kais; R.C. Hare; J.P. Barnett


    Rapid height growth of longleaf pine seedlings, important to production of uniform, even-aged stands, can be promoted by controlling brown-spot needle blight and weed competition, and by increasing soil fertility. Root systems of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings were dip-treated in either benomyl/clay mix (10 percent a.i. benomyl) or clay control and planted...

  12. A comparison of test statistics for the recovery of rapid growth-based enumeration tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.

    This paper considers five test statistics for comparing the recovery of a rapid growth-based enumeration test with respect to the compendial microbiological method using a specific nonserial dilution experiment. The finite sample distributions of these test statistics are unknown, because they are

  13. Social Disruption and Rapid Community Growth: An Explication of the "Boom-Town" Hypotheses. (United States)

    Thompson, James G.; And Others

    Recent case studies of social effects of rapid community growth associated with energy development in the western states have relied primarily on qualitative data with limited use of agency records, population surveys, and other secondary sources. While providing the first essential step in the orderly development of a scientific approach to…

  14. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.


    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  15. Rapid growth reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in growth rate, cold resistance and stress proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Stoks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological costs of rapid growth may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal rates. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid growth is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval growth rates in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID GROWTH: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher growth rates. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.

  16. Polygenetic nature of a rhyolitic dome and implications for hazard assessment: Cerro Pizarro volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Carrasco-Núñez, G.; Riggs, N. R.


    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, in contrast to andesitic or dacitic domes that usually show a complex evolution including alternating long periods of growth and explosive destruction. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that apparently last on the order of years to decades or perhaps up to centuries. Cerro Pizarro, a rhyolitic dome in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, is a relatively small (~ 1.1 km 3), isolated volcano that shows aspects of polygenetic volcanism including long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions, chemical variations over time, and a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, including a cryptodome phase, a sector-collapse event and prolonged erosional processes. This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve, in contrast to the traditional models of rhyolitic domes as short-lived, monogenetic systems. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment if reactivation of an apparently extinct rhyolitic dome must be seriously considered.

  17. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  18. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  19. Measurements of crystal growth kinetics at extreme deviations from equilibrium. [Rapid solidification processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, M.J.


    We have measured solute trapping of Sn in Al over a wide enough range of velocities to make a quantitative test of theory. The Continuous Growth Model of Aziz is the only one-parameter model that fits the data. We have also measured the diffusive speed - the growth rate at which interfacial partitioning is in mid-transition between equilibrium partitioning and complete solute trapping - for several solutes in A1. We have found an inverse correlation between the equilibrium partition coefficient and the diffusive speed. Taken together, these results give us heretofore unprecedented predictive capability in modeling rapid solidification processing. We have also examined theoretically short-range diffusion-limited growth, characteristic of incomplete solute trapping, and interface-limited growth, characteristic of complete solute trapping, in alloy solidification and have shown that the two regimes fall naturally out of a single unified theory of solidification.

  20. Self-Assembled Biosensors on a Solid Interface for Rapid Detection and Growth Monitoring of Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Kinnunen, Paivo; Craig, Elizabeth; Brahmasandra, Sundu; McNaughton, Brandon H


    Developing rapid methods for pathogen detection and growth monitoring at low cell and analyte concentrations is an important goal, which numerous technologies are working towards solving. Rapid biosensors have already made a dramatic impact on improving patient outcomes and with continued development, these technologies may also help limit the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the ever expanding risk of foodborne illnesses. One technology that is being developed with these goals in mind is asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) biosensors. Self-assembled AMBR biosensors have been demonstrated at water/air and water/oil interfaces, and here, for the first time, we report on self-assembled AMBR biosensors used at a solid interface. The solid interface configuration was used to measure the growth of Escherichia coli with two distinct phenomena at low cell concentrations: firstly, the AMBR rotational period decreased and secondly, the rotational period increased after several division times. Ta...

  1. Ice crystal precipitation at Dome C site (East Antarctica) (United States)

    Santachiara, G.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.


    For the first time, falling ice crystals were collected on glass slides covered with a thin layer of 2% formvar in chloroform at the Dome Concordia site (Dome C), Antarctica. Samplings were performed in the framework of the 27th Italian Antarctica expedition of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica in the period 21 February-6 August 2012. Events of clear-sky precipitations and precipitations from clouds were considered and the replicas obtained were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Several shapes of ice crystals were identified, including ;diamond dust; (plates, pyramids, hollow and solid columns), and crystal aggregates varying in complexity. Single events often contained both small (10 μm to 50 μm) and large (hundreds of microns) crystals, suggesting that crystals can form simultaneously near the ground (height of a few hundred metres) and at higher layers (height of thousands of metres). Images of sampled crystal replicas showed that single bullets are not produced separately, but by the disintegration of combinations of bullets. Rimed ice crystals were absent in the Dome C samples, i.e. the only mode of crystal growth was water vapour diffusion. On considering the aerosol in the sampled crystals, we reached the conclusion that inertial impaction, interception and Brownian motion were insufficient to explain the scavenged aerosol. We therefore presume that phoretic forces play a role in scavenging during the crystal growth process.

  2. Chd1 is essential for the high transcriptional output and rapid growth of the mouse epiblast


    Guzman-Ayala, Marcela; Sachs, Michael; Koh, Fong Ming; Onodera, Courtney; Bulut-Karslioglu, Aydan; Lin, Chih-Jen; Wong, Priscilla; Nitta, Rachel; Song, Jun S.; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel


    The pluripotent mammalian epiblast undergoes unusually fast cell proliferation. This rapid growth is expected to generate a high transcriptional demand, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We show here that the chromatin remodeler Chd1 is required for transcriptional output and development of the mouse epiblast. Chd1−/− embryos exhibit proliferation defects and increased apoptosis, are smaller than controls by E5.5 and fail to grow, to become patterned or to gastrulate. Removal of p...

  3. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0). (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold


    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Growth of Ni2Si by rapid thermal annealing: Kinetics and moving species (United States)

    Ma, E.; Lim, B. S.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Natan, M.


    The growth kinetics is characterized and the moving species is identified for the formation of Ni2Si by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) of sequentially deposited Si and Ni films on a Si substrate. The interfacial Ni2Si layer grows as the square root of time, indicating that the suicide growth process is diffusion-limited. The activation energy is 1.25±0.2 eV in the RTA temperature range of 350 450° C. The results extend those of conventional steady-state furnace annealing quite fittingly, and a common activation energy of 1.3±0.2 eV is deduced from 225° to 450° C. The marker experiment shows that Ni is the dominant moving species during Ni2Si formation by RTA, as is the case for furnace annealing. It is concluded that the two annealing techniques induce the same growth mechanisms in Ni2Si formation.

  5. Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition growth of nanometer-thin SiC on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckl, A.J.; Li, J.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))


    Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition growth of [beta]-SiC ultrathin films on Si (100) was achieved using the carbonization reaction of the silicon substrate with C[sub 3]H[sub 8] gas. Growth rates of 0.5-2 nm s[sup -1] have been achieved at 1100-1300degC using C[sub 3]H[sub 8] flow rates of 7-9 standard cm[sup 3] min[sup -1]. X-ray and electron diffraction indicate single-crystal growth. Therefore nanometer-scale SiC films can be grown by controlling the reaction time to a few seconds. The activation energy at atmospheric pressure is 3.12 eV. The growth rate was found to decrease significantly at higher C[sub 3]H[sub 8] flow rates, leading to films of constant thickness beyond a certain critical reaction time. Using this regime of self-limiting growth, SiC films of 3-5 nm have been grown with relatively little sensitivity to the growth time. (orig.).

  6. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.


    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  7. Emplacement Scenarios for Volcanic Domes on Venus (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.; Stofan, Ellen R.


    One key to understanding the history of resurfacing on Venus is better constraints on the emplacement timescales for the range of volcanic features visible on the surface. A figure shows a Magellan radar image and topography for a putative lava dome on Venus. 175 such domes have been identified with diameters ranging from 19 - 94 km, and estimated thicknesses as great as 4 km. These domes are thought to be volcanic in origin and to have formed by the flow of viscous fluid (i.e., lava) on the surface.

  8. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin


    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  9. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.


    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  10. Large plasma-membrane depolarization precedes rapid blue-light-induced growth inhibition in cucumber (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.


    Blue-light (BL)-induced suppression of elongation of etiolated Cucumis sativus L. hypocotyls began after a 30-s lag time, which was halved by increasing the fluence rate from 10 to 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. Prior to the growth suppression, the plasma-membrane of the irradiated cells depolarized by as much as 100 mV, then returned within 2-3 min to near its initial value. The potential difference measured with surface electrodes changed with an identical time course but opposite polarity. The lag time for the change in surface potential showed an inverse dependence on fluence rate, similar to the lag for the growth inhibition. Green light and red light caused neither the electrical response nor the rapid inhibition of growth. The depolarization by BL did not propagate to nonirradiated regions and exhibited a refractory period of about 10 min following a BL pulse. Fluence-response relationships for the electrical and growth responses provide correlational evidence that the plasma-membrane depolarization reflects an event in the transduction chain of this light-growth response.

  11. Transient growth from the continuous spectrum of a high-speed rapidly-swirling jet (United States)

    Samanta, Arnab; Muthiah, Gopalsamy


    We investigate the possibility for short-time transient growths involving the helical modes of a rapidly-swirling, high-speed jet that has undergone a sub-critical transition via an axisymmetric vortex breakdown. The base flow is extracted from the time-averaged measurements, consisting of the recirculation bubble and its wake. A pseudospectrum analysis complements a local normal-mode based stability analysis in identifying the continuous spectrum, which is further split into a potential and freestream spectrum, where the non-orthogonality between the former type and the existing discrete stable modes is shown to be the main origin of strong transient growths in such flows. As the swirling flow develops post the bubble collapse, this potential mode spectrum widens, increasing the importance of transient growth inside the wake region. The local transient gains calculated at the wake confirms this, where strong growths far outstrips the exponential modal growth at shorter times, especially at the higher helical orders and smaller streamwise wavenumbers. These short-time transients are likely to be a necessary first-step toward the formation of a wavemaker region at the wake of such flows, leading to their eventual spiral breakdown.

  12. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation. (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan


    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  13. Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution: associations with reduced fetal growth and rapid infant weight gain. (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Oken, Emily


    Prenatal air pollution exposure inhibits fetal growth, but implications for postnatal growth are unknown. We assessed weights and lengths of US infants in the Project Viva cohort at birth and 6 months. We estimated 3rd-trimester residential air pollution exposures using spatiotemporal models. We estimated neighborhood traffic density and roadway proximity at birth address using geographic information systems. We performed linear and logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables, fetal growth, and gestational age at birth. Mean birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (fetal growth) was 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.97; n = 2,114), 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain was 0.23 z-units (SD = 1.11; n = 689), and 17% had weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months of age. Infants exposed to the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of neighborhood traffic density had lower fetal growth (-0.13 units [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.25 to -0.01]), more rapid 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (0.25 units [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.49]), and higher odds of weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months (1.84 [95% CI = 1.11 to 3.05]). Neighborhood traffic density was additionally associated with an infant being in both the lowest quartile of fetal growth and the highest quartile of 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.01 [95% CI = 1.08 to 8.44]). Roadway proximity and 3rd-trimester black carbon exposure were similarly associated with growth outcomes. For 3rd-trimester particulate matter (PM2.5), effect estimates were in the same direction, but smaller and imprecise. Infants exposed to higher traffic-related pollution in early life may exhibit more rapid postnatal weight gain in addition to reduced fetal growth.

  14. Rapid Growth of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Associated with Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Furudate


    Full Text Available We describe a 50-year-old Japanese patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP rapidly growing after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s syndrome that reduced the serum level of cortisol from 17.1 to 0.8 mg/dl. It is known that glucocorticoids decrease the transcriptions of the COL1A1 gene and the PDGFB gene, which is under the direct control of the COL1A1 gene in most DFSP. Therefore, the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids in Cushing’s syndrome might suppress the development of DFSP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of rapid growth of DFSP that may be associated with bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s syndrome.

  15. A comparison between semi-spheroid- and dome-shaped quantum dots coupled to wetting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza; Sabaeian, Mohammad, E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, 61357-43135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    During the epitaxial growth method, self-assembled semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the wetting layer (WL). However for sake of simplicity, researchers sometimes assume semi-spheroid-shaped QDs to be dome-shaped (hemisphere). In this work, a detailed and comprehensive study on the difference between electronic and transition properties of dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots is presented. We will explain why the P-to-S intersubband transition behaves the way it does. The calculated results for intersubband P-to-S transition properties of quantum dots show two different trends for dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots. The results are interpreted using the probability of finding electron inside the dome/spheroid region, with emphasis on the effects of wetting layer. It is shown that dome-shaped and semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots feature different electronic and transition properties, arising from the difference in lateral dimensions between dome- and semi-spheroid-shaped QDs. Moreover, an analogy is presented between the bound S-states in the quantum dots and a simple 3D quantum mechanical particle in a box, and effective sizes are calculated. The results of this work will benefit researchers to present more realistic models of coupled QD/WL systems and explain their properties more precisely.

  16. Finite Element Model of a Two-Phase Non-Newtonian Thixotropic Fluid: Mount St. Helens Lava Dome (United States)

    Vincent, P.; Zevada, P.


    Extrusion of highly viscous lavas that spread laterally and form lava domes in the craters of large volcanoes is associated with significant volcanic hazards. Gas overpressure driven fragmentation of the lava dome or collapse and slumping of marginal sections or the entire mass of the dome can trigger dangerous pyroclastic flows that threaten surrounding populations up to tens of kilometers away. The rate of lava dome growth in the mature state of the dome evolution is often oscillatory. Relatively quiescent episodes are terminated by renewed extrusion and emplacement of exogenous "lobes" or "spines" of lava on the surface of the dome. Emplacement of new lobes is preceded by pressurization of magma in the magmatic conduit that can trigger volcanic eruptions and is preceded by crater floor deformation (e.g. Swanson and Holcombe, 1990). This oscillatory behavior was previously attributed primarily to crystallization kinetics and gas exsolution generating cyclic overpressure build-ups. Analogue modeling of the lava domes has revealed that the oscillatory growth rate can be reproduced by extrusion of isothermal, pseudoplastic and thixotropic plaster of Paris (analogue material for the magma) on a sand layer (analogue material for the unconsolidated deposits of the crater floor). The patterns of dome growth of these models closely correspond to both the 1980-1985 and 2004-2005 growth episodes of Mt. St. Helens lava dome (Swanson and Holcombe, 1990; Major et al., 2005). They also suggest that the oscillatory growth dynamics of the lavas can be explained by the mechanical interaction of the non-Newtonian magma with the frictional and deformable substrate below the lava dome rather than complex crystallization kinetics (e.g. Melnik and Sparks, 1999). In addition, these results suggest that the renewed growth episode of Mt. St. Helens dome in 2006 could be associated with an even higher degree of magma pressurization in the conduit than occurred during the 1980 - 1986

  17. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea. (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H


    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  18. Three-dimensional ground-water modeling in depositional systems, Wilcox Group, Oakwood salt dome area, east Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, G.E.; Seni, S.J.; Kreitler, C.W.


    The data base includes not only measurements of hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity but also lithofacies maps constructed in a previous study of Wilcox depositional systems. The Carrizo aquifer is a fairly homogeneous sand sheet overlying the much thicker Wilcox Group, a multiple-aquifer system composed primarily of fluvial channel-fill sand bodies distributed among lower permeability interchannel sands and muds. The interconnectedness of the channel-fill sands, which have predictable values of hydraulic conductivity, strongly influences the rate and direction of ground-water flow. Lateral interconnectedness may depend largely on frequency distributions of channel-fill sands (that is, sand percent). Vertical interconnectedness is apparently poor owing to the horizontal stratification of sand and mud. Simulating observed pressure-depth trends by manipulating values of equivalent vertical hydraulic conductivity (K/sub v/') demonstrates that the ratio of vertical to horizontal conductivity (K/sub v/'/K/sub h/') is very low (about 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/). Locally high values of K/sub v/' could result in locally rapid vertical flow, which could in turn be detected using pressure-depth residence times of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ years in channel-fill facies and 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years in interchannel facies. Because Oakwood Dome is apparently surrounded by interchannel facies as a result of syndepositional dome growth, the dome may be essentially isolated from circulating Wilcox ground water. A possible exception is where channel-fill facies appear to touch or come close to the northeast flank, coinciding with a brackish-water plume that apparently results from dissolution of salt of cap rock. The northeast orientation of the plume appears to be caused by sand-body distribution and interconnection. 38 references.

  19. Holodeck: Telepresence Dome Visualization System Simulations (United States)

    Hite, Nicolas


    This paper explores the simulation and consideration of different image-projection strategies for the Holodeck, a dome that will be used for highly immersive telepresence operations in future endeavors of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its visualization system will include a full 360 degree projection onto the dome's interior walls in order to display video streams from both simulations and recorded video. Because humans innately trust their vision to precisely report their surroundings, the Holodeck's visualization system is crucial to its realism. This system will be rigged with an integrated hardware and software infrastructure-namely, a system of projectors that will relay with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and computer to both project images onto the dome and correct warping in those projections in real-time. Using both Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and ray-tracing software, virtual models of various dome/projector geometries were created and simulated via tracking and analysis of virtual light sources, leading to the selection of two possible configurations for installation. Research into image warping and the generation of dome-ready video content was also conducted, including generation of fisheye images, distortion correction, and the generation of a reliable content-generation pipeline.

  20. Optical Sky Brightness at Dome C, Antarctica (United States)

    Kenyon, S.; Storey, J. W. V.; Burton, M. G.


    Dome C, Antarctica is a prime site for astronomical observations in terms of climate, wind speeds and turbulence. The infrared and terahertz sky backgrounds are the lowest of any inhabited place on Earth. However, at present little is known about the optical sky brightness and atmospheric extinction. Using a variety of modelling techniques together with data from the South Pole, we estimate the brightness of the night sky including the contributions from scattered sunlight, moonlight, aurorae, airglow, zodiacal light and artificial sources. We compare our results to another prime astronomical site, Mauna Kea. We find moonlight has significantly less effect at Dome C than at Mauna Kea. Aurorae are expected to have a minor impact at both sites, and zodiacal light is expected to be less at Dome C than at Mauna Kea. Airglow emissions at Dome C are expected to be similar to those at temperate sites. With proper planning, artificial sources of light pollution should be non-existent. The overall atmospheric extinction, or opacity, is expected to be the minimum possible. We conclude that Dome C is a very promising site not only for infrared and terahertz astronomy, but for optical astronomy as well..

  1. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins. (United States)

    Olijve, Luuk L C; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J; Voets, Ilja K


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application.

  2. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig


    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost...

  3. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui


    Full Text Available Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr−1 on average, relative to 2005, with the largest increments (15 % yr−1 or more over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005–2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr−1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr−1 and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr−1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr−1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and −3.3 ± 0.3 % yr−1 over the Pearl River Delta. Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve

  4. The research of suspen-dome structure (United States)

    Gong, Shengyuan


    After overcoming the shortcomings of single-layer latticed shell and cable dome structure, the suspen-dome was developed by inheriting the advantages of them, and it was recognized and applied as a new type of prestressed force large span space structure. Based on the analysis of the background and mechanical principle, the researches of suspen-dome are reviewed, including form-finding analysis, the analysis of static force and stability, the dynamic behaviors and the earthquake resistant behavior, the analysis of prestressing force and optimization design, and the research status of the design of the fir-resistant performance etc. This thesis summarizes the methods of various researches, being a reference for further structural performance research and structural engineering application.

  5. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi (US)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs. (MHB)

  6. Talar dome fracture repaired using bioabsorbable fixation. (United States)

    Zelent, Marek E; Neese, David J


    We describe a man with an acute osteochondral defect in the lateral talar dome associated with a supination-adduction-type ankle fracture. The osteochondral defect was readily visible on plain film radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging was ordered to determine the full extent of soft-tissue and articular injury. It was discovered that the patient had a stage IV lesion of the talar dome, with complete inversion of the fragment, and rupture of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular lateral ankle ligaments. Furthermore, the patient experienced an oblique fracture of the medial malleolus with comminution. The talar dome lesion was surgically reduced and fixated using bioabsorbable pins. Nine months after surgery, the patient was fully recovered from his injury and had no functional limitations.

  7. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru. (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J


    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Assessment of the Extent of Land Deformation Associated with Salt Domes within the Jazan City and Surroundings, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Pankratz, H. G.; Sultan, M.; Fathy, K.; AlMogren, S. M.; Harbi, H.; Sefry, S.; Emil, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Ahmed, M.; Othman, A.; Chouinard, K.


    The Jazan city in the Jazan Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a vibrant and rapidly growing economic center and port. The old city of Jazan is centered over a salt dome (diaper) that crops out over an area, 3-4 km wide and 20 to 40 m above surroundings. The intrusion of the diaper into the overlying cap rock causes uneven surfaces, compromises building foundations, and causes infrastructural problems. Our study is aimed at the assessment of the salt dome-related land deformation. Using observations acquired over known locations of salt domes in Jazan and neighboring Farsan Islands, we identified criteria by which previously unidentified, near-surface salt domes, could be mapped. The selected criteria and/or applied methodologies included: (1) deformation over potential salt dome locations detected from Envisat, ERS-2, and Sentinel-1 scenes using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers [StaMPs] and SARscape software. Uplift rates of about 3 mm/yr were observed over the salt dome outcrop in Jazan with increasing rates towards the center, indicating continuous rise of the salt diaper. (2) Local elevation highs over potential, near surface, salt dome intrusions observed in high spatial resolution (12.5 m), PALSAR digital elevation model (DEM). The elevation the Jazan dome is 45m high, whereas its surroundings are 15-30m high. (3) Negative Bouguer gravity anomalies over potential salt dome locations (Bouguer maps generated from 714 m interval airborne gravity data). Negative Bouguer anomalies were observed over the salt domes in Jazan (-3 mGal) and in Farsan (-30 mGal). (4) Boundaries of the potential salt domes extracted from zero tilt contour values on tilt derivative maps. (5) Shallow (GIS platform) of observations extracted from remote sensing, geophysical, GPS, and DEM datasets (items 1 through 5). Eight previously unidentified locations of potential near-surface salt domes were identified along the Red Sea coastline within the scene extent, five of

  9. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...... for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...

  10. After Nearly A Decade Of Rapid Growth, Use And Complexity Of Imaging Declined, 2008-14. (United States)

    Levin, David C; Parker, Laurence; Palit, Charles D; Rao, Vijay M


    Imaging is an important cost driver in health care, and its use grew rapidly in the early 2000s. Several studies toward the end of the decade suggested that a leveling off was beginning to occur. In this study we examined more recent data to determine whether the slowdown had continued. Our data sources were the nationwide Medicare Part B databases for the period 2001-14. We calculated utilization rates per 1,000 enrollees for all advanced imaging modalities. We also calculated professional component relative value unit (RVU) rates per 1,000 beneficiaries for all imaging modalities, as RVU values provide a measure of complexity of imaging services and may in some ways be a better reflection of the amount of work involved in imaging. We found that utilization rates and RVU rates grew substantially until 2008 and 2009, respectively, and then began to drop. The downward trend in both rates persisted through 2014. Federal policies appear to have achieved the desired effect of ending the rapid growth of imaging that had been seen in earlier years. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Rapid microwave-assisted growth of silver nanoparticles on 3D graphene networks for supercapacitor application. (United States)

    Khamlich, S; Khamliche, T; Dhlamini, M S; Khenfouch, M; Mothudi, B M; Maaza, M


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) grown on a three dimensional (3d) graphene networks (GNs) has been successfully prepared by an efficient and rapid microwave-assisted growth process to form GNs/AgNPs nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitor application. The 3d nature of the used GNs offers a unique architecture, which creates an efficient conduction networks and maximum utilization of space and interface, and acts as a conductive layer for the deposited AgNPs. The electrochemical performances of the fabricated electrode were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Specifically, the optimal GNs/AgNPs nanocomposite exhibits remarkable performances with a high specific capacitance of 528Fg-1 at a current density of 1Ag-1 and excellent capacitance retention of ∼93% after 3000cycles. Moreover, this microwave-assisted growth strategy of AgNPs is simple and effective, which could be extended to the construction of other three dimensional graphene based metallic composites for energy storage and conversion applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial competition in porous environments can select against rapid biofilm growth. (United States)

    Coyte, Katharine Z; Tabuteau, Hervé; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Foster, Kevin R; Durham, William M


    Microbes often live in dense communities called biofilms, where competition between strains and species is fundamental to both evolution and community function. Although biofilms are commonly found in soil-like porous environments, the study of microbial interactions has largely focused on biofilms growing on flat, planar surfaces. Here, we use microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study how porous media hydrodynamics can mediate competition between bacterial genotypes. Our experiments reveal a fundamental challenge faced by microbial strains that live in porous environments: cells that rapidly form biofilms tend to block their access to fluid flow and redirect resources to competitors. To understand how these dynamics influence the evolution of bacterial growth rates, we couple a model of flow-biofilm interaction with a game theory analysis. This investigation revealed that hydrodynamic interactions between competing genotypes give rise to an evolutionarily stable growth rate that stands in stark contrast with that observed in typical laboratory experiments: cells within a biofilm can outcompete other genotypes by growing more slowly. Our work reveals that hydrodynamics can profoundly affect how bacteria compete and evolve in porous environments, the habitat where most bacteria live.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    Using the MOSFIRE near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph on the Keck 1 Telescope, we have secured high signal-to-noise ratio absorption line spectra for six massive galaxies with redshift 2 < z < 2.5. Five of these galaxies lie on the red sequence and show signatures of passive stellar populations in their rest-frame optical spectra. By fitting broadened spectral templates we have determined stellar velocity dispersions and, with broad-band Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer photometry and imaging, stellar masses and effective radii. Using this enlarged sample of galaxies, we confirm earlier suggestions that quiescent galaxies at z > 2 have small sizes and large velocity dispersions compared to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The dynamical masses are in very good agreement with stellar masses (log M {sub *}/M {sub dyn} = –0.02 ± 0.03), although the average stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio is larger than that found at lower redshift (–0.23 ± 0.05). By assuming evolution at fixed velocity dispersion, not only do we confirm a surprisingly rapid rate of size growth but we also consider the necessary evolutionary track on the mass-size plane and find a slope α = dlog R{sub e} /dlog M {sub *} ≳ 2 inconsistent with most numerical simulations of minor mergers. Both results suggest an additional mechanism may be required to explain the size growth of early galaxies.

  14. Rapid release of growth factors regenerates force output in volumetric muscle loss injuries (United States)

    Grasman, Jonathan M.; Do, Duc M.; Page, Raymond L.; Pins, George D.


    A significant challenge in the design and development of biomaterial scaffolds is to incorporate mechanical and biochemical cues to direct organized tissue growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) loaded, crosslinked fibrin (EDCn-HGF) microthread scaffolds on skeletal muscle regeneration in a mouse model of volumetric muscle loss (VML). The rapid, sustained release of HGF significantly enhanced the force production of muscle tissue 60 days after injury, recovering more than 200% of the force output relative to measurements recorded immediately after injury. HGF delivery increased the number of differentiating myoblasts 14 days after injury, and supported an enhanced angiogenic response. The architectural morphology of microthread scaffolds supported the ingrowth of nascent myofibers into the wound site, in contrast to fibrin gel implants which did not support functional regeneration. Together, these data suggest that EDCn-HGF microthreads recapitulate several of the regenerative cues lost in VML injuries, promote remodeling of functional muscle tissue, and enhance the functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. Further, by strategically incorporating specific biochemical factors and precisely tuning the structural and mechanical properties of fibrin microthreads, we have developed a powerful platform technology that may enhance regeneration in other axially aligned tissues. PMID:26344363

  15. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.


    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  16. Rapid, low-cost photogrammetry to monitor volcanic eruptions: an example from Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Crider, Juliet G.; Schilling, Steve P.; Dzurisin, Daniel


    We describe a low-cost application of digital photogrammetry using commercially available photogrammetric software and oblique photographs taken with an off-the-shelf digital camera to create sequential digital elevation models (DEMs) of a lava dome that grew during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) volcano. Renewed activity at MSH provided an opportunity to devise and test this method, because it could be validated against other observations of this well-monitored volcano. The datasets consist of oblique aerial photographs (snapshots) taken from a helicopter using a digital single-lens reflex camera. Twelve sets of overlapping digital images of the dome taken during 2004–2007 were used to produce DEMs and to calculate lava dome volumes and extrusion rates. Analyses of the digital images were carried out using photogrammetric software to produce three-dimensional coordinates of points identified in multiple photos. The evolving morphology of the dome was modeled by comparing successive DEMs. Results were validated by comparison to volume measurements derived from traditional vertical photogrammetric surveys by the US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory. Our technique was significantly less expensive and required less time than traditional vertical photogrammetric techniques; yet, it consistently yielded volume estimates within 5% of the traditional method. This technique provides an inexpensive, rapid assessment tool for tracking lava dome growth or other topographic changes at restless volcanoes.

  17. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido —Contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics— (United States)

    TANAKA, Hiroyuki K. M.; YOKOYAMA, Izumi


    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, “pseudo growth curves” of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the “density length” of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics. PMID:18941290

  18. Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido--contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics--. (United States)

    K M Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Izumi


    Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, "pseudo growth curves" of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the "density length" of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics.

  19. Rapid stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and epidermal growth factor in KB cells. (United States)

    Miyata, Y; Hoshi, M; Koyasu, S; Kadowaki, T; Kasuga, M; Yahara, I; Nishida, E; Sakai, H


    Effects of growth factors on fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells were examined by measuring horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a marker. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) promoted HRP accumulation. They also stimulated the efflux of the preloaded HRP from the cells. From these results it follows that these growth factors stimulate the influx as well as the efflux of HRP, because the accumulation rate is the sum of the influx rate and the efflux rate. The stimulation of both HRP accumulation and HRP efflux was rapidly induced within 2-4 min of the addition of growth factors and persisted for at least 60 min. The concentrations eliciting half-maximal stimulatory effects of insulin, IGF-I, and EGF were about 5 X 10(-7), 1 X 10(-9), and 5 X 10(-10) M, respectively. aIR-3 (anti-type I IGF receptor antibody) completely blocked the stimulation of HRP accumulation by IGF-I but very slightly inhibited the stimulation by insulin. The 528 IgG (anti-EGF receptor antibody) inhibited the stimulation of HRP accumulation by EGF. These results indicated that each of these growth factors stimulates the HRP accumulation mediated by the corresponding (homologous) growth factor receptors. The rapid stimulation of fluid-phase influx and efflux may constitute one of the common early cellular responses to growth factors.

  20. Eclogite inclusions in migmatite domes as recorders of deep-crust exhumation mechanism, magnitude, and rate (United States)

    Whitney, Donna; Teyssier, Christian


    Fragments of refractory material such as mafic rocks occur in quartzofeldspathic gneiss and migmatite in domal structures that form when the upper crust extends, driving rapid upward flow of the ductile lower crust. The Montagne Noire, French Massif Central, is an example of an eclogite-bearing migmatite 'double dome' characterized by a vertical high-strain zone (HSZ) and flanking subdomes. Two eclogite localities preserve garnet and omphacite: one in the HSZ and one at the SW margin of the dome. Zircon U-Pb and trace-element data for the HSZ eclogite show that high-pressure metamorphism occurred during the same orogenic event as migmatite dome formation, so the P-T-t-deformation records of eclogites in different structural sites can be used to understand deep crust exhumation in the context of dome dynamics. Numerical models predict that material in the HSZ ascends directly from the deep crust. Material in the subdomes may come from the deep crust or from more intermediate crustal levels; in some cases, dome-margin rocks follow a transport path with an earlier vertical component to the top of the dome, followed by flow into the footwall of an extensional shear zone below the shallow crust. In the Montagne Noire dome, eclogite in the HSZ contains garnet with rutile inclusion-bearing, pyrope-rich rims (up to 50 mol%) and omphacite with up to 36 mol% jadeite. Retrogression is characterized by amphibolite + plagioclase symplectite that has preferentially consumed cpx; texturally late biotite also occurs. The lower-pyrope cores of garnet contain abundant quartz inclusions and record prograde amphibolite facies metamorphism. Peak P-T conditions were 1.4 GPa at 725°C, and eclogite metamorphism was closely related to host migmatite at 315 Ma. Exhumation was rapid, from the deep crust (>40 km) to shallow emplacement of the dome at <10 km depth. Dome-margin eclogite occurs along the tectonized contact between migmatite/gneiss and the schist carapace of the dome. Garnets

  1. Describing the growth and rapid weight gain of urban Australian Aboriginal infants. (United States)

    Webster, Vana; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Knight, Jennifer; Comino, Elizabeth


    The aims of this paper are to describe the growth of urban Australian Aboriginal infants from birth to 24 months of age and to identify the proportion of these infants experiencing rapid weight gain (RWG) and overweight/obesity. The Gudaga Study is a longitudinal birth cohort of 159 Australian Aboriginal children born on the urban fringe of Sydney. Birthweight and length were extracted from hospital data. Children with a birthweight >1500 grams were included in the analysis (n = 157). Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2-3 weeks and then six-monthly until 24 months of age. Age- and gender-specific Z-scores were determined from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 growth charts for weight, length, head circumference and body mass index (BMI). The proportion of children experiencing RWG (an increase in weight-for-age Z-scores ≥0.67 between birth and 12 months) was calculated. The association between RWG and ≥85th CDC percentile for BMI at 24 months was tested using Pearson's χ². The mean weight of Gudaga infants was less than the CDC mean length-for-age at birth and 2-3 weeks of age but greater than CDC mean length-for-age and weight-for-age at 18 and 24 months of age. Overall, 42 infants (34.4%) experienced RWG, and 45 infants (36.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months of age. A greater proportion of those who experienced RWG (61.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months than those who did not experience RWG (23.8%). Our study suggests a concerning proportion of urban Indigenous infants experience RWG and overweight/obesity in early childhood.

  2. Gas dwell time control for rapid and long lifetime growth of single-walled carbon nanotube forests. (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Futaba, Don N; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji


    The heat history (i.e., "dwell time") of the carbon source gas was demonstrated as a vital parameter for very rapid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) forest growth with long lifetime. When the dwell time was raised to 7 s from the 4 s used for standard growth, the growth rate increased to 620 μm/min: a benchmark for SWNT forest growth on substrates. Importantly, the increase in growth rate was achieved without decreasing either the growth lifetime or the quality of the SWNTs. We interpret that the conversion rate of the carbon feedstock into CNTs was selectively increased (versus catalyst deactivation) by delivering a thermally decomposed carbon source with the optimum thermal history to the catalyst site.

  3. Rapid Formation of Black Holes in Galaxies: A Self-limiting Growth Mechanism (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Sellwood, J. A.; Shen, Juntai


    We present high-quality fluid dynamical simulations of isothermal gas flows in a rotating barred potential. We show that a large quantity of gas is driven right into the nucleus of a galaxy when the model lacks a central mass concentration, but the inflow stalls at a nuclear ring in comparison simulations that include a central massive object. The radius of the nuclear gas ring increases linearly with the mass of the central object. We argue that bars drive gas right into the nucleus in the early stages of disk galaxy formation, where a nuclear star cluster and perhaps a massive black hole could be created. The process is self-limiting, however, because inflow stalls at a nuclear ring once the mass of gas and stars in the nucleus exceeds ˜1% of the disk mass, which shuts off rapid growth of the black hole. We briefly discuss the relevance of these results to the seeding of massive black holes in galaxies, the merger model for quasar evolution, and the existence of massive black holes in disk galaxies that lack a significant classical bulge.

  4. Rapid Startup and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin; Vega, Leticia


    The Membrane Aerated Bioreactor (MABR) is an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal. Implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to two weeks and that the surface area to volume ratio baseline used in the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test was higher than what was needed to remove the organic carbon and ammonium from the system.

  5. The Seneca effect why growth is slow but collapse is rapid

    CERN Document Server

    Bardi, Ugo


    The essence of this book can be found in a line written by the ancient Roman Stoic Philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca: "Fortune is of sluggish growth, but ruin is rapid". This sentence summarizes the features of the phenomenon that we call "collapse," which is typically sudden and often unexpected, like the proverbial "house of cards." But why are such collapses so common, and what generates them? Several books have been published on the subject, including the well-known "Collapse" by Jared Diamond (2005), "The collapse of complex societies" by Joseph Tainter (1998) and "The Tipping Point," by Malcom Gladwell (2000). Why The Seneca Effect? This book is an ambitious attempt to pull these various strands together by describing collapse from a multi-disciplinary viewpoint. The reader will discover how collapse is a collective phenomenon that occurs in what we call today "complex systems," with a special emphasis on system dynamics and t he concept of "feedback." From this foundation, Bardi applies the...

  6. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa. (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  7. Early rapid growth : no association with later cognitive functions in children born not small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Ness, Andrew R.; Streuling, Ina; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; von Kries, Ruediger

    Background: There is an association between rapid growth in early life and overweight in childhood. This adverse association needs to be balanced against potential beneficial effects on cognitive functioning observed in children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Objective: We examined

  8. consistencia en dome: un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Las herramientas metaCASE ofrecen una funcionalidad similar a la de las herramientas CASE convencionales para notaciones gráficas arbitrarias, una vez estas notaciones le sean especificadas adecuadamente. La principal dificultad de dichas herramientas es la especificación de las diferentes reglas de consistencia, que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se usa una notación. En este artículo se presenta la especificación de dos reglas de consistencia del diagrama de clases de UML en el metaCASE DOME, codificadas en el lenguaje de programación Alter. Adicionalmente, se hace un análisis comparativo entre las especificaciones de los aspectos estructurales y de las reglas de consistencia en DOME y en la especificación de UML provista por el OMG.

  9. First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years (United States)

    Goswami, Jitendranath


    First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years J. N. Goswami Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad-380009, India Collapse of a dense molecular cloud led to the formation of the proto-Sun surrounded by a high temperature gaseous nebula. The nebula settled down to the mid-plane and formation of the first solar system solids, refractory oxides and silicates, such as Corundum, Perovskite, Melilite took place, that was followed by formation of more common silicate minerals. Laboratory studies of primitive meteorites support this scenario and also provide evidence for correlated presence of several now-extinct short-lived nuclides (e.g. 41Ca, 26Al, 60Fe) at the time of formation of the first solar system solids. Presence of 60Fe in early solar system solids suggests injection of freshly synthesized nuclides from a stellar source (a supernova) into the proto-solar cloud that also triggered its collapse and led to formation of our solar system. Presence of 41Ca (half-life: 0.1Ma) in early solar system solids suggest a time scale of less than a million years for the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and formation of proto-Sun and the first solar system solids. The gradual evolution of larger solar system objects, up to planetesimals (represented by the asteroids), took place at a rapid pace within a time scale of a few million years. Some of the asteroids retain their pristine nature (e.g. parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrite), while others, underwent melting and differentiation due to internal heating. Harold Urey proposed radioactive 26Al as a possible heat source that was confirmed by experiment only in 1999. Irons and stony iron meteorites are fragments from core regions of differentiated asteroids. Extensive computer simulation studies suggest that an explosive stellar event (e.g. supernova) can indeed trigger the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and also inject freshly synthesized short-lived nuclides into it within a relatively

  10. Remote Control of the CFHT Dome Shutter (United States)

    Look, Ivan; Roberts, Larry; Vermeulen, Tom; Taroma, Ralph; Matsushige, Grant


    Several years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will attempt to provide Design Information on the Dome Shutter, which is both Controlled and Monitored Remotely from Waimea. The Dome Shutter Control System incorporates an upgraded Allen-Bradley PLC processor (SLC 5/05), which provides Remote Operation and Monitoring of the existing System. Several earlier upgrade projects were integrated to provide improvement to the Shutter System such as PLC Control, System Feedback, and Safety Features. This particular upgrade provides Remote capability, CFHT developed Control GUI, and Remote monitoring that promise to deliver a more versatile, visual, and safer Shutter Operation. The Dome Shutter Control System provides three modes of Operation namely; Remote, Integration, and Local. The Control GUI is used to operate the Shutter remotely. Integration mode is provided to develop PLC software code and is performed by connecting a Laptop directly to the Shutter Control Panel. Local mode is retained to provide Remote Lockout (No Remote Control), which allows Shutter control ONLY via the existing Electrical Panel. This mode is primarily intended for Shutter maintenance and troubleshooting. The Dome Shutter remains the first Line-of-Defense for Telescope protection due to inclement weather and so special attention was considered during Remote development. The Shutter has been equipped with an Autonomous Shutdown sequence in the event of Power or Network failure. If Loss of HELCO Power or Start-up of our Stand-by Diesel Generator is detected; a planned timing sequence will Close the Shutter Automatically. Likewise, an internal CFHT Network heartbeat was

  11. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.


    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  12. Tephra layers in the Siple Dome and Taylor Dome ice cores, Antarctica: Sources and correlations (United States)

    Dunbar, Nelia W.; Zielinski, Gregory A.; Voisins, Daniel T.


    Volcanic ash, or tephra layers, are found in the Taylor Dome, Siple Dome A, and Siple Dome B ice cores. Significant shard concentrations are found at a number of depths in all three cores. Electron and ion microprobe analyses indicate that the geochemical composition of most layers is basaltic, basanitic, or trachytic, and the geochemical signatures of the layers suggest derivation from the Pleiades volcanic center, Mt. Melbourne volcano, or small mafic centers, probably in the Royal Society Range area. Presence of tephra layers suggests an episode of previously unrecognized Antarctic volcanic activity between 1776 and 1805 A.D., from at least two volcanic centers. A strong geochemical correlation (D = 3.49 and 3.97 with a value of 4 considered identical) is observed between tephra layers at depth of 79.2 m in the Taylor Dome ice core, and layers between 97.2 and 97.7 m depth in the Siple B core. This correlation, and the highly accurate depth-age scale of the Siple B core suggest that the age of this horizon in the Taylor Dome ice core presented by [1998a, 2000] should be revised downward, to the younger age of 675 ± 25 years before 1995. This revised chronology is consistent with vertical strain measurements presented by [2003].

  13. Hemispherical optical dome for underwater communication (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water, even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple communication system, consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver, has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter. Two versions of the optical dome (with 6" and 8" diameters) were designed using PTC's Creo CAD software and modeled using Synopsys' CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows that the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with

  14. Hemispherical Optical Dome for Underwater Communication (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through the water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with using this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple system consisting only of a highly directional source transmitter and small optical detector receiver has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter.Two versions of the optical dome (with 6 and 8 diameters) were designed using the CREO CAD software and modeled using the CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with the experimental test

  15. Rapid, bilateral changes in growth rate and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of growth control (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.


    The growth response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion rate on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This growth asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the growth asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary growth reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of growth response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The growth kinetics require a growth mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.

  16. Rapid growth of phosphorus-rich olivine in mantle xenolith from Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco, Africa) (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Mavrogonatos, Konstantinos; Flemetakis, Stamatios; Papoutsa, Angeliki; Klemme, Stephan; Berndt, Jasper; Asimow, Paul


    Phosphorus(P)-rich zones in olivine may reflect incorporation of P in excess of equilibrium partitioning during rapid growth (e.g. Milman-Barris et al. 2008). We investigated a mantle xenolith from Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco) by optical microscopy and electron microprobe. It contains spinel-bearing lherzolite and orthopyroxenite layers, cross-cut by veins dominated by glass and secondary phases including P-rich olivines. The host lava, presumed to be alkali basalt (El Messbahi et al. 2015), is present on the margins of the hand sample but not included in our thin section. The studied melt veins (MV) generally contain Ol+Gl+Cpx+Pl+Spl±Ap. Olivines in the MV have (Fo72.1-83.4) with 0.02-0.3 wt.% P2O5; olivines with P2O5 >0.1 wt.% are Fo75.3 -82.8. Some olivine grains are inclusion-free; others contain rounded glass inclusions or subhedral spinel or ilmenite inclusions. Olivines is generally found in contact with plagioclase and glass. Glass (5-15 vol%) has variable composition with P2O5 up to 1.52 wt.%, K2O 1.65-2.37 wt%, CaO 6.39-9.55 wt%, Na2O 0.78-6.70 wt% and SiO2 45.2-49.6 wt%. Where glass is in contact with matrix olivine, Fe-rich outer rims on olivine indicate mineral-melt reaction. In MgO variation diagrams, glass compositions display a coherent single trend for all oxides, with the exception of a discrete low-Na group. Clinopyroxene is present both as isolated subhedral to euhedral crystals within the MV and as replacive rims on matrix minerals. Very fine-grained dendritic clinopyroxene quench crystals up to 10 μm long are also present. Plagioclase occurs as prismatic, flow-oriented crystals parallel or sub-parallel to the layering. Spinel shows anhedral and euhedral shapes and occurs both as inclusions in olivine and as discrete grains associated with plagioclase and glass. Spinel in contact with glass shows a spongy outer rim and normal zonation towards Fe-rich rim compositions. Apatite is found mostly as very small crystals embedded in glass. High

  17. Conformal dome aberration correction by designing the inner surface (United States)

    Zhang, Wang; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang


    The ray transmission models of optical domes were established, and the characteristics of the rays while passing through a hemispherical dome and a conformal dome were comparatively analysed. Acquiring the minimum deviated angles from the inner surface of the conformal dome was then determined to be the designing goal for reducing the dynamic aberrations. Based on this, the inner surface of the conformal dome was optimized and thus, the dynamic aberrations were reduced. Finally, a completely cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the optical system have produced good imaging quality within all the fields of regard, which further illustrates that designing the inner surface of a conformal dome is an effective method for aberration correction.

  18. Effect of convective flow on stable dendritic growth in rapid solidification of a binary alloy (United States)

    Galenko, P. K.; Danilov, D. A.; Reuther, K.; Alexandrov, D. V.; Rettenmayr, M.; Herlach, D. M.


    A model for anisotropic growth of a dendritic crystal in a binary mixture under non-isothermal conditions is presented. A criterion for a stable growth mode is given for the dendrite tip as a function of the thermal Péclet number and the ratio between the velocities of dendrite growth and solute diffusion in the liquid bulk. Limiting cases of known criteria for anisotropic dendrite growth at low and high growth Péclet numbers are provided. The inclusion of forced convective flow extends the range of theoretical predictions, especially to low growth velocities, thus eliminating systematic discrepancies between earlier models and observed experimental data, as shown by a comparison of model predictions with measured growth velocities in Ti-55 at% Al alloys solidified under electromagnetic levitation.

  19. Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Ozaki, Yori; Saito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Kyoko; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori; Takenaka, Asako


    Protein malnutrition promotes hepatic steatosis, decreases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and retards growth. To identify new molecules involved in such changes, we conducted DNA microarray analysis on liver samples from rats fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet for 8 h. We identified the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene (Fgf21) as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes under conditions of acute protein malnutrition (P<0·05, false-discovery rate<0·001). In addition, amino acid deprivation increased Fgf21 mRNA levels in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells (P<0·01). These results suggested that amino acid limitation directly increases Fgf21 expression. FGF21 is a polypeptide hormone that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 also promotes a growth hormone-resistance state and suppresses IGF-I in transgenic mice. Therefore, to determine further whether Fgf21 up-regulation causes hepatic steatosis and growth retardation after IGF-I decrease in protein malnutrition, we fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet to Fgf21-knockout (KO) mice. Fgf21-KO did not rescue growth retardation and reduced plasma IGF-I concentration in these mice. Fgf21-KO mice showed greater epididymal white adipose tissue weight and increased hepatic TAG and cholesterol levels under protein malnutrition conditions (P<0·05). Overall, the results showed that protein deprivation directly increased Fgf21 expression. However, growth retardation and decreased IGF-I were not mediated by increased FGF21 expression in protein malnutrition. Furthermore, FGF21 up-regulation rather appears to have a protective effect against obesity and hepatic steatosis in protein-malnourished animals.

  20. Partial agonist, but not pure antiestrogens stimulate doming, a marker of normal differentiation, in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. (United States)

    Butler, W Barkley; D'Amico, Stephen C; Glassford, William J; Wu, Weizhen


    Abstract Background: The mechanisms by which tamoxifen inhibits breast tumor growth are not completely understood. Partial agonist antiestrogens such as tamoxifen may cause the estrogen receptor (ER) to interact with genes different from those activated by ER bound to estradiol. Doming is a property often associated with, and considered a marker of, differentiation in mammary epithelial cells in culture. This study compared the ability of pure and partial agonist antiestrogens to stimulate doming. MCF-7 cells grown in medium with 10% calf serum were treated with antiestrogens. Domes were counted in three rows (width of the 4× field) across the flask. Three partial agonist antiestrogens [4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT), H1285 and RU 39,411] caused dome formation. None of the pure antiestrogens tested (ICI 164,384, ICI 182,780 and RU 58,668) caused doming. Doming was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner starting at 1 nM OHT with maximum stimulation at 10-100 nM. Estradiol did not stimulate doming, but blocked doming at 1%-10% of the OHT concentration. Trichostatin A (TSA) reduced the level of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and adding it 24 h before adding OHT prevented dome formation. OHT and the other partial agonist antiestrogens appear to act through the ER to stimulate doming. The ability of tamoxifen to induce a marker of differentiation may play a role in its inhibition of breast tumors. If so, then the fact that other partial agonist antiestrogens share this ability, but that pure antiestrogens lack it, may be an important consideration in developing new antiestrogens for breast cancer therapy.

  1. Cage Culture Turbidostat: a Device for Rapid Determination of Algal Growth Rate


    Skipnes, Olav; Eide, Ingvar; Jensen, Arne


    The present cage culture turbidostat consists of a growth chamber and a control unit. The microorganisms (photoautotrophic algae) are kept in the growth chamber by porous membranes (pore size 1 to 3 μm) which retain the algae but allow efficient exchange of the growth medium. Flow rate and composition of the medium can therefore be varied independently of algal population density. A reciprocating pumping mode of the medium is introduced to obtain more gentle clearance of membranes than that p...

  2. Open Door Policy and China's Rapid Growth: Evidence from City-level Data


    Shang-Jin Wei


    There is clear evidence that during 1980-90 more exports are positively associated with higher growth rates across Chinese cities. In comparison, in the late 1980s, the contribution to growth comes mainly from foreign investment. The contribution of foreign investment comes in the form of technological and managerial spillover across firms as opposed to an infusion of new capital. Finally, there is nothing magical about the high growth rates of Chinese coastal areas other than their effective...

  3. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice. (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen


    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  4. Incubation behavior of silicon nanowire growth investigated by laser-assisted rapid heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang-gil; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Allen, Frances I.; Minor, Andrew M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hwang, David J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)


    We investigate the early stage of silicon nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using laser-localized heating combined with ex-situ chemical mapping analysis by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. By achieving fast heating and cooling times, we can precisely determine the nucleation times for nanowire growth. We find that the silicon nanowire nucleation process occurs on a time scale of ∼10 ms, i.e., orders of magnitude faster than the times reported in investigations using furnace processes. The rate-limiting step for silicon nanowire growth at temperatures in the vicinity of the eutectic temperature is found to be the gas reaction and/or the silicon crystal growth process, whereas at higher temperatures it is the rate of silicon diffusion through the molten catalyst that dictates the nucleation kinetics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.


    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  6. Superconducting Dome in a Gate-Tuned Band Insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J. T.; Zhang, Y. J.; Akashi, R.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.; Iwasa, Y.


    A dome-shaped superconducting region appears in the phase diagrams of many unconventional superconductors. In doped band insulators, however, reaching optimal superconductivity by the fine-tuning of carriers has seldom been seen. We report the observation of a superconducting dome in the

  7. Rapid Growth of Psychology Programs in Turkey: Undergraduate Curriculum and Structural Challenges (United States)

    Sümer, Nebi


    Similar to the other developing countries, undergraduate psychology programs in Turkish universities have rapidly grown in the last two decades. Although this sharp increment signifies the need for psychologists, it has also caused a number of challenges for effective teaching of psychology. The department chairs (N = 42) were interviewed with an…

  8. Undergraduate Chemistry Education in Chinese Universities: Addressing the Challenges of Rapid Growth (United States)

    Gou, Xiaojun; Cao, Haishi


    In the past 30 years, university-level chemistry education in China has been experiencing significant changes because of the rapid expansion of its university education system. These changes are reflected in improvements to the existing education goals, classroom teaching methods, textbooks, teaching facilities, teacher profiles, lab activities,…

  9. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Christopher J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Results Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. Conclusions These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  10. Transdomes: Emplacement of Migmatite Domes in Oblique Tectonic Settings (United States)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Rey, P. F.; Whitney, D. L.; Mondy, L. S.; Roger, F.


    Many migmatite domes are emplaced within wrench corridors in which a combination of strike-slip and extensional detachment zones (pull-apart, extensional relay, or transfer zones) focus deep-crust exhumation. The Montagne Noire dome (France, Variscan Massif Central) exemplifies wrench-related dome formation and displays the following structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic characteristics of a 'transdome': the dome is elongate in the direction of extension; foliation outlines a double dome separated by a high-strain zone; lineation is shallowly plunging with a fairly uniform trend that parallels the strike of the high-strain zone; subdomes contain recumbent structures overprinted by upright folds that affected upward by flat shear zones associated with detachment tectonics; domes display a large syn-deformation metamorphic gradient from core (upper amphibolite facies migmatite) to margin (down to greenschist facies mylonite); some rocks in the dome core experienced isothermal decompression revealed by disequilibrium reaction textures, particularly in mafic rocks (including eclogite); and results of U-Pb geochrononology indicate a narrow range of metamorphic crystallization from core to mantling schist spanning ~10 Myr. 3D numerical modeling of transdomes show that the dome solicits a larger source region of partially molten lower crust compared to 2D models; this flowing crust creates a double-dome architecture as in 2D models but there are differences in the predicted thermal history and flow paths. In a transtension setting, flow lines converge at depth (radial-centripetal flow) toward the zone of extension and diverge at shallow levels in a more uniform direction that is imposed by upper crust motion and deformation. This evolution produces a characteristic pattern of strain history, progressive fabric overprint, and P-T paths that are comparable to observed dome rocks.

  11. Interdiffusion and growth of chromium silicide at the interface of Cr/Si(As) system during rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkherbache, H. [Universite de M' Sila, (28000) M' Sila (Algeria); Merabet, A., E-mail: merabet_abdelali@yahoo.f [Laboratoire Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux Metalliques, Departement d' O.M.P., Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Setif, (19000) Setif (Algeria)


    In this work, the solid-state reaction between a thin film of chromium and silicon has been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and the sheet resistance measurements. The thickness of 100 nm chromium layer has been deposited by electronic bombardment on Si (100) substrates, part of them had previously been implanted with arsenic ions of 10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} doses and an energy of 100 keV. The samples were heat treated under rapid thermal annealing at 500 {sup o}C for time intervals ranging from 15 to 60 s. The rapid thermal annealing leads to a reaction at the interface Cr/Si inducing the formation and the growth of the unique silicide CrSi{sub 2}, but no other phase can be detected. For samples implanted with arsenic, the saturation value of the sheet resistance is approximately 1.5 times higher than for the non-implanted case.

  12. Rapid growth of black holes in massive star-forming galaxies. (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; Bauer, F E; Chapman, S C; Blain, A W; Brandt, W N; Ivison, R J


    The tight relationship between the masses of black holes and galaxy spheroids in nearby galaxies implies a causal connection between the growth of these two components. Optically luminous quasars host the most prodigious accreting black holes in the Universe, and can account for greater than or approximately equal to 30 per cent of the total cosmological black-hole growth. As typical quasars are not, however, undergoing intense star formation and already host massive black holes (> 10(8)M(o), where M(o) is the solar mass), there must have been an earlier pre-quasar phase when these black holes grew (mass range approximately (10(6)-10(8))M(o)). The likely signature of this earlier stage is simultaneous black-hole growth and star formation in distant (redshift z > 1; >8 billion light years away) luminous galaxies. Here we report ultra-deep X-ray observations of distant star-forming galaxies that are bright at submillimetre wavelengths. We find that the black holes in these galaxies are growing almost continuously throughout periods of intense star formation. This activity appears to be more tightly associated with these galaxies than any other coeval galaxy populations. We show that the black-hole growth from these galaxies is consistent with that expected for the pre-quasar phase.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина


    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI:

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep. (United States)

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A


    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  15. 1-D-ice flow modelling at EPICA Dome C and Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin


    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1-D ice flow models are used to construct the age scales at the Dome C and Dome Fuji drilling sites (East Antarctica. The poorly constrained glaciological parameters at each site are recovered by fitting independent age markers identified within each core. We reconstruct past accumulation rates, that are larger than those modelled using the classical vapour saturation pressure relationship during glacial periods by up to a factor 1.5. During the Early Holocene, changes in reconstructed accumulation are not linearly related to changes in ice isotopic composition. A simple model of past elevation changes is developed and shows an amplitude variation of 110–120 m at both sites. We suggest that there is basal melting at Dome C (0.56±0.19 mm/yr. The reconstructed velocity profile is highly non-linear at both sites, which suggests complex ice flow effects. This induces a non-linear thinning function in both drilling sites, which is also characterized by bumps corresponding to variations in ice thickness with time.

  16. PENGEMBANGAN DESA WISATA RUMAH DOME BERBASIS AGROINDUSTRI PANGAN LOKAL (Kajian Diversifikasi Ketela Pohon di Desa Wisata Rumah Dome Prambanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Wuri Ani


    Full Text Available Pangan merupakan kebutuhan utama dalam kehidupan manusia. Pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan baik dari segi jumlah, mutu, gizi maupun keamanan berkaitan dengan Sumberdaya Manusia (SDM. Kualitas konsumsi pangan dan gizi masyarakat menentukan SDM masyarakat tersebut. Agroindustri pangan lokal merupakan kegiatan yang memberdayakan sumberdaya lokal (indigenous resources. Seluruh potensi lokal dimanfaatkan untuk menguatkan agroindustri pangan lokal. Penduduk di kawasan wisata Rumah Dome belum mampu mengolah bahan pangan lokal. Kegiatan ini bertujuan membentuk kelompok usaha produktif Ibu-Ibu PKK di Rumah Dome untuk dapat meningkatkan nilai ekonomis pangan lokal (ketela pohon. Hal yang dilakukan adalah memberikan pelatihan pengolahan ketela pohon menjadi ceriping singkong berbagai rasa, keripik belut daun singkong, membuat brownies berbahan tepung ketela, mengemas produk dengan brand Rumah Dome dan memberikan pelatihan pembukuan sederhana. Dengan kegiatan ini diharapkan akan tumbuh kelompok usaha produktif sehingga dapat mengangkat citra wisata Rumah Dome dan meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat di Rumah Dome. Abstract Food is a major necessity in human life. Food needs are important for human resource (HR both in terms of quantity and quality. Quality of food consumption and nutrition communities determine the HR community. Local food agroindustry is an activity that empowers local resources (indigenous resources. The whole potential of local food used to strengthen local agroindustry. Residents in the tourist area of Dome House have not been able to process local food. This activity aims to establish productive business of woman group (PKK in Dome House to increase the economic value of local food (cassava. The activities are training for production process, packaging with Dome House’s brand and simple accounting management. The cassava processing training are: (1 making variety flavors of cassava chips; (2 producing eel chips from cassava leaves and (3

  17. Tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of musa (banana and plantain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.; De Langhe, E.


    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and Ba (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15/sup 0/ C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature. 20 references.

  18. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.


    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Rapid and Sustained Nuclear-Cytoplasmic ERK Oscillations Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Chrisler, William B.; Resat, Haluk; Bollinger, Nikki; Opresko, Lee K.; Wiley, H. S.


    Mathematical modeling has predicted that ERK activity should oscillate in response to cell stimulation, but this has never been observed. To explore this inconsistency, we expressed an ERK1-GFP fusion protein in mammary epithelial cells. Following EGF stimulation, we observed rapid and continuous ERK oscillations between the nucleus and cytoplasm with a periodicity of approximately 15 minutes. These oscillations were remarkably persistent (>45 cycles), displayed an asymmetric waveform, and were highly dependent on cell density, essentially disappearing at confluency. We conclude that the ERK pathway is an intrinsic oscillator. Although the functional implications of the observed oscillations are uncertain, this property can be used to continuously monitor ERK activity in single cells.

  20. Spontaneous hemorrhage simulating rapid growth of a benign subperiosteal plexiform neurofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blitman, Netta M. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Levsky, Jeffrey M.; Thornhill, Beverly A. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Surgical Pathology, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)


    Spontaneous subperiosteal hemorrhage is a rare complication of von Recklinghausen's disease. There are few reports describing the MR imaging characteristics of this entity. Our case is unique among these as an underlying plexiform neurofibroma was visualized by MR imaging. We present a 12-year-old child with neurofibromatosis 1 who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass of the fibula. Surgery and pathology revealed subperiosteal hemorrhage into a benign, plexiform neurofibroma. The MR imaging features, pathogenesis and clinical implications of this entity are discussed. Recognition of this disease process and differentiating it from malignant transformation can prevent unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  1. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010. (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart


    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Evaluation of the use of conductimetry for the rapid and precise measurement of Salmonella spp. growth rates. (United States)

    Sherry, A E; Patterson, M F; Kilpatrick, D; Madden, R H


    The growth rates of 14 Salmonella serovars in tryptone soy broth plus yeast extract (TSBYE) were estimated using conventional plating techniques and indirect conductimetry using a Don Whitley RABIT system. Both methods gave identical results for the maximum specific growth rate (mumax) P>0.05. However, using the conductimetric method, mumax for a single serovar was determined in less than 7 h, whereas the conventional method required an additional 24 h. In addition, the conductimetric method was considerably more precise, much less labour-intensive and required the use of considerably less consumables. Using conductimetry, a trained operator could accurately determine mumax for 24 serovars in 3 working days, but only one serovar using the conventional plate counting technique. Hence, the use of conductimetry can markedly increase the precision and accuracy of mumax determinations by allowing a very significant increase in the number of results obtained and in their precision. The data generated will allow the development of better mathematical growth models. The method can also be used to compare growth media and conditions and hence rapidly optimise detection protocols for this pathogen.

  3. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion. (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada


    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Rapid and highly efficient growth of graphene on copper by chemical vapor deposition of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Nicola, E-mail: [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Buonocore, Francesco; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Leoni, Enrico [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana; Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Capasso, Andrea [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)


    The growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal foils is a promising technique to deliver large-area films with high electron mobility. Nowadays, the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on copper is the most investigated synthesis method, although many other carbon precursors and metal substrates are used too. Among these, ethanol is a safe and inexpensive precursor that seems to offer favorable synthesis kinetics. We explored the growth of graphene on copper from ethanol, focusing on processes of short duration (up to one min). We investigated the produced films by electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A graphene film with high crystalline quality was found to cover the entire copper catalyst substrate in just 20 s, making ethanol appear as a more efficient carbon feedstock than methane and other commonly used precursors. - Highlights: • Graphene films were grown by fast chemical vapor deposition of ethanol on copper. • High-temperature/short-time growth produced highly crystalline graphene. • The copper substrate was entirely covered by a graphene film in just 20 s. • Addition of H{sub 2} had a negligible effect on the crystalline quality.

  5. Rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis under static growth conditions. (United States)

    Waters, Elaine M; McCarthy, Hannah; Hogan, Siobhan; Zapotoczna, Marta; O'Neill, Eoghan; O'Gara, James P


    Rapid screening of biofilm forming capacity by Staphylococcus epidermidis is possible using in vitro assays with 96-well plates. This method first developed by Christensen et al. in 1985 is fast and does not require specialized instruments. Thus, laboratories with standard microbiology infrastructure and a 96-well plate reader can easily use this technique to generate data on the biofilm phenotypes of multiple S. epidermidis strains and clinical isolates. Furthermore, this method can be adapted to gain insights into biofilm regulation and the characteristics of biofilms produced by different S. epidermidis isolates. Although this assay is extremely useful for showing whether individual strains are biofilm-positive or biofilm-negative and distinguishing between form weak, moderate or strong biofilm, it is important to acknowledge that the absolute levels of biofilm produced by an individual strain can vary significantly between experiments meaning that strict adherence to the protocol used is of paramount importance. Furthermore, measuring biofilm under static conditions does not generally reflect in vivo conditions in which bacteria are often subjected to shear stresses under flow conditions. Hence, the biofilm characteristics of some strains are dramatically different under flow and static conditions. Nevertheless, rapid measurement of biofilm production under static conditions is a useful tool in the analysis of the S. epidermidis biofilm phenotype.

  6. Rapid Growth of Lung Nodules due to Combined Pulmonary Vasculitis, Silicoanthracosis, and Chondrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Jungraithmayr


    Full Text Available Background. Silicoanthracosis is a pneumoconiosis due to occupational inhalation of silica and carbon dusts. Clinically, it can be associated with vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis. In association with these diseases, silicoanthracosis can present within the lung with multiple pulmonary nodules which, as a differential diagnosis, can mimic metastatic disease or multiple abscesses. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 62-year old former pit worker with pulmonary nodules, chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD, and a history of renal cancer. Within a short period of time, pulmonary nodules grew rapidly. Thoracoscopically, the resected lung specimen revealed silicoanthracosis associated with small-to-medium-size vasculitis in the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (c-ANCA. Conclusion. Pulmonary silicoanthracotic lesions on the base of ANCA-associated vasculitis and CPPD arthritis can rapidly grow. A mutual correlation between silicoanthracosis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, and CPPD seems possible. Apart from this, consideration of metastatic disease should be obligatory in patients with a history of cancer at the same time being immunosuppressed.

  7. Polygenetic Nature of a Rhyolitic Dome: Cerro Pizarro, Eastern Mexico (United States)

    Carrasco-Nuñez, G.; Riggs, N.


    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, such as those forming basaltic scoria cones; this contrasts with domes of andesitic or dacitic composition that usually show a complex evolution. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that commonly last on the order of years to decades or perhaps centuries. Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome with a volume of ~1.1 km3, located in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin. Cerro Pizarro has an eruptive history similar to a polygenetic volcano, including a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, a cryptodome phase, and sector collapse, marked chemical variations with time, and long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions that reveals intermittent injection of magmas. Whereas major element chemistry does not show significant changes, trace and rare-earth elements show marked differences between the last eruptive episode and the initial and intermediate stages of activity. Other rhyolitic domes such as Glass Mountain, CA, Taylor Creek, NM, South Sister domes, OR, and the Mono Inyo complex, CA, show moderate to strong chemical variations. These domes, however, are related to larger volcanic fields or are dome complexes formed by numerous vents, in contrast with Cerro Pizarro, which is an isolated volcano with no apparent relation to nearby larger volcanic systems (e.g., Los Humeros caldera). This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment. Activity at Cerro Pizarro leads us to speculate that isolated rhyolitic systems may become reactivated, potentially after tens of thousands of years.

  8. Controlling Growth High Uniformity Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Nanowires via the Rapid Thermal Annealing Process at Low Temperature. (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chu; Hung, Yu-Chen; Wang, Chiu-Yen


    High uniformity Au-catalyzed indium selenide (In2Se3) nanowires are grown with the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The diameters of Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires could be controlled with varied thicknesses of Au films, and the uniformity of nanowires is improved via a fast pre-annealing rate, 100 °C/s. Comparing with the slower heating rate, 0.1 °C/s, the average diameters and distributions (standard deviation, SD) of In2Se3 nanowires with and without the RTA process are 97.14 ± 22.95 nm (23.63%) and 119.06 ± 48.75 nm (40.95%), respectively. The in situ annealing TEM is used to study the effect of heating rate on the formation of Au nanoparticles from the as-deposited Au film. The results demonstrate that the average diameters and distributions of Au nanoparticles with and without the RTA process are 19.84 ± 5.96 nm (30.00%) and about 22.06 ± 9.00 nm (40.80%), respectively. It proves that the diameter size, distribution, and uniformity of Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires are reduced and improved via the RTA pre-treated. The systemic study could help to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials through tuning the annealing rate, temperatures of precursor, and growth substrate to control the size distribution of other nanomaterials. Graphical Abstract Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process proved that it can uniform the size distribution of Au nanoparticles, and then it can be used to grow the high uniformity Au-catalyzed In2Se3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Comparing with the general growth condition, the heating rate is slow, 0.1 °C/s, and the growth temperature is a relatively high growth temperature, > 650 °C. RTA pre-treated growth substrate can form smaller and uniform Au nanoparticles to react with the In2Se3 vapor and produce the high uniformity In2Se3 nanowires. The in situ annealing TEM is used to realize the effect of heating rate on Au nanoparticle

  9. Rapid growth of zinc oxide nanobars in presence of electric field by physical vapor deposition (United States)

    Jouya, Mehraban; Taromian, Fahime; Siami, Simin


    In this contribution, electric field has some effects to increase growth for specific time duration on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanobars. First, the zinc (Zn) thin film has been prepared by 235,000 V/m electric field assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) at vacuum of 1.33 × 10-5 mbar. Second, strong electric field of 134,000 V/m has been used in ambient for growing ZnO nanobars in term of the time include 2.5 and 10 h. The performances of the ZnO nanostructure in absence and presence of electric field have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of XRD analysis showed that ZnO has a hexagonal bars structure and a strongly preferred (101) orientation which is strongest than without applying electric field. SEM analysis revealed that physical vapored ZnO thin film in presence of electric field are densely packed with uniform morphological, thinner and denser in distribution. Electric field effect for ZnO growth in 2.5 h is better than it in the 2.5 h without electric field but by passing the time the media influence has good power almost as same as electric field. Through this electric field in PVD, the compact and uniform Zn film has been achieved which is less diameter than ordinary PVD method. Finally, we carry out a series of experiments to grow different-orientation ZnO nanobars with less than 100 nm in diameter, which are the time saving process in base of PVD ever reported. Therefore, the significant conclusion in usage electric field is reducing time of growth.

  10. The Effects of the Foldable Dome of KDUST on the Observation Based on CFD Method at Dome A (United States)

    Xu, Jianghai; Gong, Xuefei; Gu, Bozhong


    For modern telescopes with the strict requirement of high-resolution image quality, the influence of wind load cannot be ignored. KDUST is a 2.5 m optical telescope and will be installed at Dome A. To study the effects of wind load on KDUST, the low-frequency wind speed data observed by KL-AWS-2G weather station at Dome A are transformed into high frequency based on the theory of wind speed fluctuation spectrum; then, the numerical wind tunnel simulation is conducted under the conditions of different dominant wind directions, different dome opening angles, and the elevation angles of KDUST. The results show that different wind directions mainly affect the wind velocity and turbulence kinetic energy around the telescope; the optical path difference increases along with the increase of the dome opening angle, but decreases with the increase of the elevation angle of KDUST; the dome seeing decreases with the increase of both the dome opening angle and elevation angle. This simulation will provide a useful reference for the future design and construction of KDUST and its foldable dome.

  11. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato


    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  12. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Slavchev

    Full Text Available Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality.

  13. Rapid population growth. Effects on the social infrastructures of southern Africa. (United States)

    Smith, J D


    Southern Africa's high rate of population growth and widespread poverty have serious implications for the region's social infrastructure. Large increases in the school-age population have undermined efforts to improve the quality of education since all resources are directed toward expansion of availability. To achieve a teacher-pupil ratio of 1:40 at the primary level and 1:35 at the secondary level, an estimated additional 50,000 classrooms would be required. Also jeopardized by high fertility is access to health services, safe water, and sanitation. In Mozambique, for example, where only 30% of the population has access to health services, the under-five years mortality rate is 297/1000 live births and the physician-population ratio is 1:37,970. Substandard housing, homelessness, congestion, deteriorating public services, pollution, and crime dominate urban areas. The single most effective intervention to reduce population growth in Southern Africa is female education. Women without a secondary education bear an average of seven children; if 40% of women attend secondary school, this drops to three children. Thus, governments must make gender equality a central focus of development planning and ensure that women are participants in this process. Property and inheritance laws that serve to increase the economic need for early marriage should be eliminated. Public health programs, including family planning, must be expanded. Finally, women's organizations should be strengthened and urged to foster female empowerment.

  14. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato


    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  15. Evolution of under-pressure in Bravo Dome and its implications for geological carbon storage (United States)

    Akhbari, D.; Hesse, M. A.


    Geological carbon storage has the potential to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, if large volumes can be injected. Storage capacity is generally thought to be limited by regional pressure build-up in the subsurface, although natural CO2 reservoirs are commonly under-pressured. To understand the processes that lead to the development of under-pressure we have studied the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir. Pre-production pressures show that Bravo Dome is divided into compartments (Figure a, b, and c) that appear not communicate with each other and the ambient aquifer. While this allows the preservation of under-pressures, it raises question about the emplacement of the reservoir. Noble gas signatures suggest that the reservoir filled from west to east rather than each reservoir being charged individually. Such uni-directional filling is consistent with an eastward decline in pre-production pressure (Figure d). However, this requires that the currently isolated compartments must have been connected during the emplacement. To preserve the overall pressure gradients this connectivity must have been lost relatively quickly after emplacement ended. We suggest that hydraulic fracturing connected the compartments during emplacement and that a pressure drop due to CO2 dissolution helped seal the compartments afterwards. To explore the dynamics, we have developed a numerical model of this fill-fracture-spill-seal process. Initial results suggest that a pressure drop after CO2 emplacement due to continued CO2 dissolution only occurs if the emplacement was very rapid. Understanding the pressure evolution at Bravo Dome is important as Bravo Dome has stored a very large amount of CO2 on millennial time scales, but it does not correspond to the current conception of an ideal storage formation such as Sleipner site in the North Sea, which is laterally open and has high permeability. This demonstrates that successful CO2 storage is possible in a broader range of formations that

  16. Rapidly induced chemical defenses in maize stems and their effects on short-term growth of Ostrinia nubilalis. (United States)

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A


    Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes.

  17. Si/Ge intermixing during Ge Stranski–Krastanov growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Portavoce


    Full Text Available The Stranski–Krastanov growth of Ge islands on Si(001 has been widely studied. The morphology changes of Ge islands during growth, from nucleation to hut/island formation and growth, followed by hut-to-dome island transformation and dislocation nucleation of domes, have been well described, even at the atomic scale, using techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Although it is known that these islands do not consist of pure Ge (due to Si/Ge intermixing, the composition of the Ge islands is not precisely known. In the present work, atom probe tomography was used to study the composition of buried dome islands at the atomic scale, in the three-dimensional space. The core of the island was shown to contain about 55 atom % Ge, while the Ge composition surrounding this core decreases rapidly in all directions in the islands to reach a Ge concentration of about 15 atom %. The Ge distribution in the islands follows a cylindrical symmetry and Ge segregation is observed only in the {113} facets of the islands. The Ge composition of the wetting layer is not homogeneous, varying from 5 to 30 atom %.

  18. Building Guastavino dome in China: A historical survey of the dome of the Auditorium at Tsinghua University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu


    The first part combs up the intellectual origins and precedents of the campus planning by Henry Murphy. As the dome is a focal point of the study, a brief course on the history of dome construction in the West is needed. The third part, based upon field measurement in July 2013, compares the actual dome with its original design featured by the Guastavino method, deducing possible reasons that resulted in the differences, including architect׳s unfamiliarity with Guastavino Company and its parameters, considerations about cost, and local construction tradition.

  19. Exploring features and opportunities of rapid-growth wine firms in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Román


    Full Text Available While much has been studied regarding the wine industry in Spain and France, little has been studied in developing countries. The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of dynamic wine firms in Chile. This paper presents qualitative research and reports six cases of wine companies, where several variables are analyzed according to Barringer, Jones and Neubaum framework. These variables include prior experience, founders’ knowledge regarding large company management, the use of strategic-planning systems and the use of new technology in the majority of its production. The results of this research could prove insightful for wine entrepreneurs looking to enhance their growth, based on greater differentiation and innovation, and not only on being competitive in pricing.

  20. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel


    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... volume remained reduced in preterm pigs until 26 d although plasma glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulin-trophic peptide (GIP) levels were increased. Preterm pigs also showed reduced hexose absorptive capacity and brush-border enzyme (sucrase, maltase) activities at 26 d, relative...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...

  1. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO; Stradins, Paul [Golden, CO; Teplin, Charles [Boulder, CO; Branz, Howard M [Boulder, CO


    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  2. Rapid enzyme production and mycelial growth in solid-state fermentation using the non-airflow box. (United States)

    Ito, Kazunari; Gomi, Katsuya; Kariyama, Masahiro; Miyake, Tsuyoshi


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has become an attractive alternative to submerged fermentation (SMF) for the production of enzymes, organic acids, and secondary metabolites, while there are many problems during the culture of SSF. We recently created a SSF system using a non-airflow box (NAB) in order to resolve the problems, which enabled the uniform culture in the whole substrate and high yield of many enzymes. In this paper, further characterization of SSF using the NAB was carried out to obtain other advantages. The NAB culture under the fixed environmental condition exhibited a rapid increase in enzyme production at earlier phase during the culture compared with conventional SSF. Total mycelial growth also exhibited the same trend as enzyme production. Thus, the increase in the rate of the enzyme production was thought to mainly be attributed to that of the growth. To support it, it was suggested that the NAB culture resulted in most optimal water activity for the growth just at the log phase. In addition, the NAB culture was able to achieve high reproducibility of enzyme production, derived from uniform condition of the substrate during the culture. The results indicate that the NAB culture has many benefits for SSF. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Universally Applicable and Rapid Method for Measuring the Growth of Streptomyces and Other Filamentous Microorganisms by Methylene Blue Adsorption-Desorption (United States)

    Fischer, Marco


    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:23666340

  4. A Universally Applicable and Rapid Method for Measuring the Growth of Streptomyces and Other Filamentous Microorganisms by Methylene Blue Adsorption-Desorption


    Fischer, Marco; Sawers, R. Gary


    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  5. A universally applicable and rapid method for measuring the growth of streptomyces and other filamentous microorganisms by methylene blue adsorption-desorption. (United States)

    Fischer, Marco; Sawers, R Gary


    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  6. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15. (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  7. Corrosion investigation of material combinations in a mobile phone dome-key pad system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Møller, Per


    Mobile phone dome-key pad system is the device that connects the phone keys to the printed circuit board (PCB). The material combination for a typical dome-key pad system is Ag/AISI 202 steel for the dome and Au/Ni/Cu for the key pad. Under humid conditions dome-key pad system is susceptible...

  8. The E-ELT Project: the Dome design status (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; de Lorenzi, S.; Busatta, A.


    Status of the Feasibility Study of E-ELT, the ESO 42 m Extreme Large Telescope, with emphasis on the Dome architecture and erection. The Dome is a hemispherical shape concept servomechanism 86 m high, with an external diameter of 108 m and a 45 m wide Observing Slit. Such dimensions require the application of big structure technologies (like stadium, hangar etc), in order to comply with manufacturing, transport and assembly constrains. The mentioned technology must be fitted with mechanical and control system constrains required by this kind of servo-system. Mechanisms inside the Dome must be sufficiently light and stiff, and composite materials meet the above mentioned requirements. The management of the whole mass is extremely important for the services and power consumption. This paper describes how the above mentioned problems were handled during the E-ELT Dome Feed study.

  9. Astronaut Gerald Carr floats in forward dome area (United States)


    Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander for the Skylab 4 mission, demonstrates the effects of zero-gravity as he floats in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab space station while in Earth orbit.

  10. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.


    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  11. Observer Kalman Filter Identification of Suspen-Dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Sun


    Full Text Available A number of Suspen-Dome structures have been built, but there is some difficulty in using experimental data to obtain good modal parameters, especially modal damping. In this paper, an ANSYS numerical simulation of the 35.4 m span Suspen-Dome is presented. Firstly, the natural vibration characteristics of Suspen-Dome and dynamic response under some random forces were obtained. Then the results of the numerical simulation established that 60 modes are sufficient for a reasonable dynamic model. This model is used to represent the Suspen-Dome dynamic behavior, and OKID is then used to try to identify a model from simulated data. A 400-order model generated from OKID is shown to contain the 60 modes from ANSYS and is shown to give good predictions of the dynamic behavior of Suspen-Dome. The results of this paper can confirm that it can be a very efficient tool for the identification of models of Suspen-Dome dynamics.

  12. Incorporating an extended dendritic growth model into the CAFE model for rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhao, Shunli [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wu, Guangxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhang, Jieyu, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Yang, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China)


    We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.

  13. Rapid Start-up and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Letticia M.; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew


    Membrane aerated bioreactors (MABR) are attached-growth biological systems used for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to reclaim water from waste. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal and implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to under two weeks, and that despite low ammonium removal rates, the MABRs are oversized.

  14. Air conditioning system for dome type baseball ground. Dome shiki yakyujo no kuki chowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takai, H.; Iwata, E.; Ogawa, H.; Takahashi, N.; Igawa, N.; Hanzawa, H.; Higuchi, Y. (Takenaka Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes characteristics in facility design for the Fukuoka Baseball Dome completed in 1993, and the related air conditioning plan, optical environment plan, and acoustic environment plan. This dome construction is characterized by its truss-type steel structure having a swing type openable roof. Opening the roof allows the building to accept natural environment, and closing it turns the building to an environment requiring artificial control. The optical environment plan has performed a sensory evaluation test on how a ball can be identified when it is pitched in different seasons and times using simulations that use computer graphics, and a model with a scale of one to fifty. The illumination system has adopted high-color rendering metal halide lamps. The acoustic environment plan has conducted a sound adsorbing construction over the whole roof area, and provided an air layer in the upper part thereof. As a result, the world's shortest reverberation time of 5.75 seconds at 500 Hz has been realized. In the thermal environment plan, a contrivance has been given on an energy saving air conditioning system that is formed by the usual room cooling method and a cool air circulation added with a circulating air flow sensible to audiences. 5 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Photosynthetic activity and proteomic analysis highlights the utilization of atmospheric CO2 by Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta) for rapid growth. (United States)

    Huan, Li; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce


    Free-floating Ulva prolifera is one of the causative species of green tides. When green tides occur, massive mats of floating U. prolifera thalli accumulate rapidly in surface waters with daily growth rates as high as 56%. The upper thalli of the mats experience environmental changes such as the change in carbon source, high salinity, and desiccation. In this study, the photosynthetic performances of PSI and PSII in U. prolifera thalli exposed to different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels were measured. Changes in photosynthesis within salinity treatments and dehydration under different CO2 concentrations were also analyzed. The results showed that PSII activity was enhanced as CO2 increased, suggesting that CO2 assimilation was enhanced and U. prolifera thalli can utilize CO2 in the atmosphere directly, even when under moderate stress. In addition, changes in the proteome of U. prolifera in response to salt stress were investigated. Stress-tolerance proteins appeared to have an important role in the response to salinity stress, whereas the abundance of proteins related to metabolism showed no significant change under low salinity treatments. These findings may be one of the main reasons for the extremely high growth rate of free-floating U. prolifera when green tides occur. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Seasonal cycle and modal structure of particle number size distribution at Dome C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Järvinen


    Full Text Available We studied new particle formation and modal behavior of ultrafine aerosol particles on the high East Antarctic plateau at the Concordia station, Dome C (75°06' S, 123°23' E. Aerosol particle number size distributions were measured in the size range 10–600 nm from 14 December 2007 to 7 November 2009. We used an automatic algorithm for fitting up to three modes to the size distribution data. The total particle number concentration was low with the median of 109 cm−3. There was a clear seasonal cycle in the total particle number and the volume concentrations. The concentrations were at their highest during the austral summer with the median values of 260 cm−3 and 0.086 μm3 cm−3, and at their lowest during the austral winter with corresponding values of 15 cm−3 and 0.009 μm3 cm−3. New particle formation events were determined from the size distribution data. During the measurement period, natural new particle formation was observed on 60 days and for 15 of these days the particle growth rates from 10 to 25 nm in size could be determined. The median particle growth rate during all these events was 2.5 nm h−1 and the median formation rate of 10 nm particles was 0.023 cm−3 s−1. Most of the events were similar to those observed at other continental locations, yet also some variability in event types was observed. Exceptional features in Dome C were the winter events that occurred during dark periods, as well as the events for which the growth could be followed during several consecutive days. We called these latter events slowly growing events. This paper is the first one to analyze long-term size distribution data from Dome C, and also the first paper to show that new particle formation events occur in central Antarctica.

  17. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe{sub 2} film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, Ganzhou 341300 (China); Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Rutie, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, Jianpeng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    Highlights: • We present a highly efficient method for preparing WSe{sub 2} film by rapid selenization. • The W film phase composition has little effect on WSe{sub 2} film orientation. • W film density is a critical factor that influences the WSe{sub 2} orientation. • A growth model was proposed for two kinds of WSe{sub 2} film textures. - Abstract: The tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe{sub 2} is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe{sub 2} film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe{sub 2} film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe{sub 2} films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe{sub 2} film orientation. The WSe{sub 2} orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe{sub 2} film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe{sub 2} films. Highly oriented WSe{sub 2} films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor

  18. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers. (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo


    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  19. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Malizia

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1 y(-1 and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2 ha(-1 y(-1. Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species, rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively. However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  20. Dome-shaped macula in eyes with myopic posterior staphyloma. (United States)

    Gaucher, David; Erginay, Ali; Lecleire-Collet, Amelie; Haouchine, Belkacem; Puech, Michel; Cohen, Salomon-Yves; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain


    To describe an unusual feature in myopic eyes responsible for visual loss, which we call a dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. After observing isolated cases of dome-shaped macula, we analyzed optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of 140 highly myopic eyes present in our OCT database to find similar cases. Fifteen eyes of 10 patients had a dome-shaped macula. These patients all had undergone fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and B-scan ultrasonography examinations. The mean refractive error of the affected eyes was -8.25 diopters (D; range, -2 to -15 D). Median visual acuity was 20/50. Recent visual impairment was noted in 11 of the 15 eyes studied, and metamorphopsia was noted in eight eyes. Four eyes were asymptomatic. FA showed atrophic changes in the macular retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in all eyes, combined with focal points of leakage in seven of the 15 eyes. The dome-shaped appearance of the macula was visible on both B-scan ultrasonography and OCT: a characteristic bulge of the macular retina, RPE, and choroid within the concavity of the moderate posterior staphyloma was present in all eyes. In 10 eyes, OCT also showed a shallow foveal detachment at the top of the dome-shaped macula. A dome-shaped macula within a myopic staphyloma is an unreported type of myopic posterior staphyloma. The dome-shaped macula often is associated with RPE atrophic changes and foveal retinal detachment, which may explain the visual impairment in these eyes.

  1. KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth (United States)


    196–201. 44. Kratzer P. Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo methods–a tutorial. In: Grotendorst J, Attig N, Blügel S, Marx D, editors. Multiscale...Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth by James J Ramsey Approved for public release; distribution is...Research Laboratory KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth by

  2. Explosive seismic reflection data from dome Halfarryggen, Antarctica (United States)

    Hofstede, Coen


    Here we present the results from a explosive seismic survey performed in January 2010, at the ice dome Halfarryggen, close to the ice shelf Ekströmisen in East Antarctica. The dome lies 120 km south east of the German research station Neumayer. Two 6 km long perpendicular lines were shot over the dome, large enough to capture the structure of the present Raymond bump. For recording we used a 60 channel 1500 m long snow streamer. To reduce spatial aliasing two shots were combined into one data record. The focus of the seismic survey lies upon the physics that can be extracted from the internal and basal ice reflections. This includes bed conditions, crystal orientation fabric and seismic wave velocities.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of egg white proteins during the rapid embryonic growth period by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries. (United States)

    Liu, Yijun; Qiu, Ning; Ma, Meihu


    Egg white proteins provide essential nutrients and antimicrobial protection during embryonic development. Although various biological functions of major egg white proteins have been investigated via embryogenesis, understanding of global changes in low-abundance proteins has been limited. In the current study, a proteomic analysis of low-abundance egg white proteins was conducted using combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight with two mass analyzers for tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) during the rapid embryonic growth period. Significant increases in the relative abundance of 88 protein spots (P ≤ 0.05), of which 47 spots were found to correspond to 10 proteins from 8 protein families were identified over 16 d incubation. During this developmental process, the protein concentration increased and the amount of albumin solid material decreased in the residual egg white. Clusterin precursors were observed over a wide range of pH values and the tenp protein increased continuously during embryonic development. Low-abundance proteins were identified in a comparison of optimal incubation conditions to the altered conditions of 2 control groups to better understand the function of these proteins in egg whites. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the supportive role of the egg white during embryonic development, enabling a broader understanding of chick embryogenesis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. The rapid growth of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in the third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upile Tahwinder


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case highlighting the multidisciplinary management of a giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland that showed rapid growth in the third trimester of pregnancy. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian woman presented in her 32nd week of gestation with a tumor of the parotid gland. Ultrasonography of her neck showed a parotid lesion of 40 × 30 × 27.5 mm. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan of the neck four weeks later revealed that the tumor had grown to 70 × 60 × 60 mm, reaching the parapharyngeal space with marked obstruction of the oropharynx of about 50%. After discussing the case with our multidisciplinary tumor board and the gynecologists it was decided to deliver the baby by caesarean section in the 38th week of gestation, and then to perform a surgical resection of the tumor. Conclusion Indications for early surgical intervention of similar cases should be discussed on an individual patient basis in a multidisciplinary setting.

  5. Rapid growth of black holes accompanied with hot or warm outflows exposed to anisotropic super-Eddington radiation (United States)

    Takeo, Eishun; Inayoshi, Kohei; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Mineshige, Shin


    We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows onto a black hole (BH) with a mass of 10^3≤M_BH/M_⊙ ⪉ 10^6 in order to study rapid growth of BHs in the early Universe. For spherically symmetric flows, hyper-Eddington accretion from outside the Bondi radius can occur unimpeded by radiation feedback when M_BH ≳ 10^4 M_⊙ (n_∞/10^5 cm^{-3})^{-1}(T_∞/10^4 K)^{3/2}, where the density and temperature of ambient gas are initially set to n∞ = 105 cm-3 and T∞ = 104 K. Here, we study accretion flows exposed to anisotropic radiation from a nuclear accretion disk with a luminosity higher than the Eddington value (LEdd) due to collimation towards the bipolar directions. We find that, unlike the spherically symmetric case, even less massive BHs with MBH radiating region due to the non-radial gas motions. Because of efficient recombination by hydrogen, the entire flow settles in neutral and warm gas with T ≃ 8000 K. The BH is fed at a rate of ˜5 × 104 LEdd/c2 (a half of the inflow rate from the Bondi radius). Moreover, radiation momentum absorbed by neutral hydrogen produces warm outflows towards the bipolar directions at ˜10 % of the BH feeding rate and with a velocity several times higher than the escaping value.

  6. Analysis and test of low profile aluminum aerospace tank dome (United States)

    Ahmed, R.; Wilhelm, J. M.


    In order to increase the structural performance of cryogenic tanks, the aerospace industry is beginning to employ low-profile bulkheads in new generation launch vehicle designs. This report details the analysis and test of one such dome made from 2219 aluminum. Such domes have two potential failure modes under internal pressure, general tensile failure and hoop compression buckling (in regions near the equator). The test determined the buckling load and ultimate tensile load of the hardware and showed that both compared well with the analysis predictions. This effort was conducted under the auspices of NASA and the General Dynamics Cryogenic Tank Technology Program (CTTP).

  7. Late Miocene uplift and doming of Madagascar: topographic implications (United States)

    Delaunay, Antoine; Robin, Cecile; Guillocheau, François; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Calves, Gérôme


    Madagascar is an Archean to Neoproterozoic continental crust surrounded by transform, oblique and divergent margins: the oblique Morondava Basin to the west, pounded by the Davie Fracture Zone, and to the north, the divergent Mahajanga (Majunga) Basin connected to the Somali Oceanic Basin. This 1600 km long island is a high axial plateau with elevations from 1200 to 1800m. The top of the plateau corresponds to weathered planation surfaces (etchplains), bounded by more or less high scarps. We here present geological arguments for the age and the timing of the Madagascar Plateau. This analysis is based on a double, coupled analysis of the onshore geomorphology (stepped planation surfaces) and the offshore margin stratigraphy (seismic stratigraphy and wells). The geomorphological analysis is based on a characterization, a mapping and dating of stepped planation surfaces (mantled to stripped etchplains, pediments to pediplains). The dating is based on their geometrical relationships with dated magmatic rocks. The difference of elevation between two planation surfaces (corresponding to local base level) provides a proxy of the uplift. The sequence stratigraphic analysis is based on a biostratigraphic reevaluation of 4 industrial wells (foraminifers and nannofossils on cuttings). Uplift periods are characterized by (1) seaward tiltings of the margins overlain by planar reflectors, (2) forced regression wedges and (3) upstream erosions of older sediments recorded by fauna/flora reworking. (1) During Paleocene to Middle Miocene times (66 to 13 Ma), Madagascar is a quite flat low elevation domain with remnants of an oldest pre-Madagascar Trap (90 Ma) surface. This low relief is highly weathered with growth of numerous lateritic profiles and surrounded by large carbonate platforms with no siliciclastic sands influx. (2) The Late Miocene is the paroxysm of uplift with (1) a tilting of the margin (Morondova), (2) an increase of the siliciclastic sand flux since middle Miocene

  8. Mud dome, stone dome and mud and stone dome in the rural buildings of vernacular architecture in center of Castilla y León (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abril Revuelta


    Full Text Available In the center of Castilla y León there are few examples of old rural buildings linked to economic activities that have developed in the agrarian field. These are known chozos and casetas, and they have been built with dome-shaped solutions using autochthon materials: mud and stone. The influence of traditional techniques of both elements has generated a singular typological rarely seen in the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. Different types of domes have been analyzed in situ. And they have been contrasted by documentary sources and it has significantly expanded the information published of them, especially about their typological variety and their construction process. This research aims to provide tools to restore a constructive knowledge that is forgotten in place, to value its architectural wealth, which can encourage their rehabilitation.

  9. Computed tomography-guided transpulmonary radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma located in hepatic dome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitsuo Toyoda Satoru Kakizaki Katsuhiko Horiuchi Kenji Katakai Naondo Sohara Ken Sato Hitoshi Takagi Masatomo Mori Takahito Nakajima


    ...) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the hepatic dome. METHODS: A total of seven patients with HCC comprising seven nodules located in the hepatic dome were treated from April 2004 to December 2004...

  10. Single Stage Transthoracic Approach to the Right Lung and Liver Dome Hydatid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasih Yazkan


    lung, the hepatic lesions were all of the dome located. Conclusions :Single stage transthoracic approach is prevent the second surgical procedures on simultaneous right lung and liver dome hydatid cyst and it is safe and effective method.

  11. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven


    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  12. Dome-shaped macula: a compensatory mechanism in myopic anisometropia? (United States)

    Keane, Pearse A; Mitra, Arijit; Khan, Imran J; Quhill, Fahd; Elsherbiny, Samer M


    The purpose of this article was to describe a patient with dome-shaped macula in the setting of mild myopic anisometropia and to speculate regarding the role of this feature as a compensatory mechanism in ocular development. The clinical records of a 49-year-old woman with this condition were reviewed. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images revealed evidence of a dome-shaped macula. B-scan ultrasonography measured axial lengths of 23.8 mm in the right eye and 22.8 mm in the left eye. Spherical equivalents were -1.375 and +0.375 in the right and left eyes, respectively. Examination of the left eye was unremarkable. Dome-shaped macula has previously only been described in patients with high myopia. These findings support the hypothesis that myopic anisometropia, rather than absolute refractive status, is central to the development of dome-shaped macula and that this feature represents a protective mechanism aimed at reducing the effects of anisometropia. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    results were validate and comparisons developed to analyze the various optimization parameters for performance characteristics of the two pistons. Keywords: optimized intake stroke, CFD analysis, flat and dome head pistons, internal combustion engine, CAD modelling. NOMENCLATURE. = density. ⃑⃑ = uniform velocity.

  14. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas (United States)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.


    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  15. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.


    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i < 22 mag. We identify galaxy interaction signatures using a novel machine-learning random forest decision tree technique allowing us to select statistically significant samples of major mergers, minor mergers / irregular systems, and non-interacting galaxies. We use these samples to show that galaxies undergoing mergers are a factor of ˜2-7 more likely to contain luminous obscured AGN than non-interacting galaxies, and this is independent of both stellar mass and redshift to z < 0.9. Furthermore, based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  16. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.


    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i forest decision tree technique allowing us to select statistically significant samples of major mergers, minor mergers / irregular systems, and non-interacting galaxies. We use these samples to show that galaxies undergoing mergers are a factor of ˜2-7 more likely to contain luminous obscured AGN than non-interacting galaxies, and this is independent of both stellar mass and redshift to z based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  17. Sustainable Outreach: Lessons Learned from Space Update and Discovery Dome (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.


    A sustainable program lives on past its initial funding cycle, and develops a network of users that ensures continued life, either by fees, advertising revenue, or by making the program more successful in later sponsored grants. Teachers like free things, so having a sponsor for products such as lithographs or CD-Roms is key to wide distribution. In 1994 we developed “Space Update®”, under the NASA “Public Use of the Internet” program. It has new editions annually, with over 40,000 distributed so far (many purchased but most free at teacher and student workshops). In 1996 we created a special edition “Space Weather®”, which includes the space weather module from Space Update plus other resources. Initially developed with funding from the IMAGE mission, it is now sponsored by Cluster and MMS. A new edition is published annually and distributed in the “Sun-Earth Day” packet; total distribution now exceeds 180,000. “Earth Update” was created in 1999 under cooperative agreement “Museums Teaching Planet Earth”. It now has a total distribution of over 20,000. Both Earth Update and Space Update were developed to be museum kiosk software, and more than 15 museums have them on display. Over 4,000 users are active in our e-Teacher network and 577 in our museum educator network. Although these can certainly be considered successful because of their longevity and user base, we have had a far more dramatic sustainable program arise in the last six years… the “Discovery Dome®”. Invented at HMNS and developed under NASA Cooperative Agreement “Immersive Earth”, this dome was the first digital portable planetarium that also showed fulldome movies with an interactive interface (first shown to the public at the Dec 2003 AGU meeting). The Discovery Dome network ( has spun those initial 6 NASA-funded domes into over 90 installations in 22 states and 23 countries. Creating high quality content is quite expensive and so needs

  18. Integrated, multi-parameter, investigation of eruptive dynamics at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; De Angelis, Silvio; Rietbrock, Andreas; Lamb, Oliver; Hornby, Adrian; Lamur, Anthony; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Chigna, Gustavo


    Understanding the nature of the signals generated at volcanoes is central to hazard mitigation efforts. Systematic identification and understanding of the processes responsible for the signals associated with volcanic activity are only possible when high-resolution data are available over relatively long periods of time. For this reason, in November 2014, the Liverpool Earth Observatory (LEO), UK, in collaboration with colleagues of the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Guatemala, installed a large multi-parameter geophysical monitoring network at Santiaguito - the most active volcano in Guatemala. The network, which is to date the largest temporary deployment on Santiaguito, includes nine three-component broadband seismometers, three tiltmeters, and five infrasound microphones. Further, during the initial installation campaign we conducted visual and thermal infrared measurements of surface explosive activity and collected numerous rock samples for geochemical, geophysical and rheological characterisation. Activity at Santiaguito began in 1922, with the extrusion of a series of lava domes. In recent years, persistent dome extrusion has yielded spectacularly episodic piston-like motion displayed by characteristic tilt/seismic patterns (Johnson et al, 2014). This cyclicity episodically concludes with gas emissions or gas-and-ash explosions, observed to progress along a complex fault system in the dome. The explosive activity is associated with distinct geophysical signals characterised by the presence of very-long period earthquakes as well as more rapid inflation/deflation cycles; the erupted ash further evidences partial melting and thermal vesiculation resulting from fault processes (Lavallée et al., 2015). One year of data demonstrates the regularity of the periodicity and intensity of the explosions; analysis of infrasound data suggests that each explosion expulses on the order of 10,000-100,000 kg of gas and ash. We

  19. Oxidation and compaction of a collapsed peat dome in Central Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, D.M.; Buurman, P.; Hoekman, D.H.


    Peat domes in Kalimantan (Indonesia) are reported to loose their dome shape as a result of disturbance such as logging and artificial drainage. The loss of the dome shape can be caused by (a combination of) two major processes: compaction and oxidation. Because natural, undisturbed peat is a major

  20. Aquarius Brightness Temperature Variations at Dome C and Snow Metamorphism at the Surface. [29 (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Dinnat, Emmanuel Phillippe; Picard, Ghislain; Champollion, Nicolas


    The Antarctic Plateau is a promising site to monitor microwave radiometers' drift, and to inter-calibrate microwave radiometers, especially 1.4 GHz (L-band) radiometers on board the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and AquariusSAC-D missions. The Plateau is a thick ice cover, thermally stable in depth, with large dimensions, and relatively low heterogeneities. In addition, its high latitude location in the Southern Hemisphere enables frequent observations by polar-orbiting satellites, and no contaminations by radio frequency interference. At Dome C (75S, 123E), on the Antarctic Plateau, the substantial amount of in-situ snow measurements available allows us to interpret variations in space-borne microwave brightness temperature (TB) (e.g. Macelloni et al., 2007, 2013, Brucker et al., 2011, Champollion et al., 2013). However, to analyze the observations from the Aquarius radiometers, whose sensitivity is 0.15 K, the stability of the snow layers near the surface that are most susceptible to rapidly change needs to be precisely assessed. This study focuses on the spatial and temporal variations of the Aquarius TB over the Antarctic Plateau, and at Dome C in particular, to highlight the impact of snow surface metamorphism on the TB observations at L-band.

  1. Microbiological evaluation of a new growth-based approach for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Maas, Dominik; Sander, Gunnar; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    OBJECTIVES: Recently, a rapid screening tool for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been introduced that applies a novel detection technology allowing the rapid presence or absence of MRSA to be determined from an enrichment broth after only a few hours of incubation. To evaluate

  2. Debris avalanches and slumps on the margins of volcanic domes on Venus: Characteristics of deposits (United States)

    Bulmer, M. H.; Guest, J. E.; Beretan, K.; Michaels, Gregory A.; Saunders, R. Stephen


    Modified volcanic domes, referred to as collapsed margin domes, have diameters greater than those of terrestrial domes and were therefore thought to have no suitable terrestrial analogue. Comparison of the collapsed debris using the Magellan SAR images with volcanic debris avalanches on Earth has revealed morphological similarities. Some volcanic features identified on the seafloor from sonar images have diameters similar to those on Venus and also display scalloped margins, indicating modification by collapse. Examination of the SAR images of collapsed dome features reveals a number of distinct morphologies to the collapsed masses. Ten examples of collapsed margin domes displaying a range of differing morphologies and collapsed masses have been selected and examined.

  3. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. (United States)

    Dauphas, N; Pourmand, A


    Terrestrial planets are thought to have formed through collisions between large planetary embryos of diameter ∼1,000-5,000 km. For Earth, the last of these collisions involved an impact by a Mars-size embryo that formed the Moon 50-150 million years (Myr) after the birth of the Solar System. Although model simulations of the growth of terrestrial planets can reproduce the mass and dynamical parameters of the Earth and Venus, they fall short of explaining the small size of Mars. One possibility is that Mars was a planetary embryo that escaped collision and merging with other embryos. To assess this idea, it is crucial to know Mars' accretion timescale, which can be investigated using the (182)Hf-(182)W decay system in shergottite-nakhlite-chassignite meteorites. Nevertheless, this timescale remains poorly constrained owing to a large uncertainty associated with the Hf/W ratio of the Martian mantle and as a result, contradicting timescales have been reported that range between 0 and 15 Myr (refs 6-10). Here we show that Mars accreted very rapidly and reached about half of its present size in only 1.8(+0.9)(-1.0) Myr or less, which is consistent with a stranded planetary embryo origin. We have found a well-defined correlation between the Th/Hf and (176)Hf/(177)Hf ratios in chondrites that reflects remobilization of Lu and Th during parent-body processes. Using this relationship, we estimate the Hf/W ratio in Mars' mantle to be 3.51 ± 0.45. This value is much more precise than previous estimates, which ranged between 2.6 and 5.0 (ref. 6), and lifts the large uncertainty that plagued previous estimates of the age of Mars. Our results also demonstrate that Mars grew before dissipation of the nebular gas when ∼100-km planetesimals, such as the parent bodies of chondrites, were still being formed. Mars' accretion occurred early enough to allow establishment of a magma ocean powered by decay of (26)Al.

  4. Results of Pulse-Scaling Experiments on Rapid-Growth DKDP Triplers Using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkel, M; Burnham, A K; Milam, D; Sell, W; Feit, M; Rubenchik, A


    Results are reported from recently performed bulk-damage, pulse-scaling experiments on DKDP tripler samples taken from NIF-size, rapid-growth boule BD7. The tests were performed on LLNL's Optical Sciences Laser. A matrix of samples was exposed to single shots at 351 mn (3 {omega}) with average fluences from 4 to 8 J/cm{sup 2} for pulse durations of 1, 3 and 10 ns. The damage sites were scatter-mapped after testing to determine the damage evolution as a function of local beam fluence. The average bulk damage microcavity (pinpoint) density varied nearly linearly with fluence with peak values of approximately 16,000 pp/mm{sup 3} at 1 ns, 10,000 pp/mm{sup 3} at 3 ns and 400 pp/mm{sup 3} at 10 ns for fluences in the 8-10 J/cm{sup 2} range. The average size of a pinpoint was 10(+14,-9) {micro}m at 1 ns, 37 {+-} 20 {micro}m at 3 ns and {approx} 110 {micro}m at 10 ns, although all pulse durations produced pinpoints with a wide distribution of sizes. Analysis of the pinpoint density data yielded pulse-scaling behavior of t{sup 0.35}. Significant planar cracking around the pinpoint as was observed for the 10 ns case but not for the 1 and 3 ns pulses. Crack formation around pinpoints has also been observed frequently for Zeus ADT tests at {approx}8 ns. The high pinpoint densities also lead to significant eruption of near-surface bulk damage. Measurements of the damage site area for surface and bulk gave ratios (A{sub surf}/A{sub bulk}) of 2:1 at 1 ns, 7:1 at 3 ns and 110:1 at 10 ns. Maximum aperture averaged transmission losses on the order 15 percent have been measured by photometry for the worst damage at 1 and 3 ns for beam fluences in the 8-10 J/cm{sup 2} range. Analysis of this data yielded a pulse-scaling behavior of t{sup 0.25} for the obscured area. It was also determined that the crystals used in this test would survive unconditioned exposure to 4 J/cm{sup 2} shots on the NIF laser and still meet the obscuration requirement of 0.1%.

  5. Sacral doming progression in developmental spondylolisthesis: a demonstrative case report with two different evolutions. (United States)

    Gutman, Gabriel; Silvestre, Clément; Roussouly, Pierre


    Demonstrative case report of two different evolutions in developmental spondylolisthesis. To our knowledge spontaneous sacral doming reconstruction and healing has never been previously reported. Presentation of two cases with developmental spondylolisthesis and no sacral dome that had at the beginning a similar presentation and finally evolved in different ways. Initially, both cases were without sacral dome. In the first case, sacral dome appeared and completely healed in presence of a stable elongata pars and stable spondylolisthesis. In the second case, apparition, progression of sacral dome, rolling up of L5 and spondylolisthesis occurred in the presence of lytic defect in the pars. Sacral doming is secondary to L5 abnormal position regarding to S1. The mechanism of sacral doming looks like as an osteochondritis phenomena. Loss of support of the sacral plateau by sacral rounding may induce high grade spondylolisthesis.

  6. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  7. Determination of rice canopy growth based on high resolution satellite images: a case study using RapidEye imagery in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Kim


    Full Text Available Processing to correct atmospheric effects and classify all constituent pixels in a remote sensing image is required before the image is used to monitor plant growth. The raw image contains artifacts due to atmospheric conditions at the time of acquisition. This study sought to distinguish the canopy growth of paddy rice using RapidEye (BlackBridge, Berlin, Germany satellite data and investigate practical image correction and classification methods. The RapidEye images were taken over experimental fields of paddy rice at Chonnam National University (CNU, Gwangju, and at TaeAn, Choongcheongnam-do, Korea. The CNU RapidEye images were used to evaluate the atmospheric correction methods. Atmospheric correction of the RapidEye images was performed using three different methods, QUick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC, Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH, and Atmospheric and Topographic Correction (ATCOR. To minimize errors in utilizing observed growth and yield estimation of paddy rice, the paddy fields were classified using a supervised classification method and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds, using the NDVI time-series features of the paddy fields. The results of the atmospheric correction using ATCOR on the satellite images were favorable, which correspond to those from reference UAV images. Meanwhile, the classification method using the NDVI threshold accurately classified the same pixels from each of the time-series images. We have demonstrated that the image correction and classification methods investigated here should be applicable to high resolution satellite images used in monitoring other crop growth conditions.

  8. Treatment of subretinal fluid associated with dome-shaped macula. (United States)

    Chinskey, Nicholas D; Johnson, Mark W


    Dome-shaped macula is a recently described disorder seen in eyes with myopic posterior staphyloma. Vision loss may accompany sub-macular fluid accumulation, for which no effective treatment has been reported. The authors report the successful treatment of two female patients, aged 34 and 59 years, with chronic exudative macular detachment associated with dome-shaped macula. Symptoms of subretinal fluid had been present for at least 2 years in each case, and the fluid was refractory to multiple intravitreal bevacizumab injections in one eye. After a single session of half-fluence verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the submacular fluid resolved completely in each eye. In one eye, recurrent submacular fluid 2 years later responded partially to repeat photodynamic therapy and completely to focal laser photocoagulation. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:593-595.]. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Dome-shaped macula associated with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Fasce, Francesco; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Bandello, Francesco


    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has been described recently as an inward convexity of the macula typical of myopic eyes detectable on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The authors describe a case of monolateral DSM associated with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD). Case report. A 60-year-old man already diagnosed with VMD in vitelliruptive stage underwent SD-OCT that revealed the typical vitelliform material accumulation associated in the left eye with a convex elevation of the macula. No change was registered over a 1-year follow-up. This is the first report describing a monolateral DSM associated with VMD. Dome-shaped macula could be considered as a nonspecific scleral alteration, probably due to increased scleral thickness, which can accompany many retinal disorders.

  10. Visualisation and Immersion Dome Experience for Inspired Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Gawlikowska


    Full Text Available Public protests, which lead to increased administrative and permission procedures, are amongst the most important obstacles in development of wind energy projects. The community’s fears of visual and acoustic impacts of new power plants are commonly recognized as the weakest aspects of public acceptance. To address these issues Visualisation Dome has been designed to better communicate the economic, political, spatial, ecological and social benefits of wind power plants and the associated risks to local communities. The approach combines the experimental and simulation method. The integrated analysis software tool, which allows assessing the impacts of planed wind power plants underpins their 360-degree video and audio simulations. The Visualisation Dome demonstration resulted in 57% of the interviewed participants improving their opinion of wind power following the experience. Visualisation Dome’s novel approach for improving procedural justice of wind energy projects development forms innovative, interactive and streamlined processes, and enables constructive participation of audiences.

  11. Arthroscopic intralesional curettage for large benign talar dome cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shazly Ossama


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical management of large talar dome cysts is challenging due to increased morbidity by associated cartilage damage and malleolar osteotomy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of endoscopic curettage and bone graft for large talar dome cysts. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data for eight patients (eight feet who were treated by arthroscopic curettage and grafting for large talar dome cysts. Seven cases were treated by posterior ankle arthroscopy as the lesion was located posteriorly while one case was treated by anterior ankle arthroscopy as the lesion was breached anteriorly. Results: The final diagnosis, was; large osteochondral lesion of talus (two cases, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC (two case, intra-osseous ganglion (two cases, Chronic infection in talus (one case and angiomatous lesion of the talus (one case. The mean follow up period was 18.3 (±3.06 SD months (range 16–25 months. The median preoperative AOFAS score was 74.5 (±5.34 SD points. The mean postoperative AOFAS score at one year follow up was 94.6 (±2.97 SD points. None of the patient had recurrence of the lesion during follow up. Return to normal daily activity was achieved at 11.25 (±2.37 SD weeks. Discussion: In this short case series study, large talar dome bony cysts of different pathologies including aneurysmal bone cysts could be treated effectively by endoscopic curettage and bone grafting with no recurrence no complications during the follow-up period.

  12. The Second Deep Ice Coring Project at Dome Fuji, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Motoyama


    Full Text Available Throughout the history of the polar icecaps, dust and aerosols have been transported through the atmosphere to the poles, to be preserved within the annually freezing ice of the growing ice shields. Therefore, the Antarctic ice sheet is a “time capsule" for environmental data, containing information of ancient periods of Earth’s history. To unravel this history and decode cycles in glaciations and global change is among the major goals of the Dome Fuji Ice Coring Project.

  13. The Influence of Dome Size, Parent Vessel Angle, and Coil Packing Density on Coil Embolization Treatment in Cerebral Aneurysms (United States)

    Frakes, David H.; Indahlastari, Aprinda; Ryan, Justin; Babiker, M. Haithem; Nair, Priya; Parthas, Varsha


    Intracranial aneurysms (ICAs) are dilated cerebral blood vessels. Treating ICAs effectively prior rupture is crucial since their association with 45% mortality rate. Embolic coiling is the most effective ICA treatment. Series of embolic coils are deployed into the aneurysm with the intent of reaching a sufficient packing density (PD) to help seal off the ICA from circulation. While coiling is effective, treatment failures have been associated with basilar tip aneurysms (BTAs), perhaps because of their geometry. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dome size, parent vessel (PV) angle, and PD on intraaneurysmal (IA) velocity, crossneck (CN) flow and low wall shear stress (WSS) area using simulations and experiments in idealized BTA models. IA velocity and CN flow decreased after coiling, while low WSS area increased. With increasing PD, IA velocity and CN flow were further reduced, but low WSS area had a minimal change. Coil PD had the greatest impact on post-treatment flow while dome size had a greater impact than PV angle. Overall, the role of aneurysmal geometries may vary depending on treatment goal and timing e.g., high coil PD may reduce IA velocity more effectively during early aneurysmal growth when the dome size is small. Funded by the American Heart Association.

  14. Solar Astrophysics, Interferometry, and Coronagraphy at DomeC/Concordia (United States)

    Damé, L.; Amans, J.-P.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Koutchmy, S.; Lamy, P.; Preumont, A.

    Excellent seeing, coronal conditions, and very low IR thermal background are qualities of the Dome C/Concordia station site that will allow unique solar astrophysics science. We review the science case for inner corona observations (onset of the coronal heating mechanism still poorly understood) and the promises of high angular resolution to disentangle the possible mechanisms at work between waves, convection, and reconnection in this particularly magnetically structured solar atmosphere between the high chromosphere and inner corona. For coronagraphy, IR and high resolution possibilities, Dome C is a case by itself between classical ground-based sites and space opportunities. Telescopes from 50 cm (coronagraphy oriented) to 4 m (full high resolution advantage including IR access) are proposed to benefit from these remarkable observing capabilities. Using 3×O50 cm off-axis telescopes, we first propose a medium size facility (1.4 m equivalent telescope) for very high resolution access, ADSIIC (Antarctica Demonstrator of Solar Interferometric Imaging & Coronagraphy), before the ultimate 9-telescope Solar Facility equivalent to a 4 m diameter telescope: A-FOURMI (Antarctica 4 m Interferometer). Finally, 30 m tower designs and their logistics using standard containers and elementary elements of 6 m maximum length, are presented and discussed. These towers are indeed of general interest also for the other optical and IR telescopes intended for Dome C/Concordia, allowing to get over most of the turbulent ground layer and to reach the best possible permanent seeing conditions (better than half an arcsec).

  15. An Operationally Based Vision Assessment Simulator for Domes (United States)

    Archdeacon, John; Gaska, James; Timoner, Samson


    The Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA) simulator was designed and built by NASA and the United States Air Force (USAF) to provide the Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) with a scientific testing laboratory to study human vision and testing standards in an operationally relevant environment. This paper describes the general design objectives and implementation characteristics of the simulator visual system being created to meet these requirements. A key design objective for the OBVA research simulator is to develop a real-time computer image generator (IG) and display subsystem that can display and update at 120 frame s per second (design target), or at a minimum, 60 frames per second, with minimal transport delay using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. There are three key parts of the OBVA simulator that are described in this paper: i) the real-time computer image generator, ii) the various COTS technology used to construct the simulator, and iii) the spherical dome display and real-time distortion correction subsystem. We describe the various issues, possible COTS solutions, and remaining problem areas identified by NASA and the USAF while designing and building the simulator for future vision research. We also describe the critically important relationship of the physical display components including distortion correction for the dome consistent with an objective of minimizing latency in the system. The performance of the automatic calibration system used in the dome is also described. Various recommendations for possible future implementations shall also be discussed.

  16. Percutaneous extrapulmonary radiofrequency ablation for tumors in the hepatic dome. (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Wen-Bing; Li, Ming-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Ding, Xue-Mei


    This study aims to assess the feasibility of one lung ventilation and computed tomography-guided extrapulmonary percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for tumors in the hepatic dome. Eleven patients (10 men, 1 women; age range, 34-84 years) with 12 tumors in the hepatic dome were enrolled in the study after institutional review board approval and informed consent had been obtained. A 35F or 37F left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube was intubated after general anesthesia was induced. The right lung is permitted to collapse, with selective left lungs ventilation. With CT monitoring, the RF electrode was inserted through the empty pleural space to the targeted tumor and radiofrequency ablation procedures were performed. The median operative time was 122 minutes. The median one lung ventilation time was 134 minutes. The procedures of one lung ventilation and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation were successfully performed. There was no bronchial intubation, one lung ventilation and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation related complications, excluding minor pleural effusions recovering without thoracentesis in 2 patients. Complete tumor necrosis was achieved in 10 patients (90.9%). One lung ventilation and computed tomography guided percutaneous extrapulmonary radiofrequency ablation for tumors in the hepatic dome appears to be useful and safe.

  17. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.


    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  18. Rapid and accurate detection of Escherichia coli growth by fluorescent pH-sensitive organic nanoparticles for high-throughput screening applications. (United States)

    Si, Yang; Grazon, Chloé; Clavier, Gilles; Rieger, Jutta; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Sclavi, Bianca; Méallet-Renault, Rachel


    Rapid detection of bacterial growth is an important issue in the food industry and for medical research. Here we present a novel kind of pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles (FANPs) that can be used for the rapid and accurate real-time detection of Escherichia coli growth. These organic particles are designed to be non-toxic and highly water-soluble. Here we show that the coupling of pH sensitive fluoresceinamine to the nanoparticles results in an increased sensitivity to changes in pH within a physiologically relevant range that can be used to monitor the presence of live bacteria. In addition, these FANPs do not influence bacterial growth and are stable over several hours in a complex medium and in the presence of bacteria. The use of these FANPs allows for continuous monitoring of bacterial growth via real-time detection over long time scales in small volumes and can thus be used for the screening of a large number of samples for high-throughput applications such as screening for the presence of antibiotic resistant strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low birthweight or rapid catch-up growth: which is more associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in later life? A systematic review and cryptanalysis. (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Jamshidi, Fahimeh; Aliramezany, Maryam; Moosazadeh, Mahmood


    The effects of birthweight (the Barker hypothesis) and growth trajectory in early life on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in later life have been investigated in a number of studies. To undertake a systematic review and cryptanalysis of the association of low birthweight (LBW) and the postnatal growth trajectory with CVD and its risk factors. English-language publications in PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus were searched. Initially, two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps and the quality of papers was then determined by a validated quality-appraisal checklist. By applying maximum sensitivity, 7259 paper were identified, 382 of which were duplicates and 1273 were considered to be relevant to the topic. Then, after title and abstract review, 628 irrelevant papers were excluded; 26 papers were added after reference-checking. Then, 250 other papers were deleted after full text review. Finally, 39 relevant papers remained and were entered into the systematic review. Overall, 79·6% of all CVD risk factors reported in primary studies of the rapid catch-up growth hypothesis were statistically significant, whereas the corresponding figure was 58·5% for the effects of LBW (Barker hypothesis). This systematic review highlights the importance of low birthweight in increasing the risk of CVD and its risk factors in later life. The results support rapid postnatal catch-up growth of LBW neonates as a more important factor than LBW alone in CVD and its risk factors.

  20. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.


    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  1. The decorative program of the domes and area under the domes in the church of the monastery Resava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prolović Jadranka


    Full Text Available Because the dome is interpreted as a symbol of the heavens, it is reserved for heavenly subjects. The calotte of the dome is seen as a vault of heaven or 'heaven in the heavens' and, as such, as the 'house of Christ'. As the commentator in the 19th century reports, the image of Christ Pantokrator was once located at the zenith of the central dome of Resava. The preserved scenes and figures below the dome, specifically the heavenly liturgy and the prophets, confirm the original existence of this image. Together they build an iconology that was very widespread in late Byzantine art. The composition of the central dome of Resava resembles in its complete appearance, supported by some particularities, the central dome of Ravanica, which served as a model for the artists of Resava. One can find close parallels for the decoration of the side domes in Ravanica. The similar arrangement of heavenly powers in the tambours of the domes in Ravanica and Resava indicate that, like in Ravanica, Christ Emmanuel, the Age of Days, the Mother of God and the Archangel Michael could have been depicted in the zenith of the side domes of Resava. This type of decorative scheme in side domes is common in late Byzantine monumental painting. The remaining fragments with images of angels as deacons positioned in the ring around the zenith of the central dome show that the Heavenly Liturgy was depicted here, specifically the Large Entrance which, aside from the communion, was the only part of the liturgy visible to the faithful. In Resava, the Heavenly Liturgy is completed by the images of crowds of angels, which are portrayed in the tambours of the side domes. The liturgical hymns that accompany these images of angels confirm this order. The rendering of orders of angels in the tambours of the side domes in Resava comply with the traditional program in which these heavenly beings - who being closest to God, who were his first creations and the only to whom a look in the

  2. Magmatic degassing, lava dome extrusion, and explosions from Mount Cleveland volcano, Alaska, 2011-2015: Insight into the continuous nature of volcanic activity over multi-year timescales (United States)

    Werner, Cynthia; Kern, Christoph; Coppola, Diego; Lyons, John J.; Kelly, Peter J.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Schneider, David J.; Wessels, Rick L.


    Mount Cleveland volcano (1730 m) is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, Alaska, but heightened activity is rarely accompanied by geophysical signals, which makes interpretation of the activity difficult. In this study, we combine volcanic gas emissions measured for the first time in August 2015 with longer-term measurements of thermal output and lava extrusion rates between 2011 and 2015 calculated from MODIS satellite data with the aim to develop a better understanding of the nature of volcanic activity at Mount Cleveland. Degassing measurements were made in the month following two explosive events (21 July and 7 August 2015) and during a period of new dome growth in the summit crater. SO2 emission rates ranged from 400 to 860 t d- 1 and CO2/SO2 ratios were budget, suggesting a continued presence of shallow magma in the upper conduit, likely driven by convection. Axisymmetric dome morphology and occasional drain back of lava into the conduit suggests low-viscosity magmas drive volcanism at Mount Cleveland. It follows also that only small overpressures can be maintained given the small domes and fluid magmas, which is consistent with the low explosivity of most of Mount Cleveland's eruptions. Changes between phases of dome growth and explosive activity are somewhat unpredictable and likely result from plugs that are related to the dome obtaining a critical dimension, or from small variations in the magma ascent rate that lead to crystallization-induced blockages in the upper conduit, thereby reducing the ability of magma to degas. We suggest the small magma volumes, slow ascent rates, and low magma viscosity lead to the overall lack of anomalous geophysical signals prior to eruptions, and that more continuous volcanic degassing measurements might lead to more successful eruption forecasting at this continuously-active open-vent volcano.

  3. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.


    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

  4. How to make rapid eye movements “rapid”: the role of growth factors for muscle contractile properties (United States)

    Li, Tian; Feng, Cheng-Yuan


    Different muscle functions require different muscle contraction properties. Saccade-generating extraocular muscles (EOMs) are the fastest muscles in the human body, significantly faster than limb skeletal muscles. Muscle contraction speed is subjected to plasticity, i.e., contraction speed can be adjusted to serve different demands, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control contraction speed. Therefore, we examined whether myogenic growth factors modulate contractile properties, including twitch contraction time (onset of force to peak force) and half relaxation time (peak force to half relaxation). We examined effects of three muscle-derived growth factors: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), cardiotrophin-1 (CT1), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In gain-of-function experiments, CT1 or GDNF injected into the orbit shortened contraction time, and IGF1 or CT1 shortened half relaxation time. In loss-of-function experiments with binding proteins or neutralizing antibodies, elimination of endogenous IGFs prolonged both contraction time and half relaxation time, while eliminating endogenous GDNF prolonged contraction time, with no effect on half relaxation time. Elimination of endogenous IGFs or CT1, but not GDNF, significantly reduced contractile force. Thus, IGF1, CT1, and GDNF have partially overlapping but not identical effects on muscle contractile properties. Expression of these three growth factors was measured in chicken and/or rat EOMs by real-time PCR. The “fast” EOMs express significantly more message encoding these growth factors and their receptors than skeletal muscles with slower contractile properties. Taken together, these findings indicate that EOM contractile kinetics is regulated by the amount of myogenic growth factors available to the muscle. PMID:21279379

  5. Paraneoplastic precocious puberty and excessively rapid somatic growth associated with pediatric malignant hepatic tumor: 1 report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee [Cathalic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Sexual precocity in a 28-months-old boy and markedly accelerated skeletal growth with large body in a 5 years and 5 months-old-girl are reported. The former resulted from human chorionic gonadotropin-producing hepatoblastoma and the latter from cerebral gigantism associated with hepatoma. These two different disorders are discussed on the common basis of rare association of malignant hepatic tumors with precocious sexual and / or somatic growth. The clinical manifestations, chemical abnormalities, and the radiologic findings are presented with a brief review of the literature.

  6. Deep radiostratigraphy of the East Antarctic plateau: connecting the Dome C and Vostok ice core sites


    Cavitte, M; Blankenship, D; Young, D; Schroeder, D; F Parrenin; LeMeur, E; MacGregor, J.; Siegert, MJ


    International audience; Several airborne radar-sounding surveys are used to trace internal reflections around the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C and Vostok ice core sites. Thirteen reflections, spanning the last two glacial cycles, are traced within 200 km of Dome C, a promising region for million-year-old ice, using the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics High-Capacity Radar Sounder. This provides a dated stratigraphy to 2318 m depth at Dome C. Reflection age u...

  7. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiacker, K., E-mail:; Liu, C.; Wiezorek, J. M. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); McKeown, J. T.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)


    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of the metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ∼1.3 m s{sup −1} to ∼2.5 m s{sup −1} during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s{sup −1} have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. Using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.

  8. Seafloor doming driven by active mantle degassing offshore Naples (Italy) (United States)

    Ventura, Guido; Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea


    Structures and processes associated with shallow water hydrothermal fluid discharges on continental shelves are poorly known. We report geomorphological, geophysical, and geochemical evidences of a 5.5 x 5.3 km seabed doming located 5 km offshore the Naples harbor (Italy). The dome lies between 100 and 170 m of water depth and it is 15-20 m higher than the surrounding seafloor. It is characterized by a hummocky morphology due to 280 sub-circular to elliptical mounds, about 660 cones, and 30 pockmarks. The mounds and pockmarks alignments follow those of the main structural discontinuity affecting the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching require relatively low pressures (about 2-3 MPa), and the sub-seafloor structures, which consists of 'pagodas' affecting the present-day seabed, record the active upraise, pressurization, and release of magmatic fluids. The gas composition of the sampled submarine emissions is consistent with that of the emissions from the hydrothermal systems of Ischia, CampiFlegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, and CO2 has a magmatic/thermometamorphic origin. The 3He/4He ratios (1.66-1.96 Ra) are slightly lower than in the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes (~2.6-3.0 Ra) indicating the contamination of fluids originated from the same magmatic source by crustal-derived radiogenic 4He. All these evidences concur to hypothesize an extended magmatic reservoir beneath Naples and its offshore. Seabed doming, faulting, and hydrothermal discharges are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. We conclude that seabed deformations and hydrothermal discharge must be included in the coastal hazard studies.

  9. Development, characteristics and comparative structural analysis of tensegrity type cable domes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nenadović Aleksandra


    Tensegrity type cable domes are three-dimensional structural configurations, prestressed inside the perimeter compression ring, in which the continuous tension throughout the roof structure is made...

  10. A Planetarium Inside Your Office: Virtual Reality in the Dome Production Pipeline (United States)

    Summers, Frank


    Producing astronomy visualization sequences for a planetarium without ready access to a dome is a distorted geometric challenge. Fortunately, one can now use virtual reality (VR) to simulate a dome environment without ever leaving one's office chair. The VR dome experience has proven to be a more than suitable pre-visualization method that requires only modest amounts of processing beyond the standard production pipeline. It also provides a crucial testbed for identifying, testing, and fixing the visual constraints and artifacts that arise in a spherical presentation environment. Topics adreesed here will include rendering, geometric projection, movie encoding, software playback, and hardware setup for a virtual dome using VR headsets.

  11. Lunar Domes With Concentric Radar-dark Deposits: Evidence For Pyroclastics? (United States)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.


    The near side of the Moon has several areas with a high concentration of domes, which are evidence that some volcanic lavas were more viscous than the mare flood basalts that make up most of the lunar volcanic flows. Variable surface textures have been observed among the domes, which likely indicate a range of styles of late-stage volcanism, or possibly differences in how the erupted materials were altered over time. In particular, radar data of the domes reveal both very rough and very smooth surfaces. To date, very few domes have been found to have anomalously low radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) values that would suggest a coating of fine-grained pyroclastics. At S-band (12.6 cm wavelength), the Manilius 1 and Cauchy 5 domes have the lowest measured CPR values. We use a combination of ground-based radar data acquired with Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera images, and LRO Mini-RF radar data to map changes in surface textures across these features. The domes have very different morphologies. The Manilius 1 dome has a uniform, cratered surface with a circular central caldera, whereas the Cauchy 5 dome has very low topographic relief and an elongate central vent with jagged edges and pits similar to some features seen in high-resolution images of the unusual Ina D caldera. Although both domes have some similar radar reflection properties, they likely formed via significantly different processes.

  12. Influence of C60 co-deposition on the growth kinetics of diindenoperylene-From rapid roughening to layer-by-layer growth in blended organic films (United States)

    Lorch, C.; Novák, J.; Banerjee, R.; Weimer, S.; Dieterle, J.; Frank, C.; Hinderhofer, A.; Gerlach, A.; Carla, F.; Schreiber, F.


    We investigated the growth of the two phase-separating materials diindenoperylene (DIP) and buckminsterfullerene C60 with different mixing ratio in real-time and in situ by X-ray scattering experiments. We found that at room temperature, mixtures with an excess of DIP show a growth mode which is very close to the perfect layer-by-layer limit with DIP crystallites forming over the entire film thickness. An unexpected increase in the island size is observed for these mixtures as a function of film thickness. On the other hand, equimolar and C60 dominated mixtures grow with poor crystallinity but form very smooth films. Additionally, it is observed that higher substrate temperatures lead to an increase in the length scale of phase separation with film thickness.

  13. Contribution of food availability to the more rapid growth of the scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida, Pectinidae in bottom than in suspended culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hunauld


    Full Text Available We conducted a 5-month experiment at Turpialito in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, to examine whether the previously reported more rapid growth of scallop Euvola ziczac in bottom compared to suspended culture can be attributed to more abundant or higher quality food resources near the sediment/water interface. The various body components (shell, muscle, digestive gland, gonad and remaining tissues increased in size at a much greater rate for scallops maintained on the bottom, in partly buried cages at 5 m in depth, than in cages suspended at the same depth in the water column. Furthermore, survival was greater on the bottom. Food abundance and quality were examined by analyzing the seston collected in sediment traps at the sediment/water interface in the vicinity of the bottom cages and next to the suspended cages. Phytoplankton abundance (chlorophyll a and the proportion of various fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the seston were similar on the bottom and in suspension. However, sestonic protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels, and the estimated energetic content of the seston, were higher on the bottom than in suspension, and probably contributed to the greater growth on the bottom. As the increase in the energetic content of the seston on the bottom compared to in suspension was less than the increase in growth (biomass on the bottom compared to in suspension, and the evidence showed in previous studies above the negative influence of fouling and wave action in suspended culture, we conclude that the more rapid growth of Euvola ziczac in bottom than suspended culture is principally due to stress relative to suspended culture system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 455-461. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  14. Diversity as valued and troubled: social identities and demographic categories in understandings of rapid urban growth in Vanuatu. (United States)

    Widmer, Alexandra


    This paper deals with the simultaneous mainstreaming and diversification of ni-Vanuatu social categories associated with the ways in which population growth is understood as a possible crisis in both demographic knowledge and everyday ni-Vanuatu knowledge. The author is interested in understanding the downplaying but primarily the amplification of difference with respect to place, generation and gender identities. The relationship between reproduction, social reproduction and the multiple meanings of modernity is at issue. In the expert knowledge of demography that proffers advice for the ni-Vanuatu state, it is the lack of modern development - in the form of adequate biomedical birth control, western education, and the equality of women - that is the implicit cause of population growth. Yet, many ni-Vanuatu see population growth as tied to the troubles that arise from the dilution of traditional social forms: there is too much modernity. In both demographic and ni-Vanuatu everyday narrations of the potential population crisis, diversification and mainstreaming take place and vulnerabilities are produced.

  15. A rapid discrimination of authentic and unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis growth regions by electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Weixin; Yang, Yaojun; Yan, Yuning; Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Haozhong; Ren, Zihe


    Radix Angelicae Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is an effective and wide applied material in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and it is used in more than 80 composite formulae. Danggui from Minxian County, Gansu Province is the best in quality. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate Danggui from the authentic region of origin from that from an unauthentic region, an electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed. Two different feature extraction methods were used to ensure the authentic region and unauthentic region of Danggui origin could be discriminated. One feature extraction method is to capture the average value of the maximum response of the electronic nose sensors (feature extraction method 1). The other one is to combine the maximum response of the sensors with their inter-ratios (feature extraction method 2). Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were employed. Nineteen samples were analyzed by PCA, SIMCA and HCA. Then the remaining samples (GZM1, SH) were projected onto the SIMCA model to validate the models. The results indicated that, in the use of feature extraction method 2, Danggui from Yunnan Province and Danggui from Gansu Province could be successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, SIMCA and HCA, which suggested that the electronic-nose system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the discrimination of Danggui between authentic and unauthentic region of origin.

  16. Flat Versus Hemispherical Dome Ports in Underwater Photogrammetry (United States)

    Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.


    Underwater photogrammetry, like its counterpart in 'air', has gained an increasing diffusion thanks to the availability of easy-to-use, fast and often quite inexpensive software applications. Moreover, underwater equipment that allows the use of digital cameras normally designed to work in air also in water are largely available. However, for assuring accurate and reliable 3D modelling results a profound knowledge of the employed devices as well as physical and geometric principle is even more crucial than in air. This study aims to take a step forward in understanding the effect of underwater ports in front of the photographic lens. In particular, the effect of dome or flat ports on image quality in 3D modelling applications is investigated. Experiments conducted in a semi submerged indust rial structure show that the tested flat port performs worse than the dome, providing higher image residuals and lower precision and accuracy in object space. A significant different quality per colour channel is also observed and its influence on achievable processing results is discussed.

  17. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assuncoe; Custodio, Antonio Luis Neto; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)


    In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of alveolar domes between the maxillary first and second molars. Considering the maxillary first and second molars, it was observed that the palatal root presented a lower prevalence of alveolar domes when compared to the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots (p<0.05). The present study coined the term 'alveolar dome', referring to the anatomical projection of the root into the floor of the maxillary sinus. The maxillary first and second molars presented a greater prevalence of alveolar domes, especially in the buccal roots, followed by the third molars and second pre-molars. Although the periapical radiograph is a two-dimensional method, it can provide dentists with the auxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment.

  18. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010. (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira


    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ < -2) and underweight (WAZ < -2) children. Access to health care was measured by prevalence of fully immunised children <5 years. Multivariate multi-level logistic mixed modelling was used to estimate the effect of socio-economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in all three outcomes, but the effect of socio-economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p < 0.001). The effect of maternal education on stunting prevalence continued over the 10 years, in both 2000 and 2010 children were twice as likely to be stunted if their mother had no education compared to university education (2000 OR = 0.45; 95% CI:0.28,0.73, p < 0.01,2010 OR =0.55; 95% CI:0.35,0.87, p < 0.05). Economic growth in

  19. Cyclic pressurisation of Mount St Helens dacites and basalt. Laboratory results and implications for lava dome monitoring (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie; Dainty, Matthew; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter; Pallister, John; Meredith, Phillip


    Lava domes are frequently subjected to cyclic heating and pressurisation, which may weaken the dome rocks, leading to renewed extrusion, explosions or collapse. These heating and loading cycles can be recreated in the laboratory, allowing the level of crack damage caused by these cycles to be established through analysing elastic moduli. Acoustic emissions (AEs) indicate the timing of cracking, and can also be used to interpret precursory seismicity for eruption prediction. Experiment samples are from Mount St. Helens, USA: 3 dacites from the Pine Creek eruptive period (2.9-2.55 ka), a Castle Creek age basalt (2.55-1.895 ka), and 4 dacites from the 2004-2008 eruption. Each sample was cut into several cylindrical cores (25 mm diameter and 62.5-70 mm long). Some samples were then heated and cooled at 1˚C/ minute to a target temperature of 600o C or 900o C, and held for 2 hours to achieve thermal equilibrium. This heating can cause cracking due to contrasts in thermal expansion of different minerals. Dynamic elastic moduli were calculated for each sample using ultrasonic wave velocity, density and porosity for later comparison to static elastic moduli gathered during deformation. One core of each sample was loaded to failure in uniaxial compression in order to find the short term strength of the sample. For all cyclic loading tests, conducted on pre-heated and unheated cores, samples were loaded at 10-5 s-1 strain rate then unloaded to 5MPa. Subsequent cycles had an increasing peak load. Most had the same rate for unloading, with a few samples unloaded instantaneously. Axial, radial and volumetric strain were determined from the recorded displacement throughout the experiment and used with the axial stress measurements to calculate static elastic moduli. Samples loaded to failure with no cycling generally failed at higher stresses than their cyclically loaded counter-parts, whilst rapid unloading increased their strength. Failure stresses of the dacite lava dome

  20. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjoon Hong


    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  1. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation. (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar


    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The mythic structure in the black dome of the Haftpeikar: Study of Hero's journey in the first dome

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    Seyed Kazem Mousavi


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the Vogler Hero's journey is used for analyzing the mythic structures and hero's journey of the first dome of the Haftpeikar. Vogler Released his founds in the Writer's Journey book. This book that is really dependent on Campbell's Single Myth Theory is a practical guidance for script writing and review of that. The levels of the hero's journey in his book are include: The normal world, invitation to the story, reject the invitation, visit the mentor, passing the first gate, the exams, the allies, the enemies, qualifying to the deepest cave, trial, the reward, the road back, resurrection, return with the elixir.  In this paper, at first the properties of each level of the hero's journey theory are matching with the journey's levels in the black dome story. After that seven useful archetypes including hero, mentor, threshold guardian, herald, shape shifter, the shadow and trickster, are determined in the text.  Black dome has several journeys' cycles. Journey's that are seen in this dome are: (Bahram's journey: A part of the internal journey of Bahram in black dome. (The king's maid journey: Internal journey of the king's maid that wears black clothes after hearing the story. (King of black clothes' journey: The king's journey to the Madhooshan city for exploring the mystery of the black alien. (The reader's journey: This internal journey belongs to the readers of the first dome that learn their lessons through traveling to the character's world. (Nezami's journey: The Nezami's internal journey with composing the text. Checking the reader's journey and black dome's composer is out of this text. While the first and second journey just saying some parts, the black king has completer levels and for affecting on the other journeys is the most important story of the first dome. Therefore at first we check the black king story and we explain the other journeys.  The goal of this paper in addition to the usage of the vogler

  3. Structural Optimization of the Retractable Dome for Four Meter Telescope (FMT) (United States)

    Pan, Nian; Li, Yuxi; Fan, Yue; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong; Jiang, Ping; Kong, Sijie


    Dome seeing degrades the image quality of ground-based telescopes. To achieve dome seeing of the Four Meter Telescope (FMT) less than 0.5 arcsec, structural optimizations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were proposed. The results of the simulation showed that dome seeing of FMT was 0.42 arcsec, which was mainly caused by the slope angle of the dome when the slope angle was 15° and the wind speed was 10 m/s. Furthermore, the lower the air speed was, the less dome seeing would be. Wind tunnel tests (WT) with a 1:120 scaled model of the retractable dome and FMT indicated that the calculated deviations of the CFD simulation used in this paper were less than 20% and the same variations of the refractive index derived from the WT would be a convincing argument for the validity of the simulations. Thus, the optimization of the retractable dome was reliable and the method expressed in this paper provided a reference for the design of next generation of ground-based telescope dome.

  4. Transparent Inflatable Column Film Dome for Nuclear Stations, Stadiums, and Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bolonkin


    Full Text Available In a series of previous articles, one of the authors published designs of the AB Dome which can cover a city, important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure. The AB Dome keeps the outside atmospheric conditions from the interior protecting a city from chemical, bacterial, and radioactive weapons (wastes. The design in this article differs from previous one as this design employs an inflatable columns which does not need an additional pressure (overpressure inside the dome and is cheaper in construction (no powered air pumping station and in operation (no special entrance airlock and permanent pumping expense. When dome is supported by columns, no overpressure is required inside the dome which is important when the dome covers a damaged nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor may produce radioactive gases and dust, and, as inflatable domes are not typically hermetically sealed, the increased pressure inside the dome can leak out gas and dust into the atmosphere. The suggested design does not have this drawback. Positive pressure gradients expel dust particles—neutral pressure gradients will not. (Negative pressure gradients may even be possible in certain configurations.

  5. Origins of Central Pits and Domes on Ceres: Dawn Mapping Constraints and Ganymede Comparisons (United States)

    Schenk, P.; Hiesinger, H.; Platz, T.; Bowling, T.; Schmidt, B.; Sizemore, H.


    The bright faculae (spots) on Ceres are the most provocative features on this small planetary body and in Occator crater are associated with a prominent fractured dome and pit complex. This feature is analogous to those observed on large icy moon Ganymede and is potentially related to hydrothermal venting of carbonate-rich fluids followed by doming of the pit floor.

  6. Features in air ions measured by an air ion spectrometer (AIS) at Dome C (United States)

    Chen, Xuemeng; Virkkula, Aki; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Manninen, Hanna E.; Busetto, Maurizio; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Vitale, Vito; Del Guasta, Massimo; Grigioni, Paolo; Väänänen, Riikka; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku


    An air ion spectrometer (AIS) was deployed for the first time at the Concordia station at Dome C (75°06' S, 123°23' E; 3220 m a. s. l. ), Antarctica during the period 22 December 2010-16 November 2011 for measuring the number size distribution of air ions. In this work, we present results obtained from this air ion data set together with aerosol particle and meteorological data. The main processes that modify the number size distribution of air ions during the measurement period at this high-altitude site included new particle formation (NPF, observed on 85 days), wind-induced ion formation (observed on 36 days), and ion production and loss associated with cloud/fog formation (observed on 2 days). For the subset of days when none of these processes seemed to operate, the concentrations of cluster ions (0.9-1.9 nm) exhibited a clear seasonality, with high concentrations in the warm months and low concentrations in the cold. Compared to event-free days, days with NPF were observed with higher cluster ion concentrations. A number of NPF events were observed with restricted growth below 10 nm, which were termed as suppressed NPF. There was another distinct feature, namely a simultaneous presence of two or three separate NPF and subsequent growth events, which were named as multi-mode NPF events. Growth rates (GRs) were determined using two methods: the appearance time method and the mode fitting method. The former method seemed to have advantages in characterizing NPF events with a fast GR, whereas the latter method is more suitable when the GR was slow. The formation rate of 2 nm positive ions (J2+) was calculated for all the NPF events for which a GR in the 2-3 nm size range could be determined. On average, J2+ was about 0.014 cm-3 s-1. The ion production in relation to cloud/fog formation in the size range of 8-42 nm seemed to be a unique feature at Dome C, which has not been reported elsewhere. These ions may, however, either be multiply charged particles but

  7. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  8. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos. (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark


    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Improved manufacturing techniques for rf and laser hardening of missile domes, phase 1 (United States)

    Pawlewicz, W. T.; Mann, I. B.; Martin, P. M.; Hays, D. D.; Graybeal, A. G.


    The adaptation of an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high power fusion laser applications to the case of RF and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by US Army (MICOM) is reported. RF hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06 micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings is demonstrated. The project involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat sensitive plastic domes used on laser guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals are an electrical sheet resistance of 10 ohms/square, a coated dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 ohms/square was expected to result in an RF attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.

  10. Effect of Pyramidal Dome Geometry on the Acoustical Characteristics in A Mosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dg. H. Kassim


    Full Text Available As an important symbol in Islam, a mosque is built with architectural grandeur. Among the characteristics is its high ceiling and it is usually constructed with a typical spherical dome shape. Some mosques, however, are influenced by the local culture and the dome can be of a different shape, such as pyramidal, as found in mosques in Malacca, Malaysia. This paper presents an assessment of the internal acoustical characteristics of a mosque having a pyramidal dome. The study is conducted by means of computer simulation using CATT indoor acoustic software. Reverberation time and clarity are taken to evaluate the intelligibility of speech. The effect of the angle and height of the dome on the acoustical parameters is discussed. It is found that a pyramidal dome with a steeper angle contributes to poor acoustic clarity.

  11. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon


    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  12. Design and test of an airborne IR countermeasures hyper-hemispherical silicon dome (United States)

    Bender, Michael J.; Guyer, Robert C.; Fenton, Thomas E.


    A 6.5 inch diameter hyper-hemispherical silicon dome was developed on IRAD for an infrared countermeasures aircraft self-protection system. Having passed operational level environmental testing and many hours of flight performance, a prototype dome was subjected to MIL test requirements in simulated crash safety testing at the manufacturer's facility. Although the dome cracked during shock testing, it remained intact preserving aircraft integrity and actually passing safety requirements. This paper describes design requirements, stress analyses of the dome and its mounting, and test results including a forensic cause of failure study of the dome. The results add insight to the margins of safety normally applied to the stress analyses of brittle optical materials and examine actual cause of failure in the prototype part.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.


    Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)


    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  15. Out-of-plane doming behaviour from constrained auxetics (United States)

    Attard, Daphne; Calleja, Dimitri; Grima, Joseph N.


    Auxetics expand laterally when uniaxially stretched. In many cases, this behaviour has been attributed to the interplay between the geometry of the system and its deformation mechanism. This work revisits a class of 2D motifs, the so-called chiral honeycombs, which are closely associated with auxetic behaviour. More specifically, we show that systems based on this motif, particularly those having a Poisson’s ratio of ‑1, can be engineered with specific constraints that limit the in-plane expansion, with the result that on inducing deformation of the systems, these veer out-of-plane to form dome-like structures. This effect is demonstrated in simple prototypes and it is shown through a simplified mathematical model that the extent of curvature can be controlled through the various parameters that describe such structures.

  16. Universal phase diagrams with superconducting domes for electronic flat bands (United States)

    Löthman, Tomas; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.


    Condensed matter systems with flat bands close to the Fermi level generally exhibit, due to their very large density of states, extraordinarily high critical ordering temperatures of symmetry-breaking orders, such as superconductivity and magnetism. Here we show that the critical temperatures follow one of two universal curves with doping away from a flat band depending on the ordering channel, which completely dictates both the general order competition and the phase diagram. Notably, we find that orders in the particle-particle channel (superconducting orders) survive decisively farther than orders in the particle-hole channel (magnetic or charge orders) because the channels have fundamentally different polarizabilities. Thus, even if a magnetic or charge order initially dominates, superconducting domes are still likely to exist on the flanks of flat bands. We apply these general results to both the topological surface flat bands of rhombohedral ABC-stacked graphite and to the Van Hove singularity of graphene.

  17. Prospective Type Ia supernova surveys from Dome A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.


    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over 5 years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of ~;; 1000 z< 0:08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture (>=4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z ~;; 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  18. Prospective Type Ia Supernova Surveys From Dome A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Bonissent, A.; /Marseille, CPPM; Christiansen, J.L.; /Cal. Poly.; Ealet, A.; /Marseille, CPPM; Faccioli, L.; /UC, Berkeley; Gladney, L.; /Pennsylvania U.; Kushner, G.; /LBL, Berkeley; Linder, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Stoughton, C.; /Fermilab; Wang, L.; /Texas A-M /Purple Mountain Observ.


    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over five years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of {approx}1000 z < 0.08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture ({approx}>4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z {approx} 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor is a potent trigger of neutrophil adhesion through rapid activation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. (United States)

    Mine, S; Tanaka, Y; Suematu, M; Aso, M; Fujisaki, T; Yamada, S; Eto, S


    Recruitment of neutrophils into tissue occurs in several pathologic processes such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and ischemia. In inflammation, the adherence of neutrophils to the endothelium depends on neutrophil integrins. Integrin-mediated adhesion is tightly regulated, ie, integrins do not function if neutrophils are not triggered by certain activation stimuli. We investigated the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells in inflammation. Our results showed that (a) HGF induced not only lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells but also transmigration of neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner; (b) HGF functionally transformed neutrophil integrin LFA-1 to active form and reduced surface L-selectin expression level; (c) HGF induced F-actin polymerization and cytoskeletal rearrangement within seconds; (d) genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as well as wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3 (PI 3)-kinase inhibitor, inhibited both F-actin polymerization and LFA-1-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells; and (e) neutrophils in cutaneous inflamed tissue highly expressed HGF and serum levels of HGF were elevated in patients with Behçet's disease, which is associated with neutrophilic vasculitis and marked neutrophil accumulation. Our results indicate that HGF plays a pivotal role in integrin-mediated adhesion and transmigration of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation through cytoskeletal rearrangement activated by tyrosine kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling.

  20. Better to light a candle than curse the darkness: illuminating spatial localization and temporal dynamics of rapid microbial growth in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Herron


    Full Text Available The rhizosphere is a hotbed of microbial activity in ecosystems, fueled by carbon compounds from plant roots. Basic questions about the location and dynamics of plant-spurred microbial growth in the rhizosphere are difficult to answer with standard, destructive soil assays mixing a multitude of microbe-scale microenvironments in a single, often sieved, sample. Soil microbial biosensors designed with the luxCDABE reporter genes fused to a promoter of interest enable continuous imaging of the microbial perception of (and response to environmental conditions in soil. We used the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host to plasmid pZKH2 containing a fusion between the strong constituitive promoter nptII and luxCDABE (coding for light-emitting proteins from Vibrio fischeri. Experiments in liquid media demonstrated that high light production by KT2440/pZKH2 was associated with rapid microbial growth supported by high carbon availability. We applied the biosensors in microcosms filled with non-sterile soil in which corn (Zea mays L., black poplar (Populus nigra L. or tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. was growing. We detected minimal light production from microbiosensors in the bulk soil, but biosensors reported continuously from around roots for as long as six days. For corn, peaks of luminescence were detected 1-4 and 20-35 mm along the root axis behind growing root tips, with the location of maximum light production moving farther back from the tip as root growth rate increased. For poplar, luminescence around mature roots increased and decreased on a coordinated diel rhythm, but was not bright near root tips. For tomato, luminescence was dynamic, but did not exhibit a diel rhythm, appearing in acropetal waves along roots. KT2440/pZKH2 revealed that root tips are not always the only, or even the dominant, hotspots for rhizosphere microbial growth, and carbon availability is highly variable in space and time around roots.

  1. Designing the SALT facility to minimize dome seeing effects (United States)

    de Kock, Mariana; Venter, Sarel J.


    Aspects of the design and experience of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) were incorporated in the SALT facility design. The characteristics of the local environment were taken into account to ensure a building that is cost effective and functional. The effect of heat from the control room and other warm areas were studied and their locations changed to limit thermal effects. A steel false floor, incorporating forced ventilation and extending around the telescope azimuth pier, was installed. This prevents heat radiating from large concrete surfaces with temperatures potentially higher than ambient. Because site testing (i.e. micro thermal measurements) indicated high turbulence within ~5 m of the ground level, the telescope and pier were raised to improve dome seeing. The SALT site is significantly windy all year round (median velocity = 4.8 m/s), and this was utilized to design better ventilation of the facility using adjustable louvers for natural ventilation. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) are presented which show an adequate temperature distribution at wind speeds as low as 0.5 m/s. The telescope chamber and dome are build out of insulation panels to ensure low thermal losses during the day when the chamber is air conditioned and thus limit electricity consumption and thermal gradients. Large equipment that emit heat or vibration are housed in a separate utility building 50 m from the telescope in the non-prevailing wind direction in order to limit their effect on the telescope. Vented air from the building is also released at this site.

  2. Collagen-embedded hydroxylapatite-beta-tricalcium phosphate-silicon dioxide bone substitute granules assist rapid vascularization and promote cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaati, Shahram M; Thimm, Benjamin W; Unger, Ronald E; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, C James [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Kohler, Thomas; Mueller, Ralph, E-mail: ghanaati@uni-mainz.d [Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    In the present study we assessed the biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo of a low-temperature sol-gel-manufactured SiO{sub 2}-based bone graft substitute. Human primary osteoblasts and the osteoblastic cell line, MG63, cultured on the SiO{sub 2} biomatrix in monoculture retained their osteoblastic morphology and cellular functionality in vitro. The effect of the biomaterial in vivo and its vascularization potential was tested subcutaneously in Wistar rats and demonstrated both rapid vascularization and good integration within the peri-implant tissue. Scaffold degradation was progressive during the first month after implantation, with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive macrophages being present and promoting scaffold degradation from an early stage. This manuscript describes successful osteoblastic growth promotion in vitro and a promising biomaterial integration and vasculogenesis in vivo for a possible therapeutic application of this biomatrix in future clinical studies.

  3. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates. (United States)

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon


    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu 2+ ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu 2+ ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn 2+ ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I 2 -filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  4. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv


    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  5. The development of silk fibroin scaffolds using an indirect rapid prototyping approach: morphological analysis and cell growth monitoring by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Liu, M J J; Chou, S M; Chua, C K; Tay, B C M; Ng, B K


    To date, naturally derived biomaterials are rarely used in advanced tissue engineering (TE) methods despite their superior biocompatibility. This is because these native materials, which consist mainly of proteins and polysaccharides, do not possess the ability to withstand harsh processing conditions. Unlike synthetic polymers, natural materials degrade and decompose rapidly in the presence of chemical solvents and high temperature, respectively. Thus, the fabrication of tissue scaffolds using natural biomaterials is often carried out using conventional techniques, where the efficiency in mass transport of nutrients and removal of waste products within the construct is compromised. The present study identified silk fibroin (SF) protein as a suitable material for the application of rapid prototyping (RP) or additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Using the indirect RP method, via the use of a mould, SF tissue scaffolds with both macro- and micro-morphological features can be produced and qualitatively examined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The advanced imaging technique showed the ability to differentiate the cells and SF material by producing high contrasting images, therefore suggesting the method as a feasible alternative to the histological analysis of cell growth within tissue scaffolds. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Redundancy and molecular evolution: the rapid Induction of bone formation by the mammalian transforming growth factor-β3 isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti


    Full Text Available The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. The mammalian TGF-β3 isoform, a pleiotropic member of the family, controls a vast array of biological processes including the induction of bone formation. Recombinant hTGF-β3 induces substantial bone formation when implanted with either collagenous bone matrices or coral-derived macroporous bioreactors in the rectus abdominis muscle of the non-human primate Papio ursinus. In marked contrast, the three mammalian TGF-βs do not initiate the induction of bone formation in rodents and lagomorphs. The induction of bone by hTGF-β3/preloaded bioreactors is orchestrated by inducing fibrin-fibronectin rings that structurally organize tissue patterning and morphogenesis within the macroporous spaces. Induced advancing extracellular matrix rings provide the structural anchorage for hyper chromatic cells, interpreted as differentiating osteoblasts re-programmed by hTGF-β3 from invading myoblastic and/or pericytic differentiated cells. Runx2 and Osteocalcin expression are significantly up-regulated correlating to multiple invading cells differentiating into the osteoblastic phenotype. Bioreactors pre-loaded with recombinant human Noggin (hNoggin, a BMPs antagonist, show down-regulation of BMP-2 and other profiled osteogenic proteins’ genes resulting in minimal bone formation. Coral-derived macroporous constructs preloaded with binary applications of hTGF-β3 and hNoggin also show down-regulation of BMP-2 with the induction of limited bone formation. The induction of bone formation by hTGF-β3 is via the BMPs pathway and it is thus blocked by hNoggin. Our systematic studies in Papio ursinus with translational hTGF-β3 in large cranio-mandibulo-facial defects in humans are now requesting the re-evaluation of Bone

  7. Real-Time Measurements of Aft Dome Insulation Erosion on Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce; Ewing, Mark; Albrechtsen, Kevin; Noble, Todd; Longaker, Matt


    Real-time erosion of aft dome internal insulation was measured with internal instrumentation on a static test of a lengthened version of the Space Shuffle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This effort marks the first time that real-time aft dome insulation erosion (Le., erosion due to the combined effects of thermochemical ablation and mechanical abrasion) was measured in this kind of large motor static test [designated as Engineering Test Motor number 3 (ETM3)I. This paper presents data plots of the erosion depth versus time. The data indicates general erosion versus time behavior that is in contrast to what would be expected from earlier analyses. Engineers have long known that the thermal environment in the aft dome is severe and that the resulting aft dome insulation erosion is significant. Models of aft dome erosion involve a two-step process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and material ablation modeling. This modeling effort is complex. The time- dependent effects are difficult to verify with only prefire and postfire insulation measurements. Nozzle vectoring, slag accumulation, and changing boundary conditions will affect the time dependence of aft dome erosion. Further study of this data and continued measurements on future motors will increase our understanding of the aft dome flow and erosion environment.

  8. The annual cycle and biological effects of the Costa Rica Dome (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.


    The Costa Rica Dome is similar to other tropical thermocline domes in several respects: it is part of an east-west thermocline ridge associated with the equatorial circulation, surface currents flow cyclonically around it, and its seasonal evolution is affected by large-scale wind patterns. The Costa Rica Dome is unique because it is also forced by a coastal wind jet. Monthly climatological fields of thermocline depth and physical forcing variables (wind stress curl and surface current divergence) were analyzed to examine the structure and seasonal evolution of the dome. The annual cycle of the dome can be explained by wind forcing in four stages: (1) coastal shoaling of the thermocline off the Gulf of Papagayo during February-April, forced by Ekman pumping on the equatorward side of the Papagayo wind jet; (2) separation from the coast during May-June when the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) moves north to the countercurrent thermocline ridge, the wind jet stops, and the North Equatorial Countercurrent extends toward the coast on the equatorward flank of the ridge; (3) countercurrent thermocline ridging during July-November, when the dome expands to the west as the countercurrent thermocline ridge shoals beneath a band of cyclonic wind stress curl on the poleward side of the ITCZ; and (4) deepening during December-January when the ITCZ moves south and strong trade winds blow over the dome. Coastal eddies may be involved in the coastal shoaling observed during February-March. A seasonally predictable, strong, and shallow thermocline makes the Costa Rica Dome a distinct biological habitat where phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass are higher than in surrounding tropical waters. The physical structure and biological productivity of the dome affect the distribution and feeding of whales and dolphins, probably through forage availability.

  9. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia (United States)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander


    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  10. Correlation of Fracture Behavior With Microstructure in Friction Stir Welded, and Spin Formed AI-Li 2195 Domes (United States)

    Tayon, Wesley A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.


    Single-piece, spin-formed domes manufactured from friction stir welded (FSW) plates of Al-Li alloy 2195 have the potential to reduce the cost of fabricating cryogenic propellant tanks. Mechanical properties in the completed domes can be related directly to the final material condition and the microstructures developed. However, these new fabrication techniques have resulted in unexpected material challenges, such as abnormal grain growth in the weld nugget and the propensity for fracture in the adjacent thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). In this study, the microstructure and texture transformations within the TMAZ are related to fracture location in the vicinity of the weldment. The texture variations in the TMAZ are caused primarily by the varying amounts of shear deformation introduced during the FSW process. Grain morphology and microtexture characteristics are examined as a function of location in the TMAZ via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). A strong correlation between fracture location and the presence of texture banding in the TMAZ is observed. The fracture path tends to follow a distinct region of low Taylor Factor (TF) grains.

  11. The stability of the dome of a liquid bubble rising in a dense liquid (United States)

    Kanygin, R. I.; Kascheev, A. D.; Kudryavtsev, A. Yu; Meshkov, E. E.; Novikova, I. A.


    The results of experiments researching the stability of the dome of a large water bubble rising in a salt solution are presented. The experiments demonstrate the suppression of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability on the dome of the rising bubble with the Atwood number being A ≪ 1. The intensive development of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability on the lateral surface of the bubble is observed as it rises. The stability of the dome of the rising bubble is explained by the action of an accelerated shear flow of water over the bubble surface. The results of computational modeling of the problem by the STAR-CCM + program are presented.

  12. Design and Test of Low-Profile Composite Aerospace Tank Dome (United States)

    Ahmed, R.


    This report summarizes the design, analysis, manufacture, and test of a subscale, low-profile composite aerospace dome under internal pressure. A low-profile dome has a radius-to-height ratio greater than the square root of two. This effort demonstrated that a low-profile composite dome with a radius-to-height ratio of three was a feasible design and could adequately withstand the varying stress states resulting from internal pressurization. Test data for strain and displacement versus pressure are provided to validate the design.

  13. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.


    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...... more impurity laden air from the Southern Hemisphere continental regions to Eastern Antarctica and Law Dome. As this Pb is isotopically identical to that emitted from south-eastern Australia (Broken Hill, Port Pine) this implies a relatively direct air trajectory pathway from southern Australia to Law...... Dome (Eastern Antarctica). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  14. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS) (United States)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve


    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  15. Holocene Volcanic Records in the Siple Dome Ice Cores (United States)

    Zielinski, G. A.; Dunbar, N. W.; Kurbatov, A. V.; Voisin, D. T.


    Using both the SO42- and Cl- time series and tephrochronological analyses, a highly detailed record of Holocene volcanism is being reconstructed from the Siple Dome A ice core. The volcanic glaciochemical record is being developed at a 2-4 year resolution for the last 10,000 years. Volcanic peaks were identified as those having a concentration of 2{σ } above the mean positive residual of the spline fit, as was done for the GISP2 volcanic record. We identified about 70 volcanic events for the mid-late Holocene. The largest sulfate signal (350 ppb) over the time period evaluated occurs at 2242 years ago. Large signals of volcanically enhanced sulfate in the ice core record also occur around 720 years ago (1280 C.E.;194-249 ppb)and 4710 years ago (378ppb). Ages for large equatorial or southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions are synchronous with identified sulfate peaks in the reconstructed volcanic record. However, the continuous scan for volcanic glass in these same samples yielded glass compositions more in-line with Antarctica volcanic zones (i.e., local eruptions). Nevertheless, our record provides important information on the atmospheric impact of volcanism in Antarctica geochemical cycles. The glass (i.e., tephra) found in various samples indicate that volcanoes within the McMurdo Volcanic Center (Victoria Land and the islands off its coast) including Mt. Melbourne, The Pleaides and Buckle Island appear to be the most active in Antarctica during the late Holocene. Rhyolitic shards of a composition not found in Antarctica also are present in some layers, although they are not overly abundant. The presence of dust with a Patagonian origin in East Antarctica ice cores as well as the nature of the Antarctica vortex indicate that material from this part of the southern hemisphere can reach various parts of Antarctica. Common circulation patterns around the Ross and Amundson Seas as well as the satellite trace of aerosols from the 1991 Cerro Hudson eruption, Argentina

  16. Internal Convection on Ceres: A Possible Explanation for Dome Formation (United States)

    Travis, B. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Sizemore, H. G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Sykes, M. V.


    Numerical 2-D whole-body simulations of the evolution of Ceres' internal dynamics and thermal structure over its history indicate that hydrothermal activity is very strong throughout the first half of Ceres' history, gradually weakening thereafter, but still active even today (Travis et al, 2015, 46th LPSC). Large-scale upwelling plumes of muddy water extend from the porous, permeable rocky core through an ocean layer and impinge on the bottom of the ice shell. These upwellings are very long-lasting. In addition, small scale, shorter-lived plumes frequently develop on the upper regions of the large plumes. The large-scale plumes occur at roughly +/- 25 o latitude. Recently, 3-D simulations of a sector of Ceres shows that the upwellings are indeed plumes and not sheets. In the 3-D model, plume diameters in the model are as small as 15-20 km in diameter, up to several 10s of km or more. Relating internal dynamics to surface features is challenging. Linkage to mounds seen on the surface may be possible. There appear to be two classes of mounds: Large domes (10s of km diameter) and small (<15 km diameter). Morphological evidence such as embayment relations imply that large mounds may be extrusive. The source of the small domes is less clear. They could be extrusive, or they could be pingo-like structures that form when large areas of melt are extruded or produced by impact, although they are larger than terrestrial or martian structures. Mound heights are typically no more than 1 - 5 km. One mechanism for generation of these mounds suggested by our modeling is extrusion of mud through fractures in the icy crust. Over-pressuring of upwelling plumes at the base of the icy crust from freezing of neighboring downwellings could generate fractures in a frozen mud crust. As plumes and icy crust cool, a significant volume expansion occurs due to freezing of water to ice. This pressurization is not uniform in space; the still-liquid upwellings will experience overpressure in

  17. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010 (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning


    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  18. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Artificial Ascites for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Hepatic Dome: Initial Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil


    ...) in the hepatic dome. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sonographically guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation with artificial ascites was performed in 25 patients with 34 HCCs using an internally cooled electrode radiofrequency system...

  19. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.


    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (Jurassic) age for this impact.

  20. Digital Imaging for Siple Dome Ice Core Analysis, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains high-resolution digital images of thin and thick sections cut from the 1003 meter Siple Dome A main ice core. The images are useful for...

  1. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  2. Methyl Chloride Measurements from the Siple Dome A Deep Core, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is an analysis of methyl chloride concentration measured in air extracted from ice core samples from the Siple Dome A deep core in West Antarctica. In...

  3. Methyl Chloride Measurements in the Taylor Dome M3C1 Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes methyl chloride (CH3CI) measurements made on air extracted from 62 samples from the Taylor Dome M3C1 ice core in East Antarctica. CH3CI was...

  4. Annual Layers at Siple Dome, Antarctica, from Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers gathered data on annual snow layers at Siple Dome, Antarctica, using borehole optical stratigraphy. This data set contains annual layer depths and firn...

  5. Hyperthyroidism with dome-and-dart T wave: A case report: A care-compliant article. (United States)

    Lai, Ping; Yuan, Jing-Ling; Xue, Jin-Hua; Qiu, Yue-Qun


    Dome-and-dart T waves (or bifid T waves) are a rare phenomenon in the surface electrocardiogram. These wave forms are mainly observed in patients with congenital heart disease such as atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect. And hyperthyroidism who presented with an electrocardiogram that had dome-and-dart T waves in a precordial lead is never been reported. The patient presented with continuous tachycardia, palpitations, chest tightness, and headache for 4 days, and aggravated for 1 day. Hyperthyroidism. Methimazole. All symptoms were alleviated. Dome-and-dart or bifid T waves have been reported in the conventional 12-lead electrocardiograms in some patients with congenital heart disease. The case illustrated here, to the best of our knowledge, dome-and-dart or bifid T waves may associate with hyperthyroidism patients.

  6. Dome-shaped High Tibial Osteotomy: A Long-term Follow-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsen Chiang


    Conclusion: Dome-shaped HTO is a durable time-buying procedure for patients with unicompartmental medial gonarthrosis, and can avoid subsequent development of patella baja that may complicate further prosthetic arthroplasty.

  7. LA-ICP-MS Results: 3 Siple Dome A Glacial Age Archives, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) performed on an archive of the Siple Dome A ice core...

  8. Methane Measurements from the GISP2 and Siple Dome Ice Cores, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains methane measurements made in trapped air in the Holocene sections of two ice cores: the Siple Dome ice core in Antarctica, and the Greenland...

  9. Shape and Size Complexity of Deep Seafloor Mounds on the Canary Basin (West to Canary Islands, Eastern Atlantic: A DEM-Based Geomorphometric Analysis of Domes and Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sánchez-Guillamón


    Full Text Available Derived digital elevation models (DEMs are high-resolution acoustic technology that has proven to be a crucial morphometric data source for research into submarine environments. We present a morphometric analysis of forty deep seafloor edifices located to the west of Canary Islands, using a 150 m resolution bathymetric DEM. These seafloor structures are characterized as hydrothermal domes and volcanic edifices, based on a previous study, and they are also morphostructurally categorized into five types of edifice following an earlier classification. Edifice outline contours were manually delineated and the morphometric variables quantifying slope, size and shape of the edifices were then calculated using ArcGIS Analyst tools. In addition, we performed a principal component analysis (PCA where ten morphometric variables explain 84% of the total variance in edifice morphology. Most variables show a large spread and some overlap, with clear separations between the types of mounds. Based on these analyses, a morphometric growth model is proposed for both the hydrothermal domes and volcanic edifices. The model takes into account both the size and shape complexity of these seafloor structures. Grow occurs via two distinct pathways: the volcanoes predominantly grow upwards, becoming large cones, while the domes preferentially increase in volume through enlargement of the basal area.

  10. Tree-mediated methane emissions along a tropical peat dome (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Hoyt, Alison; Cobb, Alex; Harvey, Charles; Gauci, Vincent


    Methane production and transport processes in peatlands are fairly well understood, but growing evidence for emission of methane through trees has highlighted the need to revisit methane transport processes. We examined methane emissions from all pathways including stem and leaf emissions in one of the last remaining pristine tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia: Belait peat swamp forests, Brunei Darussalam. Methane emissions along with a range of biotic and abiotic factors were measured within three 20 x 30 m plots along transects from the edge to the center of the peat done which is dominated by Shorea albida. Tree-mediated methane emissions were the dominant means of methane emissions from all three plots, with soil emissions equating to less than 30% of the total ecosystem methane flux. Both tree and soil emissions varied between and within the three plots, with soil emissions decreasing from the edge to the center of the peat dome with increasing peat depth and decreasing water table depths and tree emissions following an opposite trend. Within each plot, tree-mediated methane emissions displayed large variability with fluxes ranging between 0.2 - 9.4 mg m-2 hr-1. Relationships between tree-mediated methane emissions and pore-water methane concentrations point towards the possibility of some of these trees transporting methane produced in the deeper layers of the peat profile to the atmosphere. Taken together, these observations highlight that methane emissions through tree stems play a more central role in methane cycling in tropical peatlands.

  11. Authentic Astronomical Discovery in Planetariums: Bringing Data to Domes (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan Jason; Subbarao, Mark; Christensen, Lars; Emmons, Ben; Hurt, Robert


    Planetariums offer a unique opportunity to disseminate astronomical discoveries using data visualization at all levels of complexity: the technical infrastructure to display data and a sizeable cohort of enthusiastic educators to interpret results. “Data to Dome” is an initiative the International Planetarium Society to develop our community’s capacity to integrate data in fulldome planetarium systems—including via open source software platforms such as WorldWide Telescope and OpenSpace. We are cultivating a network of planetarium professionals who integrate data into their presentations and share their content with others. Furthermore, we propose to shorten the delay between discovery and dissemination in planetariums. Currently, the “latest science” is often presented days or weeks after discoveries are announced, and we can shorten this to hours or even minutes. The Data2Dome (D2D) initiative, led by the European Southern Observatory, proposes technical infrastructure and data standards that will streamline content flow from research institutions to planetariums, offering audiences a unique opportunity to access to the latest astronomical data in near real time.

  12. Design Of a Fixed-Dome Ferrocement Biodigester Built Partiall y Underground


    Marianela de la Caridad Ortiz Alvarez; Hugo Rafael Wainshtok Rivas; Henry Hernández Sotomayor


    The analysis, structural design and constructive sequence of a fixed-dome biodigester built partially underground and using ferrocement as construction material under normal work conditions is in this paper developed. The biodigester capacity is 24 m3 and it is composed by a semispherical dome (cover), cylindricalwalls (body) and a circular slab(bottom). The biodigester using ferrocement as construction materialis in agreement with the service guaranty requirements settled for the established...

  13. Imbrian-age highland volcanism on the moon - The Gruithuisen and Mairan domes (United States)

    Head, J. W., III; Mccord, T. B.


    The Gruithuisen and Mairan domes on the moon represent morphologically and spectrally distinct nonmare extrusive volcanic features of Imbrian age. The composition, morphology, and age relationships of the domes indicate that nonmare extrusive volcanism in the northern Procellarum region of the moon continued until about 3.3 x 10 to the 9th to 3.6 x 10 to the 9th years ago and was partially contemporaneous with the emplacement of the main sequence of mare deposits.

  14. DOMe: A deduplication optimization method for the NewSQL database backups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Wang

    Full Text Available Reducing duplicated data of database backups is an important application scenario for data deduplication technology. NewSQL is an emerging database system and is now being used more and more widely. NewSQL systems need to improve data reliability by periodically backing up in-memory data, resulting in a lot of duplicated data. The traditional deduplication method is not optimized for the NewSQL server system and cannot take full advantage of hardware resources to optimize deduplication performance. A recent research pointed out that the future NewSQL server will have thousands of CPU cores, large DRAM and huge NVRAM. Therefore, how to utilize these hardware resources to optimize the performance of data deduplication is an important issue. To solve this problem, we propose a deduplication optimization method (DOMe for NewSQL system backup. To take advantage of the large number of CPU cores in the NewSQL server to optimize deduplication performance, DOMe parallelizes the deduplication method based on the fork-join framework. The fingerprint index, which is the key data structure in the deduplication process, is implemented as pure in-memory hash table, which makes full use of the large DRAM in NewSQL system, eliminating the performance bottleneck problem of fingerprint index existing in traditional deduplication method. The H-store is used as a typical NewSQL database system to implement DOMe method. DOMe is experimentally analyzed by two representative backup data. The experimental results show that: 1 DOMe can reduce the duplicated NewSQL backup data. 2 DOMe significantly improves deduplication performance by parallelizing CDC algorithms. In the case of the theoretical speedup ratio of the server is 20.8, the speedup ratio of DOMe can achieve up to 18; 3 DOMe improved the deduplication throughput by 1.5 times through the pure in-memory index optimization method.

  15. Potential of RapidEye and WorldView-2 Satellite Data for Improving Rice Nitrogen Status Monitoring at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanyu Huang


    Full Text Available For in-season site-specific nitrogen (N management of rice to be successful, it is crucially important to diagnose rice N status efficiently across large areas within a short time frame. In recent studies, the FORMOSAT-2 satellite images with traditional blue (B, green (G, red (R, and near-infrared (NIR wavebands have been used to estimate rice N status due to its high spatial resolution, daily revisit capability, and relatively lower cost. This study aimed to evaluate the potential improvements of RapidEye and WorldView-2 data over FORMOSAT-2 for rice N status monitoring, as the former two sensors provide additional wavelengths besides the traditional four wavebands. Ten site-year N rate experiments were conducted in Jiansanjiang, Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China from 2008 to 2011. Plant samples and field hyperspectral data were collected at three growth stages: panicle initiation (PI, stem elongation (SE, and heading (HE. The canopy-scale hyperspectral data were upscaled to simulate the satellite bands. Vegetation index (VI analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR, and partial least squares regression (PLSR were performed to derive plant N status indicators. The results indicated that the best-performed VIs calculated from the simulated RapidEye and WorldView-2 bands, especially those based on the red edge (RE bands, explained significantly more variability for above ground biomass (AGB, plant N uptake (PNU, and nitrogen nutrition index (NNI estimations than their FORMOSAT-2-based counterparts did, especially at the PI and SE stages. The SMLR and PLSR models based on the WorldView-2 bands generally had the best performance, followed by the ones based on the RapidEye bands. The SMLR results revealed that both the NIR and RE bands were important for N status estimation. In particular, the NIR1 band (760–900 nm from RapidEye or 770–895 nm from WorldView-2 was most important for estimating all the N status indicators. The RE

  16. Development of a rapid method for the analysis of synthetic growth promoters in bovine muscle using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Malone, E M; Elliott, C T; Kennedy, D G; Regan, L


    A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous identification, confirmation and quantitation of thirteen synthetic growth promoters in bovine muscle. The method was validated in accordance with the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. A value of 1mugkg(-1) was chosen as the required performance level (RPL) for all analytes. The growth promoters investigated were alpha and beta trenbolone, 16-beta-OH stanozolol, methylboldenone, fluoxymesterone, methyltestosterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, melengestrol acetate, dexamethasone, flumethasone, dienestrol and hexestrol. The method involved enzymatic hydrolysis, purification by solid phase extraction followed by analysis by UPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization operated in both positive and negative polarities with a total run time of 14 min. The decision limit (CCalpha) values obtained, ranged from 0.09 to 0.19 microgkg(-1) and the detection capability (CCbeta) values obtained, ranged from 0.15 to 0.32 microgkg(-1). The results of the inter-assay study, which was performed by fortifying bovine muscle samples (n=18) on three separate days, show the accuracy calculated for the various analytes to range between 98% and 102%. The precision of the method, expressed as R.S.D. values for the inter-assay variation of each analyte at the three levels of fortification (1, 1.5 and 2.0 microgkg(-1)), ranged between 3.1% and 5.8%. A Day 4 assay was carried out to examine variations due to different animals and different muscle types.

  17. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam. (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima


    Background: Child linear growth sometimes improves in both intervention and comparison groups in evaluations of nutrition interventions, possibly because of spillover intervention effects to nonintervention areas or improvements in underlying determinants of nutritional change in both areas.Objective: We aimed to understand what changes in underlying socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral factors are important in explaining improvements in child linear growth.Methods: Baseline (2010) and endline (2014) surveys from the Alive & Thrive impact evaluation were used to identify the underlying determinants of height-for-age z scores (HAZs) among children aged 24-48 mo in Bangladesh (n = 4311) and 24-59 mo in Vietnam (n = 4002). Oaxaca-Blinder regression decompositions were used to examine which underlying determinants contributed to HAZ changes over time.Results: HAZs improved significantly between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh (∼0.18 SDs) and Vietnam (0.25 SDs). Underlying determinants improved substantially over time and were larger in Vietnam than in Bangladesh. Multiple regression models revealed significant associations between changes in HAZs and socioeconomic status (SES), food security, maternal education, hygiene, and birth weight in both countries. Changes in HAZs were significantly associated with maternal nutrition knowledge and child dietary diversity in Bangladesh, and with prenatal visits in Vietnam. Improvements in maternal nutrition knowledge in Bangladesh accounted for 20% of the total HAZ change, followed by maternal education (13%), SES (12%), hygiene (10%), and food security (9%). HAZ improvements in Vietnam were accounted for by changes in SES (26%), prenatal visits (25%), hygiene (19%), child birth weight (10%), and maternal education (7%). The decomposition models in both countries performed well, explaining >75% of the HAZ changes.Conclusions: Decomposition is a useful and simple technique for analyzing nonintervention drivers of

  18. Is there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica? (United States)

    Parrenin, Frédéric; Cavitte, Marie G. P.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Fischer, Hubertus; Gagliardini, Olivier; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Roberts, Jason; Siegert, Martin J.; Young, Duncan A.


    Ice sheets provide exceptional archives of past changes in polar climate, regional environment and global atmospheric composition. The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC), reaching ˜ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older paleoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we use internal isochrones, identified from airborne radar coupled to ice-flow modelling to estimate the age of basal ice along transects in the Dome C area. Three glaciological properties are inferred from isochrones: surface accumulation rate, geothermal flux and the exponent of the Lliboutry velocity profile. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr, 1.5 million years) likely exists in two regions: one ˜ 40 km south-west of Dome C along the ice divide to Vostok, close to a secondary dome that we name Little Dome C (LDC), and a second region named North Patch (NP) located 10-30 km north-east of Dome C, in a region where the geothermal flux is apparently relatively low. Our work demonstrates the value of combining radar observations with ice flow modelling to accurately represent the true nature of ice flow, and understand the formation of ice-sheet architecture, in the centre of large ice sheets.

  19. Distributions of cranial pathologies provide evidence for head-butting in dome-headed dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae). (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E; Dischler, Collin; Longrich, Nicholas R


    Pachycephalosaurids are small, herbivorous dinosaurs with domed skulls formed by massive thickening of the cranial roof. The function of the dome has been a focus of debate: the dome has variously been interpreted as the product of sexual selection, as an adaptation for species recognition, or as a weapon employed in intraspecific combat, where it was used in butting matches as in extant ungulates. This last hypothesis is supported by the recent identification of cranial pathologies in pachycephalosaurids, which appear to represent infections resulting from trauma. However, the frequency and distribution of pathologies have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Here, we show that pachycephalosaurids are characterized by a remarkably high incidence of cranial injury, where 22% of specimens have lesions on the dome. Frequency of injury shows no significant difference between different genera, but flat-headed morphs (here interpreted as juveniles or females) lack lesions. Mapping of injuries onto a digitial pachycephalosaurid skull shows that although lesions are distributed across the dome, they cluster near the apex, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the dome functioned for intraspecific butting matches.

  20. Is there 1.5-million-year-old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin


    Full Text Available Ice sheets provide exceptional archives of past changes in polar climate, regional environment and global atmospheric composition. The oldest dated deep ice core drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (EDC, reaching ∼ 800 000 years. Obtaining an older paleoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the greatest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we use internal isochrones, identified from airborne radar coupled to ice-flow modelling to estimate the age of basal ice along transects in the Dome C area. Three glaciological properties are inferred from isochrones: surface accumulation rate, geothermal flux and the exponent of the Lliboutry velocity profile. We find that old ice (> 1.5 Myr, 1.5 million years likely exists in two regions: one ∼ 40 km south-west of Dome C along the ice divide to Vostok, close to a secondary dome that we name Little Dome C (LDC, and a second region named North Patch (NP located 10–30 km north-east of Dome C, in a region where the geothermal flux is apparently relatively low. Our work demonstrates the value of combining radar observations with ice flow modelling to accurately represent the true nature of ice flow, and understand the formation of ice-sheet architecture, in the centre of large ice sheets.

  1. A Cascade of Wnt, Eda, and Shh Signaling Is Essential for Touch Dome Merkel Cell Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao


    Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway regulates developmental, homeostatic, and repair processes throughout the body. In the skin, touch domes develop in tandem with primary hair follicles and contain sensory Merkel cells. The developmental signaling requirements for touch dome specification are largely unknown. We found dermal Wnt signaling and subsequent epidermal Eda/Edar signaling promoted Merkel cell morphogenesis by inducing Shh expression in early follicles. Lineage-specific gene deletions revealed intraepithelial Shh signaling was necessary for Merkel cell specification. Additionally, a Shh signaling agonist was sufficient to rescue Merkel cell differentiation in Edar-deficient skin. Moreover, Merkel cells formed in Fgf20 mutant skin where primary hair formation was defective but Shh production was preserved. Although developmentally associated with hair follicles, fate mapping demonstrated Merkel cells primarily originated outside the hair follicle lineage. These findings suggest that touch dome development requires Wnt-dependent mesenchymal signals to establish reciprocal signaling within the developing ectoderm, including Eda signaling to primary hair placodes and ultimately Shh signaling from primary follicles to extrafollicular Merkel cell progenitors. Shh signaling often demonstrates pleiotropic effects within a structure over time. In postnatal skin, Shh is known to regulate the self-renewal, but not the differentiation, of touch dome stem cells. Our findings relate the varied effects of Shh in the touch dome to the ligand source, with locally produced Shh acting as a morphogen essential for lineage specification during development and neural Shh regulating postnatal touch dome stem cell maintenance.

  2. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell E.


    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  3. The Rise and Fall of the Soufriere Hills Volcano Lava Dome, Montserrat, BWI, July 2001-July 2003: Science, Hazards, and Volatile Public Perceptions (United States)

    Dunkley, P.; Voight, B.; Edmonds, M.; Herd, R.; Strutt, M.; Thompson, G.; Bass, V.; Aspinall, W. P.; Neuberg, J.; Sparks, R.; Mattioli, G.; Hidayat, D.; Elsworth, D.; Widiwijayanti, C.


    Days after the major collapse (45 x 106 m3) of the eastern flank of the lava dome on 29 July 2001, new dome growth was observed within the 200-m deep collapse amphitheatre. accompanied by cyclic seismicity. By January 2002 the summit was broad with an altitude of 990m. A switch in dome activity occurred in April, but Growth nearly stagnated in June and part of July, with the top of the extrusion lobe at 1048m. but GPS monitoring suggested that the magma reservoir continued to inflate, and growth resumed in late July. In August, a lobe grew toward the north and buried the northern buttress and an important drainage channel that formerly led to the east. One of the regular six-monthly meetings of the Risk Assessment Panel (RAP) took place on 3-4 Sept 02 and concluded that if a NW switch in dome growth were to occur, the margins of the Belham Valley on the west could be at high risk; a flow and surge hazard line was provided to officials, crossing the populated area near Salem. Shortly after the RAP Report was finalized, a switch in growth direction toward the northwest in fact occurred. On 7 Oct, the RAP were asked to re-appraise Belham Valley risks given the altered but not unanticipated circumstances; they judged that a potential existed for a hazardous flow down Belham Valley, although RAP emphasized that their assessment did not predict that a large flow would occur soon, nor in that sector. On 8 Oct the Governor ordered an evacuation of an exclusion zone defined by the RAP's hazard line as adjusted to permit administrative control, and the boundary remained in force until Aug 03, with growing public discontent toward the Governor's exercise of Emergency Powers, and toward MVO, as expressed by a caustic vocal minority with provocative exacerbation by the local newspaper and some politicians. Meanwhile, dome growth continued with some switches in direction, a collapse of 5 x 106 m3 occurred eastward on 8 Dec to Spanish Point, and pyroclastic flows occurred in

  4. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003. (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan


    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  5. The growth of high density network of MOF nano-crystals across macroporous metal substrates - Solvothermal synthesis versus rapid thermal deposition (United States)

    Maina, James W.; Gonzalo, Cristina Pozo; Merenda, Andrea; Kong, Lingxue; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.


    Fabrication of metal organic framework (MOF) films and membranes across macro-porous metal substrates is extremely challenging, due to the large pore sizes across the substrates, poor wettability, and the lack of sufficient reactive functional groups on the surface, which prevent high density nucleation of MOF crystals. Herein, macroporous stainless steel substrates (pore size 44 × 40 μm) are functionalized with amine functional groups, and the growth of ZIF-8 crystals investigated through both solvothermal synthesis and rapid thermal deposition (RTD), to assess the role of synthesis routes in the resultant membranes microstructure, and subsequently their performance. Although a high density of well interconnected MOF crystals was observed across the modified substrates following both techniques, RTD was found to be a much more efficient route, yielding high quality membranes under 1 h, as opposed to the 24 h required for solvothermal synthesis. The RTD membranes also exhibited high gas permeance, with He permeance of up to 2.954 ± 0.119 × 10-6 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1, and Knudsen selectivities for He/N2, Ar/N2 and CO2/N2, suggesting the membranes were almost defect free. This work opens up route for efficient fabrication of MOF films and membranes across macro-porous metal supports, with potential application in electrically mediated separation applications.

  6. Non-cytotoxic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds: An efficient bedding for rapid growth of bone-like apatite and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Lukasz, E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Baltrukiewicz, Marta; Sobota, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Brykner, Renata; Cwynar-Zajac, Lucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Dziegiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego, 61-781 Poznan (Poland)


    Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic macroporous hybrid scaffolds were investigated. The materials were prepared by combining 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) chemically modified by Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions via sol-gel route. In this study we have constructed a sugar-based cracks-free three-dimensional (3D) network with interconnected porous architecture within the range of 150-300 {mu}m and rough topography. The obtained results revealed that both topography and composition of prepared materials allow rapid growth of the bone-like apatite (HAp) layer on their surface after soaking in biological medium. Preliminary studies have shown that hybrids covered by HAp are non-cytotoxic and allow cell proliferation that make them a promising scaffolds in the field of bone regenerative medicine. The materials were mainly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived biomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D organic-inorganic hybrid composites for bone tissue engineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sugar-templated cracks-free macroporous scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/triethoxyvinylsilane blend doped with calcium and phosphate ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-cytotoxic bedding for fibroblasts proliferation.

  7. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram


    -onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. SETTING: General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between...... 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m(2), N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood...... that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: We found no robust evidence...

  8. In normal rat, intraventricularly administered insulin-like growth factor-1 is rapidly cleared from CSF with limited distribution into brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorevic Peter D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Putatively active drugs are often intraventricularly administered to gain direct access to brain and circumvent the blood-brain barrier. A few studies on the normal central nervous system (CNS have shown, however, that the distribution of materials after intraventricular injections is much more limited than presumed and their exit from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is more rapid than generally believed. In this study, we report the intracranial distribution and the clearance from CSF and adjacent CNS tissue of radiolabeled insulin-like growth factor-1 after injection into one lateral ventricle of the normal rat brain. Methods Under barbiturate anesthesia, 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 was injected into one lateral ventricle of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. The subsequent distribution of IGF-1 through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF system and into brain, cerebral blood vessels, and systemic blood was measured over time by gamma counting and quantitative autoradiography (QAR. Results Within 5 min of infusion, IGF-1 had spread from the infused lateral ventricle into and through the third and fourth ventricles. At this time, 25% of the infused IGF-1 had disappeared from the CSF-brain-meningeal system; the half time of this loss was 12 min. The plasma concentration of cleared IGF-1 was, however, very low from 2 to 9 min and only began to rise markedly after 20 min. This delay between loss and gain plus the lack of radiotracer in the cortical subarachnoid space suggested that much of the IGF-1 was cleared into blood via the cranial and/or spinal nerve roots and their associated lymphatic systems rather than periventricular tissue and arachnoid villi. Less than 10% of the injected radioactivity remained in the CSF-brain system after 180 min. The CSF and arteries and arterioles within the subarachnoid cisterns were labeled with IGF-1 within 10 min. Between 60 and 180 min, most of the radioactivity within the cranium was

  9. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate


    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  10. Public Education and Outreach Through Full-Dome Video Technology (United States)

    Pollock, John


    My long-term goal is to enhance public understanding of complex systems that can be best demonstrated through richly detailed computer graphic animation displayed with full-dome video technology. My current focus is on health science advances that focus on regenerative medicine, which helps the body heal itself. Such topics facilitate science learning and health literacy. My team develops multi-media presentations that bring the scientific and medical advances to the public through immersive high-definition video animation. Implicit in treating the topics of regenerative medicine will be the need to address stem cell biology. The topics are clarified and presented from a platform of facts and balanced ethical consideration. The production process includes communicating scientific information about the excitement and importance of stem cell research. Principles of function are emphasized over specific facts or terminology by focusing on a limited, but fundamental set of concepts. To achieve this, visually rich, biologically accurate 3D computer graphic environments are created to illustrate the cells, tissues and organs of interest. A suite of films are produced, and evaluated in pre- post-surveys assessing attitudes, knowledge and learning. Each film uses engaging interactive demonstrations to illustrate biological functions, the things that go wrong due to disease and disability, and the remedy provided by regenerative medicine. While the images are rich and detailed, the language is accessible and appropriate to the audience. The digital, high-definition video is also re-edited for presentation in other ``flat screen'' formats, increasing our distribution potential. Show content is also presented in an interactive web space ( with complementing teacher resource guides and student workbooks and companion video games.

  11. LED package with Dome/side-emitting-enhancement silicone lens achieved by dispensing and geometry transferring (United States)

    Chang Chien, Chien-Lin; Huang, Yu-Che; Hu, Syue-Fong; Sun, Chang-Wen; Chang, Chung-Min; Hsu, Chih-Peng; Yip, Ming-Chuen; Fang, Weileun


    This study presents a structure design and process method for lens type LED package. Dome type or side-emitting-enhancement silicone lens without molding process are achieved. The ceramic ring is adopted as the confine for the encapsulant. The surface intension along the sidewall of ceramic ring and silicone surface, the cohesion force and the gravity of silicone determine the shape of dome type silicone lens. The cone shape tooling coated with a releasing material is immersed into the dome type silicone lens before the silicone fully hardening. After curing simultaneously, to remove the tooling from package, the package with side-emitting-enhancement silicone lens is finished. With the mentioned architecture and process, this LED package herein has three merits, (1) to improve light extraction efficiency: reduce the chance of total internal reflection by the geometry of dome type silicone lens. (2)To enhance the flexibility of LED package design, the die placement location would be constrained by the mold in the traditional package process. (3) Mold-less side-emitting-enhancement silicone lens. Furthermore, two types of cone shape tooling are implemented and compared for side-emitting-enhancement silicone lens. Measurement results show the ratio between the lens high and lens radius could achieve 0.9:1. The view angles of dome type and side-emitting-enhancement LED packaged devices can reach 153° and 180 °, respectively. As using the same brightness grade of LED chip, the luminous flux is increasing 15% as compared the dome type package with the commercial PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier) type package. The luminous flux of side-emitting-enhancement LED package decreases 8% as compared with the dome type one.

  12. Hoar crystal development and disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: observation by near-infrared photography and passive microwave satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champollion


    Full Text Available Hoar crystals episodically cover the snow surface in Antarctica and affect the roughness and reflective properties of the air–snow interface. However, little is known about their evolution and the processes responsible for their development and disappearance despite a probable influence on the surface mass balance and energy budget. To investigate hoar evolution, we use continuous observations of the surface by in situ near-infrared photography and by passive microwave remote sensing at Dome C in Antarctica. From the photography data, we retrieved a daily indicator of the presence/absence of hoar crystals using a texture analysis algorithm. The analysis of this 2 yr long time series shows that Dome C surface is covered almost half of the time by hoar. The development of hoar crystals takes a few days and seems to occur whatever the meteorological conditions. In contrast, the disappearance of hoar is rapid (a few hours and coincident with either strong winds or with moderate winds associated with a change in wind direction from southwest (the prevailing direction to southeast. From the microwave satellite data, we computed the polarisation ratio (i.e. horizontal over vertical polarised brightness temperatures, an indicator known to be sensitive to hoar in Greenland. Photography data and microwave polarisation ratio are correlated, i.e. high values of polarisation ratio which theoretically correspond to low snow density values near the surface are associated with the presence of hoar crystals in the photography data. Satellite data over nearly ten years (2002–2011 confirm that a strong decrease of the polarisation ratio (i.e. signature of hoar disappearance is associated with an increase of wind speed or a change in wind direction from the prevailing direction. The photography data provides, in addition, evidence of interactions between hoar and snowfall. Further adding the combined influence of wind speed and wind direction results in a

  13. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.


    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  14. Improved manufacturing techniques for RF and laser hardening of missile domes. Phase I. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlewicz, W.T.; Mann, I.B.; Martin, P.M.; Hays, D.D.; Graybeal, A.G.


    This report summarizes key results and accomplishements during the first year of a Manufacturing Methods and Technology project to adapt an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high-power fusion-laser applications to the case of rf and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by the US Army (MICOM). The primary objective of the first year's work was to demonstrate rf hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06-micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings. The project thus involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat-sensitive plastic domes used on laser-guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals were an electrical sheet resistance of 10 Ohms/square, a coated-dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 Ohms/square was expected to result in an rf attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.

  15. New radiometric ages on gneisses of the Oliverian domes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartman, R.E.; Leo, G.W.


    Gneissic plutons of the Oliverian domes, mantled by Ammonoosuc Volcanics, are located along the axis of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium from New Hampshire to Connecticut. The contacts between the plutonic and volcanic rocks appear to be concordant on a regional scale, but gneiss intrudes the volcanics in several domes. Available radiometric and fossil evidence suggests that the Ammonoosuc Volcanics have a Middle Ordovician age but are somewhat older than the Oliverian gneisses. New U-Pb zircon data from Oliverian gneisses of six domes plot on a concordia diagram as an almost colinear array that yields an upper intercept age of about 444 m.y. The plotted data vary from nearly concordant to moderately discordant, the degree of discordance, correlating with /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages that range from 459 to 415 m.y. The pattern of discordance does not relate to the uranium contents of the zircons nor to the geographic distribution of the domes. If /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages are considered individually without an assumed consanguinity of the units, however, they do not find particular support in geologic relationships. Thus, they prefer the concordia intercept age of 444 +/- 8 m.y. for the suite as the best estimate for the time of crystallization of the Oliverian gneisses. Possibly, the Whitefield, Gneiss in the Jefferson dome represents a 10 to 15 m.y. older unit, although they are cautious about claiming such resolution with the present data.

  16. Sea-ice-related halogen enrichment at Law Dome, coastal East Antarctica (United States)

    Vallelonga, Paul; Maffezzoli, Niccolo; Moy, Andrew D.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Vance, Tessa R.; Edwards, Ross; Hughes, Gwyn; Barker, Emily; Spreen, Gunnar; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Corella, J. Pablo; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Spolaor, Andrea


    The Law Dome site is ideal for the evaluation of sea ice proxies due to its location near to the Antarctic coast, regular and high accumulation throughout the year, an absence of surface melting or remobilization, and minimal multiyear sea ice. We present records of bromine and iodine concentrations and their enrichment beyond seawater compositions and compare these to satellite observations of first-year sea ice area in the 90-130° E sector of the Wilkes coast. Our findings support the results of previous studies of sea ice variability from Law Dome, indicating that Wilkes coast sea ice area is currently at its lowest level since the start of the 20th century. From the Law Dome DSS1213 firn core, 26 years of monthly deposition data indicate that the period of peak bromine enrichment is during austral spring-summer, from November to February. Results from a traverse along the lee (western) side of Law Dome show low levels of sodium and bromine deposition, with the greatest fluxes in the vicinity of the Law Dome summit. Finally, multidecadal variability in iodine enrichment appears well correlated to bromine enrichment, suggesting a common source of variability that may be related to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO).

  17. Choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula in highly myopic eyes: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Dell'Arti, Laura; Benatti, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mapelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Fabio; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Barteselli, Giulio


    To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT. Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Neogene structural dome in the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon (United States)

    Mortimer, N.; Coleman, R. G.


    Regional structural doming of Neogene age has affected rocks of the Klamath and Cascade mountains near the California-Oregon border. Evidence for this is seen in (1) subannular outcrop patterns of pre-Cretaceous lithotectonic units, (2) a crude pattern of radially oriented high-angle faults, (3) tilted Jurassic plutons, (4) tilted Cretaceous to Miocene strata, and (5) various geomorphological features. The age of doming is constrained by a major middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene angular unconformity within the Cascade Mountains and uplifted upper Miocene marine beds on the western edge of the Klamath Mountains. Uplift and doming may be the result of shortening in the Cascade fore-arc region or, more speculatively, the recent accretion of subducted material to the North American plate beneath the Klamath Mountains. *Present addresses: Mortimer, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada; Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025

  19. TECHNICAL NOTE: Observations on the use of a viscoelastic joint to provide noise reduced sonar domes (United States)

    House, J. R.


    This paper concerns the noise and vibration advantages of an energy absorbing composite joint and its relevance to noise reduced glass reinforced polyester (GRP) sonar domes. Once installed on an operational boat, hydrodynamic flow and supporting structural induced vibrations cause the dome to vibrate, thus radiating noise and interfering with sonar sensor response. The results of a vibration transmissibility study on a GRP - steel interface are discussed as the first step in designing a composite viscoelastic joint that can act as a vibration sink to absorb flow generated and structure borne noise within GRP sonar domes. Preliminary investigations concerning the absorption of compressional waves by use of a tapered viscoelastic interlayer are discussed. It is shown that a tapered viscoelastic interlayer placed between a GRP beam and steel supporting substrate can produce a significant absorption of vibrational energy, reducing water borne radiated noise and providing a significantly quieter noise platform than conventional sonar jointing technology.

  20. [Dome-shaped macula: appearance on ultrasound and optical coherence tomography]. (United States)

    Chéour, M; Ben Aleya, N; Brour, J; Falfoul, Y; Agrebi, S; Skhiri, M; Kraïem, A


    The purpose of our work is to demonstrate the role of optical coherence tomography and ocular ultrasound in the diagnosis of the dome-shaped macula in high myopia. We report the case of a patient with high myopia who presented with a decrease in visual acuity and metamorphopsia in the left eye. She underwent visual acuity measurement, biomicroscopic examination and measurement of axial length. B-mode ultrasound and optical coherence tomography showed a projection of the macula in the convexity of the myopic staphyloma confirming the diagnosis of dome-shaped macula. Dome-shaped macula is a recently discovered entity, which may be responsible for a decrease in visual acuity in patients with high myopic posterior staphyloma. Ultrasound and optical coherence tomography are very helpful in making the diagnosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magri


    Full Text Available Structure from Motion techniques provides low-cost and flexible methods that can be adopted in arial surveying to collect topographic data with accurate results. Nevertheless, the so-called “doming effect”, due to unfortunate acquisition conditions or unreliable modeling of radial distortion, has been recognized as a critical issue that disrupts the quality of the attained 3D reconstruction. In this paper we propose a novel method, that works effectively in the presence of a nearly flat soil, to tackle a posteriori the doming effect: an automatic ground detection method is used to capture the doming deformation flawing the reconstruction, which in turn is wrapped to the correct geometry by iteratively enforcing a planarity constraint through a Bundle Adjustment framework. Experiments on real word datasets demonstrate promising results.

  2. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!) (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy


    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  3. Characterization of OT4-1 Alloy by Multi-Dome Forming Test. (United States)

    Zakhariev, Ivan; Aksenov, Sergey; Kotov, Anton; Kolesnikov, Aleksey


    In this study, the rheological characteristics of a titanium alloy have been obtained by multi-dome bulging test. Free bulging process is an experimental technique that can be used to characterize material in conditions of biaxial tension during superplastic, as well as conventional, hot forming. The constitutive constants are calculated on a base of the information about the bulge geometry, applied pressure, and forming time. A multi-dome forming test allows one to reduce the number of the experiments required for the characterization, since every multi-dome test produces several domes of different size. In this study, a specific die for multi-dome test was used. The die has six holes with different radiuses of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm. During a test, the specimen is clamped between blank holder and die holder, heated to a specific temperature, and formed by applying constant gas pressure. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures for OT4-1 titanium alloy. The constitutive constants were obtained by processing the experimental data using two different techniques and compared with tensile test results. In order to estimate the influence of friction on the experimental results and to verify obtained material characteristics, finite element (FE) simulation was performed. Finally, the results of FE simulation were compared with the experimental data. The results of the simulation show the advantage of material characterization based on multi dome tests and its interpretation by inverse analysis. The deviations produced by the effect of friction are more significant when the direct approach is applied instead of inverse analysis with a semi analytical model of the bulging process.

  4. Characterization of OT4-1 Alloy by Multi-Dome Forming Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zakhariev


    Full Text Available In this study, the rheological characteristics of a titanium alloy have been obtained by multi-dome bulging test. Free bulging process is an experimental technique that can be used to characterize material in conditions of biaxial tension during superplastic, as well as conventional, hot forming. The constitutive constants are calculated on a base of the information about the bulge geometry, applied pressure, and forming time. A multi-dome forming test allows one to reduce the number of the experiments required for the characterization, since every multi-dome test produces several domes of different size. In this study, a specific die for multi-dome test was used. The die has six holes with different radiuses of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm. During a test, the specimen is clamped between blank holder and die holder, heated to a specific temperature, and formed by applying constant gas pressure. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures for OT4-1 titanium alloy. The constitutive constants were obtained by processing the experimental data using two different techniques and compared with tensile test results. In order to estimate the influence of friction on the experimental results and to verify obtained material characteristics, finite element (FE simulation was performed. Finally, the results of FE simulation were compared with the experimental data. The results of the simulation show the advantage of material characterization based on multi dome tests and its interpretation by inverse analysis. The deviations produced by the effect of friction are more significant when the direct approach is applied instead of inverse analysis with a semi analytical model of the bulging process.

  5. Location of a new ice core site at Talos Dome (East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tabacco


    Full Text Available In the frame of glaciology and palaeoclimate research, Talos Dome (72°48lS; 159°06lE, an ice dome on the East Antarctic plateau, represents the new selected site for a new deep ice core drilling. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that the ice accumulation is higher here than in other domes in East Antarctica. A new deep drilling in this site could give important information about the climate changes near the coast. Previous papers showed that the dome summit is situated above a sloped bedrock. A new position on a relatively flat bedrock 5-6 km far from here in the SE direction was defined as a possible new ice core site for an European (Italy, France, Swiss and United Kingdom drilling project named as TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice Core Project. This point, named as ID1 (159°11l00mE; 72°49l40mS, became the centre of the Radio Echo Sounding (RES flight plan during the 2003 Italian Antarctic expedition, with the aim of confirming the new drilling site choice. In this paper 2001 and 2003 RES data sets have been used to draw a better resolution of ice thickness, bottom morphology and internal layering of a restricted area around the dome. Based on the final results, point ID1 has been confirmed as the new coring site. Finally, the preliminary operations about the installation of the summer ice core camp (TALDICE at ID1 site carried out during the XX Italian Antarctic expedition (November 2004-December 2005 are briefly described.

  6. Degassing of Cl, F, Li and Be during extrusion and crystallization of the rhyolite dome at Volcán Chaitén, Chile during 2008 and 2009 (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bleick, Heather; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Castro, Jonathan M.; Larson, Peter B.


    We investigated the distribution of Cl, F, Li, and Be in pumices, obsidians, and crystallized dome rocks at Chaitén volcano in 2008–2009 in order to explore the behavior of these elements during explosive and effusive volcanic activity. Electron and ion microprobe analyses of matrix and inclusion glasses from pumice, obsidian, and microlite-rich dome rock indicate that Cl and other elements were lost primarily during crystallization of the rhyolitic dome after it had approached the surface. Glass in pumice and microlite-free obsidian has 888 ± 121 ppm Cl, whereas residual glass in evolved microlite-rich dome rock generally retains less Cl (as low as 0.7 Mt Cl, with a potential maximum of 1.8 Mt for the entire 0.8-km3 dome. Elemental variations reflect an integrated bulk distribution ratio for Cl > 1.7 (1.7 times more Cl was degassed or incorporated into crystals than remained in the melt). Because Cl is lost dominantly as the very last H2O is degassed, and Cl is minimally (if at all) partitioned into microlites, the integrated vapor/melt distribution ratio for Cl exceeds 200 (200 times more Cl in the evolved vapor than in the melt). Cl is likely lost as HCl, which is readily partitioned into magmatic vapor at low pressure. Cl loss is accelerated by the change in the composition of the residual melt due to microlite growth. Cl loss also may be affected by open-system gas fluxing. Integrated vapor-melt distribution ratios for Li, F, and Be all exceed 1,000. On degassing, an unknown fraction of these volatiles could be immediately dissolved in rainwater.

  7. Transthoracic percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for liver tumors in the hepatic dome. (United States)

    Shibata, Toyomichi; Shibata, Toshiya; Maetani, Yoji; Kubo, Takeshi; Itoh, Kyo; Togashi, Kaori; Hiraoka, Masahiro


    Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic radiofrequency ablation was performed for nine liver tumors of eight patients, which were located in the hepatic dome and undetectable by ultrasound (US). A total 11 sessions of ablation were performed. Complications were noted in five sessions (45%) and no complications were noted in six sessions (55%). Pneumothorax was noted in five sessions (45%), including two sessions (18%) with major pneumothorax requiring a chest tube. Major complications were seen in two sessions (18%), major pneumothorax and both major pneumothorax and moderate pleural effusion, respectively. CT-guided transthoracic radiofrequency ablation may be an alternative for treatments of liver tumor in the hepatic dome.

  8. Serous retinal detachment accompanied by MEWDS in a myopic patient with dome-shaped macula. (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyu; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Sung Who; Lee, Ji Eun


    Macular serous retinal detachment (MSRD) is a rare complication in highly myopic patients with an inferior staphyloma, tilted disc, or dome-shaped macula. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) presents with sudden visual loss and multiple yellowish dots that resolve spontaneously within several weeks. The authors report the development and spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid accompanied by MEWDS in a myopic patient with a dome-shaped macula. Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium due to MEWDS likely induced temporary MSRD in this patient. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. ASTEP: Towards the detection and characterization of exoplanets from Dome C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauer H.


    Full Text Available The ASTEP project (Antarctic Search for Transiting ExoPlanets, aims at testing the quality of the Dome C site in Antarctica for photometry in the visible, as well as detecting and characterizing transiting exoplanets. A dedicated telescope, ASTEP400, has been developped and installed at Concordia. The first campaign took place during the winter 2010, and the telescope functionned nominally during all the winter. A first analysis of the data leads to a precision of 189 and 205 ppm for WASP-19 and WASP-18 respectively, for continuous observations during 1 month. This shows that extremely high precision photometry is achievable from Dome C.

  10. Crowning the Cathedral of Florence: Brunelleschi Builds His Dome. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-10. (United States)

    Symcox, Linda

    This unit focuses on a dramatic moment in the Renaissance from about 1420 when Filippo Brunelleschi single handedly created, defined, and engineered a new architecture by building the great dome of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. The dome became the symbol of Florence's grandeur during the Renaissance, and a model for great…

  11. Uncovering hidden treasures in pollen tube growth mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonia, L.; Munnik, T.


    The long-standing model of tip growth in pollen tubes considers that exocytosis and growth occur at the apex and that the pool of very small vesicles in the apical dome contains secretory (exocytic) vesicles. However, recent work on vesicle trafficking dynamics in tobacco pollen tubes shows that

  12. Explosive dome eruptions modulated by periodic gas-driven inflation (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lyons, John; Andrews, B. J.; Lees, J.M.


    Volcan Santiaguito (Guatemala) “breathes” with extraordinary regularity as the edifice's conduit system accumulates free gas, which periodically vents to the atmosphere. Periodic pressurization controls explosion timing, which nearly always occurs at peak inflation, as detected with tiltmeters. Tilt cycles in January 2012 reveal regular 26 ± 6 min inflation/deflation cycles corresponding to at least ~101 kg/s of gas fluxing the system. Very long period (VLP) earthquakes presage explosions and occur during cycles when inflation rates are most rapid. VLPs locate ~300 m below the vent and indicate mobilization of volatiles, which ascend at ~50 m/s. Rapid gas ascent feeds pyroclast-laden eruptions lasting several minutes and rising to ~1 km. VLPs are not observed during less rapid inflation episodes; instead, gas vents passively through the conduit producing no infrasound and no explosion. These observations intimate that steady gas exsolution and accumulation in shallow reservoirs may drive inflation cycles at open-vent silicic volcanoes.

  13. Late Holocene phases of dome growth and Plinian activity at Guagua Pichincha volcano (Ecuador)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Mothes, Patricia; van der Plicht, Johannes


    Since the eruption which affected Quito in AD 1660, Guagua Pichincha has been considered a hazardous volcano. Based on field studies and twenty C-14 dates, this paper discusses the eruptive activity of this volcano, especially that of the last 2000 years. Three major Plinian eruptions with

  14. Rapid Screening Method for Compounds That Affect the Growth and Germination of Candida albicans, Using a Real-Time PCR Thermocycler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.


    We propose a screening method for compounds affecting growth and germination in Candida albicans using a real-time PCR thermocycler to quantify green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. Using P(ACT1)-GFP and P(HWP1)-GFP reporter strains, the effects of a wide range of compounds on growth and

  15. Simulated Service and Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing for Friction Stir Welded Spun Formed Domes (United States)

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Torres, Pablo D.; Caratus, Andrei A.; Curreri, Peter A.


    Simulated service testing (SST) development was required to help qualify a new 2195 aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloy spin forming dome fabrication process for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Development Technology Program. The application for the technology is to produce high strength low weight tank components for NASA s next generation launch vehicles. Since plate material is not currently manufactured large enough to fabricate these domes, two plates are joined by means of friction stir welding. The plates are then pre-contour machined to near final thicknesses allowing for a thicker weld land and anticipating the level of stretch induced by the spin forming process. The welded plates are then placed in a spin forming tool and hot stretched using a trace method producing incremental contours. Finally the dome receives a room temperature contour stretch to final dimensions, heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging to emulate a T-8 condition of temper. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were also performed by alternate immersion in a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using the typical double beam assembly and with 4-point loaded specimens and use of bent-beam stress-corrosion test specimens under alternate immersion conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC (K(sub ISCC)) which to our knowledge has not been determined previously for Al-Li 2195 alloy. The successful simulated service and stress corrosion testing helped to provide confidence to continue to Ares 1 scale dome fabrication

  16. Development, characteristics and comparative structural analysis of tensegrity type cable domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadović Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Tensegrity type cable domes are three-dimensional structural configurations, prestressed inside the perimeter compression ring, in which the continuous tension throughout the roof structure is made by continuous tension cables and discontinuous compression struts. These kinds of structures can be formed like spatially triangulated networks or like networks nontriangulated in space. This paper examines some effects of network geometry on the behaviour and structural efficiency of tensegrity type cable domes. In this paper the roof cover is considered non-interactive with the supporting structure, unlike rigidly clad tensegrity type cable domes. Since the main bearing elements of tensegrity type cable domes are prestressed cables, they show non-linear load deformation and rely upon geometric stiffness. A geometrically non-linear analysis of non-triangulated and triangulated structures for different load conditions was conducted employing a computer program based on the perturbation theory. The incrementally-iterative procedure, with an approximation of the stiffness matrix by combining the elastic and geometric stiffness matrix, allows detection of structural instabilities.

  17. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  18. Re-assessment of recent (2008–2013 surface mass balance over Dome Argus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghu Ding


    Full Text Available At Dome Argus, East Antarctica, the surface mass balance (SMB from 2008 to 2013 was evaluated using 49 stakes installed across a 30×30 km area. Spatial analysis showed that at least 12 and 20 stakes are needed to obtain reliable estimates of SMB at local scales (a few hundred square metres and regional scales (tens of square kilometres, respectively. The estimated annual mean SMB was 22.9±5.9 kg m−2 yr−1, including a net loss by sublimation of −2.22±0.02 kg m−2 yr−1 and a mass gain by deposition of 1.37±0.01 kg m−2 yr−1. Therefore, ca. 14.3% of precipitation was modified after deposition, which should be considered when interpreting snow or ice core records produced by future drilling projects. The surface snow density and SMB in the western portion of Dome Argus are higher than in other areas, and these differences are likely related to the katabatic wind, which is strengthened by topography in this sector. A new digital elevation model (DEM of Dome Argus was generated, confirming that both peaks of the dome can be considered as the summit of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Findings from this study should be valuable for validating SMB estimates obtained from regional climate models and DEMs established using remote-sensing data.

  19. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-shaped Macula with 7 Years Follow-up. (United States)

    Alakeely, Adel G; Alrashaed, Saba


    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) was first described by Gaucher et al. as a convex protrusion of macula within a staphyloma in highly myopic eyes that cause visual impairment associated with serous foveal detachment (SFD). We describe a patient with persistent SFD in DSM documented by serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography for 7 years with stable vision.

  20. Mud volcanos and mud domes of the central Mediterranean Ridge: near bottom and in situ observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Foucher, J.-P.


    The first high-resolution mapping of mud volcanoes and mud domes of the Central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean) presented here is based on successive in situ observations from the Nautile submersible [MEDINAUT (1998) and NAUTINIL (2003) surveys] and near-bottom side-scan sonar data

  1. Fusée ceramic vaults and domes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.


    This paper gives an overview of the fusée Ceramique vaults and domes constructed in The Netherlands just after World War II and describes the technique of construction as well as the advantages and disadvantages. Using only a minimum of concrete and steel, the environmental load of the vaults is

  2. Methyl Bromide Measurements in the Taylor Dome M3C1 Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set includes methyl bromide (CH3Br) measurements made on air extracted from 70 samples from the Taylor Dome M3C1 ice core. CH3Br was measured in air from...

  3. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: Implication for arrhythmogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben


    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased

  4. Enduring perceptions: Place naming and the perception of Louisiana’s salt dome islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward


    Full Text Available Salt domes are geological features that occur when areas of salt deposits are pressured into layers above them, causing dome shaped distortions in horizontal strata. In some instances, the distortions protrude above flat areas of land or else appear underwater as seamounts. In the case of the five Louisiana salt dome hills considered in this article, their distinct elevation above the swampy bayous and flatlands surrounding them has led to their characterisation as islands by indigenous Atakapa-Ishak peoples and by subsequent Francophone and Anglophone settlers. The article considers the ways in which the five salt domes’ islandness has been perceived, enhanced and/or undermined by various local inhabitants and/or the commercial operations that have operated on them. Discussion of these aspects involves consideration of the manner in which the salt dome islands’ islandness is mutable and complex, particularly with regard to human impacts. This mutability is discussed with regard to both individual island placenames and the islands’ overall designations.

  5. Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit (United States)

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  6. Airborne L-band radiometer mapping of the dome-C area in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl


    A 350 km × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome-C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature (TB) close to the yearly mean temperature-well suited for calibration...

  7. Mapping of the DOME-C area in Antarctica by an airborne L-band radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl


    A 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature close to the yearly mean temperature — well suited for calibration checks...

  8. The eastern Central Pamir Gneiss Domes: temporal and spatial geometry of burial and exhumation (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Stearns, Michael; Ratschbacher, Lothar


    We present a structural and thermochronologic study of the Gneiss Domes and their cover in the Central Pamir. Emphasis is laid on presentation and discussion of new 40Ar-39Ar dates embedded in two structural profiles through the central Muskol and western Shatput domes. The structure of the Central Pamir is dominated by Cenozoic deformation related to the India-Asia collision. Only few structures of the Phanerozoic amalgamation of the Pamir were not reactivated. The Cenozoic structural development of the Central Pamir can be simplified into three phases: 1) Between initial collision of India and Asia to 28-20 Ma (peak metamorphism, U-Pb monazite) the emplacement of large thrust sheets led to strong north-south shortening;" in the eastern Central Pamir the major thrust sheet has a minimum displacement of 35 km. The stratigraphic thickness of this nappe is ~7 km but its internal structure and thus its true thickness is weakly constrained by the available data. Klippen of Early Paleozoic strata of this thrust sheet south of the Central Pamir Muskol and Shatput domes cover Carboniferous to Triassic strata of the footwall; they can be linked to the Akbaital nappe previously mapped by Russian geologists north of the domes. In the Sasaksu valley of the Muskol dome, the thrust sheet is intruded by a ~36 Ma granodiorite (new U-Pb zircon dates). (2) This crustal imbricate stack is cut by east-trending normal faults and shear zones that define the Central Pamir Gneiss Domes. Normal shear is concentrated along the northern margin of the domes and was the main process associated with exhumation of the domes from ~30 km depth at 20-15 Ma (U-Th/Pb titanite and monazite, Ar-Ar, fission-track geo-thermochronology). One granite at ~35 Ma (U-Pb zircon) pre-dates exhumation while three leucocratic dykes (18-20 Ma U-Pb monazite and zircon) are dated to be coeval with the initial stages of exhumation. Detrital U-Pb zircon ages of the high-grade metasediments indicate that the protoliths

  9. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.


    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  10. Colorectal carcinoma with dome-like phenotype: an under-recognised subset of colorectal carcinoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, L; Pachler, J; Holck, S


    The term dome carcinoma has been applied to a variant of colorectal carcinoma, thought to derive from M-cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Its distinguishing morphological features include a non-polypoid plaque-like lesion composed of closely apposed cystically dilated glands lined...

  11. Alternative co-digestion scenarios for efficient fixed-dome reactor biomethanation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Laranjeiro, Tiago; Angelidaki, Irini


    VS ratio, respectively. Three fixed-dome reactors, R30, R45 and R60, fed with all substrates, operated with hydraulic retention times of 30, 45, and 60 days and organic loading rates of 2.18, 1.46, and 1.09 g VS L−1 d−1, respectively (different co-digestion scenarios). R60 was the best continuous co...

  12. The sedimentary and structural history of the Valsurvio Dome Cantabrian Mountains, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, B.N.


    A continuous sequence of about 1000 m of Devonian sediments has been found in the Valsurvio dome, ranging from probable Siegenian to Famennian in age. This sequence of a neritic-littoral facies shows similar characteristics to the Devonian found further west in the province of León. North of the

  13. Recent Progress on Cross-Comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS Calibration Using Dome C (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Wenny, B.


    For the past few years, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC has continued to evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS calibration long-term stability and their calibration consistency using sensor observations over the Dome Concordia, Antarctica. Early results from Dome C observations show that the calibration of bands I and 2 (0.65 and 0.86 micron) is consistent within 1-2% and bands 31 and 32 (11 and 12 micron) differences are less than a couple of tenths of Kelvin, demonstrating that this site can provide a useful calibration reference for a wide range of Earth-observing sensors from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Recently, the Dome C area has been endorsed by the CEOS as a reference standard site for sensor cross-comparison. This, as a result, has led to an invitation to the broad community to participate in a CEOS comparison of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance/reflectance over Dome C. In this paper, we provide a brief description of the methodologies and report our recent progress on cross-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS spectral bands using observations over this area, including data provided in support of the upcoming CEOS comparison. Emphasis of this paper is on the long-term data records of MODIS instruments, their calibration consistency, and challenging issues.

  14. fracture of the dome of the talus associated with a fracture of the os ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 13, 1971 ... Falls from a height are commonly associated with fractures of the os calcis, the distal tibia and fibula, the acetabulum, the thoracic and lumbar spine and the base of the skull. An association between a fracture of the dome of the talus on one side and a fracture of the os calcis on the other is very unusual.

  15. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: power generation and control systems. (United States)

    Lawrence, J S; Ashley, M C B; Hengst, S; Luong-Van, D M; Storey, J W V; Yang, H; Zhou, X; Zhu, Z


    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  16. Computed tomography-guided transpulmonary radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma located in hepatic dome. (United States)

    Toyoda, Mitsuo; Kakizaki, Satoru; Horiuchi, Katsuhiko; Katakai, Kenji; Sohara, Naondo; Sato, Ken; Takagi, Hitoshi; Mori, Masatomo; Nakajima, Takahito


    To determine the feasibility of performing computed tomography (CT)-guided transpulmonary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the hepatic dome. A total of seven patients with HCC comprising seven nodules located in the hepatic dome were treated from April 2004 to December 2004. CT-guided transpulmonary RFA was performed using a cool-tip type electrode (Radionics Company) based on a standardized energy protocol. All tumors located in the hepatic dome were not detectable by the usual ultrasound (US) methods. The lesion diameters ranged from 15 to 27 mm. RFA was technically feasible in all the patients. The puncture procedure was performed twice or less and the total average performance time was 40.6 min. Local tumor control was achieved in all the patients. The necrosis diameter ranged from 25 to 35 mm. The mean follow-up period was 9.6 (7-14 mo) mo. There was no local recurrence at the follow-up points. Pneumothorax requiring pleural drainage was the main complication, which was observed in two of the seven patients (28.6%). However, it improved with chest drainage tube, and the tube could be removed within 2-3 d. No other major complications were observed. CT-guided puncture is useful for the treatment of tumors located in the hepatic dome which are hardly detectable by US, even though pneumothorax sometimes may occur as a complication. In the cases with adhesion in the pleura for which artificial pleural effusion methods are not appropriate, CT-guided RFA is thus considered to be an alternative treatment for HCC located in the hepatic dome.

  17. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the sclera in dome-shaped macula. (United States)

    Imamura, Yutaka; Iida, Tomohiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Zweifel, Sandrine A; Spaide, Richard F


    To examine the posterior anatomic structure of eyes with dome-shaped macula using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Retrospective observational case series. Patients with dome-shaped macula, a condition defined as convex elevation of the macula as compared with the surrounding staphylomatous region in a highly myopic eye, were identified through routine examinations using optical coherence tomography (OCT). EDI-OCT was used to examine their posterior anatomic changes. The scleral thickness was measured from the outer border of the choroid to the outer scleral border under the fovea and 3000 μm temporal to the fovea. The mean age of the 15 patients (23 eyes) was 59.3 (± 12.2) years, and the mean refractive error was -13.6 (± 5.0) diopters. The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/800 (median: 20/30). Eight patients (53%) had dome-shaped macula bilaterally. The mean subfoveal scleral thickness in 23 eyes with dome-shaped macula was 570 (± 221) μm, and that in 25 eyes of 15 myopic patients with staphyloma but without dome-shaped macula was 281 (± 85) μm (P macula is the result of a relative localized thickness variation of the sclera under the macula in highly myopic patients, and it cannot be categorized into any of the known types of staphyloma. This finding suggests the ocular expansion in myopia may be more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Choroidal thickness assessment with SD-OCT in high myopia with dome-shaped macula]. (United States)

    Chebil, A; Ben Achour, B; Chaker, N; Jedidi, L; Mghaieth, F; El Matri, L


    To measure macular choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula (DSM), and to investigate whether the choroid is thicker in these eyes compared to highly myopic eyes without MB. A cross-sectional study of 200 eyes was performed between January 2010 and June 2012. Twenty-four highly myopic eyes (12%) had a dome-shaped macula. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT (TOPCON 2000), and B-scan ultrasonography. OCT scans were analyzed in 7 sections, and subfoveal CT was measured manually between the Bruch's membrane and the internal aspect of the sclera. The 20 eyes with isolated dome-shaped macular were paired by age and axial length (AL) with 20 eyes without macular involvement. In the subgroup with isolated MB, the mean subfoveal CT was 101.86 μm (± 21.35 μm). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CT and AL (r=-0.623, P=0.0001). The regression equation demonstrated a decrease of 8.3 μm per mm of AL. In the subgroup without MB, matched with the subgroup with MB by age (P=0.591), and AL (P=0.815), the mean subfoveal CT was 89.54 μm (± 20.12 μm). The comparison between the two subgroups found a statistically significant difference in subfoveal CT (Pmacula compared to highly myopic eyes without dome-shaped macula. These findings suggest that abnormalities of the choroid may play a role in the pathogenesis of dome-shaped macula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Mode shape expansions for the dynamic testing of cable domes considering random pretension deviations (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoshun; Deng, Hua; Zhu, Dexi


    Cable domes maintain their structural stability and deformation resistance substantially depending on the geometrical stiffness contributed by pretension. Dynamic testing can be employed to monitor the possible stiffness degeneration caused by pretension deviations in existing cable domes. The measured incomplete mode shapes should be expanded for effectively evaluating the actual structural stiffness. However, conventional methods lose effectiveness for expanding mode shapes of cable domes whose modes are sensitive to the pretension deviations. A novel method is developed in this paper to expand the incomplete mode shapes of existing cable domes with random pretension deviations. For a monitored target mode of the existing structure, its mode shape can be approximately expressed as a linear combination of a few mode shapes of the ideal structure. Once their combinational coefficients are determined based on the measured incomplete mode shape, the expansion of this target mode is achieved. Two key steps are included: the determination of these so-called contribution modes and the estimation of their combinational coefficients. For the prescribed limit values of equivalent member length errors adopted to simulate random pretension deviations, contribution modes can be determined by considering the mode shape variations and mode jumpings. A proposed contribution mode effective independence (CMEI) method is further put forward to obtain the best estimate of combinational coefficients and the optimal layout of sensors. The numerical example of a cable dome illustrates the invalidation of the conventional expansion methods when random pretension deviations are considered. In contrast, the method proposed in this paper is validated to be effective and reliable even in the cases of severe modal variations and high noise levels.

  20. Persistent River Basin Disequilibrium in a Cratonic Landscape: Ozark Dome, USA (United States)

    Beeson, H. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Keen-Zebert, A.


    Quantitative research on landscape evolution has focused on tectonically active landscapes, leaving the pace and primary drivers of topographic change in tectonically quiescent environments, which make up the majority of Earth's surface, poorly understood. We use topographic analysis and a characteristic metric of river basin geometry, χ, to test the hypothesis that river basin dynamics, including divide migration and stream capture, can cause transient pulses of incision and large gradients in erosion rate, which in turn influence the morphology of cratonic landscapes. In testing this hypothesis, we describe and interpret the disequilibrium observed in river networks draining a typical low-elevation cratonic landscape, the Ozark dome, USA and propose alternative mechanisms to climate and tectonics that generate and sustain large-scale landscape disequilibrium. The Ozark dome was uplifted in the fore-bulge of the Ouachita orogeny and lies south of the extent of glaciation and primarily north of eustatic sea-level changes. The Ozarks have not experienced significant tectonic activity since the late Paleozoic. Landscape response times predicted by stream-power river incision models would suggest that landscapes subjected to consistent, low rates of isostatic uplift should be close to steady state. Yet, rivers draining the Ozark dome appear to be in disequilibrium. Anomalous stream network topology, variable relief across the dome, cross-divide topographic asymmetry that corresponds with large cross-divide gradients in χ, and the prevalence of multiple flights of strath terraces suggest transient and non-uniform bedrock incision rates. Our results suggest that erosional competition between river basins drive much of the observed topographic asymmetry and the in-situ formation of high-elevation, low-relief surfaces on the Ozark dome. This implies that basin dynamics, rather than tectonics, lithology, or climate, may set the large-scale morphology of some cratonic

  1. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tisnérat-Laborde


    Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year. Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years. We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost

  2. Dynamics of Seedling Growth Acclimation towards Altered Light Conditions Can Be Quantified via GROWSCREEN: A Setup and Procedure Designed for Rapid Optical Phenotyping of Different Plant Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achim Walter; Hanno Scharr; Frank Gilmer; Rainer Zierer; Kerstin A. Nagel; Michaela Ernst; Anika Wiese; Olivia Virnich; Maja M. Christ; Beate Uhlig; Sybille Jünger; Uli Schurr


    Using a novel setup, we assessed how fast growth of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings responds to alterations in the light regime and investigated whether starch-free mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana show...

  3. Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)


    The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

  4. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria. (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe


    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi.

  5. Superconducting dome in doped quasi-two-dimensional organic Mott insulators: A paradigm for strongly correlated superconductivity (United States)

    Hébert, Charles-David; Sémon, Patrick; Tremblay, A.-M. S.


    Layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family are model systems for understanding the interplay of the Mott transition with superconductivity, magnetic order, and frustration, ingredients that are essential to understand superconductivity also in the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Recent experimental studies on a hole-doped version of the organic compounds reveals an enhancement of superconductivity and a rapid crossover between two different conducting phases above the superconducting dome. One of these phases is a Fermi liquid, the other not. Using plaquette cellular dynamical mean field theory with state-of-the-art continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we study this problem with the two-dimensional Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice. Phase diagrams as a function of temperature T and interaction strength U /t are obtained for anisotropy parameters t'=0.4 t ,t'=0.8 t and for various fillings. As in the case of the cuprates, we find, at finite doping, a first-order transition between two normal-state phases. One of theses phases has a pseudogap while the other does not. At temperatures above the critical point of the first-order transition, there is a Widom line where crossovers occur. The maximum (optimal) superconducting critical temperature Tcm at finite doping is enhanced by about 25% compared with its maximum at half filling and the range of U /t where superconductivity appears is greatly extended. These results are in broad agreement with experiment. Also, increasing frustration (larger t'/t ) significantly reduces magnetic ordering, as expected. This suggests that for compounds with intermediate to high frustration, very light doping should reveal the influence of the first-order transition and associated crossovers. These crossovers could possibly be even visible in the superconducting phase through subtle signatures. We also predict that destroying the superconducting phase by a magnetic field should reveal the

  6. DOME-SHAPED MACULA IN MYOPIC EYES: Twelve-Month Follow-up. (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Arias, Luis; Choudhry, Netan; Millan, Eduard; Flores, Ignacio; Rubio, Marcos J; Cobos, Estefanía; García-Bru, Pere; Filloy, Alejandro; Caminal, Josep M


    To study the long-term clinical course of dome-shaped macula in myopic eyes and to evaluate treatment efficacy for subretinal fluid (SRF) as a related complication. A retrospective, single-center consecutive case series study was conducted. The authors analyzed myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula in patients who presented for evaluation of decreased vision. Dome-shaped macula was defined as a convexity of the retina-choroidal macular complex seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean, 25 months). Fluorescein angiography and/or indocyanine green angiography were performed in cases with SRF to rule out choroidal neovascularization. A total of 56 dome-shaped macula eyes from 36 patients were included in the study (bilateral in 55% of patients). Mean patient age was 56.9 ± 13.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was -9.1 ± 6.0 diopters; 53% of eyes were considered highly myopic (>-6 diopters) and 47% of eyes were mildly myopic. In most cases (37 eyes; 66.1%), the dome-shaped macula was detected on vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns. No significant changes (P ≥ 0.1) were observed in mean best-corrected visual acuity or mean central foveal thickness from baseline to final follow-up. Subretinal fluid was present in 29 eyes (51.8%) at baseline, with no differences in best-corrected visual acuity in eyes with and without SRF (P ≥ 0.05). Nineteen of the 29 SRF eyes were treated: 8 underwent low-fluence photodynamic therapy, whereas 7 received bevacizumab, and 4 ranibizumab. No significant differences were found between treated and untreated SRF eyes in best-corrected visual acuity improvement (P ≥ 0.1), or complete resolution of SRF (P ≥ 0.1). Likewise, photodynamic therapy did not yield any significant benefit versus untreated eyes in best-corrected visual acuity or improvement of SRF. Dome-shaped macula is a condition associated with myopic eyes that seems

  7. From dome to dust: shallow crystallization and fragmentation of conduit magma during the 2004-2006 dome extrusion of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 19 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.


    An unusual feature of the 2004-6 eruptive activity of Mount St. Helens has been the continuous growth of successive spines that are mantled by thick fault gouge. Fault gouge formation requires, first, solidification of ascending magma within the conduit, then brittle fragmentation and cataclastic flow. We document these processes through field relations, hand samples, and thin-section textures. Field observations show that the gouge zone is typically 1-3 m thick and that it includes cataclasite and, locally, breccia in addition to unconsolidated (true) gouge. The gouge contains multiple slickenside sets oriented subparallel to each other and to the striation direction, as well as surface striations parallel to extrusion direction. Hand specimens show the cataclasite and gouge to be composed of a wide size range of broken dome and wallrock fragments. This grain-size heterogeneity is even more pronounced in thin section, where individual samples contain fragments that span more than four orders of magnitude in size (from more than 10 to less than 10-3 mm).

  8. Combined garnet and zircon geochronology and trace elements studies - constraints of the UHP-(U)HT evolution of Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (NE Bohemian Massif). (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Szczepański, Jacek; Rubatto, Daniela


    The Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (OSD), located on the NE margin of the Bohemian Massif, is predominantly composed of amphibolite-facies orthogneiss that contain bodies of HP and UHP eclogites and granulites. Numerous geochronological studies have been undertaken to constrain the timing of the ultra-high grade metamorphic event. Despite this, the exact timing of UHP-(U)HT conditions remain dubious (e.g. Brueckner et al., 1991; Anczkiewicz et al., 2007; Bröcker et al., 2009 & 2010). We have utilized garnet and zircon geochronology to provide time constraints on the evolution of the UHT-(U)HP rocks of the OSD. We have combined the ages with trace element analyses in garnet and zircon to better understand the significance of the obtained ages in petrological context. Lu-Hf grt-wr dating of peritectic garnet from two felsic granulites constrained the time of its initial growth at 346.9 ± 1.2 and 348.3 ± 2.0 Ma, recording peak conditions of 2.7 GPa and 950°C (e.g. Ferrero et al., 2015). In situ U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon from the same granulite gave a younger age of 342.2 ± 3.4 Ma. HREE partitioning between garnet rim and metamorphic zircon indicate their growth in equilibrium, hence, the U-Pb zircon date constrains the terminal phase of garnet crystallization. Similar ages were obtained from two eclogite bodies from Międzygórze and Nowa Wieś localities; Lu-Hf (grt-cpx-wr) dating provided ages of 346.5 ± 2.4 and 348.1 ± 9.1 Ma for samples from Międzygórze and Nowa Wieś, respectively. The same age (within error) of 346.3 ± 5.2 Ma was reported by Bröcker et al. (2010) for zircon from the Międzygórze eclogite. Comparison of REE concentrations in garnet (this study) and in metamorphic zircon (reported in Bröcker et al., 2010) indicate that garnet and zircon crystallized in equilibrium. Furthermore, M-HREE patterns observed in both garnet and zircon strongly suggest their growth at eclogite facies conditions. Sm-Nd garnet ages obtained for both felsic and mafic

  9. Use of Adaptive Laboratory Evolution To Discover Key Mutations Enabling Rapid Growth of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on Glucose Minimal Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaCroix, Ryan A.; Sandberg, Troy E.; O'Brien, Edward J.


    often mutated: the global transcription gene rpoB, an 82-bp deletion between the metabolic pyrE gene and rph, and an IS element between the DNA structural gene hns and tdk. Model-derived classification of gene expression revealed a number of processes important for increased growth that were missed...

  10. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto


    diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...

  11. MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate pattern recognition analysis for the rapid biomarker profiling of Escherichia coli in different growth phases. (United States)

    Momo, Remi A; Povey, Jane F; Smales, C Mark; O'Malley, Christopher J; Montague, Gary A; Martin, Elaine B


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) has been exploited extensively in the field of microbiology for the characterisation of bacterial species, the detection of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and bacterial identification. Here, the multivariate data analysis technique of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to 'intact cell' MALDI-ToF MS data obtained from Escherichia coli cell samples to determine if such an approach could be used to distinguish between, and characterise, different growth phases. PLS-DA is a technique that has the potential to extract systematic variation from large and noisy data sets by identifying a lower-dimensional subspace that contains latent information. The application of PLS-DA to the MALDI-ToF data obtained from cells at different stages of growth resulted in the successful classification of the samples according to the growth phase of the bacteria cultures. A further outcome of the analysis was that it was possible to identify the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio peaks or ion signals that contributed to the classification of the samples. The Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL database and primary literature were then used to provisionally assign a small number of these m/z ion signals to proteins, and these tentative assignments revealed that the major contributors from the exponential phase were ribosomal proteins. Additional assignments were possible for the stationary phase and the decline phase cultures where the proteins identified were consistent with previously observed biological interpretation. In summary, the results show that MALDI-ToF MS, PLS-DA and a protein database search can be used in combination to discriminate between 'intact cell' E. coli cell samples in different growth phases and thus could potentially be used as a tool in process development in the bioprocessing industry to enhance cell growth and cell engineering strategies.

  12. Seafloor doming driven by degassing processes unveils sprouting volcanism in coastal areas (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Ventura, Guido


    We report evidences of active seabed doming and gas discharge few kilometers offshore from the Naples harbor (Italy). Pockmarks, mounds, and craters characterize the seabed. These morphologies represent the top of shallow crustal structures including pagodas, faults and folds affecting the present-day seabed. They record upraise, pressurization, and release of He and CO2 from mantle melts and decarbonation reactions of crustal rocks. These gases are likely similar to those that feed the hydrothermal systems of the Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, suggesting the occurrence of a mantle source variously mixed to crustal fluids beneath the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching by gas upraising and pressurization processes require overpressures in the order of 2-3 MPa. Seabed doming, faulting, and gas discharge are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions.

  13. Thermic model to predict biogas production in unheated fixed-dome digesters buried in the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terradas-Ill, Georgina; Cuong, Pham Hung; Triolo, Jin Mi


    In many developing countries, simple biogas digesters are used to produce energy for domestic purposes from anaerobic digestion of animal manure. We developed a simple, one-dimensional (1-D), thermal model with easily-available input data for unheated, unstirred, uninsulated, fixed-dome digesters...... buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope...... nearly 1, R2 0.96). Model validation for methane production gave root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 54.4 L CH4 digester-1 day-1 and relative-root-mean-square errors (rRMSEP(%)) of 35.4%. The validation result was considerably improved if only using winter data (RMSE = 26.1 L CH4 digester-1 day-1; r...

  14. Percutaneous CT-Guided Ablation in the Hepatic Dome: Artificially Induced Pneumothorax for Safe Transpleural Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guedes Moreira Valle


    Full Text Available Ablative therapies have become a great alternative to surgical treatment of hepatic nodules. Some technical difficulties may negatively influence the effectiveness of this therapy, such as lesions located near the diaphragm. The transthoracic approach is commonly used to access these lesions. However, it is associated with an increased risk of complications, such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, alveolar bleeding, and others.We report a case of a radiofrequency ablation of a lesion in the hepatic dome, where an artificially induced pneumothorax was performed to guarantee a safe and effective access. The air was easily injected by a spinal needle and later aspirated by a single-lumen catheter. Induced pneumothorax shoud be considered in ablation of hepatic dome lesions, mainly when the transhepatic access is not appropriate.

  15. Geometric and Optic Characterization of a Hemispherical Dome Port for Underwater Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Menna


    Full Text Available The popularity of automatic photogrammetric techniques has promoted many experiments in underwater scenarios leading to quite impressive visual results, even by non-experts. Despite these achievements, a deep understanding of camera and lens behaviors as well as optical phenomena involved in underwater operations is fundamental to better plan field campaigns and anticipate the achievable results. The paper presents a geometric investigation of a consumer grade underwater camera housing, manufactured by NiMAR and equipped with a 7′′ dome port. After a review of flat and dome ports, the work analyzes, using simulations and real experiments, the main optical phenomena involved when operating a camera underwater. Specific aspects which deal with photogrammetric acquisitions are considered with some tests in laboratory and in a swimming pool. Results and considerations are shown and commented.

  16. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich


    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  17. A vibration-based health monitoring program for a large and seismically vulnerable masonry dome (United States)

    Pecorelli, M. L.; Ceravolo, R.; De Lucia, G.; Epicoco, R.


    Vibration-based health monitoring of monumental structures must rely on efficient and, as far as possible, automatic modal analysis procedures. Relatively low excitation energy provided by traffic, wind and other sources is usually sufficient to detect structural changes, as those produced by earthquakes and extreme events. Above all, in-operation modal analysis is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can support optimal strategies for the preservation of architectural heritage, especially if complemented by model-driven procedures. In this paper, the preliminary steps towards a fully automated vibration-based monitoring of the world’s largest masonry oval dome (internal axes of 37.23 by 24.89 m) are presented. More specifically, the paper reports on signal treatment operations conducted to set up the permanent dynamic monitoring system of the dome and to realise a robust automatic identification procedure. Preliminary considerations on the effects of temperature on dynamic parameters are finally reported.

  18. A 220 kyr record of Pb isotopes at Dome C Antarctica from analyses of the EPICA ice core (United States)

    Vallelonga, P.; Gabrielli, P.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Barbante, C.; Boutron, C. F.


    Pb isotopic compositions and Pb and Ba concentrations are reported in EPICA Dome C ice core samples dating to 220 kyr BP, indicating that Pb isotopic compositions in Antarctic ice vary with changing climate. 206Pb/207Pb ratios decrease during glacial periods, with the lowest values occurring during colder climatic periods (stages 2, 4 and 6) and the Holocene. Low Pb concentrations (10 pg/g) were found during cold climatic periods. Ba, a proxy for mineral dust, was used to determine that dust usually accounts for ~70% of Pb in Dome C ice, while the remaining ~30% was attributed to volcanic emissions. Pb isotopic compositions at Dome C differ from those reported in pre-industrial ice from other Antarctic locations, due to greater proportions of dust Pb at Dome C.

  19. A new procedure of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy under artificial hydrothorax for patients with liver tumors in the hepatic dome. (United States)

    Shimada, S; Hirota, M; Beppu, T; Shiomori, K; Marutsuka, T; Matsuo, A; Tanaka, E; Ogawa, M


    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) has been widely used as an effective minimal invasive therapy for small liver tumors. The occurrence of a sonographic masked space due to the presence of the lung, however, has become a major obstacle to visualizing the whole tumor in the hepatic dome. To facilitate the use of PMCT for liver tumors in the hepatic dome, we developed PMCT in combination with the artificial hydrothorax method (percutaneous transdiaphragmatic MCT: PTD-MCT). Our new approach for PMCT to the hepatic tumors located in Couinaud's segments VIII or VII just under the diaphragm resulted in a successful treatment. The separation of the lung from the diaphragm by the infusion of saline into the pleural cavity enabled us not only to visualize the whole tumor in the hepatic dome to accurately target the tumor, but also helped us to avoid injuring the lung. PTD-MCT is therefore strongly recommended for the treatment of liver tumors in the hepatic dome.

  20. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems. (United States)

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang


    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  1. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer in the hepatic dome using the intrapleural fluid infusion technique. (United States)

    Kondo, Y; Yoshida, H; Tateishi, R; Shiina, S; Kawabe, T; Omata, M


    Intrapleural fluid infusion improves ultrasonographic visualization of tumours in the hepatic dome. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and long-term efficacy of ultrasonographically guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for tumours in the hepatic dome with intrapleural infusion. Of 2575 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatic metastases treated with radiofrequency ablation, intrapleural fluid infusion was performed in 587 patients for tumours in the hepatic dome. After the tip of a 14-G metallic needle was positioned in the pleural cavity under ultrasonographic guidance, 500-1000 ml of 5 per cent glucose solution was infused in 5-15 min. Radiofrequency ablation was performed using an internally cooled electrode. Long-term results were evaluated in 347 patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma who were naive to any treatment. Intrapleural fluid infusion was successfully performed in all 587 patients. The major complication rate on a per tumour basis was similar for patients treated with and without intrapleural infusion (1.6 versus 1.6 per cent; P = 0.924). The overall and recurrence-free survival were both similar for naive patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma treated with and without intrapleural infusion (P = 0.429 and P = 0.109 respectively). Intrapleural infusion was not associated with lower overall survival in multivariable analysis. With intrapleural fluid infusion, radiofrequency ablation for tumours in the hepatic dome was safe and effective, resulting in satisfactory overall and recurrence-free survival. Copyright (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Transmalleolar Approach for Arthroscopy-Assisted Headless Screw Fixation of an Osteochondral Talar Dome Fracture. (United States)

    Izadi, Ebrahim; Anwar, Rahij; Phillips, Sarah; Kavarthapu, Venu


    Displaced osteochondral fractures of the body of talus quite often require a malleolar osteotomy to gain access to the fracture fragment during internal fixation. We describe a case report in which access to a displaced osteochondral fracture of the lateral talar dome was achieved using an arthroscopy-assisted fibular tunnel approach. This technique resulted in satisfactory fracture healing and a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  3. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2 (United States)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.


    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  4. A Virtual Environment System for the Comparison of Dome and HMD Systems (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Harm, Deboran L.; Loftin, R. Bowen; Lin, Ching-yao; Leiss, Ernst L.


    For effective astronaut training applications, choosing the right display devices to present images is crucial. In order to assess what devices are appropriate, it is important to design a successful virtual environment for a comparison study of the display devices. We present a comprehensive system for the comparison of Dome and head-mounted display (HMD) systems. In particular, we address interactions techniques and playback environments.

  5. The meaning of sense of place: The community of Vredefort Dome and Parys, Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erasmus


    Full Text Available The Vredefort Dome was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO in 2005. This status has led to an increase in tourism to the adjacent town of Parys and the Dome as well as an increase in developers that could change the character of the area. Therefore, the sense of place of the residents of, and tourists to the area requires consideration in order to find a balance when development takes place. Sense of place refers to the unique features that gives the area its character and the manner in which people relate to these features. This study investigated the participants’ understanding of sense of place of the area under study. The participants consisted of residents and tourists from Parys and the Dome. The non-probability sampling technique, amongst other, was used. The qualitative research method was utilised to gather data which was analysed through content analysis. Thereupon, themes were identified and interpreted. The connotation the participants attached to sense of place was categorised into three broad themes: affective, anthropogenic and the physical environment. The participants showed a special awareness towards protecting the character, nature and history of the area. Sense of place is rarely considered when development is considered. The findings of this study could be used as a guideline for developers in the area. A better understanding of the relationship between place and the attributes individuals assign to Parys and the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site may help the stakeholders to acquire enhanced approaches to address, identify and engage the community (both residents and tourists in conservation and future planning processes to ensure the well-being of all concerned.

  6. Computational Analysis of Natural Ventilation Flows in Geodesic Dome Building in Hot Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Soleimani


    Full Text Available For centuries, dome roofs were used in traditional houses in hot regions such as the Middle East and Mediterranean basin due to its thermal advantages, structural benefits and availability of construction materials. This article presents the computational modelling of the wind- and buoyancy-induced ventilation in a geodesic dome building in a hot climate. The airflow and temperature distributions and ventilation flow rates were predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations were solved using the CFD tool ANSYS FLUENT15. The standard k-epsilon was used as turbulence model. The modelling was verified using grid sensitivity and flux balance analysis. In order to validate the modelling method used in the current study, additional simulation of a similar domed-roof building was conducted for comparison. For wind-induced ventilation, the dome building was modelled with upper roof vents. For buoyancy-induced ventilation, the geometry was modelled with roof vents and also with two windows open in the lower level. The results showed that using the upper roof openings as a natural ventilation strategy during winter periods is advantageous and could reduce the indoor temperature and also introduce fresh air. The results also revealed that natural ventilation using roof vents cannot satisfy thermal requirements during hot summer periods and complementary cooling solutions should be considered. The analysis showed that buoyancy-induced ventilation model can still generate air movement inside the building during periods with no or very low wind.

  7. Mucinous cystadenoma of the dome of urinary bladder: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapuji S Gedam


    Full Text Available Mucinous cystadenoma of the urinary bladder is a very rare tumor and only a handful of cases have been described in the literature. It can easily be missed on cystoscopic examination as the lesion is not intramucosal. In addition, extensive workup is required to rule out borderline or frank malignant neoplasm elsewhere in the body. Due to its scarcity and diagnostic challenges, we report a mucinous benign cystic lesion arising in the dome of the urinary bladder.

  8. Accretion of continental extensional zone and development of Rehamna metamorphic dome (Morocco) (United States)

    Chopin, F.; Schulmann, K.; Corsini, M.; El Houicha, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; El Attari, M.


    The Rehamna massif is a part of the Morocco Variscan belt where the metamorphic infrastructure has been exhumed in a continental accretionary wedge. The relationships between infra- and supra-structure tectonics originate by thickening of intra-continental Devonian and Carboniferous (Mississipian) basin. Two superposed deformations probably related to plate configuration changes have been identified. The first one corresponds to the development of the Barrovian metamorphism with a climax estimated at 0.5-0.7 Gpa, 500-550°C (litt.). The thickening of thermally preheated crust is related to a SW vergent nappe stacking in the orogenic infrastructure. This event terminates with large scale folding and extrusion of high grade rocks forming a large scale E-W trending metamorphic dome surrounded by un-metamorphosed Lower Palaeozoic rocks of orogenic suprastructre indicating complete decoupling between the two crustal layers. The second E-W shortening along Western Meseta Shear Zone event is responsible for the development of important deformation gradient orthogonal to the metamorphic dome axis. It is marked by an increase of the strain intensity towards the Cambrian rigid buttress located further west. This deformation gradient is marked by mechanical coupling and gentle folding of infra- and supra-structure in the east, development of slaty cleavage in the central part of the dome and intense deformation front close to the western buttress. Here the superposed fold pattern results in accentuation of asymmetrical NE-SW trending metamorphic dome close to the buttress and to further exhumation of deepest rocks associated with subsequent elevation and folding of metamorphic isograds. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the cooling associated with the first thermal event occurred at around 310 Ma (biotite) while the second thermal event yields typical Alleghanian age around 280 Ma (muscovite). This last thermal event is contemporaneous with magmatic intrusions and continental

  9. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon


    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.


    Kedkovid, Napang; Afshar, Armin R; Damato, Bertil E; Stewart, Jay M


    To report a rare case of bilateral dome-shaped macula in an emmetropic patient. Clinical case report and literature review. A 42-year-old woman presented with a history of blurred vision in the right eye. Visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Intraocular pressure and anterior segment were unremarkable. Fundus examination revealed dull macular reflex and subretinal fluid nasal to the fovea in the right eye and a hyperpigmented area inferotemporal to the fovea in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed subretinal fluid under the fovea in the right eye and elevation of the macula with increased choroidal thickness in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography revealed abnormal hyperfluorescence without any leakage in both eyes. B-scan ultrasound showed irregular globe contour with high internal reflectivity and dome-shaped lesions at the posterior pole in both eyes. Axial length was 24.6 mm in the right eye and 25.6 mm in the left eye. Although most commonly reported in myopic eyes, dome-shaped macula can occur in an emmetropic patient and can be associated with subretinal fluid.

  11. Large-scale doming on Europa: A model of formation of Thera Macula (United States)

    Mével, Loïc; Mercier, Eric


    Since Galileo spacecraft reveals Europa's surface at high and medium resolutions, deformation and processes affecting the relatively young surface have been more accurately defined. This work reports the observations carried out on a large-scale feature of the south hemisphere, Thera Macula. It is shown that Thera presents common points with many other features including small-scale domes, lenticulae and large-scale chaotic areas (disrupted ancient surfaces lying on a dark matrix), but remains singular through its asymmetric morphology. On the basis of observations, we propose a scenario for the setting of Thera Macula. It involves a large-scale doming (40-70 km in radius) of the pre-existing surface associated with ductile deformations, and the consecutive collapse of the created megadome associated with brittle disruption of blocks and flow of low viscosity material over the surrounding ridged plains. The processes responsible for each stage of the proposed scenario have been investigated. Both cryomagmatic and diapiric origins are discussed and confronted by observations. Finally, comparison of similar features at various scales suggests that Thera Macula by its originalities (asymmetry, rounding bulge) may have preserved the intermediate stages of the formation of subcircular chaos at least up to about 50 km in radius. A common evolution and endogenic origin for multi-scale hot spot features is proposed: (1) the doming stage, (2) the collapse and extrusion stage and (3) the relaxation stage.

  12. Modeling the modified drug release from curved shape drug delivery systems - Dome Matrix®. (United States)

    Caccavo, D; Barba, A A; d'Amore, M; De Piano, R; Lamberti, G; Rossi, A; Colombo, P


    The controlled drug release from hydrogel-based drug delivery systems is a topic of large interest for research in pharmacology. The mathematical modeling of the behavior of these systems is a tool of emerging relevance, since the simulations can be of use in the design of novel systems, in particular for complex shaped tablets. In this work a model, previously developed, was applied to complex-shaped oral drug delivery systems based on hydrogels (Dome Matrix®). Furthermore, the model was successfully adopted in the description of drug release from partially accessible Dome Matrix® systems (systems with some surfaces coated). In these simulations, the erosion rate was used asa fitting parameter, and its dependence upon the surface area/volume ratio and upon the local fluid dynamics was discussed. The model parameters were determined by comparison with the drug release profile from a cylindrical tablet, then the model was successfully used for the prediction of the drug release from a Dome Matrix® system, for simple module configuration and for module assembled (void and piled) configurations. It was also demonstrated that, given the same initial S/V ratio, the drug release is independent upon the shape of the tablets but it is only influenced by the S/V evolution. The model reveals itself able to describe the observed phenomena, and thus it can be of use for the design of oral drug delivery systems, even if complex shaped. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Building a roll-off roof or dome observatory a complete guide for design and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, John Stephen


    Almost every practical astronomer eventually aspires to have a fixed, permanent observatory for his or her telescope. A roll-off roof or dome observatory is the answer for the most popular home observatory design.  Almost every practical astronomer eventually aspires to have a fixed, permanent observatory for his or her telescope. A roll-off roof or dome observatory is the answer for the most popular home observatory design. Building a Roll-Off or Dome Observatory will help you decide whether to embark on the venture and will certainly increase your enthusiasm for the project. The author, both an amateur astronomer and a professional landscape architect, answers many of the common questions asked about observatory construction, covering the following topics: • Zoning, and by-law requirements common to most states, towns and municipalities • Where to locate the observatory • How to tailor the observatory for your particular needs • Tools and structural components required • Possible variations in de...

  14. Optimizing the night time with dome vents and SNR-QSO at CFHT (United States)

    Devost, Daniel; Mahoney, Billy; Moutou, Claire; CFHT QSO Team, CFHT software Group


    Night time is a precious and costly commodity and it is important to get everything we can out of every second of every night of observing. In 2012 the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope started operating 12 new vent doors installed on the dome over the course of the previous two years. The project was highly successful and seeing measurements show that venting the dome greatly enhances image quality at the focal plane. In order to capitalize on the gains brought by the new vents, the observatory started exploring a new mode of observation called SNR-QSO. This mode consist of a new implementation inside our Queued Service Observation (QSO) system. Exposure times are adjusted for each frame depending on the weather conditions in order to reach a specific depth, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at a certain magnitude. The goal of this new mode is to capitalize on the exquisite seeing provided by Maunakea, complemented by the minimized dome turbulence, to use the least amount of time to reach the depth required by the science programs. Specific implementations were successfully tested on two different instruments, our wide field camera MegaCam and our high resolution spectrograph ESPaDOnS. I will present the methods used for each instrument to achieve SNR observing and the gains produced by these new observing modes in order to reach the scientific goals of accepted programs in a shorter amount of time.

  15. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guo-Bao; Xiang, Zhan-Wang; Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun


    This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors.

  16. Development of Semi-Empirical Damping Equation for Baffled Tank with Oblate Spheroidal Dome (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Brodnick, Jacob; Eberhart, Chad


    Propellant slosh is a potential source of disturbance that can significantly impact the stability of space vehicles. The slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of a spring-mass-damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control analysis. The typical parameters required by the mechanical model include natural frequency of the slosh, slosh mass, slosh mass center location, and the critical damping ratio. A fundamental study has been undertaken at NASA MSFC to understand the fluid damping physics from a ring baffle in the barrel section of a propellant tank. An asymptotic damping equation and CFD blended equation have been derived by NASA MSFC team to complement the popularly used Miles equation at different flow regimes. The new development has found success in providing a nonlinear damping model for the Space Launch System. The purpose of this study is to further extend the semi-empirical damping equations into the oblate spheroidal dome section of the propellant tanks. First, previous experimental data from the spherical baffled tank are collected and analyzed. Several methods of taking the dome curvature effect, including a generalized Miles equation, area projection method, and equalized fill height method, are assessed. CFD simulation is used to shed light on the interaction of vorticity around the baffle with the locally curved wall and liquid-gas interface. The final damping equation will be validated by a recent subscale test with an oblate spheroidal dome conducted at NASA MSFC.

  17. Investigation of the utility of Gulf Coast salt domes for the storage or disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.D.; Thoms, R.L.; Kupfer, D.H.


    Analysis of tectonic, geohydrologic, and cultural data led to the selection of three salt domes (Vacherie, Rayburn's, Prothro) in the North Louisiana Basin and three (Keechi, Mt. Sylvan, Palestine) in the Northeast Texas Basin. Results of the tectonic stability studies (monitoring of dome movement, quaternary, Mesozoic and Tertiary, seismic, corehole in Vacherie) and hydrologic stability studies (numerical modeling, caprock, mine leaks) are discussed in detail and recommendations for further study are given. (DLC)

  18. Volcano-tectonic control of Merapi's lava dome splitting observed from high resolution TerraSAR-X data

    KAUST Repository

    Luehr, Birger-G.


    Volcanism at active andesite-dacite volcanoes is often associated with the formation and collapse of circular shaped protrusions of extruded, highly viscous lava, the so-called domes, which are emplaced in the near summit region. Growing domes may experience stable and instable structural phases, with a gradual transition in between. Dome collapse and the break-off of instable blocks of viscous lava may lead to pyroclastic flows, one of the most lethal hazards at stratovolcanoes. At Merapi volcano, Indonesia, nearly 50 % of all eruptions are accompanied by these phenomena. After the climactic eruption in 2010 which left an amphitheater in the summit region, a new dome started growing. Three years later, the dome reached a height of approximately 100 m and diameters of 220 and 190 m with a plateau-like surface area of 40,000m2 approximately. On 18/11/2013, an explosion occurred without identified precursors, leaving a major fracture cutting the complete dome structure. Based on high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite radar imagery, we could identify this linear fracture, traceable over ~200m in the long axis, and up to 40m width. After geocoding of the radar amplitude imagery, the fractures azimuthal trend could be compared to other structural lineaments, indicative of a significant NNW-SSE structural direction that has formed on Merapi volcano in the past. This alignment is also visible in a seismic velocity tomographic imagery for the upper crust, down to 15 km depth. The Merapi dome fractured in a NW-SE direction, and is consistent with the alignment of regional tectonic structures and of anticipated directions of pyroclastic flows. The fracture may be part of a larger volcano-tectonic system and may affect the dynamics and the stability of the Merapi dome.

  19. Liquid phase separation and rapid dendritic growth of highly undercooled ternary Fe62.5Cu27.5Sn10 alloy (United States)

    Xia, Z. C.; Wang, W. L.; Luo, S. B.; Wei, B.


    The phase separation and dendritic growth characteristics of undercooled liquid Fe62.5Cu27.5Sn10 alloy have been investigated by glass fluxing and drop tube techniques. Three critical bulk undercoolings of microstructure evolution are experimentally determined as 7, 65, and 142 K. Equilibrium peritectic solidification proceeds in the small undercooling regime below 7 K. Metastable liquid phase separation takes place if bulk undercooling increases above 65 K. Remarkable macroscopic phase separation is induced providing that bulk undercooling overtakes the third threshold of 142 K. With the continuous increase of bulk undercooling, the solidified microstructure initially appears as well-branched dendrites, then displays microscale segregation morphology, and finally evolves into macrosegregation patterns. If alloy undercooling is smaller than 142 K, the dendritic growth velocity of γFe phase varies with undercooling according to a power function relationship. Once bulk undercooling exceeds 142 K, its dendritic growth velocity increases exponentially with undercooling, which reaches 30.4 m/s at the maximum undercooling of 360 K (0.21TL). As a comparative study, the liquid phase separation of Fe62.5Cu27.5Sn10 alloy droplets is also explored under the free fall condition. Theoretical calculations reveal that the thermal and solutal Marangoni migrations are the dynamic mechanisms responsible for the development of core-shell structure.

  20. Blowing off steam: Tuffisite formation as a regulator for lava dome eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Evan Kendrick


    Full Text Available Tuffisites are veins of variably sintered, pyroclastic particles that form in conduits and lava domes as a result of localized fragmentation events during gas-and-ash explosions. Those observed in-situ on the active 2012 lava dome of Volcán de Colima range from voids with intra-clasts showing little movement and interpreted to be failure-nuclei, to sub-parallel lenses of sintered granular aggregate interpreted as fragmentation horizons, through to infilled fractures with evidence of viscous remobilization. All tuffisites show evidence of sintering. Further examination of the complex fracture-and-channel patterns reveals viscous backfill by surrounding magma, suggesting that lava fragmentation was followed by stress relaxation and continued viscous deformation as the tuffisites formed. The natural tuffisites are more permeable than the host andesite, and have a wide range of porosity and permeability compared to a narrower window for the host rock, and gauging from their significant distribution across the dome, we posit that the tuffisite veins may act as important outgassing pathways. To investigate tuffisite formation we crushed and sieved andesite from the lava dome and sintered it at magmatic temperatures for different times. We then assessed the healing and sealing ability by measuring porosity and permeability, showing that sintering reduces both over time. During sintering the porosity-permeability reduction occurs due to the formation of viscous necks between adjacent grains, a process described by the neck-formation model of Frenkel (1945. This process leads the granular starting material to a porosity-permeability regime anticipated for effusive lavas, and which describes the natural host lava as well as the most impervious of natural tuffisites. This suggests that tuffisite formation at Volcán de Colima constructed a permeable network that enabled gas to bleed passively from the magma. We postulate that this progressively reduced

  1. Development of Core Complex Domes Due to Along-Axis Variation in Diking (United States)

    Buck, W. R.; Choi, E.; Tian, X.


    Continental and oceanic core complexes are characterized by fairly smooth, unfaulted, but corrugated surfaces of high grade rocks often domed both along and orthogonal to the transport direction. The corrugations, or mega-mullions, are remarkably continuous in the transport direction and may be tens of kilometers long. Spencer [1999] suggests that corrugations with across-transport wavelengths of millimeter to ~25 km scales are formed when the lower plate of a large-offset normal fault is "continuously cast," as warm, ductile mantle and gabbro is pulled up against the cooler upper plate. Continuous casting is widely accepted as a mechanism to form the shorter wavelength corrugations as a result of irregularities of the brittle upper plate surface. However, doming is generally ascribed to upflow of buoyant diapirs or transtensional deformation of the lithosphere. We suggest that doming of core complexes can be a product of continuous casting when a large-offset fault evolves to be curved in plan-view. For oceanic core complexes along-axis variation in magmatism can lead to lateral offset of a detachment fault relative to the spreading axis. We assume that near-ridge normal faults form relatively straight and consider that horizontal offsets in the along-axis position of a large-offset fault (or detachment) result from variations in the rate of magmatic diking. Assuming a sinusoidal variation in the rate of dike opening with distance along the axis the evolution of fault offset and the plan-view shape of the active fault is easy to describe. Because the fault length increases as it is offset, the work to slip on the fault increases with time. Eventually, it should be easier to slip in a new straight fault and the conditions for this can be described with an approximate analytic model. We are developing 3D numerical models to test the predictions of this analytic model and show how the topographic amplitude of the domes depends the fault dip, the amplitude of the

  2. Sustaining protein synthesis in the absence of rapid cell division: an investigation of plasmid-encoded protein expression in Escherichia coli during very slow growth. (United States)

    Flickinger, M C; Rouse, M P


    The minimum growth rate capable of supporting plasmid-encoded gene expression is determined using continuous cultures of Escherichia coli MZ9387 at dilution rates (D) as low as 5% of the maximum specific growth rate. Expression from a low copy number plasmid, pMPR166, encoding cyanase under the control of P(lac) is investigated in order to study plasmid-encoded gene expression under conditions approaching starvation. Plasmid copy number was stabilized by selection in the presence of 500 micrograms/mL chloramphenicol by constitutive expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Plasmid retention was determined by dot-blot hybridization and chloramphenicol resistance. The contribution of plasmid maintenance and cyanase expression to the maximum cell yield (Y'x/s) and the maintenance coefficient (ms) was determined for MZ9387 and MZ9387:pMPR166 under uninduced and IPTG-induced conditions. The values of Y'x/s and ms for non-plasmid-bearing cultures were 0.56 g of cell dry mass (DCM)/g of glucose and 0.26 g of glucose/g of DCM.h, respectively. The cell yield for plasmid-bearing cultures under uninduced conditions (Y 0'x/s) was 0.28 g of DCM/g of glucose, with m0s = 0.08 g of glucose/g of DCM.h. These values decreased following induction of cyanase expression. Glucose consumption in the presence of IPTG was linearly related to the growth rate at D cyanase expression alters metabolism and glucose consumption. The fraction of plasmid-free cells decreased with decreasing Damköhler number (Da). These data confirm the usefulness of Da for predicting the relationship between plasmid-free and plasmid-bearing cells where plasmids are stabilized by concentrations of antibiotic greater than the minimum plasmid-free host cell growth inhibitory concentration. Specific cyanase expression increased as the dilution rate decreased to D = 0.15 h-1. Between D = 0.15 h-1 and D = 0.14 h-1, expression decreased 7-fold. At very low dilution rates (D < or = 0.06 h-1), nonseptated

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.


    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  4. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.


    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  5. Gneiss domes of the Danba Metamorphic Complex, Songpan Ganze, eastern Tibet (United States)

    Billerot, Audrey; Duchene, Stéphanie; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; de Sigoyer, Julia


    In this paper we address the formation and exhumation of the Danba Metamorphic Complex (DMC) that represents the deepest structural level of the Songpan Ganze terrane situated along the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The DMC comprises a variety of gneiss domes and offers a unique opportunity to decipher their development during orogenic evolution. For that purpose, PTtD paths of metamorphic rocks sampled at different structural levels have been reconstructed. The DMC is composed of Triassic metaturbidites of the Xikang group, Paleozoic metasedimentary cover and basement of the Yangtze craton. The DMC is structurally marked by transposition of the upright S1 foliation of the Triassic metaturbidites into a NW-SE trending S2 composite foliation dipping to the NE. Transposition is associated with a localized top-to-the-northeast shear zone along the northeastern edge of the DMC and with pervasive top-to-the-southwest shearing from the core to the border of the complex. These structures are consistent with extrusion of the core of the DMC relative to the lower grade Triassic metaturbidites. The position of the biotite isograd overlapping the structural boundary of the DMC suggests that the Triassic metaturbidites have been affected by an increase in temperature as a result of extrusion. Within the DMC, the position of the metamorphic index minerals relative to the composite S2 foliation reveals that biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite grew before the transposition into S2, in contrast with sillimanite which crystallizes in the hinge of F2 folds and along the axial planar S2 schistosity. The sillimanite isograd delineates regional-scale overturned F2 folds and cross-cuts the staurolite and kyanite isograds consistent with an increase in temperature during D2. The melt-in isograd characterizes the deepest structural level of the DMC. PT conditions for these metamorphic rocks, determined using pseudosections and conventional thermometry, indicate a temperature

  6. Investigation of Ge film growth on Si(100) surface by registering diffractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforov, A I; Pchelyakov, O P


    In situ registration of high energy electron diffraction patterns was used for constructing the diagram of structural and morphological states of Ge film on Si(1000) surface. The following regions are identified in the diagram: 2D-growth, hut- and dome-clusters, dome-clusters with misfit dislocations at the interface. The lattice constant variations are observed in Ge film during the molecular-beam epitaxy growth on Si(1000) surface alongside with oscillations of the lattice parameter of the surface atomic cell in the (100) plane at the stage of 2D-growth and the above mentioned particularities are determined for the first time

  7. The Sequential Emplacement of the Chaos Crags Dome Complex in Lassen National Park and a Subsequent Avalanche Event Revealing the Internal Structure of a Crystal-Rich Lava Dome (United States)

    Watts, R. B.; Clynne, M. A.; Sparks, R. S.; Christiansen, R. L.


    The Chaos Crags are an aptly named and spectacularly well-preserved nest of 6 crystal-rich rhyodacitic lava domes that lie in the shadow of the renowned Lassen Peak in Lassen National Park, northern California. Each of the domes is composed of a precarious pile of large angular lava blocks indicative of a relatively fast extrusion rate. However, the 2 southernmost domes (i.e. Group 1) exhibit a coulée-like appearance with asymmetric appearance, a thick, glassy basal breccia and distinct concentric flow ridges on the upper surface. The 4 northernmost domes (i.e. Group 2) are notably more dome-like, lacking lateral flow-features and any basal breccia but displaying steeper, blocky flanks and overall low Aspect Ratio. Petrologically, the 2 Groups are very similar in whole-rock composition except there is a distinct difference in the amount of mafic inclusions present - that is ~2 vol% (Group1 domes) and ~10vol% (Group 2 domes). The age of emplacement of the Crags has been previously determined as between 1125 and 375 years B.P (Clynne & Muffler, 1989). Following a period of quiescence, a series of 3 rock-fall avalanches, most likely triggered by a tectonic earthquake, collapsed away from one of the Group 2 domes to produce the 'Jumbles Avalanche' deposit. This impressive deposit (total volume of ~7km2) spilled across the northeastern landscape focused away from the base of Dome C, one of the Group 2 domes. The avalanche events left behind a near-vertical scarp composed of shattered, massive lava riddled with closely-spaced sigmoidal cooling joints to produce a very unstable ~250 meter high and ~300 meter wide metastable structure. On its upper surface, the remnants of a smooth semi-cylindical surface scored with striations is evident. Sampling from this surface and other points away from this surface highlighted the presence of highly fragmented lava with broken jigsaw-style phenocrysts up to one meter away from the smooth surface. Samples taken from a larger

  8. Studies in Phylogeny, Development of Rapid IdentificationMethods, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Growth Rates of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Japan. (United States)

    Suzuki, Rumi; Yikelamu, Alimu; Tanaka, Reiko; Igawa, Ken; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Yaguchi, Takashi


    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix species, which have distinct virulence profiles and geographic distributions. We performed a phylogenetic study in strains morphologically identified as Sporothrix schenckii from clinical specimens in Japan, which were preserved at the Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University. In addition, we examined the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and growth rate to evaluate their physiological features. Three hundred strains were examined using sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, or polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method using newly designed species-specific primers; 291 strains were Sporothrix globosa and 9 strains were S. schenckii sensu stricto (in narrow sense, s. s.). S. globosa strains were further clustered into two subclades, and S. schenckii s. s. strains were divided into three subclades. In 38 strains of S. globosa for which antifungal profiles were determined, 4 strains (11%) showed high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for itraconazole. All tested strains of S. schenckii s. s. and S. globosa showed low sensitivity for amphotericin B. These antifungals are used for treatment of sporotrichosis when infection is severe. S. schenckii s. s. grew better than S. globosa; wherein S. globosa showed restricted growth at 35℃ and did not grow at 37℃. Our molecular data showed that S. globosa is the main causal agent of sporotrichosis in Japan. It is important to determine the antifungal profiles of each case, in addition to accurate species-level identification, to strategize the therapy for sporotrichosis.

  9. A super-agonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone causes rapid improvement of nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Sikorska, Hanna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Załecka, Klaudia; Gorczyńska, Joanna; Kubik, Małgorzata; Czerwieńska, Beata; Gosek, Katarzyna; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Wagner, David A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Hakonen, Tiina; Kay, Sam Wai Kit; Jouhikainen, Taneli; Schaefer, Franz


    Chronic kidney disease is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting related to chronic inflammation and a resistance to anabolic hormones such as insulin and growth hormone (GH). In this study, we determined whether a new GH-releasing hormone super-agonist (AKL-0707) improved the anabolism and nutritional status of nondialyzed patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease randomized to twice daily injections of the super-agonist or placebo. After 28 days, this treatment significantly increased 24-h GH secretion by almost 400%, without altering the frequency or rhythmicity of secretory bursts or fractional pulsatile GH release, and doubled the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 level. There was a significant change in the Subjective Global Assessment from 'mildly to moderately malnourished' to 'well-nourished' in 6 of 9 patients receiving AKL-0707 but in none of 10 placebo-treated patients. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both the mean fat-free mass and the body mineral content increased, but fat mass decreased, all significantly. In the AKL-0707-treated group, both serum urea and normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance significantly decreased with no change in dietary protein intake, indicating a protein anabolic effect of treatment. Thus, our study shows that stimulation of endogenous GH secretion by AKL-0707 overcomes uremic catabolism of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  10. Growth Rates and Stability of Tree Covered Islands on the Anabranching Vaal River, Free State South Africa, Established Using Quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence (United States)

    Keen-Zebert, A.; Tooth, S.


    Mixed bedrock-alluvial anabranching rivers form some of the world's most spectacular fluvial scenery but their dynamics remain poorly documented. Previous conceptual models have outlined how alluvial islands form on the underlying bedrock template but timescales of island development are largely unknown owing to limited geochronology. This study uses optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to establish the growth rates and stability of alluvial islands on the Vaal River at Parys, South Africa. The Vaal traverses the World Heritage-listed Vredefort Dome, an eroded, ancient meteorite impact site. The river enters and exits the dome as a 150-170 m wide single channel flanked by sedimentary rocks, but changes to a distinctive 1.5 km wide anabranching river with 10-15 channels and numerous islands as it flows across granitoid rocks exposed in the dome's core. The numerous islands are formed of rock and/or alluvium, and support extensive native riparian tree communities, providing habitat diversity that contrasts with the surrounding semi-arid, grass- and shrub-covered terrain. We measured the age and aggradation rates of 9 islands in the anabranching reach using OSL. Single grain measurements of quartz were made using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) approach. Equivalent dose populations have up to 60% overdispersion, common for fluvial samples, and the minimum age model was used to calculate final ages. Results demonstrate that the complex of alluvial islands is relatively young, with all having formed in the past 1000 years. The alluvial islands grow rapidly (mean vertical aggradation >0.28 cm/yr) during low to moderate floods (Q lateral erosion, vertical stripping, and dissection by newly-forming anabranches. The ages demonstrate that the alluvial islands are essentially dynamic, short-lived features that develop on a bedrock template that is underlying slower, long-term erosion.

  11. Rapid Urban Growth in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Monitoring Land Use Land Cover Dynamics of a Himalayan City with Landsat Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ishtiaque


    Full Text Available The Kathmandu Valley of Nepal epitomizes the growing urbanization trend spreading across the Himalayan foothills. This metropolitan valley has experienced a significant transformation of its landscapes in the last four decades resulting in substantial land use and land cover (LULC change; however, no major systematic analysis of the urbanization trend and LULC has been conducted on this valley since 2000. When considering the importance of using LULC change as a window to study the broader changes in socio-ecological systems of this valley, our study first detected LULC change trajectories of this valley using four Landsat images of the year 1989, 1999, 2009, and 2016, and then analyzed the detected change in the light of a set of proximate causes and factors driving those changes. A pixel-based hybrid classification (unsupervised followed by supervised approach was employed to classify these images into five LULC categories and analyze the LULC trajectories detected from them. Our results show that urban area expanded up to 412% in last three decades and the most of this expansion occurred with the conversions of 31% agricultural land. The majority of the urban expansion happened during 1989–2009, and it is still growing along the major roads in a concentric pattern, significantly altering the cityscape of the valley. The centrality feature of Kathmandu valley and the massive surge in rural-to-urban migration are identified as the primary proximate causes of the fast expansion of built-up areas and rapid conversions of agricultural areas.

  12. High-directional light source using photon recycling with a retro-reflective Dome incorporated with a textured LED die surface. (United States)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Chung, Shuang-Chao; Yang, Shuang-Hao; Yu, Yeh-Wei; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chen, Huang-Kuen; Chen, Shih-Peng


    This paper demonstrates a novel retro-reflective dome that enhances the directionality of a light emitting diode (LED) by recycling photons reflected by a textured LED die surface. A simulation model is developed to describe both the photon recycling process within the dome and the role of specific pyramid patterns on the top surface of the LED die. Advanced simulations showed that a perfectly polished surface with 100% reflectivity potentially enhances the directionality of the dome by 340%, 250%, and 240% using reflective domes with 10°, 20°, and 30° light cones, respectively. In the experiment, the directionality of the domes exhibiting surface imperfections is enhanced by approximately 160%, 150%, and 130% using 10°, 20°, and 30° light cones, respectively. By incorporating a textured top surface on the LED die, the proposed dome effectively increases the directionality of the LED light source.

  13. Assimilation of GOES satellite-based convective initiation and cloud growth observations into the Rapid Refresh and HRRR systems to improve aviation forecast guidance (United States)

    Mecikalski, John; Smith, Tracy; Weygandt, Stephen


    Latent heating profiles derived from GOES satellite-based cloud-top cooling rates are being assimilated into a retrospective version of the Rapid Refresh system (RAP) being run at the Global Systems Division. Assimilation of these data may help reduce the time lag for convection initiation (CI) in both the RAP model forecasts and in 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model runs that are initialized off of the RAP model grids. These data may also improve both the location and organization of developing convective storm clusters, especially in the nested HRRR runs. These types of improvements are critical for providing better convective storm guidance around busy hub airports and aviation corridor routes, especially in the highly congested Ohio Valley - Northeast - Mid-Atlantic region. Additional work is focusing on assimilating GOES-R CI algorithm cloud-top cooling-based latent heating profiles directly into the HRRR model. Because of the small-scale nature of the convective phenomena depicted in the cloud-top cooling rate data (on the order of 1-4 km scale), direct assimilation of these data in the HRRR may be more effective than assimilation in the RAP. The RAP is an hourly assimilation system developed at NOAA/ESRL and was implemented at NCEP as a NOAA operational model in May 2012. The 3-km HRRR runs hourly out to 15 hours as a nest within the ESRL real-time experimental RAP. The RAP and HRRR both use the WRF ARW model core, and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is used within an hourly cycle to assimilate a wide variety of observations (including radar data) to initialize the RAP. Within this modeling framework, the cloud-top cooling rate-based latent heating profiles are applied as prescribed heating during the diabatic forward model integration part of the RAP digital filter initialization (DFI). No digital filtering is applied on the 3-km HRRR grid, but similar forward model integration with prescribed heating is used to assimilate

  14. In situ controlled rapid growth of novel high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Wang


    Full Text Available In this work, a reaction coupling self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (RC-SHS method was developed for the in situ controlled synthesis of novel, high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites using TiO2, Mg, B2O3, KBH4 and NH4NO3 as raw materials. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX, transition electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED. The obtained TiB2/TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites demonstrated an average particle size of 100–500 nm, and every particle surface was covered by many multibranched, tapered nanorods with diameters in the range of 10–40 nm and lengths of 50–200 nm. In addition, the tapered nanorod presents a rough surface with abundant exposed atoms. The internal and external components of the nanorods were TiB2 and TiN, respectively. Additionally, a thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyzer (TG-DSC comparison analysis indicated that the as-synthesized samples presented better chemical activity than that of commercial TiB2 powders. Finally, the possible chemical reactions as well as the proposed growth mechanism of the TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites were further discussed.

  15. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures. (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang


    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  16. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)


    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  18. Late Cenozoic extension and crustal doming in the NE Chinese Pamir (United States)

    Thiede, Rasmus C.; Sobel, Edward R.; Chen, Jie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay; Stockli, Daniel; Sudo, Masafumi; Strecker, Manfred


    The northward motion of the Pamir indenter with respect to Eurasia has resulted in coeval thrusting, strike-slip and normal faulting. The eastern Pamir is currently deformed by east-west oriented extension, accompanied by uplift and exhumation of the Kongur Shan (7719 m) and Muztagh Ata (7546 m) gneiss domes. Both domes are an integral part of the footwall of the Kongur Shan Extensional System (KES), a 250-km-long, north-south oriented graben. Why active normal faulting within the Pamir is primarily localized along the KES and not distributed more widely throughout the orogen, has remained unclear. In addition, relatively little is known about how deformation has evolved throughout the Cenozoic, despite refined estimates on present-day crustal deformation rates and microseismicity, which indicate where crustal deformation is presently being accommodated. To better constrain the spatiotemporal evolution of faulting along the KES, we present 39 new apatite fission-track, zircon U-Th-Sm/He, and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from a series of footwall transects along the KES graben shoulder. Combining this data with, present day topographic relief, 1D thermo-kinematic and exhumational modeling documents successive stages, rather than synchronous deformation and gneiss dome exhumation. While Kongur-Shan-exhumation started during the late Miocene, Muztagh Ata began earlier and has slowed down since the late Miocene. We present a new model, suggesting that thermal and density effects associated with a lithospheric tear fault along the eastern margin of the subducting Alai slab localizes extensional upper-plate deformation along the KES and decouples crustal motion between the Central/Western Pamir and Eastern Pamir/Tarim basin.

  19. Dome collapse eruption in Tatun Volcanic Group near metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan at ~6 kyrs (United States)

    Chen, C.; Lee, T.


    The Tatun Volcanic Group (TVG) is located in the north of metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan. Over 6 million inhabitants are living in Taipei City and suburban area. Another critical issue is an international airport and two nuclear power plants are lying at the foot of the TVG. If the TGV will be re-active, the serious hazard for human lives and economies in this area will definitely occur. Understanding the youngest eruption history of the TVG will be much important for prediction the future activity of eruption. The core was collected from the Dream Lake at the eastern slop of Cising Mt.. Total 21 samples from depth 190 cm to 231.5 cm have been tested. Comparison of chemical compositions of glass and minerals in the volcanic clasts with those of lava around TVG, they clearly showed that the volcanic clasts can be correlated with the eruption of the closest Cising Mt. According to the radiocarbon (C-14) age of core sample at the depth 225 cm, the age was extrapolated around 6150 yrs ca. C-14 B.P.. Moreover, the respiratory cristobalite in the volcanic clasts were firstly identified by the identical morphology, chemical composition and Laser Raman Spectrometry (LRS). The crystalline silica was produced by vapor-phase crystallization and devitrification in the andesite lava dome and volcanic ash generated by pyroclastic flows formed by lava dome collapse in Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat (Baxter et al.,1999). These new evidence demonstrated that there would probably have the lava dome collapse eruptions in the TVG in the last 6 kyrs. The result in this paper also sustained that the landslide caused by the weak phreatic eruption within the last 6000 yrs in the TVG (Belousov et al., 2010). It must further be noted that an efficient program of the volcanic hazard reduction should be practiced for the metropolitan Taipei and suburban area.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)


    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  1. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a modified dome-down approach with conventional laparoscopic instruments. (United States)

    Cui, Hongyi; Kelly, John J; Litwin, Demetrius E M


    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) may increase the risk of bile duct injury due to compromised operative exposure. Dome-down laparoscopic cholecystectomy provides the ability to evaluate the cystic duct circumferentially prior to its division, thus minimizing the risks of bile duct injury. This study assesses the feasibility and safety of SILC using a modified dome-down approach with all conventional laparoscopic instruments. Three low-profile 5-mm trocars are placed via a single transumbilical incision. The two working trocars are aimed laterally via the rectus to achieve adequate triangulation. An extralong 5-mm 30º laparoscope with an L-shaped light-cord adaptor is used to yield more external working space. Cephalic liver retraction is achieved with one transabdominal suture through the gallbladder fundus. Leaving the gallbladder fundus attached to the liver bed, a window is first created between the gallbladder body and the liver. The dissection is then carried down retrograde toward the porta hepatis. A 360º view of the gallbladder-cystic duct junction is achieved prior to transecting the cystic duct. The gallbladder is then freed by separation of the fundal attachments. The specimen is retrieved by enlarging the fascial incision. All fascial defects are then primarily closed. Sixteen patients (mean age 31 years, mean BMI 26.3 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in this study. Thirteen had elective surgery for symptomatic cholelithiasis, and three had emergency surgery for acute cholecystitis. Mean operating time was 80.3 min, and blood loss was minimal. All patients were discharged within 24 h without complications. Follow-up at 1 month revealed a barely visible scar within the umbilicus. SILC using a modified dome-down approach is technically feasible with all straight instruments, and it is safe because of good delineation of ductal anatomy. Adoption of this approach may minimize the risk of bile duct injury during early experience of SILC.

  2. Simulated Service and Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing for Friction Stir Welded Spun Form Domes (United States)

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Torres, Pablo D.; Caratus, Andrei A.; Curreri, Peter A.


    Damage tolerance testing development was required to help qualify a new spin forming dome fabrication process for the Ares 1 program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One challenge of the testing was due to the compound curvature of the dome. The testing was developed on a sub-scale dome with a diameter of approximately 40 inches. The simulated service testing performed was based on the EQTP1102 Rev L 2195 Aluminum Lot Acceptance Simulated Service Test and Analysis Procedure generated by Lockheed Martin for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. This testing is performed on a specimen with an induced flaw of elliptical shape generated by Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) and subsequent fatigue cycling for crack propagation to a predetermined length and depth. The specimen is then loaded in tension at a constant rate of displacement at room temperature until fracture occurs while recording load and strain. An identical specimen with a similar flaw is then proof tested at room temperature to imminent failure based on the critical offset strain achieved by the previous fracture test. If the specimen survives the proof, it is then subjected to cryogenic cycling with loads that are a percentage of the proof load performed at room temperature. If all cryogenic cycles are successful, the specimen is loaded in tension to failure at the end of the test. This standard was generated for flat plate, so a method of translating this to a specimen of compound curvature was required. This was accomplished by fabricating a fixture that maintained the curvature of the specimen rigidly with the exception of approximately one-half inch in the center of the specimen containing the induced flaw. This in conjunction with placing the center of the specimen in the center of the load train allowed for successful testing with a minimal amount of bending introduced into the system. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were performed using the typical double beam assembly and with 4

  3. Component and prototype panel testing of the mini-dome Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator array (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Swartz, Clifford K.; O'Neill, Mark J.


    The mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator array, a high-efficiency, lightweight space photovoltaic array concept, is described. The three critical elements of the array concept are the Fresnel lens concentrator, the prismatic cell power cover, and the photovoltaic cell. Prototype concentrator lenses have been fabricated and tested, with optical efficiencies reaching 90 percent. Work is progressing on the design and fabrication of the panel structure. The impact of recent advances in 30 percent-efficient multijunction photovoltaic cells on array performance is also discussed. Near-term performance goals of 300 w/sq m and 100 w/kg are now feasible.

  4. Structural and thermal evolution of Northwest Thor-Odin dome, Monashee complex, southeast British Columbia (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Hugh

    Thor-Odin and Frenchman Cap, two antiformal culminations of high-grade metamorphic rock, comprise the Monashee complex in southeast British Columbia. A kilometre-thick NE-directed ductile thrust, the Monashee decollement, previously mapped at Frenchman Cap and inferred at Cariboo Alp at the southwest margin of the Thor-Odin dome, locally separates the Monashee complex (MC) from the overlying Selkirk allochthon (SA). In the area studied along the west flank of the Thor-Odin dome, there is no decollement exposed: NE-directed shear was distributed throughout the culmination (4--5 kilornetre thickness exposed) rather than being confined to a discrete zone. Rocks in the study area are thoroughly transposed (into S2). The extent of the transposition, and a well-developed northeasterly-trending L2 mineral lineation, indicate intense strain during F1/F 2. Penetrative northeastward ductile flow parallel to the transposition foliation continued in the Thor-Odin dome, resulting in NE-verging F 3 folds and NE-directed D3 fabrics. At the highest structural levels farther west, in the SA, F3 folds are W-SW-verging (e.g., Joss Mountain fold nappe). Along the west flank of the Thor-Odin dome, in the Greenbush Lake shear band zone (GLSBZ), L2 was rotated to a west-southwest trend, folds were truncated and abundant mesoscopic W-SW-dipping top-to-W-SW shear bands formed as a result of D5 reactivated slip on S2. There is a marked hiatus in U-Pb monazite ages between the SA (ca. 94--84 Ma, Joss Mountain) and the MC (ca. 55--57 Ma, Blanket Mountain). Along the studied west flank of the MC, a narrow zone of well-preserved kyanite is bounded above and below by zones in which kyanite has been pseudornorphously replaced by sillimanite. Kyanite does not occur in higher structural levels of the MC or in the overlying SA. Northeasterly flow during F1/F2 developed in response to westward underplating of North American basement (e.g., MC) and its sedimentary cover beneath the hinterland

  5. Approach to the E-ELT dome and main structure challenges (United States)

    Bilbao, Armando; Murga, Gaizka; Gómez, Celia; Llarena, Javier


    The E-ELT as a whole could be classified as an extremely challenging project. More precisely, it should be defined as an array of many different sub-challenges, which comprise technical, logistical and managerial matters. This paper reviews some of these critical challenges, in particular those related to the Dome and the Main Structure, suggesting ways to face them in the most pragmatic way possible. Technical challenges for the Dome and the Main Structure are mainly related to the need to upscale current design standards to an order of magnitude larger design. Trying a direct design escalation is not feasible; it would not work. A design effort is needed to cross hybridize current design standards with technologies coming from other different applications. Innovative design is therefore not a wish but a must. And innovative design comes along with design risk. Design risk needs to be tackled from two angles: on the one hand through thorough design validation analysis and on the other hand through extensive pre-assembly and testing. And, once again, full scale integrated pre-assembly and testing of extremely large subsystems is not always possible. Therefore, defining a comprehensive test plan for critical components, critical subsystems and critical subassemblies becomes essential. Logistical challenges are linked to the erection site. Cerro Armazones is a remote site and this needs to be considered when evaluating transport and erection requirements. But it is not only the remoteness of the site that needs to be considered. The size of both Dome and Main Structure require large construction cranes and a well defined erection plan taking into account pre-assembly strategies, limited plan area utilization, erection sequence, erection stability during intermediate stages and, very specifically, efficient coordination between the Dome and the Main Structure erection processes. Managerial issues pose another set of challenges in this project. Both the size of the

  6. Enhancement of Jahani (Firouzabad salt dome lithological units, using principal components analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourcaseb


    Full Text Available In this study, principal components analysis was used to investigate lithological characteristics of Jahani salt dome, Firouzabad. The spectral curves of rocks in the study area show that the evaporate rocks have the highest reflectance at specified wavelengths. The highest reflection has been seen in gypsum and white salt, while minimal reflection can be observed in the igneous rocks from the region. The results show that PCs have significantly low information. It is clear that PC1 shows more information in the highest variance while PC2 has less information. Regional geological map and field controls show compatibility between the enhanced zones and outcrops in the field.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration in the Baca Geothermal System, Redondo Dome, Valles Caldera, New Mexico (United States)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.


    Thermal fluids circulating in the active hydrothermal system of the resurgent Redondo dome of the Valles caldera have interacted with their diverse host rocks to produce well-zoned alteration assemblages, which not only help locate permeable fluid channels but also provide insight into the system's thermal history. The alteration shows that fluid flow has been confined principally to steeply dipping normal faults and subsidiary fractures as well as thin stratigraphic aquifers. Permeability along many of these channels has been reduced or locally eliminated by hydrothermal self-sealing. Alteration from the surface through the base of the Miocene Paliza Canyon Formation is of three distinctive types: argillic, propylitic, and phyllic. Argillic alteration forms a blanket above the deep water table in formerly permeable nonwelded tuffs. Beneath the argillic zone, pervasive propylitic alteration is weakly developed in felsic host rocks but locally intense in deep intermediate composition volcanics. Strong phyllic alteration is commonly but not invariably associated with major active thermal fluid channels. Phyllic zones yielding no fluid were clearly once permeable but now are hydrothermally sealed. High-temperature alteration phases at Baca are presently found at much lower temperatures. We suggest either that isotherms have collapsed due to gradual cooling of the system, that they have retreated without overall heat loss due to uplift of the Redondo dome, that the system has shifted laterally, or that it has contracted due to a drop in the water table. The deepest Well (B-12, 3423 m) in the dome may have penetrated through the base of the active hydrothermal system. Below a depth of 2440 m in this well, hydrothermal veining largely disappears, and the rocks resemble those developed by isochemical thermal metamorphism. The transition is reflected by temperature logs, which show a conductive thermal gradient below 2440 m. This depth may mark the dome's neutral plane

  8. A reconnaissance geochemical drainage survey of the Harlech Dome, north Wales


    Cooper, D C; Bide, P.J.; Cameron, D. G.; Bell, N.; Allen, P M


    A geochemical drainage survey was carried out across 1 050 km’ of the Harlech Dome and adjacent areas at a mean density of 0.85 sample/km2. Fine (-100 mesh) stream sediment, panned concentrate and water samples were collected at every site. Cu, Pb, Zn, MO, As, Ba, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, V and Zr were determined in stream sediment samples; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ba, Fe, Mn, Ti, Nl, Ce and Sn in panned concentrates, and Cu, Pb and Zn in water. Gold was determined in panned concentrate...

  9. Influence of homo-buffer layers and post-deposition rapid thermal annealing upon atomic layer deposition grown ZnO at 100 °C with three-pulsed precursors per growth cycle (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chen; Yuan, Kai-Yun; Chen, Miin-Jang


    ZnO main epilayers are deposited with three-pulsed precursors in every growth cycle at 100 °C on various thicknesses of 300 °C-grown homo-buffer layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. Samples are treated without and with post-deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Two different annealing temperatures 300 and 1000 °C are utilized in the ambience of oxygen for 5 min. Extremely low background electron concentration 8.4 × 1014 cm-3, high electron mobility 62.1 cm2/V s, and pronounced enhancement of near bandgap edge photoluminescence (PL) are achieved for ZnO main epilayer with sufficient thickness of buffer layer (200 ALD cycles) and post-deposition RTA at 1000 °C. Effective block and remove of thermally unstable mobile defects and other crystal lattice imperfections are the agents of quality promotion of ZnO thin film.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... according to Demeyere, it was not actually possible to view missiles from anything more than the point of view of military doctrine.75 Demeyere goes so far as to say that no treaty addresses missiles nor have states ever attempted to address missiles in a treaty. This however does not place missiles into a black hole.

  11. Psych Dome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computer EEG-controlled audio-visualisation software adapted for use by Sacred Resonance for 'Noosphere: A Vision Quest', a performance at Adelaide Planetarium, as part of the Adelaide Fringe Festival 2016....

  12. Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.


    Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. The thermal environment of the fiber glass dome for the new solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (United States)

    Verdoni, A. P.; Denker, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Nenow, J.; Coulter, R.


    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5° Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  14. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.


    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15

  15. Lava dome emplacement and destruction cyclic process at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico: The distribution of dome volumes and its consequences on the hazard associated to the current activity (United States)

    De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Gomez-Vazquez, Angel; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana


    Popocatépetl is a large stratovolcano surrounded by one of the most densely populated areas of the world. Its eruptive history includes a wide range of eruption types, from moderate effusive episodes to Plinian phases and even massive debris avalanches. The historical record of the last 500 years describes several episodes similar to the current one that began in 1994. The current activity is characterized by the cyclic emplacement and destruction of lava domes, with a count of at least 38 between 1996 and 2015. The previous historical episode (1919-1927) probably emplaced around 10 domes. However, 1200 yBP a major Plinian phase affected human settlements, and at least six other major explosive eruptions have been reported in the Holocene. Such eruptive history leads to question the significance of the ongoing activity in the context of a volcano capable to produce extreme eruptions. The analysis of dome parameters characterizing the current activity offers some insight into the underlying physical process sustaining the eruption, and the conditions that may signal an evolution into higher-intensity phases. Although the process is irregular and non-stationary in the time domain, the maximum volumes and thicknesses of the domes estimated from aerial images are well described by an exponential survival distribution N=No*exp(-V/Va), where No is the number of emplaced domes, Va their average volume, and N the number of domes with volumes equal or exceeding V. A variable buoyancy force caused by the variable density contrast between volatile-rich magma and country rock may offer a possible interpretation of the process. The cyclic character of magma ascent may be a consequence of a self-regulating process caused by intense outgassing of magma controlling buoyancy. The proposed scaling law may then be a consequence of the gravitational energy release of the buoyancy force governing the height and volume of the domes. A significant departure from that scaling law in

  16. First results from the Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice pre-site survey in the Dome Fuji region, Antarctica (United States)

    Binder, Tobias; Karlsson, Nanna; Eisen, Olaf


    The Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice (BE-OI) consortium and its international partners unite a globally unique concentration of scientific expertise and infrastructure for ice-core investigations. It delivers the technical, scientific and financial basis for a comprehensive plan to retrieve an ice core up to 1.5 million years old. The consortium takes care of the pre-site surveys for site selection around Dome C and Dome Fuji, both potentially appropriate regions in East Antarctica. Other science consortia will investigate other regions under the umbrella of the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS). In this contribution we present first results from the extensive airborne radar survey at the Dome Fuji region, recently obtained in the 2016/17 Antarctic field season. This enables us to confirm and reject earlier estimates on the presence of old ice, potentially more than 1 Ma old, in this region.

  17. The EDC3 chronology for the EPICA Dome C ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin


    Full Text Available The EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C drilling in East Antarctica has now been completed to a depth of 3260 m, at only a few meters above bedrock. Here we present the new EDC3 chronology, which is based on the use of 1 a snow accumulation and mechanical flow model, and 2 a set of independent age markers along the core. These are obtained by pattern matching of recorded parameters to either absolutely dated paleoclimatic records, or to insolation variations. We show that this new time scale is in excellent agreement with the Dome Fuji and Vostok ice core time scales back to 100 kyr within 1 kyr. Discrepancies larger than 3 kyr arise during MIS 5.4, 5.5 and 6, which points to anomalies in either snow accumulation or mechanical flow during these time periods. We estimate that EDC3 gives accurate event durations within 20% (2σ back to MIS11 and accurate absolute ages with a maximum uncertainty of 6 kyr back to 800 kyr.

  18. Fire reinforces structure of pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium) domes in a wetland landscape (United States)

    Watts, Adam C.; Kobziar, Leda N.; Snyder, James R.


    Fire periodically affects wetland forests, particularly in landscapes with extensive fire-prone uplands. Rare occurrence and difficulty of access have limited efforts to understand impacts of wildfires fires in wetlands. Following a 2009 wildfire, we measured tree mortality and structural changes in wetland forest patches. Centers of these circular landscape features experienced lower fire severity, although no continuous patch-size or edge effect was evident. Initial survival of the dominant tree, pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium), was high (>99%), but within one year of the fire approximately 23% of trees died. Delayed mortality was correlated with fire severity, but unrelated to other hypothesized factors such as patch size or edge distance. Tree diameter and soil elevation were important predictors of mortality, with smaller trees and those in areas with lower elevation more likely to die following severe fire. Depressional cypress forests typically exhibit increasing tree size towards their interiors, and differential mortality patterns were related to edge distance. These patterns result in the exaggeration of a dome-shaped profile. Our observations quantify roles of fire and hydrology in determining cypress mortality in these swamps, and imply the existence of feedbacks that maintain the characteristic shape of cypress domes.

  19. Thoracic problems associated with hydatid cyst of the dome of the liver. (United States)

    Yacoubian, H D


    Twenty patients with hydatid cyst of the dome of the liver are presented. In ten there were significant associated intrathoracic complications including pleural effusion, pleural empyema, erosion through the diaphragm into lung, various degrees of pneumonitis or pulmonary abscess, or severe destruction of both diaphragm and right lower pulmonary lobe. Bronchobiliary fistula was demonstrated at operation in five patients. Four patients had obstructive jaundice due to intrabiliary rupture of a liver hydatid. In 19 patients the cysts in the right lobe of the liver were evacuated through a right thoracotomy and incision of the diaphragm. In four of these, additional pulmonary resection was carried out. In one patient with left pleural empyema, tube drainage followed by rib resection was instituted. Two patients had common duct drainage for relief of obstructive jaundice. In 13 patients the ectocyst cavity was drained; in seven it was filled with saline and closed. One patient required evacuation and open packing of the right upper quadrant and lower right hemithorax. Thoracotomy is mandatory in patients with hydatid cyst of the dome of the liver for easier approach to the cyst and for management of coexisting intrathoracic complications.

  20. The Geology of East Butte, a Rhyolitic Volcanic Dome on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho (United States)

    Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.


    East Butte is a prominent volcanic dome located on the eastern Snake River Plain. It is situated 51 km west of Idaho Fallls in the southeast corner of the Idaho National Engineering facility. East Butte rises 350 meters above the Quaternary basalt flows which encircle its 2.4 kilometer diameter base. Its maximum elevation is 2003 meters above sea level. East Butte is composed dominantly of rhyolite. Armstrong and others (1975) determined a K-Ar age of 0.6 +/- m.y. for a rhyolite sample from East Butte. Detailed geologic mapping revealed East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite. Major element geochemical analyses indicate that the rhyolite of East Butte is mildly peralkaline (molecular excess of Na2O and K2O over Al2O3 and compositionally homogeneous. Color variations in the East Butte rhyolite result from varying amounts of chemical and physical weathering and to the degree of devitrification that the glass in the groundmass of the rhyolite underwent.

  1. Thermal Loads on a Domed Protuberance Under a Mach 5.7 Boundary Layer (United States)

    Ostoich, Christopher; Bodony, Daniel; Geubelle, Philippe


    A high-fidelity, high-accuracy multi-physics computational tool has been developed to make predictions of structural-thermal response in the hypersonic regime. The predicted surface heat flux distribution was compared with measured data taken from a 1986 experiment in the NASA Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel in which a flat plate with a domed protuberance was inserted into a Mach 6.59 flow. The solution from the fluid and thermal domains obtained from the coupled simulation, with experimental comparisons, will be presented. In addition to the typical heating associated with windward-facing surfaces, several other sources of significant differential heating were observed near the dome-plate interface and due to a trailing horseshoe vortex of small size. Data were collected over a long time record (50 seconds) and comments will be given about ignoring transient thermal effects in hypersonic boundary layer calculations. An assessment of gas thermal model assumptions will also be discussed. Supported by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate under contract number FA8650-06-2-3620.

  2. Emplacement of a silicic lava dome through a crater glacier: Mount St Helens, 2004-06 (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; LaHusen, R.G.; Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.


    The process of lava-dome emplacement through a glacier was observed for the first time after Mount St Helens reawakened in September 2004. The glacier that had grown in the crater since the cataclysmic 1980 eruption was split in two by the new lava dome. The two parts of the glacier were successively squeezed against the crater wall. Photography, photogrammetry and geodetic measurements document glacier deformation of an extreme variety, with strain rates of extraordinary magnitude as compared to normal alpine glaciers. Unlike normal temperate glaciers, the crater glacier shows no evidence of either speed-up at the beginning of the ablation season or diurnal speed fluctuations during the ablation season. Thus there is evidently no slip of the glacier over its bed. The most reasonable explanation for this anomaly is that meltwater penetrating the glacier is captured by a thick layer of coarse rubble at the bed and then enters the volcano's groundwater system rather than flowing through a drainage network along the bed.

  3. The EDC3 chronology for the EPICA Dome C ice core (United States)

    Parrenin, F.; Barnola, J.-M.; Beer, J.; Blunier, T.; Castellano, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Dreyfus, G.; Fischer, H.; Fujita, S.; Jouzel, J.; Kawamura, K.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Loulergue, L.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Narcisi, B.; Petit, J.-R.; Raisbeck, G.; Raynaud, D.; Ruth, U.; Schwander, J.; Severi, M.; Spahni, R.; Steffensen, J. P.; Svensson, A.; Udisti, R.; Waelbroeck, C.; Wolff, E.


    The EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) Dome C drilling in East Antarctica has now been completed to a depth of 3260 m, at only a few meters above bedrock. Here we present the new EDC3 chronology, which is based on the use of 1) a snow accumulation and mechanical flow model, and 2) a set of independent age markers along the core. These are obtained by pattern matching of recorded parameters to either absolutely dated paleoclimatic records, or to insolation variations. We show that this new time scale is in excellent agreement with the Dome Fuji and Vostok ice core time scales back to 100 kyr within 1 kyr. Discrepancies larger than 3 kyr arise during MIS 5.4, 5.5 and 6, which points to anomalies in either snow accumulation or mechanical flow during these time periods. We estimate that EDC3 gives accurate event durations within 20% (2σ) back to MIS11 and accurate absolute ages with a maximum uncertainty of 6 kyr back to 800 kyr.

  4. Theory and practice of a variable dome splitter for gas chromatography-olfactometry. (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Haas, Torsten; Schulze Lammers, Peter


    For olfactometric measurements in combination with gas chromatography a device is needed to split the GC effluent between the detector and the sniffing port. Fixed split ratios are obtained by simple flow splitters with appropriate restrictions towards the two outlets. Variable split ratios are possible with additional control flows. One such device is a dome splitter with one input flow (the GC effluent), two output flows (to the two outlets) and two control inputs. Preliminary experiments revealed deviations from the expected split ratios of such a device. The dimensioning of the flow restrictors at only one working point was not sufficient to obtain the expected split ratios over the whole temperature range of a GC run. Therefore a physical model of the flow system has been developed, taking into account the temperature dependence of the restrictors and the internal pressure in the dome. This included the solution of the flow (respectively the mass) balance under the condition of a compressible, isothermal and laminar flow regime. The measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The model can therefore be used to optimise the dimensions of the restrictions and to calculate the effective split ratio at a given temperature during the GC run. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the Sri Lanka Dome and Links to Air-Sea Interaction (United States)

    Cullen, K.; Shroyer, E.


    The Sri Lanka Dome (SLD) is an upwelling recirculation feature found in the Southwest Monsoon Current that may significantly influence both biological productivity and air-sea interactions in the Bay of Bengal. Here, the twenty-year time series of detrended AVISO satellite absolute dynamic topography is used to track and measure the intensity of the SLD, which shows both a strong seasonal cycle and considerable interannual variability. The dome typically forms in May to the east of Sri Lanka, intensifies through July and August, and migrates to the north and then west before dissipating in September off the coast of northeast Sri Lanka. SLD formation and dissipation, migration path, and magnitude display considerable interannual variability. We also quantify the SLD internal structure using the ARGO float record. The SLD is associated with an elevated pycnocline that is often capped with a fresh surface layer, limiting direct communication of upwelled cold water with the surface. The sea surface temperature response is complex as the subsurface temperature structure is not necessarily monotonic with with height. We also address forcing by remote and local winds and the relation between the SLD and surface heat fluxes through its influence on SST.

  6. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André


    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  7. Chemical compositions of soluble particles around the Termination 1 in the Dome Fuji ice core (United States)

    Oyabu, I.; Iizuka, Y.; Sakurai, T.; Suzuki, T.; Miyake, T.; Hirabayashi, M.; Motoyama, H.; Hondoh, T.


    Micro sized particles preserved in Antarctic ice cores are useful proxies for reconstructing past climate and environmental changes. The recent studies on chemical compounds of the particles by using the Dome Fuji ice core showed that sulfate salts were main soluble particles, and chemical compositions of primary sulfate salt were calcium sulfate during the glacial maximum and sodium sulfate during the Holocene #1. However, it is still unknown that how chemical compositions of sulfate particles have changed on millennial time scale. In this study, we focused on sulfate salts and sea salts (precursor of sulfate salts) and measured constituent element of non-volatile particles in the Dome Fuji ice core around the Termination 1(9-25 kyr BP). A total of 48 samples were distributed from Dome Fuji ice core section from 298.900m to 582.590m (Holocene to Last Glacial Maximum: LGM, 9-25 kyr BP), with a time resolution of about 320 year. Non-volatile particles were extracted from the samples by sublimation system #2. Constituent elements and diameter of each non-volatile particle were measured by scanning electron micro scope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). By using a method in our recent paper #3, we made a classification of non-volatile particles into insoluble dust, soluble sulfate salts and soluble chloride salts. Also we assumed that particles containing Ca and S are calcium sulfate, particles containing Na and S are sodium sulfate and particles containing Na and Cl are sodium chloride. We found several fluctuations of calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and sodium chloride around the Termination 1, and these fluctuations are associated with changes in terrestrial as well as marine environments. Main sulfate salts changed from calcium sulfate to sodium sulfate after 16.5 kyr BP. A plausible explanation is that sulfuric acid in atmosphere became to react with sodium chloride instead of dusts (calcium carbonate) after 16.5 kyr BP, because atmospheric

  8. Deformation, lava dome evolution, and eruption cyclicity at Merapi volcano, Indonesia (United States)

    Young, Kirby D.

    Deformation monitoring results are reported here for the period 1988-1998 at Merapi volcano, one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes in Indonesia. Comprehensive databases of various geophysical parameters were concurrently studied and analyzed to 2000, and similar data were subsequently considered during periods of eruption crisis in 2001 and 2006. Of particular emphasis was the study of lava eruption rates based on dome volume estimates and seismic proxies for dome collapse volumes. The detailed study period of deformation includes a major resumption in lava effusion in January 1992 and major dome collapses in November 1994, January 1997, and July 1998. Monitoring techniques employed in the field are of two types. Translational movements were recorded via electronic distance measurements (EDM) on a summit trilateration network, slope distance changes measured to the upper flanks, and other data collected from 1988 to 1995. Tilt changes were detected by a summit and flank network of tilt stations that operated at various times from 1993 to 1998. A major consequence of the deformation results is the documentation of a significant 4-year period of deformation precursory to the 1992 eruption. Cross-crater strain rates accelerated from less than 3 x 10-6/day between 1988 and 1990 to more than 11 x 10-6/day just prior to the January 1992 activity, representing a general, asymmetric extension of the summit during highlevel conduit pressurization. After the vent opened and effusion of lava resumed, strain occurred at a much reduced rate of less than 2 x 10-6/day. The Gendol breach, a pronounced depression formed by the juxtaposition of old lava coulees on the southeast flank, functioned as a major displacement discontinuity. An elevated phase of magma production with respect to the long-term rate for the 20th Century characterized the activity at Merapi volcano, Central Java/Yogyakarta, Indonesia, for the period 1992-2006. Most large (0.2 - 3.4 x 106 m3) dome

  9. Features of West Hackberry SPR Caverns and Internal Structure Of the Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.


    The intent of this report is to examine the internal structure of the West Hackberry salt dome utilizing the information from the geometric configuration of the internal cavern surfaces obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data. In a general sense, the caverns of West Hackberry are remarkable in the symmetry of their shapes. There are only rather moderate deviations from what would be considered an ideal cylindrical solution mining geometry in these caverns. This finding is in marked contrast to the directional solutioning found in the elliptical cross sectioned, sometimes winged, caverns of Big Hill. None of the persistent lineaments prevalent in Big Hill caverns are evident in West Hackberry caverns. Irregularities of the West Hackberry caverns are restricted to preferential solution formed pits and protuberances with moderate dimensions. In fact, the principal characteristic of West Hackberry caverns is the often large sections of smooth and cylindrical cavern wall. Differences in the cavern characteristics between West Hackberry and Big Hill suggest that the former dome is quite homogeneous, while the latter still retains strong remnants of the interbeds of the original bedded Louann salt. One possible explanation is that the source of the two domes, while both from the Louann mother salt, differs. While the source of the Big Hill dome is directly from the mother salt bed, it appears that the West Hackberry arises from a laterally extruded sill of the mother salt. Consequently, the amount of deformation, and hence, mixing of the salt and interbed material in the extruded sill is significantly greater than would be the case for the directly formed diapir. In West Hackberry, remnants of interbeds apparently no longer exist. An important aspect of the construction of the West Hackberry caverns is the evidence of an attempt to use a uniform solutioning construction practice. This uniformity involved the utilization of single well solutioning and

  10. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation. (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael


    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  11. Factors controlling permeability and fluid flow within the 2004-2008 Mount St Helens lava dome complex (United States)

    Gaunt, H. E.; Meredith, P. G.; Sammonds, P.; Smith, R.; Kilburn, C.


    Magma degassing is an important control on whether an eruption will be explosive or effusive. Although the process of gas exsolution has been well-studied, the factors that determine how gases subsequently escape are still poorly understood, especially from high-viscosity magmas with evolved compositions, such as dacite. A preferred model for viscous magmas is that shear fracturing during ascent can occur along conduit margins and lead to the development of a permeable fracture network. Such fracture networks facilitate gas escape and the effusion of magma as a lava dome or flow. The model, however, has yet to be tested against direct laboratory measurements on the potential for magma to develop permeable networks of fractures. Between 2004 and 2008, dacite magma was extruded almost continuously from Mount St Helens (Cascade Range, USA) as a succession of gas-poor and solidified lava spines. The dacite is thought to have solidified about 1 km below the vent and to have experienced intense strain localisation at the conduit margins during ascent. The most prominent of all the spines, Spine 4, formed a smooth 'whaleback' feature and had a distinct internal structure analogous to that of a tectonic fault zone. Extruded dacite lava was coated with a thick (~1m) layer of fault gouge, containing multiple sets of sub-parallel slickensides and shear bands orientated preferentially in the direction of spine growth. To investigate the controls on degassing processes, we have measured how permeability varied progressively with increasing temperature and deformation on samples from the 2004-2008 dome at Mount St Helens. Permeability was measured on cylindrical samples, 25 mm in diameter, in a hydrostatic permeameter at confining pressures up to 30 MPa (a depth of c.1.2 km) and, also, in a high temperature deformation apparatus at temperatures up to 900oC, confining pressures of 12 MPa and pore fluid pressures of 4 MPa. Samples of intact dacite from the interior of Spine 4 were

  12. Tephra studies on the deep Talos Dome ice core, East Antarctic Plateau (United States)

    Narcisi, B.; Petit, J.; Delmonte, B.; Stenni, B.


    In the context of the TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE) project conducted by a consortium of five European nations led by Italy, a 1620-m long ice core has been drilled at Talos Dome (72°49'S, 159°11'E; 2315 m;, on the eastern edge of the East Antarctic plateau during the field seasons 2004-2008. Owing to its relatively high accumulation rate, this near-coastal core preserves a detailed undisturbed paleoclimate record covering the past 250,000 years, back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7.5. The Talos Dome ice is a significant volcanic ash archive. During core inspection of the TALDICE core, more than 100 macroscopic tephra layers were located and inventoried, with an average tephra frequency one order of magnitude greater than the tephra frequency in deep cores from inland East Antarctic plateau over the last two glacial cycles. TALDICE prominent tephra layers, studied by scanning electron microscopy, Coulter Counter and electron microprobe analysis, display an alkaline geochemical character indicating an origin in nearby volcanoes of the Melbourne Volcanic Province (McMurdo Volcanic Group). Our tephra record helps reconstruct an improved history of explosive eruptions in northern Victoria Land, supplementing the stratigraphic record obtained by outcrop studies and documenting previously unknown temporal trends and specific episodes. Investigations on less prominent tephra horizons are in progress with the aim of complementing the Holocene volcanic record of local visible beds and establishing the detailed tephrostratigraphy for the region. To date about ten discrete ice sections showing anomalously coarse grain size has proved to contain significant concentrations of unreworked volcanic glass. Single shard major element analyses of some invisible volcanic horizons indicate subalkaline compositions, which are incompatible with Antarctic volcanism and suggesting long-distance tephra transport from either South American and/or New Zealand volcanoes

  13. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew


    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  14. Big Cypress fox squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia) ecology and habitat use in a cypress dome swamp-pine forest mosaic (United States)

    Kellam, John O.; Jansen, Deborah K.; Johnson, Annette T.; Arwood, Ralph W.; Merrick, Melissa J.; Koprowski, John L.


    Forested wetlands are in decline, as are many species that are obligate residents. Big Cypress fox squirrels (BCFS; Sciurus niger avicennia) are a threatened endemic to wet pine and cypress forests in southwestern Florida. The region is characterized by development resulting in habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and hydrological change that influence the quality of these wet forests. Through radiotelemetry and field observations, we examined the ecology and habitat use of BCFS in a natural cypress dome-pine forest mosaic. BCFS selected cypress domes for food and nests throughout the year. Cypress dome habitats were the only habitat type to be used more than available; however, the availability of nearby pine forest was also important. Home ranges were large relative to other tree squirrels, with male home ranges exceeding female ranges. Males overlapped more females than males, while sharing similar food preferences and use patterns with females, suggesting that the sexual dimorphism in home range size is related to mate searching. Roads and oil extraction pads were used less frequently than expected and were incorporated into home ranges less than randomly generated features. The importance of cypress domes within the wet forests and grasslands of Big Cypress National Preserve demonstrates the value of maintaining this delicate mosaic. PMID:26989265

  15. Simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and dome-shaped high tibial osteotomy for severe medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kumahashi


    Conclusion: An ACL reconstruction combined with a dome-shaped high tibial osteotomy using a locking plate is one option for treating an aged athlete with ACL deficiency and severe medial compartment osteoarthritis, and can allow the athlete to return to sports activity.

  16. Preliminary paragenetic interpretation of the Quaternary topaz rhyolite lava domes of the Blackfoot volcanic field, southeastern Idaho (United States)

    Lochridge, W. K., Jr.; McCurry, M. O.; Goldsby, R.


    The Quaternary topaz rhyolite lava domes of the bimodal, basalt-dominated Blackfoot volcanic field (BVF), SE Idaho occur in three clusters. We refer to these as the China Hat lava dome field (southernmost; ~ 57 ka), and the 1.4 to 1.5 Ma Sheep Island and White Mountain (northernmost) lava dome fields. The rhyolites and surrounding, more voluminous basalt lavas closely resemble coeval Quaternary rocks erupted to the north along the Eastern Snake River Plain segment of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic track. However rhyolites in BVF are distinguished by having more evolved Sr- and Nd-isotopic ratios, as well as having phenocryst assemblages that includes hydrous phases (biotite and hornblende), thorite, and vapor-phase topaz. This study seeks to improve our understanding of the unique conditions of magma evolution that led to these differences. We focus on textural features of major and accessory phenocrysts as a basis for inferring paragenesis for rhyolites from the China Hat lava dome field. Preliminary work indicates that there are three sequentially formed populations of textures among magmatic phases: 1. population of anhedral quartz and plagioclase; 2. population of euhedral grains that includes quartz, sandine, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, Fe-Ti oxides, zircon and apatite; 3. boxy cellular (skeletal?) sanidine and quartz. We speculate that the first population are resorbed antecrysts, the second formed prior to eruption as autocrysts (at or near equilibrium?), and the third formed soon before or during eruption.

  17. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn`s Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements.

  18. Metamorphic conditions and structural evolution of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome: Rhodope metamorphic complex (Greece-Bulgaria) (United States)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios


    The synmetamorphic nappe system of the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex has been deformed into dome-and-basin structures attributed to syn- to post-convergent exhumation. We document the deformation style and present new thermobarometric and geochronological constraints for the Kesebir-Kardamos dome in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece. The dome consists of a migmatitic core overlain by high-grade thrust sheets. Kinematic indicators indicate a continuum from ductile to brittle conditions during exhumation. Thermodynamic modeling applied to the high-grade, intermediate thrust sheets yielded peak conditions of 1.2 GPa and ca 730 °C. New U-Pb SHRIMP-II dating of zircons from rocks of the same unit revealed Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (145 Ma) as the time of metamorphic crystallization; some zircon rims yielded Eocene ages (53 and 44 Ma) interpreted as having been thermally reset owing to coeval granitoid magmatism. The high-grade rocks were covered by Lutetian-Priabonian marine sediments after exhumation. Slumps suggest that sedimentation took place in a tectonically active environment. Our new structural, petrological and geochronological results suggest that the major shear zone in the core of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome is equivalent to the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Nestos Shear Zone. Post-Jurassic metamorphic ages recorded in the Rhodope most likely represent crustal rather than deep subduction geodynamic processes.

  19. Upward continuation of Dome-C airborne gravity and comparison with GOCE gradients at orbit altitude in east Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, Carl Christian


    An airborne gravity campaign was carried out at the Dome-C survey area in East Antarctica between the 17th and 22nd of January 2013, in order to provide data for an experiment to validate GOCE satellite gravity gradients. After typical filtering for airborne gravity data, the cross-over error...

  20. Effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks from the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Gaunt, H. Elizabeth; Sammonds, Peter R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Chadderton, Amy


    As magma ascends to shallow levels in the volcanic conduit, volatile exsolution can produce a dramatic increase in the crystal content of the magma. During extrusion, low porosity, highly crystalline magmas are subjected to thermal stresses which generate permeable microfracture networks. How these networks evolve and respond to changing temperature has significant implications for gas escape and hence volcano explosivity. Here, we report the first laboratory experimental study on the effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks under environmental conditions designed to simulate the shallow volcanic conduit and lava dome. Samples were collected for this study from the 2004-2008 lava dome eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington State, USA). We show that the evolution of microfracture networks, and their permeability, depends strongly on temperature changes. Our results show that permeability decreases by nearly four orders of magnitude as temperature increases from room temperature to 800 °C. Above 800 °C, the rock samples become effectively impermeable. Repeated cycles of heating leads to sample compaction and a reduction in fracture density and therefore a decrease in permeability. We argue that changes in eruption regimes from effusive to explosive activity can be explained by strongly decreasing permeability caused by repeated heating of magma, conduit walls and volcanic plugs or domes. Conversely, magma becomes more permeable as it cools, which will reduce explosivity.

  1. Isotopic and elemental relics of the 1815 AD Tambora eruption in ice from Law Dome, Antarctica (United States)

    Vallelonga, P.; Candelone, J.-P.; Curran, M. A. J.; Morgan, V. I.; Rosman, K. J. R.


    Lead isotopes and Pb, Ba and Bi concentrations have been recently measured at sub-annual resolution in an ice core section from Law Dome, Antarctica, corresponding to the period 1814-1819 AD and containing a SO^{2-}_4signal attributed to the 1815 AD eruption of Tambora volcano in Indonesia. While increasing concentrations of Pb and Bi coincide with the 1817-1818 AD volcanic SO4^{2-} peak, Pb isotope data do not confirm Tambora as the source. Barium concentrations were elevated from 1816.5 to 1818.5 AD, indicating increased atmospheric dust levels. These findings contribute to the growing body of data indicating that effusive, rather than explosive, volcanism is the most important volcanic emission process determining the flux of volcanogenic heavy metals to the polar ice sheets.

  2. Heating/cooling potential and carbon credit earned for dome shaped house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M. Jamil; Tiwari, G.N. [Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-16 (India); Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Manisha [Energy Research Applications, 211B, Pkt-C, Siddhartha Extension, New Delhi-14 (India); Singh, H.N. [Department of Physics, R.S.S.P.G. College, Pilkhuwa, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India)


    In this article, the heating/cooling potential of a dome shaped house has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance under quasi-steady state condition by incorporating the effect of ventilation/earth-air heat exchanger. The study has been carried out for composite climate of New Delhi. Effect of parameters of earth-air heat exchanger (radius of pipe, length of pipe and velocity of air) on heating/cooling potential has also been studied. Analysis of energy saving by using day lighting and CO2 credit earned has also been carried out. It is observed that an over all 732 kWh energy can be saved per year by using day lighting which corresponds to 1.49 tones/year carbon credits earned.

  3. Redatuming of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data at the Kevin Dome exploration site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael


    The method of redatuming the controlled-source electromagnetic data was introduced in Zhdanov and Cai (2012). The approach is based on a Stratton-Chu type integral and the Lorentz lemma to relate observed EM data on the earth’s surface to EM data on some horizontal plane P located underground....... This upward continuation problem is always well posed. By doing this, we can place more virtual receivers at the earth’s surface and within a much larger area. Compared to traditional interpolation and extrapolation techniques such as polynomial fitting or spline approximation, our method takes into account...... the physics of the EM field, which makes the redatuming more accurate than simple mathematical transformation. In this paper, we illustrate this method by redatuming of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data at the Kevin Dome exploration site....

  4. The surface layer observed by a high-resolution sodar at DOME C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Argentini


    Full Text Available One year field experiment has started on December 2011 at the French - Italian station of Concordia at Dome C, East Antarctic Plateau. The objective of the experiment is the study of the surface layer turbulent processes under stable/very stable stratifications, and the mechanisms leading to the formation of the warming events. A sodar was improved to achieve the vertical/time resolution needed to study these processes. The system, named Surface Layer sodar (SL-sodar, may operate both in high vertical resolution (low range and low vertical resolution (high range modes. In situ turbulence and radiation measurements were also provided in the framework of this experiment. A few preliminary results, concerning the standard summer diurnal cycle, a summer warming event, and unusually high frequency boundary layer atmospheric gravity waves are presented.

  5. Capacitive Tactile Sensor Based on Dielectric Oil Displacement out of a Parylene Dome into Surrounding Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Aoyagi


    Full Text Available We propose a concept of a flexible sensor array using a novel capacitive force sensor not having a vulnerable electrode on the force applied site. It has a polymer domed structure inside which silicone oil is contained. When the force is applied, the oil is pushed into the surrounding thin channels, where the change in capacitance due to the inflowing dielectric oil is measured between two electrodes on the top and bottom surfaces of the channel. Since the channel does not have a directly applied external force to it, the electrodes do not suffer from damage problems. The change in capacitance was simulated using a simplified flow model. The first trial device of the sensing element has been fabricated. A sensitivity of 0.05 pF/gf was achieved.

  6. Siple Dome ice reveals two modes of millennial CO2 change during the last ice age. (United States)

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward J


    Reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 during times of past abrupt climate change may help us better understand climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Previous ice core studies reveal simultaneous increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during times when Greenland and the northern hemisphere experienced very long, cold stadial conditions during the last ice age. Whether this relationship extends to all of the numerous stadial events in the Greenland ice core record has not been clear. Here we present a high-resolution record of atmospheric CO2 from the Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica for part of the last ice age. We find that CO2 does not significantly change during the short Greenlandic stadial events, implying that the climate system perturbation that produced the short stadials was not strong enough to substantially alter the carbon cycle.

  7. C-105 heel pit removed and C-105 dome cut paves way for new retrieval technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Thomas C.; Sutey, Michael J.


    For just the second time, crews have cut a hole in the top of an active radioactive waste storage tank at Hanford. Workers began cutting a 55-inch hole in the top of Tank C-105 last Tuesday night on graveyard shift, completing the cut early Wednesday. The hole will allow for installation of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) Vacuum into the tank. The cut was made through 17 inches of concrete and rebar using the newly developed rotary-core cutting system, which uses a laser-guided steel canister with teeth on the bottom to drill a round hole into the tank dome. The project was completed safely and successfully in a high-rad area without contamination or significant dose to workers.

  8. Computer vision: automating DEM generation of active lava flows and domes from photos (United States)

    James, M. R.; Varley, N. R.; Tuffen, H.


    Accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) form fundamental data for assessing many volcanic processes. We present a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community to produce DEMs from a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. Two case studies, based on the Volcán de Colima lava dome and the Puyehue Cordón-Caulle obsidian flow, highlight the advantages of the technique in terms of the minimal expertise required, the speed of data acquisition and the automated processing involved. The reconstruction procedure combines structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated software (e.g. SfM-MVS reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional geo-referencing software has been developed. Although this step requires the presence of some control points, the SfM-MVS approach has significantly easier image acquisition and control requirements than traditional photogrammetry, facilitating its use in a broad range of difficult environments. At Colima, the lava dome surface was reconstructed from recent and archive images taken from light aircraft over flights (2007-2011). Scaling and geo-referencing was carried out using features identified in web-sourced ortho-imagery obtained as a basemap layer in ArcMap - no ground-based measurements were required. Average surface measurement densities are typically 10-40 points per m2. Over mean viewing distances of ~500-2500 m (for different surveys), RMS error on the control features is ~1.5 m. The derived DEMs (with 1-m grid resolution) are sufficient to quantify volumetric change, as well as to highlight the structural evolution of the upper surface of the dome following an explosion in June 2011. At Puyehue Cord

  9. A combined Vibroseis-Explosive survey at Halvfarryggen, a local ice dome in East Antarctica (United States)

    Hofstede, C. M.; Diez, A.; Eisen, O.; Jansen, D.; Kristoffersen, Y.


    We carried out a combined Vibroseis-Explosive survey in combination with a snowstreamer at Halvfarryggen, a local ice dome at a triple point in the vicinity of the German Antarctic research station NeumayerIII. The Vibroseis survey was grid shaped to give spatial information about the glaciological and geological substructure. The center survey line was also surveyed with explosives and compared with the Vibroseis data. Internal ice reflections, clearly visible with explosives are not well visible in the Vibroseis data except for the strongest and deepest internal reflection. We interpret this deepest internal ice reflector as ice crystals orientated in to a single maximum. The ice bed contact we interpret as a frozen till layer overlaying bedrock. From velocity analysis derived from refractions seen in far offset data, we interpret the bedrock as igneous.

  10. Optical sky brightness at Dome A, Antarctica, from the Nigel experiment (United States)

    Sims, Geoff; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Everett, Jon R.; Feng, Longlong; Gong, Xuefei; Hengst, Shane; Hu, Zhongwen; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-van, Daniel M.; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W. V.; Wang, Lifan; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhengxi


    Nigel is a fiber-fed UV/visible grating spectrograph with a thermoelectrically-cooled 256×1024 pixel CCD camera, designed to measure the twilight and night sky brightness from 300nm to 850 nm. Nigel has three pairs of fibers, each with a field-of-view with an angular diameter of 25 degrees, pointing in three fixed positions towards the sky. The bare fibers are exposed to the sky with no additional optics. The instrument was deployed at Dome A, Antarctica in January 2009 as part of the PLATO (PLATeau Observatory) robotic observatory. During the 2009 winter, Nigel made approximately six months of continuous observations of the sky, with typically 104 deadtime between exposures. The resulting spectra provide quantitative information on the sky brightness, the auroral contribution, and the water vapour content of the atmosphere. We present details of the design, construction and calibration of the Nigel spectrometer, as well some sample spectra from a preliminary analysis.

  11. Long-term geochemical surveillance of fumaroles at Showa-Shinzan dome, Usu volcano, Japan (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Mizutani, Y.; Briggs, P.H.


    This study investigates 31 years of fumarole gas and condensate (trace elements) data from Showa-Shinzan, a dacitic dome-cryptodome complex that formed during the 1943-1945 eruption of Usu volcano. Forty-two gas samples were collected from the highest-temperature fumarole, named A-1, from 1954 (800??C) to 1985 (336??C), and from lower-temperature vents. Condensates were collected contemporaneously with the gas samples, and we reanalyzed ten of these samples, mostly from the A-1 vent, for 32 cations and three anions. Modeling using the thermochemical equilibrium program, SOLVGAS, shows that the gas samples are mild disequilibrium mixtures because they: (a) contain unequilibrated sedimentary CH4 and NH3; (b) have unequilibrated meteoric water; or (c) lost CO, either by air oxidation or by absorption by the sodium hydroxide sampling solution. SOLVGAS also enabled us to restore the samples by removing these disequilibrium effects, and to estimate their equilibrium oxygen fugacities and amounts of S2 and CH4. The restored compositions contain > 98% H2O with minor to trace amounts of CO2, H2, HCl, SO2, HF, H2S, CO, S2 and CH4. We used the restored gas and condensate data to test the hypotheses that these time-series compositional data from the dome's fumaroles provide: (1) sufficient major-gas data to analyze long-term degassing trends of the dome's magma-hydrothermal system without the influence of sampling or contamination effects; (2) independent oxygen fugacity-versus-temperature estimates of the Showa-Shinzan dacite; (3) the order of release of trace elements, especially metals, from magma; and (4) useful information for assessing volcanic hazards. The 1954-1985 restored A-1 gas compositions confirm the first hypothesis because they are sufficient to reveal three long-term degassing trends: (1) they became increasingly H2O-rich with time due to the progressive influx of meteoric water into the dome; (2) their C/S and S/Cl ratios decreased dramatically while their Cl

  12. The Domes: El Wakil’s Traditionalist Architecture of Quba Mosque (United States)

    Macca, A. A.; Aryanti, T.


    Quba Mosque stands as it is today after being rebuilt and renovated several times, as the sacred and historical place built by Prophet Muhammad PBUH in the first day of his emmigration to Medina. Being the first architecture following his hijra, it reflects the will of the people in their endowment to the mosque. This paper aims at studying the changes throughout the development of the mosque, focusing mainly on the last development designed by the architect El-Wakil, his will to reforge the link between the past and the present and the significance of understanding the Islamic culture, philosophy, and architecture. This study employed a literature review to capture the mosque’s architectural features developed by El-Wakil. It argues that the elements of the mosque, particularly the domes, are products of El-Wakil’s vision and defence for traditionalism. His use of traditionalist approach shows his notion of what Islamic architecture is.

  13. Measuring Snow Grain Size with the Near-Infrared Emitting Reflectance Dome (NERD) (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.


    Because of its high visible albedo, snow plays a large role in Earth's surface energy balance. This role is a subject of intense study, but due to the wide range of snow albedo, variations in the characteristics of snow grains can introduce radiative feedbacks in a snow pack. Snow grain size, for example, is one property which directly affects a snow pack's absorption spectrum. Previous studies model and observe this spectrum, but potential feedbacks induced by these variations are largely unknown. Here, we implement a simple and inexpensive technique to measure snow grain size in an instrument we call the Near-infrared Emitting Reflectance Dome (NERD). A small black styrene dome (~17cm diameter), fitted with two narrowband light-emitting diodes (LEDs) centered around 1300nm and 1550nm and three near-infrared reverse-biased photodiodes, is placed over the snow surface enabling a multi-spectral measurement of the hemispheric directional reflectance factor (HDRF). We illuminate the snow at each wavelength, measure directional reflectance, and infer grain size from the difference in HDRFs measured on the same snow crystals at fixed viewing angles. We validate measurements from the NERD using two different reflectance standards, materials designed to be near perfect Lambertian reflectors, having known, constant reflectances (~99% and ~55%) across a wide range of wavelengths. Using a 3D Monte Carlo model simulating photon pathways through a pack of spherical snow grains, we calculate the difference in HDRFs at 1300nm and 1550nm to predict the calibration curve for a wide range of grain sizes. This theoretically derived curve gives a relationship between effective radius and the difference in HDRFs and allows us to approximate grain sizes using the NERD in just a few seconds. Further calibration requires knowledge of truth values attainable using a previously validated instrument or measurements from an inter-comparison workshop.

  14. Rift-related volcanism and karst geohydrology of the southern Ozark Dome (United States)

    Harrison, Richard W.; Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Lowell, Gary R.; Evans, Kevin R.; Aber, James S.


    This field trip examines the geology and geohydrology of a dissected part of the Salem Plateau in the Ozark Plateaus province of south-central Missouri. Rocks exposed in this area include karstified, flat-lying, lower Paleozoic carbonate platform rocks deposited on Mesoproterozoic basement. The latter is exposed as an uplift located about 40 mi southwest of the St. Francois Mountains and form the core of the Ozark dome. On day 1, participants will examine and explore major karst features developed in Paleozoic carbonate strata on the Current River; this will include Devil's Well and Round Spring Cavern as well as Montauk, Round, Alley, and Big Springs. The average discharge of the latter is 276 × 106 gpd and is rated in the top 20 springs in the world. Another, Alley Spring, is equally spectacular with an average discharge of 81 × 106 gpd. Both are major contributors to the Current and Eleven Point River drainage system which includes about 50 Mesoproterozoic volcanic knobs and two granite outcrops. These knobs are mainly caldera-erupted ignimbrites with a total thickness of 7–8 km. They are overlain by post-collapse lavas and intruded by domes dated at 1470 Ma. Volcaniclastic sediment and air-fall lapilli tuff are widely distributed along this synvolcanic unconformity. On day 2, the group will examine the most important volcanic features and the southernmost granite exposure in Missouri. The trip concludes with a discussion of the Missouri Gravity Low, the Eminence caldera, and the volcanic history of southern Missouri as well as a discussion of geologic controls on regional groundwater flow through this part of the Ozark aquifer.

  15. Performance of a Small-Scale, Variable Temperature Fixed Dome Digester in a Temperate Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Castano


    Full Text Available Small-scale digesters, similar to popular Chinese designs, have the potential to address the energy needs of smaller dairy farmers in temperate U.S. climates. To assess this potential, a 1.14 m3 (300 gallon modified fixed-dome digester was installed and operated, at variable temperatures (5.3 to 27.9 °C typical of the Midwestern United States, from March 2010 to March 2011 (363 days. Temperature, gas production, and other variables were recorded. The system was fed with dilute dairy manure with 6% volatile solids (VS and an organic loading rate (OLR ranging from 0.83 to 2.43 kg volatile solids (VS/m3/day. The system was loaded with no interruption and exhibited no signs of inhibition from July 2010 to mid-November 2010 (129 days. During this period the digester temperature was over 20 °C with an average daily biogas production of 842 ± 69 L/day, a methane yield of 0.168 m3/kg VS added, and a Volatile Solids reduction of 36%. After the temperature dropped below 20 °C, the digester showed signs of inhibition and soured. These findings suggest that an ambient temperature, modified fixed dome digester could operate without temperature inhibition for approximately six months (169 days a year in a temperate climate when digester temperatures exceed 20 °C. However, during colder months the digester temperature must maintained above 20 °C for viable gas production year round.

  16. Momentum- and Heat-Flux Parametrization at Dome C, Antarctica: A Sensitivity Study (United States)

    Vignon, Etienne; Genthon, Christophe; Barral, Hélène; Amory, Charles; Picard, Ghislain; Gallée, Hubert; Casasanta, Giampietro; Argentini, Stefania


    An extensive meteorological observational dataset at Dome C, East Antarctic Plateau, enabled estimation of the sensitivity of surface momentum and sensible heat fluxes to aerodynamic roughness length and atmospheric stability in this region. Our study reveals that (1) because of the preferential orientation of snow micro-reliefs (sastrugi), the aerodynamic roughness length z0 varies by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the wind direction; consequently, estimating the turbulent fluxes with a realistic but constant z0 of 1 mm leads to a mean friction velocity bias of 24 % in near-neutral conditions; (2) the dependence of the ratio of the roughness length for heat z_{0t} to z0 on the roughness Reynolds number is shown to be in reasonable agreement with previous models; (3) the wide range of atmospheric stability at Dome C makes the flux very sensitive to the choice of the stability functions; stability function models presumed to be suitable for stable conditions were evaluated and shown to generally underestimate the dimensionless vertical temperature gradient; as these models differ increasingly with increases in the stability parameter z / L, heat flux and friction velocity relative differences reached 100 % when z/L > 1; (4) the shallowness of the stable boundary layer is responsible for significant sensitivity to the height of the observed temperature and wind data used to estimate the fluxes. Consistent flux results were obtained with atmospheric measurements at heights up to 2 m. Our sensitivity study revealed the need to include a dynamical parametrization of roughness length over Antarctica in climate models and to develop new parametrizations of the surface fluxes in very stable conditions, accounting, for instance, for the divergence in both radiative and turbulent fluxes in the first few metres of the boundary layer.

  17. On the dynamics of the Sri Lanka Dome in the Bay of Bengal (United States)

    Burns, Jessica M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Murty, V. S. N.


    East of Sri Lanka, in the northern Indian Ocean, a cold dome, known as the Sri Lanka Dome (SLD), develops during southwest monsoon season (June-September). The SLD first forms around May, matures in July, and decays around September, in association with the strong cyclonic wind stress curl. In this study, the structure and dynamics of SLD in response to the climatic events such as the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are examined. Our results reveal that these climatic events modulated the subsurface temperature variability in the thermocline at ˜100 m depth, whose signature was also evident in the satellite-derived sea surface height (SSH) anomaly in the SLD region. We find that the mechanisms for the formation of SLD are consistent with previous research, and there is year-to-year variability in the SLD dynamics. This study also reveals that the atmospheric parameters including vertical wind shear and midtropospheric relative humidity are high over the SLD region and adjacent southern Bay of Bengal and show an upward (increasing) trend over the decades. This has impacted the atmospheric parameters over the northern Bay of Bengal over the decades and as a consequence the total number of monsoon depressions (June-September) decreased over the decades from 1980 to 2015, as reported by the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Thus, the new insight emerged from this study is the variability in the cyclogenesis and the occurrence of total number of monsoon depressions over northern Bay of Bengal over the decades is much related to the SLD dynamics.

  18. Structure and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Central Cuba: Insights into deformation in an accretionary wedge (United States)

    Despaigne-Díaz, Ana Ibis; García Casco, Antonio; Cáceres Govea, Dámaso; Wilde, Simon A.; Millán Trujillo, Guillermo


    The Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Cuba, forms part of an accretionary wedge built during intra-oceanic subduction in the Caribbean from the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The structure reflects syn-subduction exhumation during thickening of the wedge, followed by extension. Field mapping, metamorphic and structural analysis constrain the tectonic evolution into five stages. Three ductile deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) are related to metamorphism in a compressional setting and formation of several nappes. D1 subduction fabrics are only preserved as relict S1 foliation and rootless isoclinal folds strongly overprinted by the main S2 foliation. The S2 foliation is parallel to sheared serpentinised lenses that define tectonic contacts, suggesting thrust stacks and underthrusting at mantle depths. Thrusting caused an inverted metamorphic structure with higher-grade on top of lower-grade nappes. Exhumation started during D2 when the units were incorporated into the growing accretionary wedge along NNE-directed thrust faults and was accompanied by substantial decompression and cooling. Folding and thrusting continued during D3 and marks the transition from ductile to brittle-ductile conditions at shallower crustal levels. The D4-5 events are related to extension and contributed to the final exhumation (likely as a core complex). D4 is associated with a regional spaced S4 cleavage, late open folds, and numerous extension veins, whereas D5 is recorded by normal and strike-slip faults affecting all nappes. The P-t path shows rapid exhumation during D2 and slower rates during D3 when the units were progressively incorporated into the accretionary prism. The domal shape formed in response to tectonic denudation assisted by normal faulting and erosion at the surface during the final stages of structural development. These results support tectonic models of SW subduction of the Proto-Caribbean crust under the Caribbean plate during the latest Cretaceous and provide

  19. Involvement of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane associated, rapid response steroid-binding), a novel vitamin D receptor, in growth inhibition of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Cynthia L. [Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Rohe, Ben [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Nemere, Ilka [Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Center for Integrated BioSystems, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 8700 (United States); Meckling, Kelly A., E-mail: [Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada)


    In addition to classical roles in calcium homeostasis and bone development, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} [1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}] inhibits the growth of several cancer types, including breast cancer. Although cellular effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} traditionally have been attributed to activation of a nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a novel receptor for 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} called 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid response steroid-binding) protein was identified recently. The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression modulates 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} activity in breast cancer cells. Relative levels of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS protein in MCF-7, MDA MB 231, and MCF-10A cells were estimated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. To determine if 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor was involved in the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in MCF-7 cells, a ribozyme construct designed to knock down 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS mRNA was stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 clones in which 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression was reduced showed increased sensitivity to 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} ( IC{sub 50} 56 {+-} 24 nM) compared to controls (319 {+-} 181 nM; P < 0.05). Reduction in 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor lengthened the doubling time in transfectants treated with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. Knockdown of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor also increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to the vitamin D analogs KH1060 and MC903, but not to unrelated agents (all-trans retinoic acid, paclitaxel, serum/glucose starvation, or the isoflavone, pomiferin). These results suggest that 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression interferes with the growth inhibitory activity of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in breast cancer cells, possibly through the nuclear VDR. Further research should examine the potential for pharmacological or natural agents that modify 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression or activity as anticancer agents.

  20. Outline of surface mass balance at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, by the stake method from 1995 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda


    Full Text Available This paper describes observational results of surface mass balance (SMB at Dome Fuji (77°19'01″S, 39°42'11″E; 3810m a.s.l., East Antarctica from 1995 to 2006. The SMB was estimated using 36 bamboo stakes (grid of 6×6, placed at 20m intervals. The heights of the stake tops from the snow surface were measured at 0.5cm resolution twice monthly in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2003, and once a year for the rest of the study period. The annual SMB from 1995 to 2006 at Dome Fuji was 27.3±1.5kgm^a^. This result agrees well with the annual SMB from AD 1260 to 1993 (26.4kgm^a^, estimated from volcanic signals in the Dome Fuji ice core. From 1995 to 2006, there were 37 incidences of negative or zero annual SMB, which was 8.6%. Compared with similar studies at Vostok, South Pole and Dome C, we found that a site with SMB over 190kgm^a^ is expected to have annual snow accumulation at the 95% confidence level. Sites from 1500 to 2500m above sea level fit the criteria on the Antarctic ice sheet. According to stake and snow pit observations at Vostok, we estimated that the probability of an annual layer missing (hiatus at Dome Fuji under present-day and glacial conditions are 9.4% and 11.4%, respectively. Variations of SMB measured by 36-stakes for 12 years were also analyzed.

  1. Geologic technical assessment of the Richton salt dome, Mississippi, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant)


    Technical assessment and remodeling of existing data indicates that the Richton salt dome, located in southeastern Mississippi, appears to be a suitable site for expansion of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The maximum area of salt is approximately 7 square miles, at a subsurface elevation of about -2000 ft, near the top of the salt stock. Approximately 5.8 square miles of this appears suitable for cavern development, because of restrictions imposed by modeled shallow salt overhang along several sides of the dome. The detailed geometry of the overhang currently is only poorly understood. However, the large areal extent of the Richton salt mass suggests that significant design flexibility exists for a 160-million-barrel storage facility consisting of 16 ten-million-barrel caverns. The dome itself is prominently elongated from northwest to southeast. The salt stock appears to consist of two major spine features, separated by a likely boundary shear zone trending from southwest to northeast. The dome decreases in areal extent with depth, because of salt flanks that appear to dip inward at 70-80 degrees. Caprock is present at depths as shallow as 274 ft, and the shallowest salt is documented at -425 ft. A large number of existing two-dimensional seismic profiles have been acquired crossing, and in the vicinity of, the Richton salt dome. At least selected seismic profiles should be acquired, examined, potentially reprocessed, and interpreted in an effort to understand the limitations imposed by the apparent salt overhang, should the Richton site be selected for actual expansion of the Reserve.

  2. Application of Landsat multispectral scanner data and sediment spectral reflectance measurements to mapping of the Meatiq Dome, Egypt (United States)

    Jacobberger, P. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rashka, D. L.


    Lithologic boundaries, structural elements and provenance of wadi sediments were determined for the Meatiq Dome in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, using digitally processed Landsat multispectral scanner data in combination with laboratory spectral reflectance measurements. Optimally enhanced, principal-component color composite images were used to interpolate between field traverses in rugged terrain, to delineate contacts, and to clarify structural relationships in conjunction with extensive field work by Sturchio et al. Atmospherically corrected Landsat spectra were compared with petrographic data and laboratory spectral reflectance measurements, using a technique developed by Evans and Adams, to define the provenance of sediments in a wadi within the Meatiq Dome area. Contacts between the dome's granite and granite gneiss core, peripheral mafic mylonites, and the ophiolitic sequence outside the dome were distinguished. Small tonalite bodies were at the limits of discriminability but were mappable when the images were used in conjunction with field data. A large wadi within the dome exhibits interior drainage and carries only granitic-derived sediments, as distinct from a separate wadi system carrying a mix of materials. Coarseness of spectral measurements along with bias introduced by standard sample-preparation methods are the primary sources of error in the spectral comparisons, but the results obtained are consistent with the known geologic environment. The use of these techniques with corrected and optimally enhanced digital Landsat data proved to be a valuable added tool to field mapping efforts. *Present address: Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560

  3. Preliminary CFA measurements of Al and Fe "available" fraction in EPICA-Dome C ice core (East Antarctica) (United States)

    Udisti, R.; Barbante, C.; Cozzi, G.; Fattori, I.; Largiuni, O.; Magaldi, L.; Traversi, R.


    Aerosol load of Al and Fe allows estimating the crustal contribution to the primary aerosol sources. While continental dust is the only significant source for Al, Fe takes part also to metabolic processes of living species as an essential oligo-element. For this reason, it has been assumed that atmospheric deposition of desert dust on the oceanic surface can constitute a phytoplanktonic growth factor. Besides, Fe content in aerosol during glacial/interglacial transitions is believed to play a relevant role in controlling oceanic phytoplanktonic uptake of atmospheric CO2. A detailed stratigraphy of Al and Fe in ice cores is basic in understanding the correlation between environmental and climatic changes. Here we report preliminary results of CFA methods able to determine, in field, the "available" (free form and labile complexes) fraction of Al and Fe in ice cores with high sensitivity (D.L. of 10 ppt for Al and 300 ppt for Fe) and reproducibility (around 2 % at ppb level). The two methods were applied to 32 selected sections coming from the EPICA-Dome C ice core (EDC96): 10 sections belonging to Holocene, 10 to the transition and 12 to the LGM. Though Al and Fe determined by CFA is representative of the only soluble fraction (or "available" in the measurement conditions after filtration on 5.0 um), a comparison with the Al and Fe "total" content, as measured by ICP-MS, was made. "Available" fractions represent a minor contribution to the ICP-MS Fe and Al content in the LGM, but this contribution increases during the transition. In the Holocene, the two different analytical methods give similar values. Anyway, also CFA Fe and Al profiles show a sharp concentration decrease in the glacial/interglacial transition, reflecting the lowering dust aerosol load. Fe, especially, shows a very high sensitivity for the ACR climatic change. Whereas CFA-Fe in the LGM is more than 10 times lower than ICP-MS-Fe, ACR values are similar. This evidence could be explained considering

  4. Two- and three-dimensional topographic analysis of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    García-Ben, Antonio; Kamal-Salah, Radua; García-Basterra, Ignacio; Gonzalez Gómez, Ana; Morillo Sanchez, María José; García-Campos, Jose Manuel


    To investigate the posterior anatomical structure of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Our database of 260 pathologically myopic eyes was analyzed retrospectively to identify patients with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma. All patients underwent vertical and horizontal SD-OCT scans across the central fovea, with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction. Best-corrected visual acuity, axial length, and choroidal thickness measurements were recorded. The macular bulge height was also analyzed in eyes with dome-shaped macula. In the three-dimensional images, the symmetry and orientation of the main plane of the inward incurvation of the macula were examined. Twenty-eight (10.7%) of the 260 pathologically myopic eyes had dome-shaped macula of one of three different types: a round radially symmetrical dome (eight eyes, 28.5%), a horizontal axially symmetrical oval-shaped dome (15 eyes, 53.5%), or a vertical axially symmetrical oval-shaped dome (five eyes, 17.8%). The macular bulge height was significantly greater in horizontal oval-shaped dome eyes (p = 0.01, for each comparison). Inferior posterior staphylomas were observed in ten (3.8%) of the 260 pathologically myopic eyes with asymmetrical macular bends. Vertical and horizontal OCT sectional scanning in combination with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction provides important information for understanding the posterior anatomical structure of dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma in pathologically myopic eyes.

  5. Extraordinary sediment delivery and rapid geomorphic response following the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Bertin, Daniel; Pierson, Thomas C.; Amigo, Alvaro; Iroume, Andres; Ulloa, Hector; Castro, Jonathan M.


    The 10 day explosive phase of the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, draped adjacent watersheds with a few cm to >1 m of tephra. Subsequent lava-dome collapses generated pyroclastic flows that delivered additional sediment. During the waning phase of explosive activity, modest rainfall triggered an extraordinary sediment flush which swiftly aggraded multiple channels by many meters. Ten kilometer from the volcano, Chaitén River channel aggraded 7 m and the river avulsed through a coastal town. That aggradation and delta growth below the abandoned and avulsed channels allow estimates of postdisturbance traction-load transport rate. On the basis of preeruption bathymetry and remotely sensed measurements of delta-surface growth, we derived a time series of delta volume. The initial flush from 11 to 14 May 2008 deposited 0.5–1.5 × 106 m3 of sediment at the mouth of Chaitén River. By 26 May, after channel avulsion, a second delta amassed about 2 × 106 m3 of sediment; by late 2011 it amassed about 11 × 106 m3. Accumulated sediment consists of low-density vesicular pumice and lithic rhyolite sand. Rates of channel aggradation and delta growth, channel width, and an assumed deposit bulk density of 1100–1500 kg m−3 indicate mean traction-load transport rate just before and shortly after avulsion (∼14–15 May) was very high, possibly as great as several tens of kg s−1 m−1. From October 2008 to December 2011, mean traction-load transport rate declined from about 7 to 0.4 kg−1 m−1. Despite extraordinary sediment delivery, disturbed channels recovered rapidly (a few years).

  6. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Eugene Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  7. Geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Dennis P.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bronowski, David R.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.


    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to conclude that the dilatational criteria are distinct for the halite-rich and other salts, and that the dilation criteria are pressure dependent. The indirect tensile strengths and unconfined compressive strengths determined are consistently lower than other coastal domal salts. The steady-state-only creep model being developed suggests that Richton salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared to other domal and bedded salts. The results of the study provide only

  8. Preliminary results from an integrated, multi-parameter, experiment at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala (United States)

    De Angelis, S.; Rietbrock, A.; Lavallée, Y.; Lamb, O. D.; Lamur, A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Hornby, A. J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Chigna, G.


    Understanding the complex processes that drive volcanic unrest is crucial to effective risk mitigation. Characterization of these processes, and the mechanisms of volcanic eruptions, is only possible when high-resolution geophysical and geological observations are available over comparatively long periods of time. In November 2014, the Liverpool Earth Observatory, UK, in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Guatemala, established a multi-parameter geophysical network at Santiaguito, one of the most active volcanoes in Guatemala. Activity at Santiaguito throughout the past decade, until the summer of 2015, was characterized by nearly continuous lava dome extrusion accompanied by frequent and regular small-to-moderate gas or gas-and-ash explosions. Over the past two years our network collected a wealth of seismic, acoustic and deformation data, complemented by campaign visual and thermal infrared measurements, and rock and ash samples. Here we present preliminary results from the analysis of this unique dataset. Using acoustic and thermal data collected during 2014-2015 we were able to assess volume fractions of ash and gas in the eruptive plumes. The small proportion of ash inferred in the plumes confirms estimates from previous, independent, studies, and suggests that these events did not involve significant magma fragmentation in the conduit. The results also agree with the suggestion that sacrificial fragmentation along fault zones in the conduit region, due to shear-induced thermal vesiculation, may be at the origin of such events. Finally, starting in the summer of 2015, our experiment captured the transition to a new phase of activity characterized by vigorous vulcanian-style explosions producing large, ash-rich, plumes and frequent hazardous pyroclastic flows, as well as the formation a large summit crater. We present evidence of this trans