WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid disk diffusion

  1. Diffuse interstellar gas in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladilo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The physical properties of the diffuse gas in our Galaxy are reviewed and considered as a starting point for interstellar (IS) studies of disk galaxies. Attention is focussed on the atomic and ionic component, detected through radio, optical, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray observations. The cooling and heating processes in the IS gas are briefly recalled in order to introduce current models of disk and halo gas. Observations of nearby galaxies critical to test IS models are considered, including 21-cm surveys, optical and UV absorptions of bright, extragalactic sources, and X-ray emission from hot halos. Finally, further steps necessary to develop a global model for the structure and evolution of the interstellar medium are indicated. (author)

  2. MAGNETIC BRAKING AND PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION: AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellon, Richard R.; Li Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    It is established that the formation of rotationally supported disks during the main accretion phase of star formation is suppressed by a moderately strong magnetic field in the ideal MHD limit. Nonideal MHD effects are expected to weaken the magnetic braking, perhaps allowing the disk to reappear. We concentrate on one such effect, ambipolar diffusion, which enables the field lines to slip relative to the bulk neutral matter. We find that the slippage does not sufficiently weaken the braking to allow rotationally supported disks to form for realistic levels of cloud magnetization and cosmic ray ionization rate; in some cases, the magnetic braking is even enhanced. Only in dense cores with both exceptionally weak fields and unreasonably low ionization rate do such disks start to form in our simulations. We conclude that additional processes, such as Ohmic dissipation or Hall effect, are needed to enable disk formation. Alternatively, the disk may form at late times when the massive envelope that anchors the magnetic brake is dissipated, perhaps by a protostellar wind.

  3. SNOW LINES AS PROBES OF TURBULENT DIFFUSION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Sharp chemical discontinuities can occur in protoplanetary disks, particularly at ''snow lines'' where a gas-phase species freezes out to form ice grains. Such sharp discontinuities will diffuse out due to the turbulence suspected to drive angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We demonstrate that the concentration gradient—in the vicinity of the snow line—of a species present outside a snow line but destroyed inside is strongly sensitive to the level of turbulent diffusion (provided the chemical and transport timescales are decoupled) and provides a direct measurement of the radial ''Schmidt number'' (the ratio of the angular momentum transport to radial turbulent diffusion). Taking as an example the tracer species N 2 H + , which is expected to be destroyed inside the CO snow line (as recently observed in TW Hya) we show that ALMA observations possess significant angular resolution to constrain the Schmidt number. Since different turbulent driving mechanisms predict different Schmidt numbers, a direct measurement of the Schmidt number in accretion disks would allow inferences to be made about the nature of the turbulence

  4. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2001-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  5. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2002-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  6. Antibiogramj: A tool for analysing images from disk diffusion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; Domínguez, C; Heras, J; Mata, E; Pascual, V; Torres, C; Zarazaga, M

    2017-05-01

    Disk diffusion testing, known as antibiogram, is widely applied in microbiology to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms. The measurement of the diameter of the zone of growth inhibition of microorganisms around the antimicrobial disks in the antibiogram is frequently performed manually by specialists using a ruler. This is a time-consuming and error-prone task that might be simplified using automated or semi-automated inhibition zone readers. However, most readers are usually expensive instruments with embedded software that require significant changes in laboratory design and workflow. Based on the workflow employed by specialists to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms, we have designed a software tool that, from images of disk diffusion tests, semi-automatises the process. Standard computer vision techniques are employed to achieve such an automatisation. We present AntibiogramJ, a user-friendly and open-source software tool to semi-automatically determine, measure and categorise inhibition zones of images from disk diffusion tests. AntibiogramJ is implemented in Java and deals with images captured with any device that incorporates a camera, including digital cameras and mobile phones. The fully automatic procedure of AntibiogramJ for measuring inhibition zones achieves an overall agreement of 87% with an expert microbiologist; moreover, AntibiogramJ includes features to easily detect when the automatic reading is not correct and fix it manually to obtain the correct result. AntibiogramJ is a user-friendly, platform-independent, open-source, and free tool that, up to the best of our knowledge, is the most complete software tool for antibiogram analysis without requiring any investment in new equipment or changes in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapidity gap survival in the black-disk regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-01-01

    We summarize how the approach to the black-disk regime (BDR) of strong interactions at TeV energies influences rapidity gap survival in exclusive hard diffraction pp -> p + H + p (H = dijet, Qbar Q, Higgs). Employing a recently developed partonic description of such processes, we discuss (a) the suppression of diffraction at small impact parameters by soft spectator interactions in the BDR; (b) further suppression by inelastic interactions of hard spectator partons in the BDR; (c) correlations between hard and soft interactions. Hard spectator interactions substantially reduce the rapidity gap survival probability at LHC energies compared to previously reported estimates

  8. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  9. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-07-04

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution typically is ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amount of cooler dust. Such a phase of rapid ejecta evolution has not been previously predicted or observed, and no currently available physical model satisfactorily explains the observations.

  10. Rapidity gap survival in the black-disk regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-01-01

    We summarize how the approach to the black-disk regime (BDR) of strong interactions at TeV energies influences rapidity gap survival in exclusive hard diffraction pp -> p + H + p (H = dijet, Qbar Q, Higgs). Employing a recently developed partonic description of such processes, we discuss (a) the suppression of diffraction at small impact parameters by soft spectator interactions in the BDR; (b) further suppression by inelastic interactions of hard spectator partons in the BDR; (c) effects of correlations between hard and soft interactions, as suggested by various models of proton structure (color fluctuations, spatial correlations of partons). Hard spectator interactions in the BDR substantially reduce the rapidity gap survival probability at LHC energies compared to previously reported estimates

  11. Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn disk storage, data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters). A disk drive is a peripheral device of a computer system, connected by some communication medium to a disk controller. The disk controller is a chip, typically connected to the CPU of

  12. RESIDENCE TIMES OF PARTICLES IN DIFFUSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISK ENVIRONMENTS. I. VERTICAL MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and physical evolution of primitive materials in protoplanetary disks are determined by the types of environments they are exposed to and their residence times within each environment. Here, a method for calculating representative paths of materials in diffusive protoplanetary disks is developed and applied to understanding how the vertical trajectories that particles take impact their overall evolution. The methods are general enough to be applied to disks with uniform diffusivity, the so-called constant-α cases, and disks with a spatially varying diffusivity, such as expected in 'layered-disks'. The average long-term dynamical evolution of small particles and gaseous molecules is independent of the specific form of the diffusivity in that they spend comparable fractions of their lifetimes at different heights in the disk. However, the paths that individual particles and molecules take depend strongly on the form of the diffusivity leading to a different range of behavior of particles in terms of deviations from the mean. As temperatures, gas densities, chemical abundances, and photon fluxes will vary with height in protoplanetary disks, the different paths taken by primitive materials will lead to differences in their chemical and physical evolution. Examples of differences in gas phase chemistry and photochemistry are explored here. The methods outlined here provide a powerful tool that can be integrated with chemical models to understand the formation and evolution of primitive materials in protoplanetary disks on timescales of 10 5 -10 6 years.

  13. Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France, respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC: ceftriaxone (CRO, cefixime (CFX, and cefpodoxime (CPD. Methods One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI and manufacturer’s standards for each of the three methods. The measured diameters by the disk diffusion method were tested for correlation with the MIC values by agar dilution. In addition, comparisons with the Etest® were made. Categorical results for concordance, based on standard CLSI cutoffs, between the disk diffusion and the other two methods, respectively, were tested using the Chi-square statistics. Reproducibility was tested for CFX across a 6-month interval by repeated disk tests. Results Across all 115 specimens, the disk diffusion tests produced good categorical agreements, exhibiting concordance of 93.1%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with agar dilution and 93.0%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with Etest®, for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. Pearson correlations between disk-diffusion diameters and agar dilution MIC’s were -0.59, -0.67, and -0.81 for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. The correlations between disk diffusion and Etest® were -0.58, -0.73, and -0.49. Pearson correlation between the CFX disk readings over a 6-month interval was 91%. Conclusions Disk diffusion tests remain to be a useful, reliable and fast screening method for qualitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime.

  14. Identification of Yeast Species In the Oral Cavity of Iranian Soldiers By Disk Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:The disk diffusion method for identification of yeasts species was performed based on different but distinct susceptibilities of yeasts spp.to chemicals:janus green, ethidium bromide,2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, brilliant green, cycloheximide and rhodamine 6G. Methods: Atotal of 568 Iranian soldiers went under study for isolation and identification of Yeast species from their oral cavity. Asterile swab was used for each individual and specimens were collected from the nasopharynx region, then inoculated to petri dishes containing Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated for 48 hrs at 37 °C. All colonies were counted and stocked in distilled water and stored in a refrigerator for further analysis. The yeasts were identified by the “disk diffusion test” [6,8]. This is a simple, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive technique presented by Sobczak [8]. By this method we identified yeast species within 24-48 hrs. Results: 51.4% of petri dishes were positive for yeast species and 318 strains were identified. Candida albicans, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii were the most common yeast species isolated from the oral cavity of soldiers. Conclusion: We used this method because of its simplicity and other beneficial characteristics for rapid identification of large and numerous isolates and the results were compared with other morphological characters such as chlamydospore and germ tube production. In addition,we used some type strains (Candida parapsilosis: PTCC 5089,Candida tropicalis: PTCC 5028,Saccharomyces cerevisiae:PTCC 5052,Candida lipolytica: PTCC 5063,Candida lipolytica:PTCC 5064,and the results were acceptable.

  15. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, Gabriel E; Young, H Peyton

    2014-07-22

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks.

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic nerve root of patients with lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information that may be useful for evaluating pathological changes of the lumbar nerve root. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has recently been introduced as an alternative way to visualize nerves, but to date, quantitative DWI and MR neurography have not been applied to evaluate the pathology of lumbar nerve roots. Our purpose was to visualize lumbar nerve roots and to analyze their morphology by MR neurography, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks using 1.5-T MR imaging. Ten consecutive patients (median age, 48.0 and range, 20-72 years) with monoradicular symptoms caused by a lumbar herniated disk and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interests were placed on the lumbar roots at dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and distal spinal nerves on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The spinal nerve roots were also visualized by MR neurography. In the patients, mean ADC values were significantly greater in the compressed DRG and distal spinal nerves than in intact nerves. MR neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve swelling at and below the compression in the symptomatic nerve root. Increased ADC values were considered to be because of edema and Wallerian degeneration of compressed nerve roots. DWI is a potential tool for analysis of the pathophysiology of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic nerve root of patients with lumbar disk herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Chiba University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi [Chiba University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chiba (Japan); Toyone, Tomoaki [Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan); Takaso, Masashi [Kitasato University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan); Aoki, Yasuchika [Chiba Rosai Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ichihara, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information that may be useful for evaluating pathological changes of the lumbar nerve root. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has recently been introduced as an alternative way to visualize nerves, but to date, quantitative DWI and MR neurography have not been applied to evaluate the pathology of lumbar nerve roots. Our purpose was to visualize lumbar nerve roots and to analyze their morphology by MR neurography, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks using 1.5-T MR imaging. Ten consecutive patients (median age, 48.0 and range, 20-72 years) with monoradicular symptoms caused by a lumbar herniated disk and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interests were placed on the lumbar roots at dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and distal spinal nerves on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The spinal nerve roots were also visualized by MR neurography. In the patients, mean ADC values were significantly greater in the compressed DRG and distal spinal nerves than in intact nerves. MR neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve swelling at and below the compression in the symptomatic nerve root. Increased ADC values were considered to be because of edema and Wallerian degeneration of compressed nerve roots. DWI is a potential tool for analysis of the pathophysiology of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks. (orig.)

  18. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Diffusion thermopower in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, R. G.; Kamatagi, M. D.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2010-09-01

    The diffusion thermopower of graphene, Sd, is studied for 30 < T < 300 K, considering the electrons to be scattered by impurities, vacancies, surface roughness and acoustic and optical phonons via deformation potential couplings. Sd is found to increase almost linearly with temperature, determined mainly by vacancy and impurity scatterings. A departure from linear behaviour due to optical phonons is noticed. As a function of carrier concentration, a change in the sign of |Sd| is observed. Our analysis of recent thermopower data obtains a good fit. The limitations of Mott formula are discussed. Detailed analysis of data will enable a better understanding of the scattering mechanisms operative in graphene.

  19. RESIDENCE TIMES OF PARTICLES IN DIFFUSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISK ENVIRONMENTS. II. RADIAL MOTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO DUST ANNEALING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of crystalline grains in comets and the outer regions of protoplanetary disks remains a mystery. It has been suggested that such grains form via annealing of amorphous precursors in the hot, inner region of a protoplanetary disk, where the temperatures needed for such transformations were found, and were then transported outward by some dynamical means. Here we develop a means of tracking the paths that dust grains would have taken through a diffusive protoplanetary disk and examine the types and ranges of environments that particles would have seen over a 10 6 yr time period in the dynamic disk. We then combine this model with three annealing laws to examine how the dynamic evolution of amorphous grains would have led to their physical restructuring and their delivery to various regions of the disk. It is found that 'sibling particles' - those particles that reside at the same location at a given period of time-take a wide range of unique and independent paths through the disk to arrive there. While high temperatures can persist in the disk for very long time periods, we find that those grains that are delivered to the cold outer regions of the disk are largely annealed in the first few x10 5 yr of disk history. This suggests that the crystallinity of grains in the outer disk would be determined early and remain unchanged for much of disk history, in agreement with recent astronomical observations.

  20. Rapid determination of ions by combined solid-phase extraction--diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Arena, Matteo P.; Steiner, Steven A.; Porter, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) for the rapid determination of selected ions. This new technique links the exhaustive concentration of an analyte by SPE onto a membrane disk surface for quantitative measurement with a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer. The concentration/measurement procedure is complete in approximately 1 min and can be performed almost anywhere. This method has been used to monitor iodine and iodide in spacecraft water in the 0.1-5.0 ppm range and silver(I) in the range of 5.0-1000 microg/l. Applications to the trace analysis of copper(II), nickel(II), iron(III) and chromium(VI) are described. Studies on the mechanism of extraction showed that impregnation of the disk with a surfactant as well as a complexing reagent results in uptake of additional water, which markedly improves the extraction efficiency.

  1. Assessing the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide thin films using disk diffusion and biofilm reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Perfect, John R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Wei Wei; Jin Chunming; Narayan, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of semiconductor materials may be useful in preventing growth of microorganisms. In this article, in vitro methods for assessing microbial growth on semiconductor materials will be presented. The structural and biological properties of silicon wafers coated with zinc oxide thin films were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and MTT viability assay. The antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films were established using disk diffusion and CDC Biofilm Reactor studies. Our results suggest that zinc oxide and other semiconductor materials may play a leading role in providing antimicrobial functionality to the next-generation medical devices

  2. Accretion Disk Reverberation with Hubble Space Telescope Observations of NGC 4593: Evidence for Diffuse Continuum Lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackett, Edward M.; Chiang, Chia-Ying; McHardy, Ian; Edelson, Rick; Goad, Michael R.; Horne, Keith; Korista, Kirk T.

    2018-04-01

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 was monitored spectroscopically with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of a reverberation mapping campaign that also included Swift, Kepler, and ground-based photometric monitoring. During 2016 July 12–August 6, we obtained 26 spectra across a nearly continuous wavelength range of ∼1150–10000 Å. These were combined with Swift data to produce a UV/optical “lag spectrum,” which shows the interband lag relative to the Swift UVW2 band as a function of wavelength. The broad shape of the lag spectrum appears to follow the τ ∝ λ 4/3 relation seen previously in photometric interband lag measurements of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This shape is consistent with the standard thin disk model, but the magnitude of the lags implies a disk that is a factor of ∼3 larger than predicted, again consistent with what has been previously seen in other AGNs. In all cases these large disk sizes, which are also implied by independent gravitational microlensing of higher-mass AGNs, cannot be simply reconciled with the standard model. However, the most striking feature in this higher-resolution lag spectrum is a clear excess around the 3646 Å Balmer jump. This strongly suggests that diffuse emission from gas in the much larger broad-line region (BLR) must also contribute significantly to the interband lags. While the relative contributions of the disk and BLR cannot be uniquely determined in these initial measurements, it is clear that both will need to be considered to comprehensively model and understand AGN lag spectra.

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K; Laverdière, M; Rivest, R

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are increasingly being implicated in foreign-body infections and in immunocompromised-host infections. However, there are no specific recommendations on the method or the criteria to use in order to determine the in vitro activities of the antibiotics commonly used to treat Corynebacterium infections. The first aim of our study was to compare the susceptibilities of various species of Corynebacterium to vancomycin, erythromycin, and penicillin by using a broth microdilution method and a disk diffusion method. Second, the activity of penicillin against our isolates was assessed by using the interpretative criteria recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for the determination of the susceptibility of streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes to penicillin. Overall, 100% of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, while considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin were noted for the different species tested, including the non-Corynebacterium jeikeium species. A good correlation in the susceptibilities of vancomycin and erythromycin between the disk diffusion and the microdilution methods was observed. However, a 5% rate of major or very major errors was detected with the Listeria criteria, while a high rate of minor errors (18%) was noted when the streptococcus criteria were used. Our findings indicate considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin against the various species of Corynebacterium. Because of the absence of definite recommendations, important discrepancies were observed between the methods and the interpretations of the penicillin activity. PMID:8849254

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brazilian Clostridium difficile strains determined by agar dilution and disk diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Geraldo Fraga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients worldwide. While metronidazole and vancomycin are the most prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of this infection, teicoplanin, tigecycline and nitazoxanide are alternatives drugs. Knowledge on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles is a basic step to differentiate recurrence from treatment failure due to antimicrobial resistance. Because C. difficile antimicrobial susceptibility is largely unknown in Brazil, we aimed to determine the profile of C. difficile strains cultivated from stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea and a positive toxin A/B test using both agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. All 50 strains tested were sensitive to metronidazole according to CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints with an MIC90 value of 2 μg/mL. Nitazoxanide and tigecycline were highly active in vitro against these strains with an MIC90 value of 0.125 μg/mL for both antimicrobials. The MIC90 were 4 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL for vancomycin and teicoplanin, respectively. A resistance rate of 8% was observed for moxifloxacin. Disk diffusion can be used as an alternative to screen for moxifloxacin resistance, nitazoxanide, tigecycline and metronidazole susceptibility, but it cannot be used for testing glycopeptides. Our results suggest that C. difficile strains from São Paulo city, Brazil, are susceptible to metronidazole and have low MIC90 values for most of the current therapeutic options available in Brazil.

  5. Limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode with dense particle layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weroński, P; Nosek, M; Batys, P

    2013-09-28

    Exploiting the concept of diffusion permeability of multilayer gel membrane and porous multilayer we have derived a simple analytical equation for the limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode (RDE) covered by a thin layer with variable tortuosity and porosity, under the assumption of negligible convection in the porous film. The variation of limiting diffusion current with the porosity and tortuosity of the film can be described in terms of the equivalent thickness of stagnant solution layer, i.e., the average ratio of squared tortuosity to porosity. In case of monolayer of monodisperse spherical particles, the equivalent layer thickness is an algebraic function of the surface coverage. Thus, by means of cyclic voltammetry of RDE with a deposited particle monolayer we can determine the monolayer surface coverage. The effect of particle layer adsorbed on the surface of RDE increases non-linearly with surface coverage. We have tested our theoretical results experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements of limiting diffusion current at the glassy carbon RDE covered with a monolayer of 3 μm silica particles. The theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement at the surface coverage higher than 0.7. This result suggests that convection in a monolayer of 3 μm monodisperse spherical particles is negligibly small, in the context of the coverage determination, in the range of very dense particle layers.

  6. Comparison of Two Different Disk Diffusion Agar Tests in Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility for E-Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common infections during childhood and E-Coli is the more predominant pathogen recovered in UTI. Disk Diffusion agar test is a method of choice because it is cost effective, simple, and now routinely used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility. A rapid increase in antibiotic resistance in our region made the authors to design a study to compare this traditional method with two different disk diffusion agar tests.Materials & Methods: Our study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in Be’sat teaching hospital on 100 pediatric patients ranged 15 days to 13 years old with positive urine culture for E-coli. Antibiogram detection was performed by disk diffusion agar test with two different kits as Padtan-Teb (made in Iran and Mast (made in the U.K. for Co-trimoxazol, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Nalidixic Acid, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. At last the data was analyzed by McNemar test.Results: Co-trimoxazol obtained the lowest (23% Padtan-Teb and 26% Mast and Nitrofurantoin had the highest (86% Padtan-Teb and 97% Mast sensitivity in the two methods which were used in our study. The results were statistically significant for Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. The data was analyzed by Mc Memar test.Conclusion: According to our study the results of antibiotic susceptibility were more compatible with other non national Disk diffusion agar test and thus we recommend that our manufactures in Iran should increase the quality of their products.

  7. Investigation of susceptibility of Staphylococcus species to some antibacterial drugs by disk diffusion and broth microdilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify isolated Staphylococcus species and to investigate their sensitivity to some antibacterial drugs. The material used for these investigations were Staphylococcus isolates originating from milk samples. A total of 25 strains of Staphylococcus isolates were examined, including 24 from milk samples from cows with mastitis, and one strain was isolated from a milk sample from a cow following treatment for mastitis. For primary identification, catalase and oxidase tests were used, as well as the free coagulase test. Following the preliminary tests, the isolated strains were identified using commercial systems ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, France and the BBL Crystal Gram-Positive ID Kit (Becton Dickinson, USA according to the enclosed instructions. The Staphylococcus isolates were examined for sensitivity to the following: oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, and vacomycin using the disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Strandards Institute - CLSI(2003, and the results were interpreted according to CLSI recommendations from 2008 and 2010. Antibiogram disks manufactured by Becton Dickinson (USA were used, and the broth microdilution method was applied using pure antibiotic substances from different manufacturers: erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline (Sigma Aldrich, USA, sulfametoxazol (Fluka, USA, penicillin (Calbiochem, Germany, vancomycin (Abbott laboratories, USA, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim (Zdravlje A.D., Serbia. All 25 strains were catalase positive and oxidase negative. Of the 25 strains, 19 were coagulase positive and 6 were coagulase negative.With the implementation of the disk diffusion method on 19 strains of S. aureus, 17 were established to be resistant to penicillin (89.5%, and 2 strains to gentamicin

  8. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the

  9. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, M.; Molina-Concha, M.B.; El-Kissi, N.; Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH 4 electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH 4 at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH 4 at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H 2 bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H 2 bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders

  10. Rapid paper disk test for identification of Helicobacter pylori in mixed cultures of gerbil gastric homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juarez, Israel; Rangel-Vega, Adrian; Romero, Irma

    2010-10-01

    A method denominated rapid paper disk test (RPDT) was developed to identify H. pylori colonies in complex cultures obtained from gerbil gastric homogenates. Identification is based on a characteristic reaction pattern (RP) for H. pylori colonies given by the combination of the urease-oxidase activities on a paper disk. Compared to the RPs obtained from gerbil's intestinal tract isolated bacteria, H. pylori RP is completely distinguishable, even from those of bacteria that share one or both activities as are Aerococcus urinae, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus brevis, Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium, and Staphylococcus simulans, as well as from those produced by collection strains Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method allows the practical quantification of H. pylori colonies in highly contaminated plates. RPDT has the following advantages over other methodologies that use indicators in the medium: it employs two of the three routinely used H. pylori biochemical identification tests, the reagents do not interfere with bacterial viability, there are no restrictions in relation to the medium used, and it is a simple, fast, and low-cost method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A method for rapid testing of the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of herbicides by leaf disk infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bielecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for rapid detection of photosynthesis inhibitors in low concentration (0.25-1.25 ppm was developed. The experiments were performed on disks cut from young bean leaves. The disks were infiltrated with solutions of the tested compounds and placed at the bottom of a crystallizer containing an acidic sodium carbonate solution and then illuminated. The toxicity of the tested substance was measured as the number of disks corning to the surface. It was found that linuron, monolinuron, metoksuron, atrazine and prometrine inhibited floating of the disks, whereas 2,4,5-T, MCPA and chlorpropham gave no effect. This confirms the specificity of the test which is appropriate for determining the phytotoxicity of typical photosynthesis inhibitors.

  12. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M

    2006-08-17

    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger.

  13. Design of a system to measure thermal diffusivity of metals in the form of miniature disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerschied, M.K.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the design of a system to measure the thermal diffusivity of stainless steel alloy specimens in the form of 3-mm-diameter, 0.3-mm-thick disks. To measure these tiny specimens, the flash method devised by Parker et al. is employed; in this method, one surface of the specimen is exposed to a pulse of energy and the temperature response of the opposite surface is recorded. Derivations of the governing equations are included; these derivations differ from the work of Parker et al. bcause the heat pulse irradiating the specimen in this system is a square wave (in intensity vs time) rather than triangular, and the equation for estimating the maximum temperature of the irradiated surface of the specimen was simplified by the elimination of several variables. The design, selection, or modification of each of the components of the system to meet the criteria of the flash method is described. The capability of this system to perform in accordance with the assumptions of the flash method is discussed, and recommendations for improvement of the present system and extension of its capabilities are included

  14. Proposal for agar disk diffusion interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens using cefoperazone 30μg disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Lindeman, Cynthia J; Peters, Thomas; Watts, Jeffrey L; Schwarz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin which is commonly used for bovine mastitis therapy. Bacterial pathogens involved in bovine mastitis are frequently tested for their susceptibility to cefoperazone. So far, the cefoperazone susceptibility testing using 30μg disks has been hampered by the lack of quality control (QC) ranges as well as the lack of interpretive criteria. In 2014, QC ranges for 30 μg cefoperazone disks have been established for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC ® 25922. As a next step, interpretive criteria for the susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens should be developed. For this, 637 bovine mastitis pathogens (including 112 S. aureus, 121 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 103 E. coli, 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 100 Streptococcus uberis) were investigated by agar disk diffusion according to the document Vet01-A4 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) using 30μg cefoperazone disks and the results were compared to the corresponding MIC values as determined by broth microdilution also according to the aforementioned CLSI document. Based on the results obtained and taking into account the achievable milk concentration of cefoperazone after regular dosing, the following interpretive criteria were proposed as a guidance for mastitis diagnostic laboratories: for staphylococci and E. coli ≥23mm (susceptible), 18-22mm (intermediate) and ≤17mm (resistant) and for streptococci ≥18mm (susceptible), and ≤17mm (non-susceptible). These proposed interpretive criteria shall contribute to a harmonization of cefoperazone susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES IN IC348: A RAPID DECLINE IN THE POPULATION OF SMALL DUST GRAINS AFTER 1 Myr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in the 2-3 Myr old cluster, IC348, with the Submillimeter Array. We observed 85 young stellar objects and detected 10 with 1.3 mm fluxes greater than 2 mJy. The brightest source is a young embedded protostar driving a molecular outflow. The other nine detections are dusty disks around optically visible stars. Our millimeter flux measurements translate into total disk masses ranging from 2 to 6 Jupiter masses. Each detected disk has strong mid-infrared emission in excess of the stellar photosphere and has Hα equivalent widths larger than the average in the cluster and indicative of ongoing gas accretion. The disk mass distribution, however, is shifted by about a factor of 20 to lower masses, compared to that in the ∼1 Myr old Taurus and Ophiuchus regions. These observations reveal the rapid decline in the number of small dust grains in disks with time and probably their concomitant growth beyond millimeter sizes. Moreover, if IC348 is to form planets in the same proportion as detected in the field, these faint millimeter detections may represent the best candidates in the cluster to study the progression from planetesimals to planets.

  16. Rapid, specific determination of iodine and iodide by combined solid-phase extraction/diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Matteo P.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.

    2002-01-01

    A new, rapid methodology for trace analysis using solid-phase extraction is described. The two-step methodology is based on the concentration of an analyte onto a membrane disk and on the determination by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the amount of analyte extracted on the disk surface. This method, which is adaptable to a wide range of analytes, has been used for monitoring ppm levels of iodine and iodide in spacecraft water. Iodine is used as a biocide in spacecraft water. For these determinations, a water sample is passed through a membrane disk by means of a 10-mL syringe that is attached to a disk holder assembly. The disk, which is a polystyrene-divinylbenzene composite, is impregnated with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which exhaustively concentrates iodine as a yellow iodine-PVP complex. The amount of concentrated iodine is then determined in only 2 s by using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrometer by comparing the result with a calibration curve based on the Kubelka-Munk function. The same general procedure can be used to determine iodide levels after its facile and exhaustive oxidation to iodine by peroxymonosulfate (i.e., Oxone reagent). For samples containing both analytes, a two-step procedure can be used in which the iodide concentration is calculated from the difference in iodine levels before and after treatment of the sample with peroxymonosulfate. With this methodology, iodine and iodide levels in the 0.1-5.0 ppm range can be determined with a total workup time of approximately 60 s with a RSD of approximately 6%.

  17. Quality Control Guidelines for Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests with Seven Drugs for Veterinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Brant A.; Erwin, Meredith E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document. PMID:10618141

  18. Thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects on MHD flow of viscous fluid between expanding or contracting rotating porous disks with viscous dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effects of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo on MHD flow of viscous fluid between expanding or contracting rotating porous disks with viscous dissipation. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem under consideration have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An analytical approach, namely the homotopy analysis method is employed in order to obtain the solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The effects of various emerging parameters on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Comparison of the HAM solutions with the numerical solutions is performed.

  19. Exact calculations of survival probability for diffusion on growing lines, disks, and spheres: The role of dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J; Baker, Ruth E

    2015-09-07

    Unlike standard applications of transport theory, the transport of molecules and cells during embryonic development often takes place within growing multidimensional tissues. In this work, we consider a model of diffusion on uniformly growing lines, disks, and spheres. An exact solution of the partial differential equation governing the diffusion of a population of individuals on the growing domain is derived. Using this solution, we study the survival probability, S(t). For the standard non-growing case with an absorbing boundary, we observe that S(t) decays to zero in the long time limit. In contrast, when the domain grows linearly or exponentially with time, we show that S(t) decays to a constant, positive value, indicating that a proportion of the diffusing substance remains on the growing domain indefinitely. Comparing S(t) for diffusion on lines, disks, and spheres indicates that there are minimal differences in S(t) in the limit of zero growth and minimal differences in S(t) in the limit of fast growth. In contrast, for intermediate growth rates, we observe modest differences in S(t) between different geometries. These differences can be quantified by evaluating the exact expressions derived and presented here.

  20. Evaluation of an Automated System for Reading and Interpreting Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Fastidious Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Becker, Karsten; Schmitz, Janne; Knaack, Dennis; Peters, Georg; Köck, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad) was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni) were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid) according to EUCAST. Plates were read manually with a ruler and automatically using the ADAGIO system. Inhibition zone diameters, indicated by the automated system, were visually controlled and adjusted, if necessary. Among 1548 isolate-antibiotic combinations, comparison of automated vs. manual reading yielded categorical agreement (CA) without visual adjustment of the automatically determined zone diameters in 81.4%. In 20% (309 of 1548) of tests it was deemed necessary to adjust the automatically determined zone diameter after visual control. After adjustment, CA was 94.8%; very major errors (false susceptible interpretation), major errors (false resistant interpretation) and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result), calculated according to the ISO 20776-2 guideline, accounted to 13.7% (13 of 95 resistant results), 3.3% (47 of 1424 susceptible results) and 1.4% (21 of 1548 total results), respectively, compared to manual reading. The ADAGIO system allowed for automated reading of disk diffusion testing in fastidious bacteria and, after visual validation of the automated results, yielded good categorical agreement with manual reading.

  1. Rapid diffusion of molybdenum trace contamination in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, S.P.; Greenwald, A.C.; Wolfson, R.G.; Meier, D.L.; Drevinsky, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Molybdenum contamination has been detected in silicon epitaxial layers and substrate wafers after processing in any one of several epitaxial silicon reactors. Greatly reduced minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes are consistent with Mo concentrations measured by DLTS in the 10 12 and 10 13 cm -3 ranges. Depth profiling of diffusion length and the Mo deep level show much greater penetration than expected from previous reports of Mo as a slow diffuser. The data indicate a lower limit of 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for the diffusion coefficient of Mo in silicon at 1200 0 C, consistent with high diffusivities measured for other transition metals

  2. Use of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Guidelines for Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing in New York State Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehlbauch, Julia A.; Hannett, George E.; Salfinger, Max; Archinal, Wendy; Monserrat, Catherine; Carlyn, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for patient care and surveillance of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) outlines generally agreed upon guidelines for reliable and reproducible results. In January 1997 we surveyed 320 laboratories participating in the New York State Clinical Evaluation Program for General Bacteriology proficiency testing. Our survey addressed compliance with NCCLS susceptibility testing guidelines for bacterial species designated a problem (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species) or fastidious (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) organism. Specifically, we assessed compliance with guidelines for inoculum preparation, medium choice, number of disks per plate, and incubation conditions for disk diffusion tests. We also included length of incubation for S. aureus and Enterococcus species. We found overall compliance with the five characteristics listed above in 80 of 153 responding laboratories (50.6%) for S. aureus and 72 of 151 (47.7%) laboratories for Enterococcus species. The most common problem was an incubation time shortened to less than 24 h. Overall compliance with the first four characteristics was reported by 92 of 221 (41.6%) laboratories for S. pneumoniae, 49 of 163 (30.1%) laboratories for H. influenzae, and 11 of 77 (14.3%) laboratories for N. gonorrhoeae. Laboratories varied from NCCLS guidelines by placing an excess number of disks per plate. Laboratories also reported using alternative media for Enterococcus species, N. gonorrhoeae, and H. influenzae. This study demonstrates a need for education among clinical laboratories to increase compliance with NCCLS guidelines. PMID:10970381

  3. Enhancement of oxygen diffusion process on a rotating disk electrode for the electro-Fenton degradation of tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Shu-Guang; Liu, Rui-Ting

    2015-01-01

    An electro-Fenton process was developed for wastewater treatment in which hydrogen peroxide was generated in situ with a rotating graphite disk electrode as cathode. The maximum H 2 O 2 generation rate for the RDE reached 0.90 mg/L/h/cm 2 under the rotation speed of 400 rpm at pH 3, and −0.8 V vs SCE. The performance of this electro-Fenton reactor was assessed by tetracycline degradation in an aqueous solution. Experimental results showed the rotation of disk cathode resulted in the efficient production of H 2 O 2 without oxygen aeration, and excellent ability for degrading organic pollutants compared to the electro-Fenton system with fixed cathode. Tetracycline of 50 mg/L was degraded completely within 2 h with the addition of ferrous ion (1.0 mM). The chronoamperometry analysis was employed to investigate the oxygen diffusion on the rotating cathode. The results demonstrated that the diffusion coefficients of dissolved oxygen is 19.45 × 10 −5 cm 2 /s, which is greater than that reported in the literature. Further calculation indicated that oxygen is able to diffuse through the film on the rotating cathode within the contact time in each circle. This study proves that enhancement of oxygen diffusion on RDE is benefit for H 2 O 2 generation, thus provides a promising method for organic pollutants degradation by the combination of RDE with electro-Fenton reactor and offers a new insight on the oxygen transform process in this new system.

  4. Microsphere integrated microfluidic disk: synergy of two techniques for rapid and ultrasensitive dengue detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Samira; Aeinehvand, Mohammad M; Uddin, Shah M; Benzina, Abderazak; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusof, Rohana; Koole, Leo H; Madou, Marc J; Djordjevic, Ivan; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-11-09

    The application of microfluidic devices in diagnostic systems is well-established in contemporary research. Large specific surface area of microspheres, on the other hand, has secured an important position for their use in bioanalytical assays. Herein, we report a combination of microspheres and microfluidic disk in a unique hybrid platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of dengue virus. Surface engineered polymethacrylate microspheres with carefully designed functional groups facilitate biorecognition in a multitude manner. In order to maximize the utility of the microspheres' specific surface area in biomolecular interaction, the microfluidic disk was equipped with a micromixing system. The mixing mechanism (microballoon mixing) enhances the number of molecular encounters between spheres and target analyte by accessing the entire sample volume more effectively, which subsequently results in signal amplification. Significant reduction of incubation time along with considerable lower detection limits were the prime motivations for the integration of microspheres inside the microfluidic disk. Lengthy incubations of routine analytical assays were reduced from 2 hours to 5 minutes while developed system successfully detected a few units of dengue virus. Obtained results make this hybrid microsphere-microfluidic approach to dengue detection a promising avenue for early detection of this fatal illness.

  5. Rapid resolution of diffusion weighted MRI abnormality in a patient with a stuttering stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jurriaan M; MacLean, Ainsley V; Young, Geoffrey S

    2010-01-01

    We report the unusually rapid and spontaneous normalisation of low diffusivity that accompanied resolution of acute neurological deficits in a stroke patient who underwent two magnetic resonance imaging examinations within 24 h of symptom onset. Diffusion weighted imaging obtained within hours of onset of left sided weakness demonstrated a focal right capsular area of low diffusivity that resolved within 24 h, coinciding with resolution of the patient’s symptoms. PMID:22315635

  6. Synergy of β-Lactams with Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Correlation of Disk Diffusion and Checkerboard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Cheng Len; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Chii Shiang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Wann, Shue-Renn; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Modified disk diffusion (MDD) and checkerboard tests were employed to assess the synergy of combinations of vancomycin and β-lactam antibiotics for 59 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mu50 (ATCC 700699). Bacterial inocula equivalent to 0.5 and 2.0 McFarland standard were inoculated on agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin. Oxacillin-, cefazolin-, and cefoxitin-impregnated disks were applied to the surface, and the zones of inhibition were measured at 24 h. The CLSI-recommended checkerboard method was used as a reference to detect synergy. The MICs for vancomycin were determined using the Etest method, broth microdilution, and the Vitek 2 automated system. Synergy was observed with the checkerboard method in 51% to 60% of the isolates when vancomycin was combined with any β-lactam. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices were significantly lower in MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MIC combinations (P synergy in MRSA isolates with bacterial inocula equivalent to McFarland standard 0.5 were 33.0% and 62.5% for oxacillin, 45.1% and 52.4% for cefazolin, and 43.1% and 52.4% for cefoxitin when combined with 0.5 and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin, respectively. Based on our study, the simple MDD method is not recommended as a replacement for the checkerboard method to detect synergy. However, it may serve as an initial screening method for the detection of potential synergy when it is not feasible to perform other labor-intensive synergy tests. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Diffusion-stress coupling in liquid phase during rapid solidification of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to describe the diffusion-viscous stress coupling in the liquid phase during rapid solidification of binary mixtures. The model starts with a set of evolution equations for diffusion flux and viscous pressure tensor, based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. It has been demonstrated that the diffusion-stress coupling leads to non-Fickian diffusion effects in the liquid phase. With only diffusive dynamics, the model results in the nonlocal diffusion equations of parabolic type, which imply the transition to complete solute trapping only asymptotically at an infinite interface velocity. With the wavelike dynamics, the model leads to the nonlocal diffusion equations of hyperbolic type and describes the transition to complete solute trapping and diffusionless solidification at a finite interface velocity in accordance with experimental data and molecular dynamic simulation. -- Highlights: •We propose the diffusion-stress coupling model for binary solidification. •The coupling arises at deep undercooling. •With diffusive dynamics, the models result in parabolic transfer equations. •With the wavelike dynamics, the models lead to hyperbolic transfer equations. •The coupling strongly affects the solute partition coefficient

  8. Simulation of the diffusion of implanted impurities in silicon structures at the rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, F.F.; Komarov, A.F.; Mironov, A.M.; Makarevich, Yu.V.; Miskevich, S.A.; Zayats, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Physical and mathematical models and numerical simulation of the diffusion of implanted impurities during rapid thermal treatment of silicon structures are discussed. The calculation results correspond to the experimental results with a sufficient accuracy. A simulation software system has been developed that is integrated into ATHENA simulation system developed by Silvaco Inc. This program can simulate processes of the low-energy implantation of B, BF 2 , P, As, Sb, C ions into the silicon structures and subsequent rapid thermal annealing. (authors)

  9. Characteristics of sets of diffusion photographic materials for rapid X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Neduv, A.M.; Korolev, A.I.; Mirzoyan, I.N.; Chelnokov, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Peculiarities of application in X-ray radiography of roentgenographic films, roentgenographic paper, xeroroentgenographic plates and sets of diffusion photographic materials are considered. It is shown that the use of diffusion photographic materials for X-ray radiography permits to reduce the process labour consumption and to considerably reduce the time for the obtaining of a dry positive image and also to reduce the consumption of silver, but the image will preserve high information content. Selts of diffusion photographic materials are developed, which contain bromoiodosilver negative material with silver spraying of 2-3 g/m 3 and transparent positive material on Dacron basis. Prospects of application of sets of diffusion photographic materials in the practice of rapid X-ray radiography to solve the problems of industrial X-ray defectoscopy are panted out

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and Their Epidemiological Cut-Off Values Using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Smith, Peter; Rojas, Rodrigo; Contreras-Lynch, Sergio; Vega, J M Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (CO WT ) values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The CO WT values calculated by Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT) or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT). When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a CO WT of ≤0.125, ≤2, and ≤0.5 μg mL -1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the CO WT were ≤1, ≤0.5, and ≤0.125 μg mL -1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin, respectively. The disk diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disk data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39, and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41, and 44%, when disk data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disk data, respectively, were 24 and 10% for amoxicillin, 8 and 2% for florfenicol, and 70 and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disk diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies derived from the MIC data sets should be

  11. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  12. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  13. Comparison of real-time PCR with disk diffusion, agar screen and E-test methods for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Laleh; Validi, Majid; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Karimi, Ali; Nafisi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen. Our main objective was to compare oxacillin disk test, oxacillin E-test, and oxacillin agar screen for detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus, using real-time PCR for mecA as the "gold standard" comparison assay. 196 S. aureus isolates were identified out of 284 Staphylococcus isolates. These isolates were screened for MRSA with several methods: disk diffusion, agar screen (6.0 μg/ml), oxacillin E-test, and real-time PCR for detection of mecA gene. Of the 196 S. aureus isolates tested, 96 isolates (49%) were mecA-positive and 100 isolates (51%) mecA-negative. All methods tested had a statistically significant agreement with real-time PCR. E-test was 100% sensitive and specific for mecA presence. The sensitivity and specificity of oxacillin agar screen method were 98 and 99%, respectively and sensitivity and specificity of oxacillin disk diffusion method were 95 and 93%, respectively. In the present study, oxacillin E-test is proposed as the best phenotypic method. For economic reasons, the oxacillin agar screen method (6.0 μg/ml), which is suitable for the detection of MRSA, is recommended due to its accuracy and low cost.

  14. In vitro susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens to a combination of penicillin and framycetin: development of interpretive criteria for testing by broth microdilution and disk diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, C M; Stoneburner, A; Shinabarger, D L; Abbeloos, E; Goby, L; Bradley, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Dry cow therapy is an important part of mastitis control. This therapy typically consists of an antibiotic or antibiotics administered at a single dose by intramammary infusion at dry off to treat or prevent infection by prevalent mastitis pathogens. A combination dry cow therapy consisting of the active components penicillin and framycetin is currently used in several countries. Despite its use, standardized methods for the susceptibility testing of this combination against mastitis pathogens have not been established. In this study, which used Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology, preliminary interpretive criteria for the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing of mastitis pathogens to penicillin combined with framycetin (2:1 wt/wt) were established based on the amount of drug achieved and maintained postadministration in the udder. Based on resulting MIC distributions of recent veterinary field isolates and a subset of isolates preselected for resistance to β-lactams or aminoglycosides and concentrations achieved postadministration, criteria for broth microdilution testing of the combination (susceptible, intermediate, resistant in micrograms per milliliter) were set as follows: Escherichia coli ≤8/4, 16/8, ≥32/16; Staphylococcus spp. ≤2/1, 4/2-8/4, >16/8; Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae 4/2. A disk diffusion test using disks containing 100 μg of framycetin and 10 IU of penicillin was also developed, and preliminary interpretive criteria (susceptible, intermediate, resistant in millimeters) were set based on correlation to broth MIC values and the minimization of interpretive errors between isolates tested concurrently by broth microdilution and disk diffusion as follows: E. coli ≥18, 16-17, ≤15; Staphylococcus spp. ≥21, 18-20, ≤17; Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae ≥21, 19-20, ≤18. In addition, ranges for the quality control of the testing of this combination by both broth

  15. Advanced diffusion system for low contamination in-line rapid thermal processing of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Schultz, O.; Peters, S.; Huljic, D.M.; Zickermann, D.; Schindler, R.; Luedemann, R.; Willeke, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    A novel diffusion system for in-line rapid thermal diffusion is presented. The lamp-heated furnace has a low thermal mass and a metal free transport system based on the walking beam principle. The furnace has been used to process first solar cells with lightly and highly doped emitters respectively. Solar cells with shallow lightly doped emitters show that the emitters processed in the new device can be well passivated. Shallow emitters with sheet resistances of up to 40/sq. have been contacted successfully by means of screen printing and firing through a SiN{sub x} antireflection coating. (author)

  16. Marangoni convection in Casson liquid flow due to an infinite disk with exponential space dependent heat source and cross-diffusion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shashikumar, N. S.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Present work aims to investigate the features of the exponential space dependent heat source (ESHS) and cross-diffusion effects in Marangoni convective heat mass transfer flow due to an infinite disk. Flow analysis is comprised with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The effects of Joule heating, viscous dissipation and solar radiation are also utilized. The thermal and solute field on the disk surface varies in a quadratic manner. The ordinary differential equations have been obtained by utilizing Von Kármán transformations. The resulting problem under consideration is solved numerically via Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg based shooting scheme. The effects of involved pertinent flow parameters are explored by graphical illustrations. Results point out that the ESHS effect dominates thermal dependent heat source effect on thermal boundary layer growth. The concentration and temperature distributions and their associated layer thicknesses are enhanced by Marangoni effect.

  17. Diffuse-interface model for rapid phase transformations in nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenko, Peter; Jou, David

    2005-04-01

    A thermodynamic approach to rapid phase transformations within a diffuse interface in a binary system is developed. Assuming an extended set of independent thermodynamic variables formed by the union of the classic set of slow variables and the space of fast variables, we introduce finiteness of the heat and solute diffusive propagation at the finite speed of the interface advancing. To describe transformations within the diffuse interface, we use the phase-field model which allows us to follow steep but smooth changes of phase within the width of the diffuse interface. Governing equations of the phase-field model are derived for the hyperbolic model, a model with memory, and a model of nonlinear evolution of transformation within the diffuse interface. The consistency of the model is proved by the verification of the validity of the condition of positive entropy production and by outcomes of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. A comparison with existing sharp-interface and diffuse-interface versions of the model is given.

  18. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-04-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10(-12) to 5·10(-5) m(2)/s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of cefazolin alone and in combination with cefmetazole or flomoxef using agar dilution method and disk diffusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Uete, T

    1992-10-01

    Antimicrobial activities of cefazolin (CEZ) against 251 strains of various clinical isolates obtained during 1989 and 1990 were determined using the Mueller-Hinton agar dilution method at an inoculum level 10(6) CFU/ml. The reliability of the disk susceptility test was also studied using Mueller-Hinton agar and various disks at inoculum levels of 10(3-4) CFU/cm2 in estimating approximate values of MICs. In addition, antimicrobial activities of CEZ and cefmetazole (CMZ) or flomoxef (FMOX) in combination were investigated against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) using the checkerboard agar dilution MIC method and the disk diffusion test either with the disks contained CEZ, CMZ, and FMOX alone, or CEZ, and CMZ or FMOX in combination. In this study, the MICs of CEZ against S. aureus were distributed with the 3 peak values at 0.39 microgram/ml, 3.13 micrograms/ml and > 100 micrograms/ml. MICs against MSSA were 0.39 microgram/ml to 0.78 microgram/ml, whereas those against MRSA were greater than 0.78 microgram/ml. MICs against majority of strains of Enterococcus faecalis were 25 micrograms/ml. Over 90% of strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were inhibited at the level of 3.13 micrograms/ml. About 60% of isolates of indole negative Proteus spp. were inhibited at the levels of less than 3.13 micrograms/ml and 100% at 6.25 micrograms/ml, but MICs against indole positive Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were over 100 micrograms/ml. The antimicrobial activities of CEZ against these clinical isolates were not significantly different compared to those reported about 15-20 years ago, except for S. aureus. Highly resistant strains of S. aureus to CEZ were more prevalent in this study. The inhibitory zones obtained with the disk test were compared with MICs. The results of CEZ disk susceptibility test with 30 micrograms disk (Showa) or 10 micrograms disk (prepared in this laboratory) were well

  20. Friction and diffusion of a nano-colloidal disk in a two-dimensional solvent with a liquid-liquid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carbajal, Alexis; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2018-03-07

    We report on the friction and diffusion of a single mobile nano-colloidal disk, whose size and mass are one and two orders of magnitude, respectively, greater than the molecules of the host solvent; all particles are restricted to move in a two-dimensional space. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the variation of the transport coefficients as a function of the thermodynamic state of the supporting fluid, in particular, around those states in the neighbourhood of the liquid-liquid phase coexistence, is investigated. The diffusion coefficient is determined through the fit of the mean-square displacement at long times and with the Green-Kubo relationship for the velocity autocorrelation function, whereas the friction coefficient is computed from the correlation of the fluctuating force. From the determination of the transport properties, the applicability of the Stokes-Einstein relation in two dimensions around the second critical point is discussed.

  1. Comparison of E.test and Disk Diffusion Agar in Detection of Antibiotic Susceptibility of E.coli Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection in Tehran Shariati Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections and Ecoli is known as an important cause of UTIs. Since bacterial resistances of antibiotics are increasing, reliable methods of antimicrobial resistance detection are of paramount importance in treatment and management of UTIs. The objective of the present study is to compare and to evaluate the performance of disk diffusion agar (Iranian and Italian and E.test (Epsilometer test (Sweden for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Ecoli isolated from UTI.Materials & Methods: This study was done on 250 Isolates of Ecoli from patients with UTI in Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2004. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method using Iranian and Italian disk for Trimetoprim sulfamethoxazole, Gentamysin, Ceftazidim, Nitrofurantoin and Ciprofluxacin and Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC determination was performed by E.test for the same set of antimicrobial. All tests were performed on muller hinton agar. Results: Comparison of E.test and Iranian disk diffusion agar showed that paramount differences in antibiotic agreement (Max 37.8 % those differences in case of Ceftazidim and Gentamysin were respectively 76.8% and 62.2% whereas comparison of E.test and Italian disk diffusion agar showed less difference of antibiotics agreement (Max 11.2%.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Iranian disk diffusion agar may be used as a preliminary screen for antibiotic susceptibility testing of E.coli and is less sensitive than Italian disk diffusion and E.test. Comparison of 3 mentioned methods have showed that E.test is the most sensitive and shows the effective dose of antibiotic for treatment and prevention of antibiotic resistance.

  2. Comparing in vitro activity of tigecycline by using the disk diffusion test, the manual microdilution method, and the VITEK 2 automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Castro, A L; Buitrago Gutierrez, G; Ovalle, V; Cortes, J A; Alvarez, C A

    2010-01-01

    Tigecycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic having activity against multiresistant isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing is difficult to perform with the use of traditional microbiological techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disk diffusion test with three different Mueller-Hinton agar brands, and the Vitek 2 automated system in comparison with the standard broth microdilution method against 200 gram-negative isolates (Escherichia coil, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Acinetobacter baumannii). Among Enterobacteriaceae, the Becton Dickinson agar had the lowest rate of minor (32.5%) and major errors (3.8%). No very major errors were found. For A. baumanni, the rate of minor and major errors was lower. A high rate of agreement (94%) was found between the broth microdilution method and the Vitek 2 system. Our results show that there are important differences between agars used for the disk diffusion test, and that Vitek 2 is a valid tool for susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories.

  3. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10 −12 to 5·10 −5 m 2 /s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). - Highlights: • The new method and installation for determination of radon diffusion coefficient D are developed. • The measured D-values vary in an extremely wide range, from 5×10 -5 to 1×10 -12 m 2 /s. • The materials include water, air, soil, building materials and radon-proof membranes. • The duration of the single test does not exceed 18 hours. • The measurement uncertainty varies from 5% (in permeable materials) to 40% (in radon gas barriers)

  4. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we...... find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  5. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    -clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin...

  6. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 Disk Diffusion and Associated Breakpoint Testing of Caspofungin and Micafungin Using a Well-Characterized Panel of Wild-Type and fks Hot Spot Mutant Candida Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus −4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species. PMID:21357293

  7. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  8. The Disk Wind in the Rapidly Spinning Stellar-mass Black Hole 4U 1630-472 Observed with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andy C.; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a* = 0.985(+0.005/-0.014) (1 sigma statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 +/- 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log xi = 3.6(+0.2/-0.3) and is dominated by He-like Fe xxv, the wind has a velocity of v/c = 0.043(+0.002/-0.007) (12900(+600/-2100) km s(exp -1)). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log xi = 6.1(+0.7/-0.6)), and is dominated by Fe xxvi, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  9. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare e-test and disc diffusion methods for doripenem susceptibility of acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial infections Acinetobacter baumanni isolates detected as nosocomial infection. Material and Method:. Between January to December, 2009 a total of 94 Acinetobacter baumanni strains isolated from different clinical specimens from intensive care units have been studied for doripenem susceptibility by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Minimal inhibitory consantrations (MIC were accepted as; sensitive %u22641 %u03BCg/ml, intermadiate 2-4 %u03BCg/ml, resistant >4 %u03BCg/ml and diameters of inhibition zone with 10 µg disc; sensitive

  10. Rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Jetter, Marion; Blöchliger, Nicolas; Kolesnik-Goldmann, Natalia; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background We investigated the feasibility of rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (rAST) with reading of inhibition zones after 6 and/or 8 h of incubation for Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, we evaluated discrimination of resistant populations from the WT populations at early timepoints and the requirement for clinical breakpoint adaptations for proper interpretation of rAST data. Methods In total, 815 clinical strains [E. faecalis (n = 135), E. faecium (n = 227), P. aeruginosa (n = 295) and A. baumannii (n = 158)] were included in this study. Disc diffusion plates were streaked, incubated and imaged using the WASPLabTM automation system. WT populations and non-WT populations were defined using epidemiological cut-offs. Results and conclusions rAST at 6 and 8 h was possible for A. baumannii and enterococci with readability of inhibition zones >90%. Overall categorical agreement of rAST at 6 h with AST at 18 h was 97.2%, 97.4% and 95.3% for E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii, respectively. With few exceptions, major categorization error rates were <1% for A. baumannii, and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium were clearly separated from the WT at 6 h. For P. aeruginosa the average readability of inhibition zones was 68.9% at 8 h and we found an overall categorical agreement of 94.8%. Adaptations of clinical breakpoints and/or introduction of technical buffer zones, preferably based on aggregated population data from various epidemiological settings, are required for proper interpretation of rAST. PMID:29186434

  11. Rapid high resolution MR neurography with a diffusion-weighted pre-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Tabuchi, Takashi; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce, optimize, and assess the feasibility of a new scheme to rapidly acquire high-resolution volumetric neurographic images using a three-dimensional turbo spin-echo sequence combined with a diffusion-weighted pre-pulse called improved motion-sensitized driven equilibrium (iMSDE): Diffusion-prepared magnetic resonance (MR) Neurography (D-prep MRN). In order to optimize the signal suppression of blood vessels and muscle at D-prep MRN, coronal lumbosacral plexus images were acquired in five volunteers at 3T, and the following parameters were examined: iMSDE gradient-strength (b-value) of 0, 2 and 10 s/mm 2 (with the aim to suppress blood vessels) and iMSDE preparation duration (iMSDE prep-time ) of 18, 50 and 100 ms (with the aim to suppress muscle signal). Subsequently, the feasibility of the optimized D-prep MRN sequence in visualizing the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, and cranial nerves was evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers. A higher b-value of 10 s/mm 2 was better in signal suppression of blood vessels, whereas an intermediate iMSDE prep-time of 50 ms provided the best compromise between suppression of muscle signal and minimization of signal loss of nerves. With these parameters, the normal nerve structures showed high signal intensity, while the blood vessels and muscles were effectively suppressed. The optimized D-prep MRN sequence clearly showed the three-dimensional trajectory of the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, and cranial nerves. D-prep MRN was introduced and optimized, and clearly showed detailed anatomy of the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, and cranial nerves. These results suggest that the D-prep MRN can be used for fast, high-resolution, volumetric imaging of the peripheral nervous system. (author)

  12. Method and apparatus for rapid adjustment of process gas inventory in gaseous diffusion cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.H.; Fowler, A.H.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and system for making relatively large and rapid adjustments in the process gas inventory of an electrically powered gaseous diffusion cascade in order to accommodate scheduled changes in the electrical power available for cascade operation. In the preferred form of the invention, the cascade is readied for a decrease in electrical input by simultaneously withdrawing substreams of the cascade B stream into respective process-gas-freezing and storage zones while decreasing the datum-pressure inputs to the positioning systems for the cascade control valves in proportion to the weight of process gas so removed. Consequently, the control valve positions are substantially unchanged by the reduction in invention, and there is minimal disturbance of the cascade isotopic gradient. The cascade is readied for restoration of the power cut by simultaneously evaporating the solids in the freezing zones to regenerate the process gas substreams and introducing them to the cascade A stream while increasing the aforementioned datum pressure inputs in proportion to the weight of process gas so returned. In the preferred form of the system for accomplishing these operations, heat exchangers are provided for freezing, storing, and evaporating the various substreams. Preferably, the heat exchangers are connected to use existing cascade auxiliary systems as a heat sink. A common control is employed to adjust and coordinate the necessary process gas transfers and datum pressure adjustments

  13. THE DISK WIND IN THE RAPIDLY SPINNING STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE 4U 1630–472 OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Walton, Dominic J.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ashking@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630–472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a{sub ∗}=0.985{sub −0.014}{sup +0.005} (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 ± 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log ξ=3.6{sub −0.3}{sup +0.2}) and is dominated by He-like Fe XXV, the wind has a velocity of v/c=0.043{sub −0.007}{sup +0.002} (12900{sub −2100}{sup +600} km s{sup –1}). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log ξ=6.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7}), and is dominated by Fe XXVI, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  14. Evaluation of the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system compared to reference manual inoculation for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, S; van Belkum, A; Fulchiron, C; Huguet, R; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    The disk diffusion (DD) method remains the most popular manual technique for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in clinical microbiology laboratories. This is because of its simplicity, reproducibility, and limited cost compared to (automated) microdilution systems, which are usually less sensitive at detecting certain important mechanisms of resistance. Here, we evaluate the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system using a new protocol for spreading bacterial suspensions (eight deposits of calibrated inocula of bacteria, followed by two rounds of rotation) in comparison with manual DD reference testing on a large series of clinical and reference strains. The average time required for seeding one agar plate for DD with this new protocol was 51 s per plate, i.e., 70 agar plates/h. Reproducibility and repeatability was assessed on three reference and three randomly chosen clinical strains, as usually requested by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), and was excellent compared to the manual method. The standard deviations of zones of growth inhibition showed no statistical discrimination. The correlation between the two methods, assessed using 294 clinical isolates and a panel of six antibiotics (n = 3,528 zones of growth inhibition measured), was excellent, with a correlation coefficient of 0.977. The new PREVI® Isola protocol adapted for DD had a sensitivity of 99 % and a specificity of 100 % compared to the manual technique for interpreting DD as recommended by the EUCAST.

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  16. Thermogravimetric analysis for rapid assessment of moisture diffusivity in polydisperse powder and thin film matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunathan, Praveena; Arnz, Patrik; Husny, Joeska; Gianfrancesco, Alessandro; Perdana, Jimmy

    2018-03-01

    Accurate description of moisture diffusivity is key to precisely understand and predict moisture transfer behaviour in a matrix. Unfortunately, measuring moisture diffusivity is not trivial, especially at low moisture values and/or elevated temperatures. This paper presents a novel experimental procedure to accurately measure moisture diffusivity based on thermogravimetric approach. The procedure is capable to measure diffusivity even at elevated temperatures (>70°C) and low moisture values (>1%). Diffusivity was extracted from experimental data based on "regular regime approach". The approach was tailored to determine diffusivity from thin film and from poly-dispersed powdered samples. Subsequently, measured diffusivity was validated by comparing to available literature data, showing good agreement. Ability of this approach to accurately measure diffusivity at a wider range of temperatures provides better insight on temperature dependency of diffusivity. Thus, this approach can be crucial to ensure good accuracy of moisture transfer description/prediction especially when involving elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method, the CLSI agar screen method, and the Vitek 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system for detection of clinical isolates of Enterococci with low- and medium-level VanB-type vancomycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegstad, Kristin; Giske, Christian G; Haldorsen, Bjørg

    2014-01-01

    faecium (n=18) strains with and without nonsusceptibility to vancomycin was examined blindly in Danish (n=5), Norwegian (n=13), and Swedish (n=10) laboratories using the EUCAST disk diffusion method (n=28) and the CLSI agar screen (n=18) or the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux) (n=5). The EUCAST disk diffusion...... method (very major error [VME] rate, 7.0%; sensitivity, 0.93; major error [ME] rate, 2.4%; specificity, 0.98) and CLSI agar screen (VME rate, 6.6%; sensitivity, 0.93; ME rate, 5.6%; specificity, 0.94) performed significantly better (P=0.02) than the Vitek 2 system (VME rate, 13%; sensitivity, 0.87; ME...... rate, 0%; specificity, 1). The performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method was challenged by differences in vancomycin inhibition zone sizes as well as the experience of the personnel in interpreting fuzzy zone edges as an indication of vancomycin resistance. Laboratories using Oxoid agar (P

  18. Rapid yet accurate measurement of mass diffusion coefficients by phase shifting interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhi Xiong; Komiya, A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of using a phase-shifting interferometer is applied to the study of diffusion in transparent liquid mixtures. A quick method is proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient from the measurements of the location of fringes on a grey level picture. The measurement time is very short (within 100 s) and a very small transient diffusion field can be observed and recorded accurately with a rate of 30 frames per second. The measurement can be completed using less than 0.12 cc of solutions. The influence of gravity on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient is eliminated in the present method. Results on NaCl-water diffusion systems are presented and compared with the reference data. (author)

  19. Existence and Asymptotic Stability of Periodic Solutions of the Reaction-Diffusion Equations in the Case of a Rapid Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, N. N.; Nikulin, E. I.

    2018-01-01

    A singularly perturbed periodic in time problem for a parabolic reaction-diffusion equation in a two-dimensional domain is studied. The case of existence of an internal transition layer under the conditions of balanced and unbalanced rapid reaction is considered. An asymptotic expansion of a solution is constructed. To justify the asymptotic expansion thus constructed, the asymptotic method of differential inequalities is used. The Lyapunov asymptotic stability of a periodic solution is investigated.

  20. Rapid nickel diffusion in cold-worked carbon steel at 320-450 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioka, Koji; Iijima, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Tomoki

    2015-11-01

    The diffusion coefficient of nickel in cold-worked carbon steel was determined with the diffusion couple method in the temperature range between 320 and 450 °C. Diffusion couple was prepared by electro-less nickel plating on the surface of a 20% cold-worked carbon steel. The growth in width of the interdiffusion zone was proportional to the square root of diffusion time to 12,000 h. The diffusion coefficient (DNi) of nickel in cold-worked carbon steel was determined by extrapolating the concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient to 0% of nickel. The temperature dependence of DNi is expressed by DNi = (4.5 + 5.7/-2.5) × 10-11 exp (-146 ± 4 kJ mol-1/RT) m2s-1. The value of DNi at 320 °C is four orders of magnitude higher than the lattice diffusion coefficient of nickel in iron. The activation energy 146 kJ mol-1 is 54% of the activation energy 270.4 kJ mol-1 for lattice diffusion of nickel in the ferromagnetic state iron.

  1. Rapid nickel diffusion in cold-worked type 316 austenitic steel at 360-500 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems, Inc., Mihama (Japan); Iijima, Yoshiaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science; Miyamoto, Tomoki [Kobe Material Testing Laboratory Co. Ltd., Harima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    The diffusion coefficient of nickel in cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel was determined by the diffusion couple method in the temperature range between 360 and 500 C. A diffusion couple was prepared by electroless nickel plating on the surface of a 20 % cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel specimen. The growth in width of the interdiffusion zone was proportional to the square root of diffusion time until 14 055 h. The diffusion coefficient of nickel (D{sub Ni}) in cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel was determined by extrapolating the concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient to 11 at.% of nickel. The value of D{sub Ni} at 360 C was about 5 000 times higher than the lattice diffusion coefficient of nickel in Type 316 austenitic steel. The determined activation energy 117 kJ mol{sup -1} was 46.6 % of the activation energy 251 kJ mol{sup -1} for the lattice diffusion of nickel in Type 316 austenitic steel.

  2. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  3. Rapid calculation of maximum particle lifetime for diffusion in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Elliot J.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Diffusion of molecules within biological cells and tissues is strongly influenced by crowding. A key quantity to characterize diffusion is the particle lifetime, which is the time taken for a diffusing particle to exit by hitting an absorbing boundary. Calculating the particle lifetime provides valuable information, for example, by allowing us to compare the timescale of diffusion and the timescale of the reaction, thereby helping us to develop appropriate mathematical models. Previous methods to quantify particle lifetimes focus on the mean particle lifetime. Here, we take a different approach and present a simple method for calculating the maximum particle lifetime. This is the time after which only a small specified proportion of particles in an ensemble remain in the system. Our approach produces accurate estimates of the maximum particle lifetime, whereas the mean particle lifetime always underestimates this value compared with data from stochastic simulations. Furthermore, we find that differences between the mean and maximum particle lifetimes become increasingly important when considering diffusion hindered by obstacles.

  4. Rapid-Onset Diffuse Skeletal Fluorosis from Inhalant Abuse: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eric; Hsu, Raymond Y; Evangelista, Peter; Aaron, Roy; Rubin, Lee E

    A thirty-year-old man presented with severely debilitating left hip pain and stiffness. Radiographs demonstrated diffuse osteosclerosis and heterotopic bone formation with near ankylosis of the left hip. The patient underwent successful joint-preserving surgery to restore hip range of motion. After disclosing a history of inhalant abuse, which was confirmed by elevated serum fluoride levels, he was diagnosed with diffuse skeletal fluorosis. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first reported case of diffuse skeletal fluorosis caused by inhalant abuse of 1,1-difluoroethane. Skeletal fluorosis is uncommon in the United States but is important to consider in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with otherwise unexplained joint pain and osteosclerosis.

  5. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  6. Novel method for the rapid and specific extraction of multiple β2 -agonist residues in food by tailor-made Monolith-MIPs extraction disks and detection by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Gan, Ning; Chen, Yinji; Ding, Qingqing; Huang, Jie; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2016-09-01

    A quick and specific pretreatment method based on a series of extraction clean-up disks, consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer monoliths and C18 adsorbent, was developed for the specific enrichment of salbutamol and clenbuterol residues in food. The molecularly imprinted monolithic polymer disk was synthesized using salbutamol as a template through a one-step synthesis process. It can simultaneously and specifically recognize salbutamol and clenbuterol. The monolithic polymer disk and series of C18 disks were assembled with a syringe to form a set of tailor-made devices for the extraction of target molecules. In a single run, salbutamol and clenbuterol can be specifically extracted, cleaned, and eluted by methanol/acetic acid/H2 O. The target molecules, after a silylation derivatization reaction were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The parameters including solvent desorption, sample pH, and the cycles of reloading were investigated and discussed. Under the optimized extraction and clean-up conditions, the limits of detection and quantitation were determined as 0.018-0.022 and 0.042-0.049 ng/g for salbutamol and clenbuterol, respectively. The assay described was convenient, rapid, and specific; thereby potentially efficient in the high-throughput analysis of β2 -agonists residues in real food samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Method and apparatus for rapid adjustment of process gas inventory in gaseous diffusion cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is specified for the operation of a gaseous diffusion cascade wherein electrically driven compressors circulate a process gas through a plurality of serially connected gaseous diffusion stages to establish first and second countercurrently flowing cascade streams of process gas, one of the streams being at a relatively low pressure and enriched in a component of the process gas and the other being at a higher pressure and depleted in the same, and wherein automatic control systems maintain the stage process gas pressures by positioning process gas flow control valve openings at values which are functions of the difference between reference-signal inputs to the systems, and signal inputs proportional to the process gas pressures in the gaseous diffusion stages associated with the systems, the cascade process gas inventory being altered, while the cascade is operating, by simultaneously directing into separate process-gas freezing zones a plurality of substreams derived from one of the first and second streams at different points along the lengths thereof to solidify approximately equal weights of process gas in the zone while reducing the reference-signal inputs to maintain the positions of the control valves substantially unchanged despite the removal of process gas inventory via the substreams. (author)

  8. Study on rapid valid acidity evaluation of apple by fiber optic diffuse reflectance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yande; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Jiang, Xuesong

    2004-03-01

    Some issues related to nondestructive evaluation of valid acidity in intact apples by means of Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) (800-2631nm) method were addressed. A relationship was established between the diffuse reflectance spectra recorded with a bifurcated optic fiber and the valid acidity. The data were analyzed by multivariate calibration analysis such as partial least squares (PLS) analysis and principal component regression (PCR) technique. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influence of data preprocessing and different spectra treatments were also investigated. Models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than models based on derivative spectra and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 and the gap size was 10. Depending on data preprocessing and multivariate calibration technique, the best prediction model had a correlation efficient (0.871), a low RMSEP (0.0677), a low RMSEC (0.056) and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC by PLS analysis. The results point out the feasibility of FTNIR spectral analysis to predict the fruit valid acidity non-destructively. The ratio of data standard deviation to the root mean square error of prediction (SDR) is better to be less than 3 in calibration models, however, the results cannot meet the demand of actual application. Therefore, further study is required for better calibration and prediction.

  9. INJECTION TO RAPID DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT PERPENDICULAR SHOCKS IN PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: ohira@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and upstream ionization fraction are v {sub sh} ≈ 1333 km s{sup −1} and f {sub i} ∼ 0.5, which are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results showing that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region and are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed DSA can be interpreted as shock drift acceleration with scattering. In this simulation, particles are accelerated to v ∼ 100 v {sub sh} ∼ 0.3 c within ∼100 gyroperiods. The acceleration timescale is faster than that of DSA in parallel shocks. Our simulation results suggest that SNRs can accelerate cosmic rays to 10{sup 15.5} eV (the knee) during the Sedov phase.

  10. The CIDA-QUEST large-scale survey of Orion OB1: evidence for rapid disk dissipation in a dispersed stellar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, C; Vivas, A K; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L; Pacheco, R; Herrera, D; Romero, L; Berlind, P; Sánchez, G; Snyder, J A; Andrews, P

    2001-01-05

    We are conducting a large-scale, multiepoch, optical photometric survey [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia-Quasar Equatorial Survey Team (CIDA-QUEST)] covering about 120 square degrees to identify the young low-mass stars in the Orion OB1 association. We present results for an area of 34 square degrees. Using photometric variability as our main selection criterion, as well as follow-up spectroscopy, we confirmed 168 previously unidentified pre-main sequence stars that are about 0.6 to 0.9 times the mass of the sun (Mo), with ages of about 1 million to 3 million years (Ori OB1b) and about 3 million to 10 million years (Ori OB1a). The low-mass stars are spatially coincident with the high-mass (at least 3 Mo) members of the associations. Indicators of disk accretion such as Halpha emission and near-infrared emission from dusty disks fall sharply from Ori OB1b to Ori OB1a, indicating that the time scale for disk dissipation and possibly the onset of planet formation is a few million years.

  11. Rapid Diffusion and Nanosegregation of Hydrogen in Magnesium Alloys from Exposure to Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P; Ievlev, Anton V; Fayek, Mostafa; Leonard, Donovan N; Frith, Matthew G; Meyer, Harry M; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Daemen, Luke L; Cheng, Yongqiang; Guo, Wei; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Thomson, Jeffrey; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Rother, Gernot; Shin, Dongwon; Song, Guang-Ling; Davis, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen gas is formed when Mg corrodes in water; however, the manner and extent to which the hydrogen may also enter the Mg metal is poorly understood. Such knowledge is critical as stress corrosion cracking (SCC)/embrittlement phenomena limit many otherwise promising structural and functional uses of Mg. Here, we report via D 2 O/D isotopic tracer and H 2 O exposures with characterization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, inelastic neutron scattering vibrational spectrometry, electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography techniques direct evidence that hydrogen rapidly penetrated tens of micrometers into Mg metal after only 4 h of exposure to water at room temperature. Further, technologically important microalloying additions of mechanical properties of Mg significantly increased the extent of hydrogen ingress, whereas Al additions in the 2-3 wt % range did not. Segregation of hydrogen species was observed at regions of high Mg/Zr/Nd nanoprecipitate density and at Mg(Zr) metastable solid solution microstructural features. We also report evidence that this ingressed hydrogen was unexpectedly present in the alloy as nanoconfined, molecular H 2 . These new insights provide a basis for strategies to design Mg alloys to resist SCC in aqueous environments as well as potentially impact functional uses such as hydrogen storage where increased hydrogen uptake is desired.

  12. Mechanical behavior of 27CD4 and 100C6 steel joints, rapidly welded using dynamic diffusion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G. le; Hourcade, M.; Criqui, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new process, dynamic-diffusion-bonding (DDB) was improved in our laboratory (1). It offers the advantages of both classical diffusion-bonding and rapidity, which is consistent with mass production. It was proven possible to carry out high strength bonds in a very short time: 60 seconds with specimens of 27CD4 steel (diameter=16mm). After bonding, the specimens were heat treated in order to homogeneize the structure along the piece. With the optimal bonding conditions, namely a few seconds at 1060 C, in a nitrogen with 5% hydrogen gas, with a proper surface preparation (Ra=0,04 μm) and under a modulated pressure during the whole bonding process (2,3): a) deformation of the bonded specimens is limited to about 2% of the heated length, b) tensile and torsion behaviour is very good: failure occurs out of the interface. No defect remains across the weld interface, c) the failure energy of joints measured with impact tests is lower than that of the base metal, because of the flatness of the interface and because of the presence of very fine oxide particles in the bond, d) fatigue behaviour (rotating beam tests) of bonded pieces is very good: their fatigue strength (720 MPa: stair case estimation for 5 .10 6 cycles) is very closed to those of unbonded specimens (780 MPa), and the crack initiates out of the interface near a big inclusion. With the 100C6 steel, bonds of the same quality were obtained, and with higher roughness of specimens (Ra=0,15 μm), high quality joints were achieved with a duration of 60 seconds at 1050 C. (orig.)

  13. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  14. Grain surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboussin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Planetary formation occurs in the protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. Although dust represents only 1% of the total disk mass, it plays a fundamental role in disk chemical evolution since it acts as a catalyst for the formation of molecules. Understanding this chemistry is therefore essential to determine the initial conditions from which planets form. During my thesis, I studied grain-surface chemistry and its impact on the chemical evolution of molecular cloud, initial condition for disk formation, and protoplanetary disk. Thanks to numerical simulations, using the gas-grain code Nautilus, I showed the importance of diffusion reactions and gas-grain interactions for the abundances of gas-phase species. Model results combined with observations also showed the effects of the physical structure (in temperature, density, AV) on the molecular distribution in disks. (author)

  15. Método de difusión con discos para la determinación de sensibilidad a fluconazol en aislamientos de Candida spp Disk diffusion method for fluconazole susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 1193 aislamientos clínicos para estandarizar y evaluar un método de difusión con discos de fluconazol de lectura visual, que permita detectar levaduras sensibles al antifúngico. Las especies analizadas fueron: Candida albicans (n=584, Candida parapsilosis (n=196, Candida tropicalis (n=200, Candida glabrata (n=113, Candida krusei (n=50, Candida spp. y otras levaduras oportunistas (n=50. Los discos fueron manufacturados en el INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se midieron los halos de inhibición del crecimiento producidos por fluconazol y la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM por el método de referencia M27-A2 modificado por EUCAST. Se establecieron los valores de corte del método de difusión en: ≥16 mm para levaduras sensibles a fluconazol (CIM ≤ 8 µg/ml, entre 9 y 15 mm para sensibles dependientes de la dosis (CIM = 16-32 mg/ml y ≤ 8 mm para resistentes (CIM ≥ 64 µg/ml. El método de difusión tuvo 94,7% de concordancia con el de referencia, con 0,2% de errores very major y 0,3% de errores major. La reproducibilidad inter e intralaboratorio fue muy buena. Para detectar aislamientos sensibles a fluconazol, este método resulta confiable y de bajo costo; sin embargo, es conveniente que los aislamientos con halos ≤ 15 mm sean reevaluados por el método de referencia.In order to standardize and evaluate a disk diffusion method with visual reading to detect in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeast, 1193 clinical isolates were tested. These included 584 Candida albicans, 196 Candida parapsilosis, 200 Candida tropicalis, 113 Candida glabrata, 50 Candida krusei and 50 Candida spp. and other opportunistic yeasts. The disks were manufactured in the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". The disk diffusion method results were compared to MIC results obtained by the reference CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution method modified by EUCAST. The interpretative breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole

  16. Avaliação da qualidade dos discos com antimicrobianos para testes de disco-difusão disponíveis comercialmente no Brasil Evaluation of the quality of the antimicrobial agents disks used in disk-diffusion tests comercially available in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Sejas

    2003-01-01

    the microbiology laboratory. Due to the great number of antimicrobial agents and the complexity of resistance mechanisms evolved, it has become very difficult to detect problems in these tests by simply evaluating the results obtained. Consequently, a quality control program must be performed continuously. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality of the antimicrobial susceptibility disks used in Brazil. Methods: Eighteen antimicrobial susceptibility disks manufactured from five commercial trade marks were evaluated. These antimicrobial disks were tested against four ATCCs and following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS procedures for disk-diffusion. Each test was repeated 20 times. Results: None of the trade marks presented a satisfactory performance for routine use in a microbiology laboratory. The best performance was presented by Cecon®, with 89,6% of overall agreement. Sensifar® disks showed a similar overall concordance of 90,8%. The trade mark with the least adequate performance was Pimenta Abreu®, with only 58,6% overall agreement. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that the disks commercialized in Brazil are inappropriate to be used in clinical microbiology laboratories showing lack of quality control during the process of production and/or storage. They also show the importance of the implementation of both external and internal quality control programs.

  17. Spatially Resolved Hα Maps and Sizes of 57 Strongly Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 1 from 3D-HST: Evidence for Rapid Inside-out Assembly of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica June; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Quadri, Ryan; Schmidt, Kasper B.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z ~ 1 using maps of Hα and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame Hα equivalent widths >100 Å in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the Hα emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median Hα effective radius re (Hα) is 4.2 ± 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with re (Hα) ~ 1.0 kpc to extended disks with re (Hα) ~ 15 kpc. Comparing Hα sizes to continuum sizes, we find =1.3 ± 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by Hα, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured Hα sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, ΣSFR. We find that ΣSFR ranges from ~0.05 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the largest galaxies to ~5 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z ~ 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z ~ 1.

  18. SPATIALLY RESOLVED Hα MAPS AND SIZES OF 57 STRONGLY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1 FROM 3D-HST: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID INSIDE-OUT ASSEMBLY OF DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z ∼ 1 using maps of Hα and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame Hα equivalent widths >100 Å in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the Hα emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median Hα effective radius r e (Hα) is 4.2 ± 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r e (Hα) ∼ 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r e (Hα) ∼ 15 kpc. Comparing Hα sizes to continuum sizes, we find e (Hα)/r e (R) > =1.3 ± 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by Hα, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured Hα sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, Σ SFR . We find that Σ SFR ranges from ∼0.05 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 for the largest galaxies to ∼5 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z ∼ 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z ∼ 1.

  19. Si diffusion in compositional disordering of Si-implanted GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices induced by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Masashi; Yanagawa, Fumihiko

    1988-01-01

    The Si diffusion in Si-implanted GaAs/Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As superlattices intermixed in the disrodering process induced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA), is investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The SIMS profiles indicate that no fast Si diffusion occurs during the disordering, and the disordering occurs when the Si concentration exceeds 1 x 10 19 cm -3 , which is about three times larger than the threshold value for the disordering by furnace annealing (FA). The number of Si atoms which are allowed to pass through the heterointerface is considered to be essential for disordering. (author)

  20. Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    When a drop impacts a pool of liquid it entraps a thin disk of air under its center. This disk contracts rapidly into a bubble to minimize surface energy. Herein we use ultra-high-speed imaging to measure the contraction speed of this disk when

  1. Developmental changes in the adhesive disk during Giardia differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Daniel; Weiland, Malin; McArthur, Andrew G; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Cipriano, Michael J; Birkeland, Shanda R; Pacocha, Sarah E; Davids, Barbara; Gillin, Frances; Linder, Ewert; Svärd, Staffan

    2005-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite infecting the upper mammalian small intestine. Infection relies upon the ability of the parasite to attach to the intestine via a unique cytoskeletal organelle, the ventral disk. We determined the composition and structure of the disk throughout the life cycle of the parasite and identified a new disk protein, SALP-1. SALP-1 is an immunodominant protein related to striated fiber-assemblin (SFA). The disk is disassembled during encystation and stored as four fragments in the immobile cyst. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) showed that the mRNA levels of the disk proteins decreased in encystation but two-dimensional protein gels showed that the protein levels were more constant. The parasite emerges without a functional disk but the four disk fragments are quickly reassembled into two new disks on the dividing, early excysting form. Thus, disk proteins are stored within the cyst, ready to be used in the rapid steps of excystation.

  2. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  3. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation.

  4. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2016-01-01

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation

  5. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  6. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  7. Dust in Proto-Planetary Disks: Properties and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Natta, A.; Testi, L.; Calvet, N.; Henning, Th.; Waters, R.; Wilner, D.

    2006-01-01

    We review the properties of dust in protoplanetary disks around optically visible pre-main sequence stars obtained with a variety of observational techniques, from measurements of scattered light at visual and infrared wavelengths to mid-infrared spectroscopy and millimeter interferometry. A general result is that grains in disks are on average much larger than in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In many disks, there is evidence that a large mass of dust is in grains with millimeter and...

  8. Understanding Floppy Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the floppy disk with an analogy to the phonograph record, and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and capabilities of hard-sectored and soft-sectored floppy disks. She concludes that, at present, the floppy disk will continue to be the primary choice of personal computer manufacturers and their customers. (KC)

  9. Orbital Evolution of Moons in Weakly Accreting Circumplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yuri I.; Gressel, Oliver [Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Kobayashi, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602 (Japan); Takahashi, Sanemichi Z., E-mail: yuri.fujii@nbi.ku.dk [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the formation of hot and massive circumplanetary disks (CPDs) and the orbital evolution of satellites formed in these disks. Because of the comparatively small size-scale of the sub-disk, quick magnetic diffusion prevents the magnetorotational instability (MRI) from being well developed at ionization levels that would allow MRI in the parent protoplanetary disk. In the absence of significant angular momentum transport, continuous mass supply from the parental protoplanetary disk leads to the formation of a massive CPD. We have developed an evolutionary model for this scenario and have estimated the orbital evolution of satellites within the disk. We find, in a certain temperature range, that inward migration of a satellite can be stopped by a change in the structure due to the opacity transitions. Moreover, by capturing second and third migrating satellites in mean motion resonances, a compact system in Laplace resonance can be formed in our disk models.

  10. Multicenter assessment of the linezolid spectrum and activity using the disk diffusion and Etest methods: report of the Zyvox® Antimicrobial Potency Study in Latin America (LA-ZAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballow Charles H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid was the first clinically applied member of the new antimicrobial class called the "oxazolidinones". These agents have a powerful spectrum of activity focussed against Gram-positive organisms including strains with documented resistances to other antimicrobial classes. We conducted a multicenter surveillance (Zyvox Antimicrobial Potency Study; ZAPS trial of qualifying Gram-positive isolates from 24 medical centers in eight countries in Latin America. The activity and spectrum of linezolid was compared to numerous agents including glycopeptides, quinupristin/dalfopristin, b-lactams and fluoroquinolones when testing 2,640 strains by the standardized disk diffusion method or Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden. The linezolid spectrum was complete against staphylococci (median zone diameter, 29 - 32 mm, as was the spectrum of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Among the enterococci, no linezolid resistance was detected, and the susceptibility rate was 93.1 - 96.4%. Only the vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium strains remained susceptible (92.8% to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Marked differences in the glycopeptide resistance patterns (van A versus van B were noted for the 22 isolates of VRE, thus requiring local susceptibility testing to direct therapy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and other species were very susceptible (100.0% to linezolid, MIC90 at 0.75 mug/ml. Penicillin non-susceptible rate was 27.7% and erythromycin resistance was at 17.4%. Other streptococci were also completely susceptible to linezolid (MIC90, 1 mug/ml. These results provide the initial benchmark of potency and spectrum for linezolid in Latin American medical centers. Future comparisons should recognize that the oxazolidinones possess essentially a complete spectrum coverage of the monitored staphylococci, enterococci and streptococcal isolates in 2000-2001. This positions linezolid as the widest spectrum empiric choice against multi-resistant Gram

  11. Multicenter assessment of the linezolid spectrum and activity using the disk diffusion and Etest methods: report of the Zyvox® Antimicrobial Potency Study in Latin America (LA-ZAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Ballow

    Full Text Available Linezolid was the first clinically applied member of the new antimicrobial class called the "oxazolidinones". These agents have a powerful spectrum of activity focussed against Gram-positive organisms including strains with documented resistances to other antimicrobial classes. We conducted a multicenter surveillance (Zyvox Antimicrobial Potency Study; ZAPS trial of qualifying Gram-positive isolates from 24 medical centers in eight countries in Latin America. The activity and spectrum of linezolid was compared to numerous agents including glycopeptides, quinupristin/dalfopristin, b-lactams and fluoroquinolones when testing 2,640 strains by the standardized disk diffusion method or Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden. The linezolid spectrum was complete against staphylococci (median zone diameter, 29 - 32 mm, as was the spectrum of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Among the enterococci, no linezolid resistance was detected, and the susceptibility rate was 93.1 - 96.4%. Only the vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium strains remained susceptible (92.8% to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Marked differences in the glycopeptide resistance patterns (van A versus van B were noted for the 22 isolates of VRE, thus requiring local susceptibility testing to direct therapy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and other species were very susceptible (100.0% to linezolid, MIC90 at 0.75 mug/ml. Penicillin non-susceptible rate was 27.7% and erythromycin resistance was at 17.4%. Other streptococci were also completely susceptible to linezolid (MIC90, 1 mug/ml. These results provide the initial benchmark of potency and spectrum for linezolid in Latin American medical centers. Future comparisons should recognize that the oxazolidinones possess essentially a complete spectrum coverage of the monitored staphylococci, enterococci and streptococcal isolates in 2000-2001. This positions linezolid as the widest spectrum empiric choice against multi-resistant Gram

  12. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Kastner, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling

  13. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kastner, Joel, E-mail: dgraninger@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Imaging Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling.

  14. Equilibrium figures for beta Lyrae type disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulated evidence for a geometrically and optically thick disk in the β Lyrae system has now established the disk's basic external configuration. Since the disk has been constant in its main properties over the historical interval of β Lyrae observations and also seems to have a basically well-defined photosphere, it is now time to being consideration of its sturcture. Here, we compute equilibrium figures for self-gravitating disks around stars in binary systems as a start toward eventual computation of complete disk models. A key role is played by centrifugally limited rotation of the central star, which would naturally arise late in the rapid phase of mass transfer. Beta Lyrae is thus postulated to be a double-contact binary, which makes possible nonarbitrary separation of star and disk into separate structures. The computed equilibrium figures are three-dimensional, as the gravitation of the second star is included. Under the approximation that the gravitational potential of the disk is that of a thin wire and that the local disk angular velocity is proportional to u/sup n/ (u = distance from rotation axis), we comptue the total potential and locate equipotential surfaces. The centrifugal potential is written in a particularly convenient form which permits one to change the rotation law discontinuously (for example, at the star-disk coupling point) while ensuring that centrifugal potential and centrifigual force are continuous functions of position. With such a one-parameter rotation law, one can find equilibrium disk figures with dimensions very similar to those found in β Lyrae, but considerations of internal consistency demand at least a two-parameter law

  15. Fast neutron irradiation effects on diffusion processes in the aluminum-magnesium system; Effets de l'irradiation aux neutrons rapides sur les phenomenes lies a la diffusion dans le systeme aluminium-magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    Examination of bulky diffusion couples Al (Mg) - Al and Mg (Al) - Mg handled in same thermal conditions (between 200 and 440 C) out of pile and under fast neutron irradiation show, in the latter case: 1 - An increase of the growth kinetics of {beta} phase which can be explained with KIDSON' s formula. 2 - An apparent increase of solubility caused by migration of a part of excess vacancies as complexes (vacancy - solute atom) to sinks (stacking faults, grain boundaries) or to sub-microscopical clusters. 3 - An enhancement of chemical diffusion at low temperature. At infinite dilution, chemical diffusion coefficient of Mg in Al can be expressed in normal conditions as: D = 1 exp(- 31000/RT {+-} 1200/RT cal/mole) cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1} and under irradiation as: D = 8.10{sup -3} exp(-24500/RT {+-} 1200/RT cal/mole) cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1}. Interpretation can be carried out by DIENES and Damask's theory. Excess defects (vacancies and interstitials generated in equal numbers by radiation) annihilate by migration to sinks and by direct recombination. Sinks density varies with temperature and irradiation time. The part of complexes (vacancy-solute atom) is important in the vacancies annealing kinetics. (author) [French] L'examen de couples de diffusion massifs Al (Mg) - Al et Mg (Al) - Mg traites dans les memes conditions thermiques (entre 200 et 440 C) hors pile et sous flux de neutrons rapides montre dans le dernier cas: 1 - Une acceleration de la cinetique de croissance de la phase {beta} a basse temperature dont on peut rendre compte a l'aide de la formule de KIDSON. 2 - Une augmentation apparente de la solubilite due a l'elimination d'une partie des lacunes en exces sous forme de complexes (lacune -solute) sur des pieges (dislocations, joints) ou sous forme d'amas sub-microscopiques. 3 - Une acceleration de la diffusion a basse temperature. A dilution infinie la diffusion (en cm{sup 2}/s) du Mg dans l'Al passe de: 1 exp(- 31000/RT {+-} 1200/RT cal/mole) a 8.10{sup -3} exp

  16. Exploring Disks Around Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  17. Stability of a chemically active floating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandadi, Vahid; Jafari Kang, Saeed; Rothstein, Jonathan; Masoud, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    We theoretically study the translational stability of a chemically active disk located at a flat liquid-gas interface. The initially immobile circular disk uniformly releases an interface-active agent that locally changes the surface tension and is insoluble in the bulk. If left unperturbed, the stationary disk remains motionless as the agent is discharged. Neglecting the inertial effects, we numerically test whether a perturbation in the translational velocity of the disk can lead to its spontaneous and self-sustained motion. Such a perturbation gives rise to an asymmetric distribution of the released factor that could trigger and sustain the Marangoni propulsion of the disk. An implicit Fourier-Chebyshev spectral method is employed to solve the advection-diffusion equation for the concentration of the active agent. The solution, given a linear equation of state for the surface tension, provides the shear stress distribution at the interface. This and the no-slip condition on the wetted surface of the disk are then used at each time step to semi-analytically determine the Stokes flow in the semi-infinite liquid layer. Overall, the findings of our investigation pave the way for pinpointing the conditions under which interface-bound active particles become dynamically unstable.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.

    1994-04-01

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  19. Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-12-17

    When a drop impacts a pool of liquid it entraps a thin disk of air under its center. This disk contracts rapidly into a bubble to minimize surface energy. Herein we use ultra-high-speed imaging to measure the contraction speed of this disk when the drop and pool are of different liquids. For miscible liquids the contraction rate is governed by the weaker of the two surface tensions. Some undulations are observed on the edge of the disk for a water drop impacting a pool of water, but not on a pool of lower surface tension. Similar results are observed for a pair of immiscible liquids.

  20. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2017-08-01

    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (˜1-20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  1. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (∼1–20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  2. DEEP MIPS OBSERVATIONS OF THE IC 348 NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS ON THE EVOLUTIONARY STATE OF ANEMIC CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS AND THE PRIMORDIAL-TO-DEBRIS DISK TRANSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe new, deep MIPS photometry and new high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy of the 2.5 Myr old IC 348 Nebula. To probe the properties of the IC 348 disk population, we combine these data with previous optical/infrared photometry and spectroscopy to identify stars with gas accretion, to examine their mid-IR colors, and to model their spectral energy distributions. IC 348 contains many sources in different evolutionary states, including protostars and stars surrounded by primordial disks, two kinds of transitional disks, and debris disks. Most disks surrounding early/intermediate spectral-type stars (>1.4 M sun at 2.5 Myr) are debris disks; most disks surrounding solar and subsolar-mass stars are primordial disks. At the 1-2 σ level, more massive stars also have a smaller frequency of gas accretion and smaller mid-IR luminosities than lower-mass stars. These trends are suggestive of a stellar mass-dependent evolution of disks, where most disks around high/intermediate-mass stars shed their primordial disks on rapid, 2.5 Myr timescales. The frequency of MIPS-detected transitional disks is ∼15%-35% for stars plausibly more massive than 0.5 M sun . The relative frequency of transitional disks in IC 348 compared to that for 1 Myr old Taurus and 5 Myr old NGC 2362 is consistent with a transition timescale that is a significant fraction of the total primordial disk lifetime.

  3. PLANETESIMAL AND PROTOPLANET DYNAMICS IN A TURBULENT PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IDEAL UNSTRATIFIED DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of planetesimals and planetary cores may be strongly influenced by density perturbations driven by magneto-rotational turbulence in their natal protoplanetary gas disks. Using the local shearing box approximation, we perform numerical simulations of planetesimals moving as massless particles in a turbulent, magnetized, unstratified gas disk. Our fiducial disk model shows turbulent accretion characterized by a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter of α ∼ 10 -2 , with rms density perturbations of ∼10%. We measure the statistical evolution of particle orbital properties in our simulations including mean radius, eccentricity, and velocity dispersion. We confirm random walk growth in time of all three properties, the first time that this has been done with direct orbital integration in a local model. We find that the growth rate increases with the box size used at least up to boxes of eight scale heights in horizontal size. However, even our largest boxes show velocity dispersions sufficiently low that collisional destruction of planetesimals should be unimportant in the inner disk throughout its lifetime. Our direct integrations agree with earlier torque measurements showing that type I migration dominates over diffusive migration by stochastic torques for most objects in the planetary core and terrestrial planet mass range. Diffusive migration remains important for objects in the mass range of kilometer-sized planetesimals. Discrepancies in the derived magnitude of turbulence between local and global simulations of magneto-rotationally unstable disks remains an open issue, with important consequences for planet formation scenarios.

  4. LUNAR ACCRETION FROM A ROCHE-INTERIOR FLUID DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M., E-mail: julien@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: robin@boulder.swri.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  5. Disk Defect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — How Data Was Acquired: The data presented is from a physical simulator that simulated engine disks. Sample Rates and Parameter Description: All parameters are...

  6. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths in an Evolving Disk Due to Disk Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Takeru; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Planets with masses larger than Mars mass undergo rapid inward migration (type I migration) in a standard protoplanetary disk. Recent magnetohydrodynamical simulations revealed the presence of magnetically-driven disk winds, which would alter the disk profile and the type I migration in the close-in region (rEarths can be reproduced by simulations. We find that the type I migration is significantly suppressed in a disk with flat surface density profile. After planetary embryos undergo slow inward migration, they are captured in a resonant chain. The resonant chain undergoes late orbital instability during the gas depletion, leading to a non-resonant configuration. We also find that observed distributions of close-in super-Earths (e.g., period ratio, mass ratio) can be reproduced by results of simulations.

  7. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  8. Verbatim Floppy Disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.

  9. Study of fast neutron scattering. The displacement cross-section (1962); Etude de la diffusion des neutrons rapides. Section efficace de deplacement (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    We propose a method for calculating the biological efficiency of fast neutrons emitted by in-pile fission sources. This method justifies the empirical theory of Albert and Welton. In making simple assumptions concerning the cross-sections, we have supposed that the propagation can ben reduced to a mono-kinetic problem. A system of orthonormal functions is then set up making it possible to calculate the flux leaving a planar source. This method generalises the results obtained by Platzek to the case where the elastic cross-sections are not isotropic, and make it possible in particular to define a displacement cross-section: extension of the diffusion coefficient. This method can be generalised to the case of neutron diffraction as a function of time, and to the study of slowing-down. Numerical results are given in an appendix for the following: H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Fe, Be, Pb, CH, CH{sub 2}. These cross-sections have been verified experimentally in water and in graphite for neutrons of 2.5 and 14 MeV using a SAMES accelerator and a 2 MeV Van De Graaff. (author) [French] Nous proposons une methode permettant de calculer l'efficacite biologique des neutrons rapides issus des sources de fission dans la protection d'une pile. Cette methode justifie la theorie empirique d'Albert et Welton. En faisant des hypotheses simples sur les sections efficaces, nous avons suppose que la propagation pouvait etre ramenee a un probleme monocinetique. Nous construisons alors un systeme de fonctions orthonormales qui permet de calculer le flux issu d'une source plane. Cette methode generalise les resultats obtenus par Platzek au cas ou les sections efficaces elastiques ne sont pas isotropes et en particulier permet de definir une section efficace de deplacement: extension du coefficient de diffusion. Cette methode peut etre generalisee a la diffusion des neutrons en fonction du temps et a l'etude du ralentissement. Les resultats numeriques sont donnes en annexe pour les corps. H{sub 2

  10. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  11. Dusty disks around young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stars are formed through the collapse of giant molecular clouds. During this contraction the matter spins up and naturally forms a circumstellar disk. Once accretion comes to a halt, these disks are relatively stable. Some disks are known to last up to 10 Myrs. Most disks however, dissipate on

  12. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  13. Debris Disks: Probing Planet Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are the dust disks found around ~20% of nearby main sequence stars in far-IR surveys. They can be considered as descendants of protoplanetary disks or components of planetary systems, providing valuable information on circumstellar disk evolution and the outcome of planet formation. The debris disk population can be explained by the steady collisional erosion of planetesimal belts; population models constrain where (10-100au) and in what quantity (>1Mearth) planetesimals (>10km i...

  14. Fast, Capacious Disk Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ronald M.

    1990-01-01

    Device for recording digital data on, and playing back data from, memory disks has high recording or playback rate and utilizes available recording area more fully. Two disks, each with own reading/writing head, used to record data at same time. Head on disk A operates on one of tracks numbered from outside in; head on disk B operates on track of same number in sequence from inside out. Underlying concept of device applicable to magnetic or optical disks.

  15. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  16. ACCRETION DISKS WITH A LARGE SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND BLACK HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider accretion disks around black holes at high luminosity, and the problem of the formation of a large-scale magnetic field in such disks, taking into account the non-uniform vertical structure of the disk. The structure of advective accretion disks is investigated, and conditions for the formation of optically thin regions in central parts of the accretion disk are found. The high electrical conductivity of the outer layers of the disk prevents outward diffusion of the magnetic field. This implies a stationary state with a strong magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk close to the black hole, and zero radial velocity at the surface of the disk. The problem of jet collimation by magneto-torsion oscillations is investigated.

  17. Wave Augmented Diffusers for Centrifugal Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Skoch, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual device is introduced which would utilize unsteady wave motion to slow and turn flows in the diffuser section of a centrifugal compressor. The envisioned device would substantially reduce the size of conventional centrifugal diffusers by eliminating the relatively large ninety degree bend needed to turn the flow from the radial/tangential to the axial direction. The bend would be replaced by a wall and the flow would instead exit through a series of rotating ports located on a disk, adjacent to the diffuser hub, and fixed to the impeller shaft. The ports would generate both expansion and compression waves which would rapidly transition from the hub/shroud (axial) direction to the radial/tangential direction. The waves would in turn induce radial/tangential and axial flow. This paper presents a detailed description of the device. Simplified cycle analysis and performance results are presented which were obtained using a time accurate, quasi-one-dimensional CFD code with models for turning, port flow conditions, and losses due to wall shear stress. The results indicate that a periodic wave system can be established which yields diffuser performance comparable to a conventional diffuser. Discussion concerning feasibility, accuracy, and integration follow.

  18. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. SUPPRESSION OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY AND LAUNCHING OF THE MAGNETOCENTRIFUGAL WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuening; Stone, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We perform local, vertically stratified shearing-box MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) at a fiducial radius of 1 AU that take into account the effects of both Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD). The magnetic diffusion coefficients are evaluated self-consistently from a look-up table based on equilibrium chemistry. We first show that the inclusion of AD dramatically changes the conventional picture of layered accretion. Without net vertical magnetic field, the system evolves into a toroidal field dominated configuration with extremely weak turbulence in the far-UV ionization layer that is far too inefficient to drive rapid accretion. In the presence of a weak net vertical field (plasma β ∼ 10 5 at midplane), we find that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed, resulting in a fully laminar flow throughout the vertical extent of the disk. A strong magnetocentrifugal wind is launched that efficiently carries away disk angular momentum and easily accounts for the observed accretion rate in PPDs. Moreover, under a physical disk wind geometry, all the accretion flow proceeds through a strong current layer with a thickness of ∼0.3H that is offset from disk midplane with radial velocity of up to 0.4 times the sound speed. Both Ohmic resistivity and AD are essential for the suppression of the MRI and wind launching. The efficiency of wind transport increases with increasing net vertical magnetic flux and the penetration depth of the FUV ionization. Our laminar wind solution has important implications on planet formation and global evolution of PPDs.

  19. Hydraulic jumps in ''viscous'' accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    We propose that the dissipative process necessary for rapid accretion disk evolution is driven by hydraulic jump waves on the surface of the disk. These waves are excited by the asymmetric nature of the central rotator (e.g., neutron star magnetosphere) and spiral out into the disk to form a pattern corotating with the central object. Disk matter in turn is slowed slightly at each encounter with the jump and spirals inward. In this process, the disk is heated by true turbulence produced in the jumps. Additional effects, such as a systematic misalignment of the magnetic moment of the neutron star until it is nearly orthogonal, and systematic distortion of the magnetosphere in such a way as to form an even more asymmetric central ''paddle wheel'' may enhance the interaction with inflowing matter. The application to X-ray sources corresponds to the ''slow'' solutions of Ghosh and Lamb, and therefore to rms magnetic fields of about 4 x 10 10 gauss. Analogous phenomena have been proposed to act in the formation of galactic spiral structure

  20. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  1. PLANETESIMAL DISK MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  2. Sinuous oscillations and steady warps of polytropic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Spiegel, E.A.

    1995-05-01

    In an asymptotic development of the equations governing the equilibria and linear stability of rapidly rotating polytropes we employed the slender aspect of these objects to reduce the three-dimensional partial differential equations to a somewhat simpler, ordinary integro-differential form. The earlier calculations dealt with isolated objects that were in centrifugal balance, that is the centrifugal acceleration of the configuration was balanced largely by self gravity with small contributions from the pressure gradient. Another interesting situation is that in which the polytrope rotates subject to externally imposed gravitational fields. In astrophysics, this is common in the theory of galactic dynamics because disks are unlikely to be isolated objects. The dark halos associated with disks also provide one possible explanation of the apparent warping of many galaxies. If the axis of the highly flattened disk is not aligned with that of the much less flattened halo, then the resultant torque of the halo gravity on the disk might provide a nonaxisymmetric distortion or disk warp. Motivated by these possibilities we shall here build models of polytropic disks of small but finite thickness which are subjected to prescribed, external gravitational fields. First we estimate how a symmetrical potential distorts the structure of the disk, then we examine its sinuous oscillations to confirm that they freely decay, hence suggesting that a warp must be externally forced. Finally, we consider steady warps of the disk plane when the axis of the disk does not coincide with that of the halo

  3. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhauser, L.; Cacayorin, E.D.; Karcnik, T.J.; McGowan, D.P.; Clark, K.G.; Storrs, D.; Kieffer, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    From a series of 25 patients with low-back pain and sciatica who subsequently underwent surgical exploration, 24 lumbar herniated disks and one asymmetrically bulging disk were correctly diagnosed with use of a 0.5-T MR imaging unit. The radiologic findings on saggital images included a polypoid protrusion beyond the posterior margin of the vertebral bodies more clearly displayed with T1-weighted than with T-2 weighted sequences and a focal extension into the extradural space on axial views. In most, the signal intensity of HNP was isointense to the disk of origin. The study suggests that MR imaging is currently capable of accurately predicting an HNP. The diagnosis is based primarily on morphologic characteristics rather than signal intensity alterations

  5. Relativistic, accreting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de

  6. Relativistic, accreting disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, M A; Jaroszynski, M; Sikora, M [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw

    1978-02-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around an axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between r/sub ms/ and r/sub mb/. The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L/sub 1/ Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate, etc.

  7. Chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss recent progress in the understanding of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks that resemble our Solar system during the first ten million years. At the verge of planet formation, strong variations of temperature, density, and radiation intensities in these disks lead to a layered chemical structure. In hot, dilute and heavily irradiated atmosphere only simple radicals, atoms, and atomic ions can survive, formed and destroyed by gas-phase processes. Beneath the atmosphere a partly UV-shielded, warm molecular layer is located, where high-energy radiation drives rich chemistry, both in the gas phase and on dust surfaces. In a cold, dense, dark disk midplane many molecules are frozen out, forming thick icy mantles where surface chemistry is active and where complex (organic) species are synthesized.

  8. Probing the Cold Dust Emission in the AB Aur Disk: A Dust Trap in a Decaying Vortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asunción; Baruteau, Clément; Neri, Roberto; Carmona, Andrés; Agúndez, Marcelino; Goicoechea, Javier R; Bachiller, Rafael; Cernicharo, José; Berné, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    One serious challenge for planet formation is the rapid inward drift of pebble-sized dust particles in protoplanetary disks. Dust trapping at local maxima in the disk gas pressure has received much theoretical attention but still lacks observational support. The cold dust emission in the AB Aur disk forms an asymmetric ring at a radius of about 120 au, which is suggestive of dust trapping in a gas vortex. We present high spatial resolution (0".58×0".78 ≈ 80×110 au) NOEMA observations of the 1.12 mm and 2.22 mm dust continuum emission from the AB Aur disk. Significant azimuthal variations of the flux ratio at both wavelengths indicate a size segregation of the large dust particles along the ring. Our continuum images also show that the intensity variations along the ring are smaller at 2.22 mm than at 1.12 mm, contrary to what dust trapping models with a gas vortex have predicted. Our two-fluid (gas+dust) hydrodynamical simulations demonstrate that this feature is well explained if the gas vortex has started to decay due to turbulent diffusion, and dust particles are thus losing the azimuthal trapping on different timescales depending on their size. The comparison between our observations and simulations allows us to constrain the size distribution and the total mass of solid particles in the ring, which we find to be of the order of 30 Earth masses, enough to form future rocky planets.

  9. Probing the Cold Dust Emission in the AB Aur Disk: A Dust Trap in a Decaying Vortex?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, Asunción; Bachiller, Rafael [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN, IGN), Apdo 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Baruteau, Clément; Carmona, Andrés; Berné, Olivier [IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse (France); Neri, Roberto [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Agúndez, Marcelino; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Cernicharo, José, E-mail: a.fuente@oan.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    One serious challenge for planet formation is the rapid inward drift of pebble-sized dust particles in protoplanetary disks. Dust trapping at local maxima in the disk gas pressure has received much theoretical attention but still lacks observational support. The cold dust emission in the AB Aur disk forms an asymmetric ring at a radius of about 120 au, which is suggestive of dust trapping in a gas vortex. We present high spatial resolution (0.″58 × 0.″78 ≈ 80 × 110 au) NOEMA observations of the 1.12 mm and 2.22 mm dust continuum emission from the AB Aur disk. Significant azimuthal variations of the flux ratio at both wavelengths indicate a size segregation of the large dust particles along the ring. Our continuum images also show that the intensity variations along the ring are smaller at 2.22 mm than at 1.12 mm, contrary to what dust trapping models with a gas vortex have predicted. Our two-fluid (gas+dust) hydrodynamical simulations demonstrate that this feature is well explained if the gas vortex has started to decay due to turbulent diffusion, and dust particles are thus losing the azimuthal trapping on different timescales depending on their size. The comparison between our observations and simulations allows us to constrain the size distribution and the total mass of solid particles in the ring, which we find to be of the order of 30 Earth masses, enough to form future rocky planets.

  10. Circumstellar and circumplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    This thesis studies disks in three astrophysical contexts: (1)protoplanetary disks; (2)the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt; and (3)planetary rings. We derive hydrostatic, radiative equilibrium models of passive protoplanetary disks surrounding T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. Each disk is encased by an optically thin layer of superheated dust grains. This layer is responsible for up to ~70% of the disk luminosity at wavelengths between ~5 and 60 μm. The heated disk flares and absorbs more stellar radiation at a given stellocentric distance than a flat disk would. Spectral energy distributions are computed and found to compare favorably with the observed flattish infrared excesses of several young stellar objects. Spectral features from dust grains in the superheated layer appear in emission if the disk is viewed nearly face-on. We present the results of a pencil-beam survey of the Kuiper Belt using the Keck 10-m telescope. Two new objects are discovered. Data from all surveys are pooled to construct the luminosity function from mR = 20 to 27. The cumulative number of objects per square degree, Σ(surface area but the largest bodies contain most of the mass. To order-of-magnitude, 0.2 M⊕ and 1 × 1010 comet progenitors lie between 30 and 50 AU. The classical Kuiper Belt appears truncated at a distance of 50 AU. We propose that rigid precession of narrow eccentric planetary rings surrounding Uranus and Saturn is maintained by a balance of forces due to ring self- gravity, planetary oblateness, and interparticle collisions. Collisional impulses play an especially dramatic role near ring edges. Pressure-induced accelerations are maximal near edges because there (1)velocity dispersions are enhanced by resonant satellite perturbations, and (2)the surface density declines steeply. Remarkably, collisional forces felt by material in the last ~100 m of a ~10 km wide ring can increase equilibrium masses up to a factor of ~100. New ring surface densities are derived which accord with

  11. Computing Temperatures in Optically Thick Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuder, Lawrence F.. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We worked with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the transfer of energy through protoplanetary disks, where planet formation occurs. The code tracks photons from the star into the disk, through scattering, absorption and re-emission, until they escape to infinity. High optical depths in the disk interior dominate the computation time because it takes the photon packet many interactions to get out of the region. High optical depths also receive few photons and therefore do not have well-estimated temperatures. We applied a modified random walk (MRW) approximation for treating high optical depths and to speed up the Monte Carlo calculations. The MRW is implemented by calculating the average number of interactions the photon packet will undergo in diffusing within a single cell of the spatial grid and then updating the packet position, packet frequencies, and local radiation absorption rate appropriately. The MRW approximation was then tested for accuracy and speed compared to the original code. We determined that MRW provides accurate answers to Monte Carlo Radiative transfer simulations. The speed gained from using MRW is shown to be proportional to the disk mass.

  12. PLANETESIMAL AND PROTOPLANET DYNAMICS IN A TURBULENT PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IDEAL STRATIFIED DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Menou, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Due to the gravitational influence of density fluctuations driven by magneto-rotational instability in the gas disk, planetesimals and protoplanets undergo diffusive radial migration as well as changes in other orbital properties. The magnitude of the effect on particle orbits can have important consequences for planet formation scenarios. We use the local-shearing-box approximation to simulate an ideal, isothermal, magnetized gas disk with vertical density stratification and simultaneously evolve numerous massless particles moving under the gravitational field of the gas and the host star. We measure the evolution of the particle orbital properties, including mean radius, eccentricity, inclination, and velocity dispersion, and its dependence on the disk properties and the particle initial conditions. Although the results converge with resolution for fixed box dimensions, we find the response of the particles to the gravity of the turbulent gas correlates with the horizontal box size, up to 16 disk scale heights. This correlation indicates that caution should be exercised when interpreting local-shearing-box models involving gravitational physics of magneto-rotational turbulence. Based on heuristic arguments, nevertheless, the criterion L h /R ∼ O(1), where L h is the horizontal box size and R is the distance to the host star, is proposed to possibly circumvent this conundrum. If this criterion holds, we can still conclude that magneto-rotational turbulence seems likely to be ineffective at driving either diffusive migration or collisional erosion under most circumstances.

  13. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  14. Modeling Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Megan; Tubbs, Drake; Keller, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    Using spectra models with known parameters and comparing them to spectra gathered from real systems is often the only ways to find out what is going on in those real systems. This project uses the modeling programs of RADMC-3D to generate model spectra for systems containing protoplanetary disks. The parameters can be changed to simulate protoplanetary disks in different stages of planet formation, with different sized gaps in different areas of the disks, as well as protoplanetary disks that contain different types of dust. We are working on producing a grid of models that all have different variations in the parameters in order to generate a miniature database to use for comparisons to gathered spectra. The spectra produced from these simulations will be compared to spectra that have been gathered from systems in the Small Magellanic cloud in order to find out the contents and stage of development of that system. This allows us to see if and how planets are forming in the Small Magellanic cloud, a region which has much less metallicity than our own galaxy. The data we gather from comparisons between the model spectra and the spectra of systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud can then be applied to how planets may have formed in the early universe.

  15. The Disk Mass Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; de Jong, Roelof Sybe

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  16. A Stefan model for mass transfer in a rotating disk reaction vessel

    KAUST Repository

    BOHUN, C. S.

    2015-05-04

    Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. In this paper, we focus on the process of mass transfer in the rotating disk apparatus formulated as a Stefan problem with consideration given to both the hydrodynamics of the process and the specific chemical reactions occurring in the bulk. The wide range in the reaction rates of the underlying chemistry allows for a natural decoupling of the problem into a simplified set of weakly coupled convective-reaction-diffusion equations for the slowly reacting chemical species and a set of algebraic relations for the species that react rapidly. An analysis of the chemical equilibrium conditions identifies an expansion parameter and a reduced model that remains valid for arbitrarily large times. Numerical solutions of the model are compared to an asymptotic analysis revealing three distinct time scales and chemical diffusion boundary layer that lies completely inside the hydrodynamic layer. Formulated as a Stefan problem, the model generalizes the work of Levich (Levich and Spalding (1962) Physicochemical hydrodynamics, vol. 689, Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ) and will help better understand the natural limitations of the rotating disk reaction vessel when consideration is made for the reacting chemical species.

  17. RESOLVED IMAGES OF LARGE CAVITIES IN PROTOPLANETARY TRANSITION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Espaillat, Catherine; Qi Chunhua; Brown, J. M.; Hughes, A. M.; Dullemond, C. P.; McClure, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Circumstellar disks are thought to experience a rapid 'transition' phase in their evolution that can have a considerable impact on the formation and early development of planetary systems. We present new and archival high angular resolution (0.''3 ∼ 40-75 AU) Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the 880 μm (340 GHz) dust continuum emission from 12 such transition disks in nearby star-forming regions. In each case, we directly resolve a dust-depleted disk cavity around the central star. Using two-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we interpret these dust disk structures in a homogeneous, parametric model framework by reproducing their SMA continuum visibilities and spectral energy distributions. The cavities in these disks are large (R cav = 15-73 AU) and substantially depleted of small (∼μm-sized) dust grains, although their mass contents are still uncertain. The structures of the remnant material at larger radii are comparable to normal disks. We demonstrate that these large cavities are relatively common among the millimeter-bright disk population, comprising at least 1 in 5 (20%) of the disks in the bright half (and ≥26% of the upper quartile) of the millimeter luminosity (disk mass) distribution. Utilizing these results, we assess some of the physical mechanisms proposed to account for transition disk structures. As has been shown before, photoevaporation models do not produce the large cavity sizes, accretion rates, and disk masses representative of this sample. A sufficient decrease of the dust optical depths in these cavities by particle growth would be difficult to achieve: substantial growth (to meter sizes or beyond) must occur in large (tens of AU) regions of low turbulence without also producing an abundance of small particles. Given those challenges, we suggest instead that the observations are most commensurate with dynamical clearing due to tidal interactions with low-mass companions-very young (∼1 Myr) brown

  18. DISK FORMATION IN MAGNETIZED CLOUDS ENABLED BY THE HALL EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2011-01-01

    Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. A dynamically important magnetic field presents a significant obstacle to the formation of protostellar disks. Recent studies have shown that magnetic braking is strong enough to suppress the formation of rotationally supported disks in the ideal MHD limit. Whether non-ideal MHD effects can enable disk formation remains unsettled. We carry out a first study on how disk formation in magnetic clouds is modified by the Hall effect, the least explored of the three non-ideal MHD effects in star formation (the other two being ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation). For illustrative purposes, we consider a simplified problem of a non-self-gravitating, magnetized envelope collapsing onto a central protostar of fixed mass. We find that the Hall effect can spin up the inner part of the collapsing flow to Keplerian speed, producing a rotationally supported disk. The disk is generated through a Hall-induced magnetic torque. Disk formation occurs even when the envelope is initially non-rotating, provided that the Hall coefficient is large enough. When the magnetic field orientation is flipped, the direction of disk rotation is reversed as well. The implication is that the Hall effect can in principle produce both regularly rotating and counter-rotating disks around protostars. The Hall coefficient expected in dense cores is about one order of magnitude smaller than that needed for efficient spin-up in these models. We conclude that the Hall effect is an important factor to consider in studying the angular momentum evolution of magnetized star formation in general and disk formation in particular.

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN THE ARCHES CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olczak, C.; Kaczmarek, T.; Pfalzner, S.; Harfst, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2012-01-01

    Most stars form in a cluster environment. These stars are initially surrounded by disks from which potentially planetary systems form. Of all cluster environments, starburst clusters are probably the most hostile for planetary systems in our Galaxy. The intense stellar radiation and extreme density favor rapid destruction of circumstellar disks via photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Evolving a virialized model of the Arches cluster in the Galactic tidal field, we investigate the effect of stellar encounters on circumstellar disks in a prototypical starburst cluster. Despite its proximity to the deep gravitational potential of the Galactic center, only a moderate fraction of members escapes to form an extended pair of tidal tails. Our simulations show that encounters destroy one-third of the circumstellar disks in the cluster core within the first 2.5 Myr of evolution, preferentially affecting the least and most massive stars. A small fraction of these events causes rapid ejection and the formation of a weaker second pair of tidal tails that is overpopulated by disk-poor stars. Two predictions arise from our study. (1) If not destroyed by photoevaporation protoplanetary disks of massive late B- and early O-type stars represent the most likely hosts of planet formation in starburst clusters. (2) Multi-epoch K- and L-band photometry of the Arches cluster would provide the kinematically selected membership sample required to detect the additional pair of disk-poor tidal tails.

  20. CAPTURE OF PLANETESIMALS BY GAS DRAG FROM CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Suetsugu, Ryo; Tanigawa, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Growing giant planets have circumplanetary disks around them in the late stage of their formation if their mass is sufficiently large. We examine capture of relatively large planetesimals that are decoupled from the gas inflow, due to gas drag from a circumplanetary disk of a growing giant planet. Assuming that the structure of the circumplanetary disk is axisymmetric, and solving the three-body problem including gas drag, we perform analytic and numerical calculations for capture of planetesimals. When planetesimal random velocity is small, planetesimals approaching in the retrograde direction are more easily captured, owing to their larger velocity relative to the gas. Planetesimals with large orbital inclinations interact with the disk for a short period of time and show lower capture rates. The effect of ablation on capture rates seems insignificant, although mass loss due to ablation would be significant in the case of high random velocity. We also examine the effect of non-uniform radial distribution of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk due to gap opening by the planet. When the random velocity of planetesimals is small, the planetesimal capture rate decreases rapidly as the half width of the gap in the planetesimal disk increases from two planetary Hill radii to three planetary Hill radii; planetesimals with low random velocities cannot approach the planet in the case of a sufficiently wide gap. Our results show that the radial distribution and random velocity of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk are essentially important for the understanding of capture of planetesimals by circumplanetary disks

  1. A case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A.; Gibson, Garth; Katz, Randy H.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing performance of CPUs and memories will be squandered if not matched by a similar performance increase in I/O. While the capacity of Single Large Expensive Disks (SLED) has grown rapidly, the performance improvement of SLED has been modest. Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), based on the magnetic disk technology developed for personal computers, offers an attractive alternative to SLED, promising improvements of an order of magnitude in performance, reliability, power consumption, and scalability. This paper introduces five levels of RAIDs, giving their relative cost/performance, and compares RAID to an IBM 3380 and a Fujitsu Super Eagle.

  2. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  3. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. II. Gas Disk Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Trapman, L.; van Terwisga, S. E.; Facchini, S.; Manara, C. F.; van der Marel, N.; Miotello, A.; Tazzari, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Guidi, G.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young (∼1–3 Myr) Lupus star-forming region, covering the 1.33 mm continuum and the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2–1 lines. The spatial resolution is ∼0.″25 with a medium 3σ continuum sensitivity of 0.30 mJy, corresponding to M dust ∼ 0.2 M ⊕. We apply Keplerian masking to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of our 12CO zero-moment maps, enabling measurements of gas disk radii for 22 Lupus disks; we find that gas disks are universally larger than millimeter dust disks by a factor of two on average, likely due to a combination of the optically thick gas emission and the growth and inward drift of the dust. Using the gas disk radii, we calculate the dimensionless viscosity parameter, α visc, finding a broad distribution and no correlations with other disk or stellar parameters, suggesting that viscous processes have not yet established quasi-steady states in Lupus disks. By combining our 1.33 mm continuum fluxes with our previous 890 μm continuum observations, we also calculate the millimeter spectral index, α mm, for 70 Lupus disks; we find an anticorrelation between α mm and millimeter flux for low-mass disks (M dust ≲ 5), followed by a flattening as disks approach α mm ≈ 2, which could indicate faster grain growth in higher-mass disks, but may also reflect their larger optically thick components. In sum, this work demonstrates the continuous stream of new insights into disk evolution and planet formation that can be gleaned from unbiased ALMA disk surveys.

  4. Self-gravity in Magnetized Neutrino-dominated Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahamat, Narjes; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: abbassi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-10

    In the present work we study self-gravity effects on the vertical structure of a magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disk as a central engine for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Some of the disk physical timescales that are supposed to play a pivotal role in the late-time evolutions of the disk, such as viscous, cooling, and diffusion timescales, have been studied. We are interested in investigating the possibility of the occurrence of X-ray flares, observed in late-time GRBs’ extended emission through the “magnetic barrier” and “fragmentation” processes in our model. The results lead us to interpret self-gravity as an amplifier for Blandford–Payne luminosity (BP power) and the generated magnetic field, but a suppressor for neutrino luminosity and magnetic barrier processes via highlighting the fragmentation mechanism in the outer disk, especially for the higher mass accretion rates.

  5. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  6. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  7. Evolution of magnetic disk subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoru

    1994-06-01

    The higher recording density of magnetic disk realized today has brought larger storage capacity per unit and smaller form factors. If the required access performance per MB is constant, the performance of large subsystems has to be several times better. This article describes mainly the technology for improving the performance of the magnetic disk subsystems and the prospects of their future evolution. Also considered are 'crosscall pathing' which makes the data transfer channel more effective, 'disk cache' which improves performance coupling with solid state memory technology, and 'RAID' which improves the availability and integrity of disk subsystems by organizing multiple disk drives in a subsystem. As a result, it is concluded that since the performance of the subsystem is dominated by that of the disk cache, maximation of the performance of the disk cache subsystems is very important.

  8. HIGH-TEMPERATURE IONIZATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desch, Steven J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mail Stop 169-506, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the abundances of electrons and ions in the hot (≳500 K), dusty parts of protoplanetary disks, treating for the first time the effects of thermionic and ion emission from the dust grains. High-temperature ionization modeling has involved simply assuming that alkali elements such as potassium occur as gas-phase atoms and are collisionally ionized following the Saha equation. We show that the Saha equation often does not hold, because free charges are produced by thermionic and ion emission and destroyed when they stick to grain surfaces. This means the ionization state depends not on the first ionization potential of the alkali atoms, but rather on the grains’ work functions. The charged species’ abundances typically rise abruptly above about 800 K, with little qualitative dependence on the work function, gas density, or dust-to-gas mass ratio. Applying our results, we find that protoplanetary disks’ dead zone, where high diffusivities stifle magnetorotational turbulence, has its inner edge located where the temperature exceeds a threshold value ≈1000 K. The threshold is set by ambipolar diffusion except at the highest densities, where it is set by Ohmic resistivity. We find that the disk gas can be diffusively loaded onto the stellar magnetosphere at temperatures below a similar threshold. We investigate whether the “short-circuit” instability of current sheets can operate in disks and find that it cannot, or works only in a narrow range of conditions; it appears not to be the chondrule formation mechanism. We also suggest that thermionic emission is important for determining the rate of Ohmic heating in hot Jupiters.

  9. HIGH-TEMPERATURE IONIZATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desch, Steven J.; Turner, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the abundances of electrons and ions in the hot (≳500 K), dusty parts of protoplanetary disks, treating for the first time the effects of thermionic and ion emission from the dust grains. High-temperature ionization modeling has involved simply assuming that alkali elements such as potassium occur as gas-phase atoms and are collisionally ionized following the Saha equation. We show that the Saha equation often does not hold, because free charges are produced by thermionic and ion emission and destroyed when they stick to grain surfaces. This means the ionization state depends not on the first ionization potential of the alkali atoms, but rather on the grains’ work functions. The charged species’ abundances typically rise abruptly above about 800 K, with little qualitative dependence on the work function, gas density, or dust-to-gas mass ratio. Applying our results, we find that protoplanetary disks’ dead zone, where high diffusivities stifle magnetorotational turbulence, has its inner edge located where the temperature exceeds a threshold value ≈1000 K. The threshold is set by ambipolar diffusion except at the highest densities, where it is set by Ohmic resistivity. We find that the disk gas can be diffusively loaded onto the stellar magnetosphere at temperatures below a similar threshold. We investigate whether the “short-circuit” instability of current sheets can operate in disks and find that it cannot, or works only in a narrow range of conditions; it appears not to be the chondrule formation mechanism. We also suggest that thermionic emission is important for determining the rate of Ohmic heating in hot Jupiters

  10. Herniated disk disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Bohlman, H.; Wilber, G.; Carter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty patients with symptoms of disk herniation and no previous surgery were examined with Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Studies obtained before and after administration of Gd-DTPA included the following sequences: sagittal and axial spin echo (SE) 500/17 (repetition time, msec/echo time, msec), sagittal SE 2,000/60, sagittal FLASH 200/13/60. Studies were interpreted separately for presence of extradural disease (EDD) characterized by morphology, mass effect, and enhancement. Post Gd-DTPA diagnoses were: normal, n = 1; herniation, n = 28; neoplasm, n = 1. Tissue diagnosis was obtained in 13. The Gd-DTPA examination correctly changed the diagnosis in one case, provided increased confidence in the diagnosis in four, and was equivalent to the precontrast study in eight. Increased conspicuity of EDD with Gd-DTPA was related to the enhancement of epidural space analogous to IV CT and enhancement of scar surrounding disk herniation. Histologically, this scar was identical to that seen in postoperative spines, Gd-DTPA appears to be a useful adjunct in cervical and thoracic degenerative disk disease

  11. Transport coefficients for dense hard-disk systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Rojo, R.; Luding, S.; Brey, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for event-driven molecular dynamics

  12. PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  13. THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF PHOTOEVAPORATING PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Gammie, Charles, E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We perform calculations of our one-dimensional, two-zone disk model to study the long-term evolution of the circumstellar disk. In particular, we adopt published photoevaporation prescriptions and examine whether the photoevaporative loss alone, coupled with a range of initial angular momenta of the protostellar cloud, can explain the observed decline of the frequency of optically thick dusty disks with increasing age. In the parameter space we explore, disks have accreting and/or non-accreting transitional phases lasting for {approx}< 20% of their lifetime, which is in reasonable agreement with observed statistics. Assuming that photoevaporation controls disk clearing, we find that the initial angular momentum distribution of clouds needs to be weighted in favor of slowly rotating protostellar cloud cores. Again, assuming inner disk dispersal by photoevaporation, we conjecture that this skewed angular momentum distribution is a result of fragmentation into binary or multiple stellar systems in rapidly rotating cores. Accreting and non-accreting transitional disks show different evolutionary paths on the M-dot-R{sub wall} plane, which possibly explains the different observed properties between the two populations. However, we further find that scaling the photoevaporation rates downward by a factor of 10 makes it difficult to clear the disks on the observed timescales, showing that the precise value of the photoevaporative loss is crucial to setting the clearing times. While our results apply only to pure photoevaporative loss (plus disk accretion), there may be implications for models in which planets clear disks preferentially at radii of the order of 10 AU.

  14. PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  15. Tidal Disruption Events from Eccentric Nuclear Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernke, Heather N.; Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Stars that get too close to a supermassive black hole are in danger of being tidally disrupted. Stellar two-body relaxation is commonly assumed to be the main driver of these events. Recent work has shown, however, that secular gravitational torques from eccentric nuclear disks can push stars to extreme eccentricities at much higher rates than predicted by two-body relaxation. This work did not include the effects of general relativity, however, which could quench secular torques via rapid apsidal precession. Here we show that, for a star in danger of disruption, general relativity acts on a timescale of less than an orbital period. This short timescale means that general relativity does not have enough time to have a major effect on the orbit. When driven by secular torques from eccentric nuclear disks, tidal disruption event rates are not affected by general relativity.

  16. Josephson current in ballistic graphene Corbino disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahipour, Babak; Mohammadkhani, Ramin; Khalilzadeh, Mina

    2018-06-01

    We solve Dirac-Bogoliubov-De-Gennes (DBdG) equation in a superconductor-normal graphene-superconductor (SGS) junction with Corbino disk structure to investigate the Josephson current through this junction. We find that the critical current Ic has a nonzero value at Dirac point in which the concentration of the carriers is zero. We show this nonzero critical current depends on the system geometry and it decreases monotonically to zero by decreasing the ratio of the inner to outer radii of the Corbino disk (R1 /R2), while in the limit of R1 /R2 → 1 it scales like a diffusive Corbino disk. The product of the critical current and the normal-state resistance IcRN increases by increasing R1 /R2 and attains the same value for the wide and short rectangular structure at the limit of R1 /R2 → 1 at zero doping. These results reveals the pseudodiffusive behavior of the graphene Corbino Josephson junction similar to the rectangular structure at the zero doping.

  17. TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS UNDERGOING LAYERED ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesniak, M. V.; Desch, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the temperature structures of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) around T Tauri stars heated by both incident starlight and viscous dissipation. We present a new algorithm for calculating the temperatures in disks in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, based on Rybicki's method for iteratively calculating the vertical temperature structure within an annulus. At each iteration, the method solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously, and converges rapidly even at high (>>10 4 ) optical depth. The method retains the full frequency dependence of the radiation field. We use this algorithm to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability. Because PPD midplanes are weakly ionized, this instability operates preferentially in their surface layers, and disks will undergo layered accretion. We find that the midplane temperatures T mid are strongly affected by the column density Σ a of the active layers, even for fixed mass accretion rate M-dot . Models assuming uniform accretion predict midplane temperatures in the terrestrial planet forming region several x 10 2 K higher than our layered accretion models do. For M-dot -7 M sun yr -1 and the column densities Σ a -2 associated with layered accretion, disk temperatures are indistinguishable from those of a passively heated disk. We find emergent spectra are insensitive to Σ a , making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered versus uniform accretion.

  18. STEADY STATE DUST DISTRIBUTIONS IN DISK VORTICES: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Wladimir; Lin, Min-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array has returned images of transitional disks in which large asymmetries are seen in the distribution of millimeter sized dust in the outer disk. The explanation in vogue borrows from the vortex literature and suggests that these asymmetries are the result of dust trapping in giant vortices, excited via Rossby wave instabilities at planetary gap edges. Due to the drag force, dust trapped in vortices will accumulate in the center and diffusion is needed to maintain a steady state over the lifetime of the disk. While previous work derived semi-analytical models of the process, in this paper we provide analytical steady-steady solutions. Exact solutions exist for certain vortex models. The solution is determined by the vortex rotation profile, the gas scale height, the vortex aspect ratio, and the ratio of dust diffusion to gas-dust friction. In principle, all of these quantities can be derived from observations, which would validate the model and also provide constrains on the strength of the turbulence inside the vortex core. Based on our solution, we derive quantities such as the gas-dust contrast, the trapped dust mass, and the dust contrast at the same orbital location. We apply our model to the recently imaged Oph IRS 48 system, finding values within the range of the observational uncertainties

  19. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  20. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  1. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez , Jean-François; Fouchet , Laure; T. Maddison , Sarah; Laibe , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    6 pages, 5 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symp. 249: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics (Suzhou, China); International audience; We investigate the behaviour of dust in protoplanetary disks under the action of gas drag using our 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code. We present the evolution of the dust spatial distribution in global simulations of planetless disks as well as of disks containing an already formed planet. The resulting dust structures vary strongly with pa...

  2. Fallback disks & magnetars: prospects & possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. A.

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth which along with the initial rotation rate and dipole and higher multipole magnetic moments determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall This talk reviews the strengths and difficulties of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories Evidence for and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed

  3. IBM 3390 Hard Disk Platter

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    The 3390 disks rotated faster than those in the previous model 3380. Faster disk rotation reduced rotational delay (ie. the time required for the correct area of the disk surface to move to the point where data could be read or written). In the 3390's initial models, the average rotational delay was reduced to 7.1 milliseconds from 8.3 milliseconds for the 3380 family.

  4. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  5. Percutaneous automated diskectomy in the treatment of herniated lumbar disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onik, G.; Mooney, V.; Wiltse, L.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a new automated lumbar disk aspiration technique in which a 2-mm suction cutting probe is used. The procedure allows rapid and safe removal of disk material percutaneously. The presentation describes the technique and the preliminary results of a cooperative study. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and the aspiration probe is placed into the disk under fluoroscopic guidance and using a posterrolateral approach. One hundred twenty patients have met the study criteria, undergone the procedure, and had at least a 6-week follow-up. Of these, 74% have achieved good to excellent results, based on physician and patient satisfaction and three other criteria. Of 93 patients for whom 6-mont follow-up is available, 71% have achieved good to excellent results. No complications have been reported. The preliminary results indicate that percutaneous automated diskectomy is a low morbidity procedure that can be done on an outpatient basis and be used successfully to treat uncomplicated herniated lumbar disks

  6. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion. 41 references

  7. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  8. [Disk calcifications in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L

    1985-05-01

    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children.

  9. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D

    2015-01-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  10. Disk storage at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, L.; Cano, E.; Chan, B.; Espinal, X.; Fiorot, A.; González Labrador, H.; Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Lo Presti, G.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S.; Rousseau, H.; van der Ster, D.

    2015-12-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  11. EXor OUTBURSTS FROM DISK AMPLIFICATION OF STELLAR MAGNETIC CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, Philip J., E-mail: pja@jilau1.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    EXor outbursts—moderate-amplitude disk accretion events observed in Class I and Class II protostellar sources—have timescales and amplitudes that are consistent with the viscous accumulation and release of gas in the inner disk near the dead zone boundary. We suggest that outbursts are indirectly triggered by stellar dynamo cycles, via poloidal magnetic flux that diffuses radially outward through the disk. Interior to the dead zone the strength of the net field modulates the efficiency of angular momentum transport by the magnetorotational instability. In the dead zone changes in the polarity of the net field may lead to stronger outbursts because of the dominant role of the Hall effect in this region of the disk. At the level of simple estimates we show that changes to kG-strength stellar fields could stimulate disk outbursts on 0.1 au scales, though this optimistic conclusion depends upon the uncertain efficiency of net flux transport through the inner disk. The model predicts a close association between observational tracers of stellar magnetic activity and EXor events.

  12. Comparing in vitro activity of tigecycline by using the disk diffusion test, the manual microdilution method, and the VITEK 2 automated system Comparación de la actividad in vitro de la tigeciclina mediante la prueba de difusión con disco, el método de microdilución manual y el sistema automatizado Vitek 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Leal Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tigecycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic having activity against multiresistant isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing is difficult to perform with the use of traditional microbiological techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disk diffusion test with three different Mueller-Hinton agar brands, and the Vitek 2 automated system in comparison with the standard broth microdilution method against 200 gram-negative isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Acinetobacter baumannii. Among Enterobacteriaceae, the Becton Dickinson agar had the lowest rate of minor (32.5% and major errors (3.8%. No very major errors were found. For A. baumanni, the rate of minor and major errors was lower. A high rate of agreement (94% was found between the broth microdilution method and the Vitek 2 system. Our results show that there are important differences between agars used for the disk diffusion test, and that Vitek 2 is a valid tool for susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories.La tigeciclina es un antibiótico de amplio espectro con actividad frente a bacterias multirresistentes. Existen dificultades en la determinación de la actividad in vitro a través de las técnicas microbiológicas convencionales. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar tres marcas diferentes de medio agar Mueller-Hinton para utilizar en el método de difusión con disco y el método automatizado Vitek 2, y compararlos con la prueba tradicional de microdilución manual (Paneles Trek frente a 200 aislamientos de microorganismos gram negativos (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens y Acinetobacter baumannii. Para el grupo de las enterobacterias, el medio con mejor desempeño fue el producido por Becton Dickinson, que tuvo 32,5% de errores menores y 3,8% de errores mayores. No se presentaron errores mayores con ningún medio. Se encontró una alta concordancia (94% entre el

  13. Gravitational Instabilities in a Young Protoplanetary Disk with Embedded Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karna M.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational Instabilities (GIs), a mechanism for angular momentum transport, are more prominent during the early phases of protoplanetary disk evolution when the disk is relatively massive. In my dissertation work, I performed radiative 3D hydrodynamics simulations (by employing the code, CHYMERA) and extensively studied GIs by inserting different objects in the ‘control disk’ (a 0.14 M⊙ protoplanetary disk around a 1 M⊙ star).Studying planetary migration helps us better constrain planet formation models. To study the migration of Jovian planets, in 9 separate simulations, each of the 0.3 MJ, 1 MJ, and 3 MJ planets was inserted near the Inner and Outer Lindblad Resonances and the Corotation Radius (CR) of the dominant GI-induced two-armed spiral density wave in the disk. I found the migration timescales to be longer in a GI-active disk when compared to laminar disks. The 3 MJ planet controls its own orbital evolution, while the migration of a 0.3 MJ planet is stochastic in nature. I defined a ‘critical mass’ as the mass of an arm of the dominant two-armed spiral density wave within the planet’s Hill diameter. Planets above this mass control their own destiny, and planets below this mass are scattered by the disk. This critical mass could provide a recipe for predicting the migration behavior of planets in GI-active disks.To understand the stochastic migration of low-mass planets, I performed a simulation of 240 zero-mass planet-tracers (hereafter, planets) by inserting these at a range of locations in the control disk (an equivalent of 240 simulations of Saturn-mass or lower-mass objects). I calculated a Diffusion Coefficient (3.6 AU2/ 1000 yr) to characterize the stochastic migration of planets. I analyzed the increase in the eccentricity dispersion and compared it with the observed exoplanet eccentricities. The diffusion of planets can be a slow process, resulting in the survival of small planetary cores. Stochastic migration of planets is

  14. Multiple Paths of Deuterium Fractionation in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Yuri; Furuya, Kenji; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We investigate deuterium chemistry coupled with the nuclear spin-state chemistry of H2 and {{{H}}}3+ in protoplanetary disks. Multiple paths of deuterium fractionation are found; exchange reactions with D atoms, such as HCO+ + D, are effective in addition to those with HD. In a disk model with grain sizes appropriate for dark clouds, the freeze-out of molecules is severe in the outer midplane, while the disk surface is shielded from UV radiation. Gaseous molecules, including DCO+, thus become abundant at the disk surface, which tends to make their column density distribution relatively flat. If the dust grains have grown to millimeter size, the freeze-out rate of neutral species is reduced and the abundances of gaseous molecules, including DCO+ and N2D+, are enhanced in the cold midplane. Turbulent diffusion transports D atoms and radicals at the disk surface to the midplane, and stable ice species in the midplane to the disk surface. The effects of turbulence on chemistry are thus multifold; while DCO+ and N2D+ abundances increase or decrease depending on the regions, HCN and DCN in the gas and ice are greatly reduced at the innermost radii, compared to the model without turbulence. When cosmic rays penetrate the disk, the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2 is found to be thermal in the disk, except in the cold (≲10 K) midplane. We also analyze the OPR of {{{H}}}3+ and H2D+, as well as the main reactions of H2D+, DCO+, and N2D+, in order to analytically derive their abundances in the cold midplane.

  15. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  16. The Stability of Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Seigar, M.S.; Treuthardt, P.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo

  17. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bladed disk * imperfect disk * travelling waves Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/86

  18. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  19. Implementation of 350-2500 nm diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography to rapidly assess manufacturing consistency and quality of cotrimoxazole tablets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Eliangiringa; Hope, Samuel M; Jenkins, David; Layloff, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To assess the quality of cotrimoxazole tablets produced by a Tanzanian manufacturer by a newly instituted quality assurance programme. Tablets underwent a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy procedure with periodic quality assessment confirmation by assay and dissolution testing using validated HPTLC techniques (including weight variation and disintegration evaluations). Based on results from the primary test methods, the first group of product was 99% compliance. This approach provides a model for rapidly assuring product quality of future procurements of other products that is more cost-effective than traditional pharmaceutical testing techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, S S

    1947-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.

  1. Evaluation of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks for detection of resistance in coagulase negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Antunes, Ana Lúcia; Secchi, Carina; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Rodrigues Perez, Leandro Reus; Peixoto de Freitas, Ana Lúcia; Alves d'Azevedo, Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. was considered nonpathogenic until the emergence of multiresistance and the demonstration of their participation as infectious agents. In Brazil, oxacillin resistance may be present in over 80% of isolates, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standardized a disk-diffusion method to predict this resistance in Staphylococcus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 microg) and cefoxitin (30 microg) widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin. The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7%) and oxacillin MIC (97.8%), while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. One of the critical points in the diffusion disk test is the quality of the disks: the use of better quality disks associated with molecular methods lead to better results to define the best antibiotic therapy.

  2. Evaluation of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks for detection of resistance in coagulase negative staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Souza Antunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. was considered nonpathogenic until the emergence of multiresistance and the demonstration of their participation as infectious agents. In Brazil, oxacillin resistance may be present in over 80% of isolates, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standardized a disk-diffusion method to predict this resistance in Staphylococcus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 µg and cefoxitin (30 µg widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin. The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7% and oxacillin MIC (97.8%, while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. One of the critical points in the diffusion disk test is the quality of the disks: the use of better quality disks associated with molecular methods lead to better results to define the best antibiotic therapy.

  3. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  4. SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL BASIS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is an effective treatment technique for the removal of some toxic organics from drinking water or wastewater, however, it can be a relatively expensive process, especially if it is designed improperly. A rapid method for the design of large-scale f...

  5. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  6. Disk tides and accretion runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    It is suggested that tidal interaction of an accreting planetary embryo with the gaseous preplanetary disk may provide a mechanism to breach the so-called runaway limit during the formation of the giant planet cores. The disk tidal torque converts a would-be shepherding object into a 'predator,' which can continue to cannibalize the planetesimal disk. This is more likely to occur in the giant planet region than in the terrestrial zone, providing a natural cause for Jupiter to predate the inner planets and form within the O(10(exp 7) yr) lifetime of the nebula.

  7. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  8. The Evolution of Spiral Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.

    We report on aspects of an observational study to probe the mass assembly of large galaxy disks. In this contribution we focus on a new survey of integral-field Hα velocity-maps of nearby, face on disks. Preliminary results yield disk asymmetry amplitudes consistent with estimates based on the scatter in the local Tully-Fisher relation. We also show how the high quality of integral-field echelle spectroscopy enables determinations of kinematic inclinations to i ~20 °. This holds the promise that nearly-face-on galaxies can be included in the Tully-Fisher relation. Finally, we discuss the prospects for measuring dynamical asymmetries of distant galaxies.

  9. The Fortios disks revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Monge Soares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used EDXRF, Micro-PIXE and optical microscopy (metallographic analysis, complemented with SEM-EDS, to first determine the elemental content, and second, to identify the process used to join the components (disk, peripheral rod and tab of several Iron Age gold buttons. These have a very similar typology and were found at three archaeological sites in the South-Western part of the Iberian Peninsula. A set of 35 buttons from Castro dos Ratinhos (7, Outeiro da Cabeça (23 and Fortios (5 were analyzed and the results published in Trabajos de Prehistoria (Soares et al. 2010. Recently Perea et al. (2016 have published analyses of other 4 gold buttons from Fortios with the same purpose, but only using one technique, SEM-EDS. As they only analysed the rough surface layer, the results are neither effective nor reliable, taking into account the constraints associated with the technique, namely the small depth reached (< 2 ?m by the incident beam and, consequently, its sensitivity to the topography of the analyzed surface. Despite these constraints, they have accepted uncritically their results and, at the same time, question our own analyses and results and the interpretation we have made. Here we discuss the approach of Perea et al. in order to determine not only the elemental content of the Fortios gold buttons, but also to identify the joining process used in their manufacture.

  10. Hall-effect-controlled gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks. I. Wind solutions at the inner disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2014-01-01

    The gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is largely controlled by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. Among these the role of the Hall effect is the least explored and most poorly understood. In this series, we have included, for the first time, all three non-ideal MHD effects in a self-consistent manner to investigate the role of the Hall effect on PPD gas dynamics using local shearing-box simulations. In this first paper, we focus on the inner region of PPDs, where previous studies (Bai and Stone 2013; Bai 2013) excluding the Hall effect have revealed that the inner disk up to ∼10 AU is largely laminar, with accretion driven by a magnetocentrifugal wind. We confirm this basic picture and show that the Hall effect modifies the wind solutions depending on the polarity of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B 0 threading the disk. When B 0 ⋅Ω>0, the horizontal magnetic field is strongly amplified toward the disk interior, leading to a stronger disk wind (by ∼50% or less in terms of the wind-driven accretion rate). The enhanced horizontal field also leads to much stronger large-scale Maxwell stress (magnetic braking) that contributes to a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. When B 0 ⋅Ω<0, the horizontal magnetic field is reduced, leading to a weaker disk wind (by ≲ 20%) and negligible magnetic braking. Under fiducial parameters, we find that when B 0 ⋅Ω>0, the laminar region extends farther to ∼10-15 AU before the magnetorotational instability sets in, while for B 0 ⋅Ω<0, the laminar region extends only to ∼3-5 AU for a typical accretion rate of ∼10 –8 to10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 . Scaling relations for the wind properties, especially the wind-driven accretion rate, are provided for aligned and anti-aligned field geometries.

  11. Hall-effect-controlled gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks. I. Wind solutions at the inner disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    The gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is largely controlled by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. Among these the role of the Hall effect is the least explored and most poorly understood. In this series, we have included, for the first time, all three non-ideal MHD effects in a self-consistent manner to investigate the role of the Hall effect on PPD gas dynamics using local shearing-box simulations. In this first paper, we focus on the inner region of PPDs, where previous studies (Bai and Stone 2013; Bai 2013) excluding the Hall effect have revealed that the inner disk up to ∼10 AU is largely laminar, with accretion driven by a magnetocentrifugal wind. We confirm this basic picture and show that the Hall effect modifies the wind solutions depending on the polarity of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B{sub 0} threading the disk. When B{sub 0}⋅Ω>0, the horizontal magnetic field is strongly amplified toward the disk interior, leading to a stronger disk wind (by ∼50% or less in terms of the wind-driven accretion rate). The enhanced horizontal field also leads to much stronger large-scale Maxwell stress (magnetic braking) that contributes to a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. When B{sub 0}⋅Ω<0, the horizontal magnetic field is reduced, leading to a weaker disk wind (by ≲ 20%) and negligible magnetic braking. Under fiducial parameters, we find that when B{sub 0}⋅Ω>0, the laminar region extends farther to ∼10-15 AU before the magnetorotational instability sets in, while for B{sub 0}⋅Ω<0, the laminar region extends only to ∼3-5 AU for a typical accretion rate of ∼10{sup –8} to10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Scaling relations for the wind properties, especially the wind-driven accretion rate, are provided for aligned and anti-aligned field geometries.

  12. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  13. Bend testing for miniature disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes

  14. The Fabulous Four Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2004-09-01

    This program is a comprehensive study of the four bright debris disks that were spatially resolved by IRAS: Beta Pictoris, Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, and Vega. All SIRTF instruments and observing modes will be used. The program has three major objectives: (1) Study of the disk spatial structure from MIPS and IRAC imaging; (2) Study of the dust grain composition using the IRS and MIPS SED mode; and (3) companion searches using IRAC. The data from this program should lead to a detailed understanding of these four systems, and will provide a foundation for understanding all of the debris disks to be studied with SIRTF. Images and spectra will be compared with models for disk structure and dust properties. Dynamical features indicative of substellar companions' effects on the disks will be searched for. This program will require supporting observations of PSF stars, some of which have been included explicitly. In the majority of cases, the spectral observations require a preferred orientation to align the slits along the disk position angles. Detector saturation issues are still being worked for this program, and will lead to AOR modifications in subsequent submissions. The results from this program will be analyzed collaboratively by the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS teams and by general GTOs Jura and Werner.

  15. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  16. Vertical Structure of Radiation-pressure-dominated Thin Disks: Link between Vertical Advection and Convective Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Hong-Yu; Gu, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    In the classic picture of standard thin accretion disks, viscous heating is balanced by radiative cooling through the diffusion process, and the radiation-pressure-dominated inner disk suffers convective instability. However, recent simulations have shown that, owing to the magnetic buoyancy, the vertical advection process can significantly contribute to energy transport. In addition, in comparing the simulation results with the local convective stability criterion, no convective instability has been found. In this work, following on from simulations, we revisit the vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated thin disks and include the vertical advection process. Our study indicates a link between the additional energy transport and the convectively stable property. Thus, the vertical advection not only significantly contributes to the energy transport, but it also plays an important role in making the disk convectively stable. Our analyses may help to explain the discrepancy between classic theory and simulations on standard thin disks.

  17. THE ROLE OF TURBULENT MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE FORMATION OF ROTATIONALLY SUPPORTED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star

  18. Debris Disk Studies with the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, David; Matthews, Brenda; Matra, Luca; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Greaves, Jane

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the potential for the ngVLA to advance understanding of debris disks around main-sequence stars. Since the dust-producing planetesimals that replenish these disks through collisions persist only in stable regions like belts and resonances, their locations and physical properties encode essential information about the formation of exoplanetary systems and their dynamical evolution. Observations at long millimeter wavelengths can play a special role because the large grains that dominate the emission are faithful tracers of the dust-producing planetesimals, unlike small grains seen at shorter wavelengths that are rapidly redistributed by stellar radiation and winds. Sensitive observations of debris disks with the ngVLA can (1) reveal structures resulting from otherwise inaccessible planets on wide orbits, (2) test collisional models using spectral slopes to constrain mm/cm grain size distributions, and (3) for select sources, probe the water content of exocomets using the 21 cm HI line.

  19. Hot accretion disks with electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.R.; Lightman, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The hot thermal accretion disks of the 1970s are studied and consideration is given to the effects of electron-positron pairs, which were originally neglected. It is found that disks cooled by internally produced photons have a critical accretion rate above which equilibrium is not possible in a radial annulus centered around r = 10 GM/c-squared, where M is the mass of the central object. This confirms and extends previous work by Kusunose and Takahara. Above the critical rate, pairs are created more rapidly than they can be destroyed. Below the critical rate, there are two solutions to the disk structure, one with a high pair density and one with a low pair density. Depending on the strength of the viscosity, the critical accretion rate corresponds to a critical luminosity of about 3-10 percent of the Eddington limit. 32 refs

  20. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Surface treatment of disk made by ultra-precision diamond turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Yasuo; Kudo, Noboru; Higo, Toshiyasu; Besyo, Koutarou; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Nagai, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    The etching treatment is applied to disk surface of X-band accelerator structures before bonding processes such as diffusion bonding and brazing. The KEK etching process was developed by modifying the process given by SLAC, where KEK-made disks are assembled and bonded as one of the collaborating activities between SLAC and KEK. The surface evaluation of the treated disks was performed by SEM (scanning electron microscope) with its magnification of about X500, in addition to the inspection by eye. The information and treatment process specification are described here. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation of turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, W. A.; Johnson, B. V.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer was conducted to provide an experimental data base that can guide the aerodynamic and thermal design of turbine disks and blade attachments for flow conditions and geometries simulating those of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer of the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large scale model simulating the SSME turbopump drive turbines. These experiments include flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities, flow within the disk cavities, and leakage flows through the blade attachments and labyrinth seals. Air was used to simulate the combustion products in the gas path. Air and carbon dioxide were used to simulate the coolants injected at three locations in the disk cavities. Trace amounts of carbon dioxide were used to determine the source of the gas at selected locations on the rotors, the cavity walls, and the interstage seal. The measurements on the rotor and stationary walls in the forward and aft cavities showed that the coolant effectiveness was 90 percent or greater when the coolant flow rate was greater than the local free disk entrainment flow rate and when room temperature air was used as both coolant and gas path fluid. When a coolant-to-gas-path density ratio of 1.51 was used in the aft cavity, the coolant effectiveness on the rotor was also 90 percent or greater at the aforementioned condition. However, the coolant concentration on the stationary wall was 60 to 80 percent at the aforementioned condition indicating a more rapid mixing of the coolant and flow through the rotor shank passages. This increased mixing rate was attributed to the destabilizing effects of the adverse density gradients.

  5. MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuening

    2011-01-01

    Non-ideal MHD effects play an important role in the gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). This paper addresses the influence of non-ideal MHD effects on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and angular momentum transport in PPDs using the most up-to-date results from numerical simulations. We perform chemistry calculations using a complex reaction network with standard prescriptions for X-ray and cosmic-ray ionizations. We first show that whether or not grains are included, the recombination time is at least one order of magnitude less than the orbital time within five disk scale heights, justifying the validity of local ionization equilibrium and strong coupling limit in PPDs. The full conductivity tensor at different disk radii and heights is evaluated, with the MRI active region determined by requiring that (1) the Ohmic Elsasser number Λ be greater than 1 and (2) the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure β be greater than β min (Am) as identified in the recent study by Bai and Stone, where Am is the Elsasser number for ambipolar diffusion. With full flexibility as to the magnetic field strength, we provide a general framework for estimating the MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot and the magnetic field strength in the MRI active layer. We find that the MRI active layer always exists at any disk radius as long as the magnetic field in PPDs is sufficiently weak. However, the optimistically predicted M-dot in the inner disk (r = 1-10 AU) appears insufficient to account for the observed range of accretion rates in PPDs (around 10 -8 M sun yr -1 ) even in the grain-free calculation, and the presence of solar abundance sub-micron grains further reduces M-dot by one to two orders of magnitude. Moreover, we find that the predicted M-dot increases with radius in the inner disk where accretion is layered, which would lead to runaway mass accumulation if disk accretion is solely driven by the MRI. Our results suggest that stronger sources of ionization and

  6. Promoting innovation and excellence to face the rapid diffusion of novel psychoactive substances in the EU: the outcomes of the ReDNet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Assi, Sulaf; Simonato, Pierluigi; Corkery, John; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Stair, Jacqueline; Fergus, Suzanne; Pezzolesi, Cinzia; Pasinetti, Manuela; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Davey, Zoe; Blaszko, Ursula; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Mervo, Barbara; Furia, Lucia Di; Farre, Maggi; Flesland, Liv; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Shapiro, Harry; Siemann, Holger; Skutle, Arvid; Sferrazza, Elias; Torrens, Marta; Sambola, F; van der Kreeft, Peer; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    The recent emergence of new psychoactive compounds (novel psychoactive substances (NPS)) has raised prominent challenges in the fields of drug policy, substance use research, public health and service provision. The Recreational Drugs European Network project, funded by the European Commission, was implemented to improve the information stream to young people and professionals about effects/risks of NPS by identifying online products and disseminating relevant information through technological tools. Regular multilingual qualitative assessments of websites, drugs fora and other online resources were carried out using the Google search engine in eight languages from collaborating countries. These included the following: the UK, Norway, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Italy and Spain. Products were tested and prevention messages were developed and disseminated via technological tools such as interactive websites, SMS alert, social networking (Facebook, Twitter), Multimedia (You Tube), Smartphone applications (iPhone) and virtual learning environments (Second Life). The Recreational Drugs European Network project established itself as the first Europe-wide prevention programme designed for NPS based on the efficacy of novel information and communication technology-based forms of intervention. More than 650 NPS products and combinations were identified; relevant information was disseminated to target population and advice was given to both European Union/international agencies and national policy makers. Web-monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPS and the use of technological tools can be successfully incorporated in specific prevention programmes. Furthermore, the involvement of multi-disciplinary international partnerships was and continues to be fundamental for responding to such a prominent challenge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KICKED BLACK HOLES: POST-KICK DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s –1 , and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk θ ∼ 45°, matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60° from the vertical.

  8. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. SHORT DISSIPATION TIMES OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS: AN ARTIFACT OF SELECTION EFFECTS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfalzner, Susanne; Steinhausen, Manuel; Menten, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of disks around young stars, a key parameter for understanding planet formation, is most readily determined in young stellar clusters where many relatively coeval stars are located in close proximity. Observational studies seem to show that the disk frequency decreases rapidly with cluster age with <10% of cluster stars retaining their disks for longer than 2-6 Myr. Given that at least half of all stars in the field seem to harbor one or more planets, this would imply extremely fast disk dispersal and rapid planet growth. Here we question the validity of this constraint by demonstrating that the short disk dissipation times inferred to date might have been heavily underestimated by selection effects. Critically, for ages >3 Myr only stars that originally populated the densest areas of very populous clusters, which are prone to disk erosion, are actually considered. This tiny sample may not be representative of the majority of stars. In fact, the higher disk fractions in co-moving groups indicate that it is likely that over 30% of all field stars retain their disks well beyond 10 Myr, leaving ample time for planet growth. Equally, our solar system, with a likely formation time >10 Myr, need no longer be an exception but in fact typical of planetary systems

  10. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  11. SIGNIFICANT ENHANCEMENT OF H{sub 2} FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES UNDER STRONG RAM PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Benjamin; Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-05-10

    We show for the first time that H{sub 2} formation on dust grains can be enhanced in disk galaxies under strong ram pressure (RP). We numerically investigate how the time evolution of H i and H{sub 2} components in disk galaxies orbiting a group/cluster of galaxies can be influenced by the hydrodynamical interaction between the gaseous components of the galaxies and the hot intracluster medium. We find that compression of H i caused by RP increases H{sub 2} formation in disk galaxies before RP rapidly strips H i, cutting off the fuel supply and causing a drop in H{sub 2} density. We also find that the level of this H{sub 2} formation enhancement in a disk galaxy under RP depends on the mass of its host cluster dark matter halo, the initial positions and velocities of the disk galaxy, and the disk inclination angle with respect to the orbital plane. We demonstrate that dust growth is a key factor in the evolution of the H i and H{sub 2} mass in disk galaxies under strong RP. We discuss how the correlation between H{sub 2} fractions and surface gas densities of disk galaxies evolves with time in the galaxies under RP. We also discuss whether galaxy-wide star formation rates (SFRs) in cluster disk galaxies can be enhanced by RP if the SFRs depend on H{sub 2} densities.

  12. CHEMISTRY IN A FORMING PROTOPLANETARY DISK: MAIN ACCRETION PHASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Haruaki [Department of Planetology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Yusuke [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri, E-mail: aikawa@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2016-12-10

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of a star-forming core that evolves from a cold (∼10 K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in ∼10{sup 5} years. A rotationally supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in ∼1.5 × 10{sup 3} SPH particles that end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk, but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and are simply sublimated as the fluid parcels migrate inside the water snow line. On the other hand, various molecules such as carbon chains and complex organic molecules (COMs) are formed in the disk. The COMs abundance sensitively depends on the outcomes of photodissociation and diffusion rates of photofragments in bulk ice mantle. As for S-bearing species, H{sub 2}S ice is abundant in the collapse phase. In the warm regions in the disk, H{sub 2}S is sublimated to be destroyed, while SO, H{sub 2}CS, OCS, and SO{sub 2} become abundant.

  13. CHEMISTRY IN A FORMING PROTOPLANETARY DISK: MAIN ACCRETION PHASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Haruaki; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of a star-forming core that evolves from a cold (∼10 K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in ∼10 5 years. A rotationally supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in ∼1.5 × 10 3 SPH particles that end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk, but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H 2 O, CH 4 , NH 3 , and CH 3 OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and are simply sublimated as the fluid parcels migrate inside the water snow line. On the other hand, various molecules such as carbon chains and complex organic molecules (COMs) are formed in the disk. The COMs abundance sensitively depends on the outcomes of photodissociation and diffusion rates of photofragments in bulk ice mantle. As for S-bearing species, H 2 S ice is abundant in the collapse phase. In the warm regions in the disk, H 2 S is sublimated to be destroyed, while SO, H 2 CS, OCS, and SO 2 become abundant.

  14. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  15. VARIABILITY OF THE INFRARED EXCESS OF EXTREME DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities >10 –2 ) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large protoplanets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 μm infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.

  16. Differential equilibration and intergranular diffusion of trace elements during rapid regional metamorphism: constraints from LA-ICP-MS mapping of a garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F. R.; Gaidies, F.

    2017-12-01

    Trace element zoning contained within a metapelitic garnet population yields information pertaining to a more complex prograde reaction history than is evident in major element zoning patterns and other conventional analyses. In particular, while trace elements may not act as a rate-limiting component for garnet crystallization, their incorporation into garnet growth surfaces provides a nuanced insight into the crystallization history of the population, and the extent of equilibration of trace elements in the matrix. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS raster maps of trace element concentrations from several population-representative, centrally sectioned garnets from a garnet-grade metapelite of the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Equilibrium forward modeling of garnet crystallization and simulation of diffusional modification indicates that the garnet population crystallized rapidly over <1 Myr between 515 °C/4.5 kbar and 565 °C/5.5 kbar, as a consequence of high heating rates during regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism. While the rate of diffusional homogenization of major divalent cations is interpreted to have exceeded the rate of interfacial advance (yielding simple prograde growth zoning), trace element distributions record a more complex transport history. In particular, yttrium and the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) document a transition from an overprinted sigmoidal core to concentric repeated HREE and yttrium annuli in all crystals. This suggests that there was a discrete increase in the length scale of equilibration along the advancing garnet interface at some point in the growth history. However, there is no evidence for a coeval change in HREE transport thorough the intergranular network. Conversely, spiral core-to-rim zoning of chromium indicates the element remains almost completely immobile in the matrix over the duration of garnet growth.

  17. Dust trapping by vortices in transitional disks: evidence for non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.

    2014-01-01

    We study particle trapping at the edge of a gap opened by a planet in a protoplanetary disk. In particular, we explore the effects of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability on particle trapping, using global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations including Lagrangian dust particles. We study disks either in the ideal MHD limit or dominated by ambipolar diffusion (AD) which plays an essential role at the outer regions of a protoplanetary disk. With ideal MHD, strong turbulence (the equivalent viscosity parameter α ∼ 10 –2 ) in disks prevents vortex formation at the edge of the gap opened by a 9 M J planet, and most particles (except the particles that drift fastest) pile up at the outer gap edge almost axisymmetrically. When AD is considered, turbulence is significantly suppressed (α ≲ 10 –3 ), and a large vortex forms at the edge of the planet induced gap, which survives ∼1000 orbits. The vortex can efficiently trap dust particles that span 3 orders of magnitude in size within 100 planetary orbits. We have also carried out two-dimensional hydrodynamical (HD) simulations using viscosity as an approximation to MHD turbulence. These HD simulations can reproduce vortex generation at the gap edge as seen in MHD simulations. Finally, we use our simulation results to generate synthetic images for ALMA dust continuum observations on Oph IRS 48 and HD 142527, which show good agreement with existing observations. Predictions for future ALMA cycle 2 observations have been made. We conclude that the asymmetry in ALMA observations can be explained by dust trapping vortices and the existence of vortices could be the evidence that the outer protoplanetary disks are dominated by AD with α < 10 –3 at the disk midplane.

  18. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  19. Parallel Readout of Optical Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    r(x,y) is the apparent reflectance function of the disk surface including the phase error. The illuminat - ing optics should be chosen so that Er(x,y...of the light uniformly illuminat - ing the chip, Ap = 474\\im 2 is the area of photodiode, and rs is the time required to switch the synapses. Figure...reference beam that is incident from the right. Once the hologram is recorded the input is blocked and the disk is illuminat - ed. Lens LI takes the

  20. The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  1. The fortran programme for the calculation of the absorption and double scattering corrections in cross-section measurements with fast neutrons using the monte Carlo method (1963); Programme fortran pour le calcul des corrections d'absorption et de double diffusion dans les mesures de sections efficaces pour les neutrons rapides par la methode de monte-carlo (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A calculation for double scattering and absorption corrections in fast neutron scattering experiments using Monte-Carlo method is given. Application to cylindrical target is presented in FORTRAN symbolic language. (author) [French] Un calcul des corrections de double diffusion et d'absorption dans les experiences de diffusion de neutrons rapides par la methode de Monte-Carlo est presente. L'application au cas d'une cible cylindrique est traitee en langage symbolique FORTRAN. (auteur)

  2. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  3. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso. Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-06-10

    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10{sup −9} and 9.5 × 10{sup −10} M {sub ⋆} for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆} and (100–150) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆}, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.

  4. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  5. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  6. Rapid optical determination of β-lactamase and antibiotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect β-lactamase and thereby assess activity of β-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (β-LEAF – β-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of β-lactam antibiotics. Results The β-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of β-lactamase production and activity of β-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for β-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of β-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate. Conclusions The study establishes the rapid β-LEAF assay for β-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is β-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs. PMID:24708478

  7. THICK-DISK EVOLUTION INDUCED BY THE GROWTH OF AN EMBEDDED THIN DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina; Kazantzidis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the structural and kinematical properties of simulated thick disks induced by the growth of an embedded thin disk. The thick disks used in the present study originate from cosmologically common 5:1 encounters between initially thin primary disk galaxies and infalling satellites. The growing thin disks are modeled as static gravitational potentials and we explore a variety of growing-disk parameters that are likely to influence the response of thick disks. We find that the final thick-disk properties depend strongly on the total mass and radial scale length of the growing thin disk, and much less sensitively on its growth timescale and vertical scale height as well as the initial sense of thick-disk rotation. Overall, the growth of an embedded thin disk can cause a substantial contraction in both the radial and vertical direction, resulting in a significant decrease in the scale lengths and scale heights of thick disks. Kinematically, a growing thin disk can induce a notable increase in the mean rotation and velocity dispersions of thick-disk stars. We conclude that the reformation of a thin disk via gas accretion may play a significant role in setting the structure and kinematics of thick disks, and thus it is an important ingredient in models of thick-disk formation.

  8. Compact objects and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandford, Roger; Agol, Eric; Broderick, Avery; Heyl, Jeremy; Koopmans, Leon; Lee, Hee-Won

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the spectropolarimetric study of compact objects, specifically black holes (stellar and massive) and neutron stars are reviewed. The lectures are organized around five topics: disks, jets, outflows, neutron stars and black holes. They emphasize physical mechanisms and are

  9. Disk Operating System User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    This document serves the purpose of bringing together in one place most of the information a user needs to use the DDP-516 Disk Operating System, (DOS). DOS is a core resident, one user, console-oriented operating system which allows the user to cont...

  10. Gas Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, Peter; Dent, Bill; Thi, Wing-Fai; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Rice, Ken; Williams, Jonathan; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Brown, Joanna; Kamp, Inga; Pascucci, Ilaria; Alexander, Richard; Roberge, Aki

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes a Splinter Session at the Cool Stars XV conference in St. Andrews with 3 review and 4 contributed talks. The speakers have discussed various approaches to understand the structure and evolution of the gas component in protoplanetary disks. These ranged from observational

  11. On Fallback Disks around Young Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. Ali; Ertan, Ü.; Erkut, M. H.

    2006-08-01

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth, which, along with the initial rotation rate and dipole (and higher multipole) magnetic moments, determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall. This talk reviews the possibilities of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories. Recent observations of a fallback disk and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed.

  12. Mass loss from pre-main-sequence accretion disks. I - The accelerating wind of FU Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Kenyon, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the wind of the pre-main-sequence object FU Orionis arises from the surface of the luminous accretion disk. A disk wind model calculated assuming radiative equilibrium explains the differential behavior of the observed asymmetric absorption-line profiles. The model predicts that strong lines should be asymmetric and blueshifted, while weak lines should be symmetric and double-peaked due to disk rotation, in agreement with observations. We propose that many blueshifted 'shell' absorption features are not produced in a true shell of material, but rather form in a differentially expanding wind that is rapidly rotating. The inference of rapid rotation supports the proposal that pre-main-sequence disk winds are rotationally driven.

  13. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER: IMPLICATIONS FOR GIANT PLANET FORMATION BY DISK INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2009-01-01

    The disk instability mechanism for giant planet formation is based on the formation of clumps in a marginally gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disk, which must lose thermal energy through a combination of convection and radiative cooling if they are to survive and contract to become giant protoplanets. While there is good observational support for forming at least some giant planets by disk instability, the mechanism has become theoretically contentious, with different three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics codes often yielding different results. Rigorous code testing is required to make further progress. Here we present two new analytical solutions for radiative transfer in spherical coordinates, suitable for testing the code employed in all of the Boss disk instability calculations. The testing shows that the Boss code radiative transfer routines do an excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the radial temperature and radiative flux profiles for a spherical cloud with high or moderate optical depths, including the transition from optically thick to optically thin regions. These radial test results are independent of whether the Eddington approximation, diffusion approximation, or flux-limited diffusion approximation routines are employed. The Boss code does an equally excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the vertical (θ) temperature and radiative flux profiles for a disk with a height proportional to the radial distance. These tests strongly support the disk instability mechanism for forming giant planets.

  14. CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS DISKS: DIAGNOSING THE UNSEEN PERTURBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Rd., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Naoz, Smadar; Vican, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Farr, Will M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles’ eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai–Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N -body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai–Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare the results of the Kozai–Lidov excited disk with a simulated disk perturbed by an interior eccentric planet. Finally, we propose two observational tests of a dust disk that can distinguish whether the dust was produced by an exterior brown dwarf or stellar companion or an interior eccentric planet.

  15. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  16. PROTOPLANETARY DISK RESONANCES AND TYPE I MIGRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, David

    2011-01-01

    Waves reflected by the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk are shown to significantly modify Type I migration, even allowing the trapping of planets near the inner disk edge for small planets in a range of disk parameters. This may inform the distribution of planets close to their central stars, as observed recently by the Kepler mission.

  17. A COMMON SOURCE OF ACCRETION DISK TILT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10 -11 M sun disk around a 0.8 M sun compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than ∼ 8 x 10 -11 M sun yr -1 , a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  18. INNER EDGES OF COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS AROUND METAL-RICH WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Garmilla, Jose A., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: garmilla@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A number of metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) are known to host compact, dense particle disks, which are thought to be responsible for metal pollution of these stars. In many such systems, the inner radii of disks inferred from their spectra are so close to the WD that particles directly exposed to starlight must be heated above 1500 K and are expected to be unstable against sublimation. To reconcile this expectation with observations, we explore particle sublimation in H-poor debris disks around WDs. We show that because of the high metal vapor pressure the characteristic sublimation temperature in these disks is 300-400 K higher than in their protoplanetary analogs, allowing particles to survive at higher temperatures. We then look at the structure of the inner edges of debris disks and show that they should generically feature superheated inner rims directly exposed to starlight with temperatures reaching 2500-3500 K. Particles migrating through the rim toward the WD (and rapidly sublimating) shield the disk behind them from strong stellar heating, making the survival of solids possible close to the WD. Our model agrees well with observations of WD+disk systems provided that disk particles are composed of Si-rich material such as olivine, and have sizes in the range {approx}0.03-30 cm.

  19. INNER EDGES OF COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS AROUND METAL-RICH WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Garmilla, José A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) are known to host compact, dense particle disks, which are thought to be responsible for metal pollution of these stars. In many such systems, the inner radii of disks inferred from their spectra are so close to the WD that particles directly exposed to starlight must be heated above 1500 K and are expected to be unstable against sublimation. To reconcile this expectation with observations, we explore particle sublimation in H-poor debris disks around WDs. We show that because of the high metal vapor pressure the characteristic sublimation temperature in these disks is 300-400 K higher than in their protoplanetary analogs, allowing particles to survive at higher temperatures. We then look at the structure of the inner edges of debris disks and show that they should generically feature superheated inner rims directly exposed to starlight with temperatures reaching 2500-3500 K. Particles migrating through the rim toward the WD (and rapidly sublimating) shield the disk behind them from strong stellar heating, making the survival of solids possible close to the WD. Our model agrees well with observations of WD+disk systems provided that disk particles are composed of Si-rich material such as olivine, and have sizes in the range ∼0.03-30 cm.

  20. Inner Edges of Compact Debris Disks around Metal-rich White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Garmilla, José A.

    2012-12-01

    A number of metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) are known to host compact, dense particle disks, which are thought to be responsible for metal pollution of these stars. In many such systems, the inner radii of disks inferred from their spectra are so close to the WD that particles directly exposed to starlight must be heated above 1500 K and are expected to be unstable against sublimation. To reconcile this expectation with observations, we explore particle sublimation in H-poor debris disks around WDs. We show that because of the high metal vapor pressure the characteristic sublimation temperature in these disks is 300-400 K higher than in their protoplanetary analogs, allowing particles to survive at higher temperatures. We then look at the structure of the inner edges of debris disks and show that they should generically feature superheated inner rims directly exposed to starlight with temperatures reaching 2500-3500 K. Particles migrating through the rim toward the WD (and rapidly sublimating) shield the disk behind them from strong stellar heating, making the survival of solids possible close to the WD. Our model agrees well with observations of WD+disk systems provided that disk particles are composed of Si-rich material such as olivine, and have sizes in the range ~0.03-30 cm.

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF A SELF-GRAVITATING PROTOPLANETARY DISK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR DIRECT IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of self-gravity on the hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction of a gaseous disk and discuss the possible signature of the self-gravity that may be captured by direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks in the future. In this paper, we consider a vertically isothermal disk in order to isolate the effects of self-gravity. The specific disk model we consider in this paper is the one with a radial surface density gap, at which the Toomre's Q-parameter of the disk varies rapidly in the radial direction. We calculate the vertical structure of the disk including the effects of self-gravity. We then calculate the scattered light and the dust thermal emission. We find that if the disk is massive enough and the effects of self-gravity come into play, a weak bump-like structure at the gap edge appears in the near-infrared (NIR) scattered light, while no such bump-like structure is seen in the submillimeter (sub-mm) dust continuum image. The appearance of the bump is caused by the variation of the height of the surface in the NIR wavelength. If such a bump-like feature is detected in future direct imaging observations, combined with sub-mm observations, it will give us useful information about the physical states of the disk.

  2. On the Commonality of 10-30 AU Sized Axisymmetric Dust Structures in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, K.; Bergin, E.A.; Blake, G.A.; Cleeves, L.I.; Hogerheijde, R, M.; Salinas, N, V.; Schwarz, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive millimeter-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small-scale structures. Here, we investigate dust structures in the (sub)millimeter continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296, and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution Ataca...

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. Disk Heating, Galactoseismology, and the Formation of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn V. Johnston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep photometric surveys of the Milky Way have revealed diffuse structures encircling our Galaxy far beyond the “classical” limits of the stellar disk. This paper reviews results from our own and other observational programs, which together suggest that, despite their extreme positions, the stars in these structures were formed in our Galactic disk. Mounting evidence from recent observations and simulations implies kinematic connections between several of these distinct structures. This suggests the existence of collective disk oscillations that can plausibly be traced all the way to asymmetries seen in the stellar velocity distribution around the Sun. There are multiple interesting implications of these findings: they promise new perspectives on the process of disk heating; they provide direct evidence for a stellar halo formation mechanism in addition to the accretion and disruption of satellite galaxies; and, they motivate searches of current and near-future surveys to trace these oscillations across the Galaxy. Such maps could be used as dynamical diagnostics in the emerging field of “Galactoseismology”, which promises to model the history of interactions between the Milky Way and its entourage of satellites, as well examine the density of our dark matter halo. As sensitivity to very low surface brightness features around external galaxies increases, many more examples of such disk oscillations will likely be identified. Statistical samples of such features not only encode detailed information about interaction rates and mergers, but also about long sought-after dark matter halo densities and shapes. Models for the Milky Way’s own Galactoseismic history will therefore serve as a critical foundation for studying the weak dynamical interactions of galaxies across the universe.

  5. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN IC 348: THE ROLE OF DISKS IN ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION OF YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these 'disk-locking' theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 μm, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the

  6. Leber congenital amaurosis associated with optic disk neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Daryl; Ciulla, Thomas A

    2003-05-01

    To report an unusual case of optic disk neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Interventional case report. A 16-year-old Caucasian girl with a history of LCA presented with decreased vision in her left eye, diffuse retinal pigmentary abnormalities characteristic of LCA, and hemorrhage over the left optic disk and macula. Six months of follow-up revealed optic disk neovascularization. A small amount of neovascularization was noted in the right eye at 6 months. An extensive systemic evaluation indicated no other cause for the neovascularization. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed in both eyes, and subsequently the neovascularization regressed. Leber congenital amaurosis like retinitis pigmentosa, can rarely be associated with neovascularization of the disk, which is amenable to treatment with peripheral photocoagulation if it does not spontaneously regress.

  7. Angular momentum transfer in steady disk accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatskij, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions of steady disk accretion have been investigated. The disk axisymmetric model is considered. It is shown that the gas is let at the outer boundary of the disk with the azimuthal velocity which is slightly less than the Kepler circular one. Gas possesses the motion quality moment which is transferred from the outer layers of the disk to the surface of the star. The steady state of the disk preserved until the inflow of the moment to the star increases its rotation velocity up to magnitudes close to the critical one

  8. Warm Debris Disks from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    "The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and a similar number of A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates. "

  9. MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures

  10. Fullerenes and disk-fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deza, M; Dutour Sikirić, M; Shtogrin, M I

    2013-01-01

    A geometric fullerene, or simply a fullerene, is the surface of a simple closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron with only 5- and 6-gonal faces. Fullerenes are geometric models for chemical fullerenes, which form an important class of organic molecules. These molecules have been studied intensively in chemistry, physics, crystallography, and so on, and their study has led to the appearance of a vast literature on fullerenes in mathematical chemistry and combinatorial and applied geometry. In particular, several generalizations of the notion of a fullerene have been given, aiming at various applications. Here a new generalization of this notion is proposed: an n-disk-fullerene. It is obtained from the surface of a closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron which has one n-gonal face and all other faces 5- and 6-gonal, by removing the n-gonal face. Only 5- and 6-disk-fullerenes correspond to geometric fullerenes. The notion of a geometric fullerene is therefore generalized from spheres to compact simply connected two-dimensional manifolds with boundary. A two-dimensional surface is said to be unshrinkable if it does not contain belts, that is, simple cycles consisting of 6-gons each of which has two neighbours adjacent at a pair of opposite edges. Shrinkability of fullerenes and n-disk-fullerenes is investigated. Bibliography: 87 titles

  11. A Pulsar and a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Recent, unusual X-ray observations from our galactic neighbor, the Small Magellanic Cloud, have led to an interesting model for SXP 214, a pulsar in a binary star system.Artists illustration of the magnetic field lines of a pulsar, a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. [NASA]An Intriguing BinaryAn X-ray pulsar is a magnetized, rotating neutron star in a binary system with a stellar companion. Material is fed from the companion onto the neutron star, channeled by the objects magnetic fields onto a hotspot thats millions of degrees. This hotspot rotating past our line of sight is what produces the pulsations that we observe from X-ray pulsars.Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SXP 214 is a transient X-ray pulsar in a binary with a Be-type star. This star is spinning so quickly that material is thrown off of it to form a circumstellar disk.Recently, a team of authors led by JaeSub Hong (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have presented new Chandra X-ray observations of SXP 214, tracking it for 50 ks (~14 hours) in January 2013. These observations reveal some very unexpected behavior for this pulsar.X-ray PuzzleThe energy distribution of the X-ray emission from SXP 214 over time. Dark shades or blue colors indicate high counts, and light shades or yellow colors indicate low counts. Lower-energy X-ray emission appeared only later, after about 20 ks. [Hong et al. 2016]Three interesting pieces of information came from the Chandra observations:SXP 214s rotation period was measured to be 211.5 s an increase in the spin rate since the discovery measurement of a 214-second period. Pulsars usually spin down as they lose angular momentum over time so what caused this one to spin up?Its overall X-ray luminosity steadily increased over the 50 ks of observations.Its spectrum became gradually softer (lower energy) over time; in the first 20 ks, the spectrum only consisted of hard X-ray photons above 3 keV, but after 20 ks, softer X-ray photons below 2 ke

  12. Fullerenes and disk-fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, M.; Dutour Sikirić, M.; Shtogrin, M. I.

    2013-08-01

    A geometric fullerene, or simply a fullerene, is the surface of a simple closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron with only 5- and 6-gonal faces. Fullerenes are geometric models for chemical fullerenes, which form an important class of organic molecules. These molecules have been studied intensively in chemistry, physics, crystallography, and so on, and their study has led to the appearance of a vast literature on fullerenes in mathematical chemistry and combinatorial and applied geometry. In particular, several generalizations of the notion of a fullerene have been given, aiming at various applications. Here a new generalization of this notion is proposed: an n-disk-fullerene. It is obtained from the surface of a closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron which has one n-gonal face and all other faces 5- and 6-gonal, by removing the n-gonal face. Only 5- and 6-disk-fullerenes correspond to geometric fullerenes. The notion of a geometric fullerene is therefore generalized from spheres to compact simply connected two-dimensional manifolds with boundary. A two-dimensional surface is said to be unshrinkable if it does not contain belts, that is, simple cycles consisting of 6-gons each of which has two neighbours adjacent at a pair of opposite edges. Shrinkability of fullerenes and n-disk-fullerenes is investigated. Bibliography: 87 titles.

  13. THE EDGE OF THE YOUNG GALACTIC DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vazquez, Ruben A.; Costa, Edgardo; Perren, Gabriel; Moitinho, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report and discuss the detection of two distant diffuse stellar groups in the third Galactic quadrant. They are composed of young stars, with spectral types ranging from late O to late B, and lie at galactocentric distances between 15 and 20 kpc. These groups are located in the area of two cataloged open clusters (VdB-Hagen 04 and Ruprecht 30), projected toward the Vela-Puppis constellations, and within the core of the Canis Major overdensity. Their reddening and distances have been estimated by analyzing their color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, derived from deep UBV photometry. The existence of young star aggregates at such extreme distances from the Galactic center challenges the commonly accepted scenario in which the Galactic disk has a sharp cutoff at about 14 kpc from the Galactic center and indicates that it extends to much greater distances (as also supported by the recent detection of CO molecular complexes well beyond this distance). While the groups we find in the area of Ruprecht 30 are compatible with the Orion and Norma-Cygnus spiral arms, respectively, the distant group we identify in the region of VdB-Hagen 04 lies in the external regions of the Norma-Cygnus arm, at a galactocentric distance (∼20 kpc) where no young stars have been detected so far in the optical.

  14. An ALMA Survey of Protoplanetary Disks in the σ Orionis Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Marel, N. van der [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Manara, C. F. [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Miotello, A.; Dishoeck, E. F. van [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Facchini, S. [Max-Plank-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Testi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    The σ  Orionis cluster is important for studying protoplanetary disk evolution, as its intermediate age (∼3–5 Myr) is comparable to the median disk lifetime. We use ALMA to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of dust and gas in 92 protoplanetary disks around σ  Orionis members with M {sub *} ≳ 0.1  M {sub ⊙}. Our observations cover the 1.33 mm continuum and several CO J  = 2–1 lines: out of 92 sources, we detect 37 in the millimeter continuum and 6 in {sup 12}CO, 3 in {sup 13}CO, and none in C{sup 18}O. Using the continuum emission to estimate dust mass, we find only 11 disks with M {sub dust} ≳ 10  M {sub ⊕}, indicating that after only a few Myr of evolution most disks lack sufficient dust to form giant planet cores. Stacking the individually undetected continuum sources limits their average dust mass to 5×  lower than that of the faintest detected disk, supporting theoretical models that indicate rapid dissipation once disk clearing begins. Comparing the protoplanetary disk population in σ  Orionis to those of other star-forming regions supports the steady decline in average dust mass and the steepening of the M {sub dust}– M {sub *} relation with age; studying these evolutionary trends can inform the relative importance of different disk processes during key eras of planet formation. External photoevaporation from the central O9 star is influencing disk evolution throughout the region: dust masses clearly decline with decreasing separation from the photoionizing source, and the handful of CO detections exist at projected separations of >1.5 pc. Collectively, our findings indicate that giant planet formation is inherently rare and/or well underway by a few Myr of age.

  15. OT1_ipascucc_1: Understanding the Origin of Transition Disks via Disk Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, I.

    2010-07-01

    Transition disks are a distinguished group of few Myr-old systems caught in the phase of dispersing their inner dust disk. Three different processes have been proposed to explain this inside-out clearing: grain growth, photoevaporation driven by the central star, and dynamical clearing by a forming giant planet. Which of these processes lead to a transition disk? Distinguishing between them requires the combined knowledge of stellar accretion rates and disk masses. We propose here to use 43.8 hours of PACS spectroscopy to detect the [OI] 63 micron emission line from a sample of 21 well-known transition disks with measured mass accretion rates. We will use this line, in combination with ancillary CO millimeter lines, to measure their gas disk mass. Because gas dominates the mass of protoplanetary disks our approach and choice of lines will enable us to trace the bulk of the disk mass that resides beyond tens of AU from young stars. Our program will quadruple the number of transition disks currently observed with Herschel in this setting and for which disk masses can be measured. We will then place the transition and the ~100 classical/non-transition disks of similar age (from the Herschel KP "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems") in the mass accretion rate-disk mass diagram with two main goals: 1) reveal which gaps have been created by grain growth, photoevaporation, or giant planet formation and 2) from the statistics, determine the main disk dispersal mechanism leading to a transition disk.

  16. Millimetre spectral indices of transition disks and their relation to the cavity radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, P.; Benisty, M.; Birnstiel, T.; Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.; Henning, T.; Testi, L.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Transition disks are protoplanetary disks with inner depleted dust cavities that are excellent candidates for investigating the dust evolution when there is a pressure bump. A pressure bump at the outer edge of the cavity allows dust grains from the outer regions to stop their rapid inward migration towards the star and to efficiently grow to millimetre sizes. Dynamical interactions with planet(s) have been one of the most exciting theories to explain the clearing of the inner disk. Aims: We look for evidence of millimetre dust particles in transition disks by measuring their spectral index αmm with new and available photometric data. We investigate the influence of the size of the dust depleted cavity on the disk integrated millimetre spectral index. Methods: We present the 3-mm (100 GHz) photometric observations carried out with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of four transition disks: LkHα 330, UX Tau A, LRLL 31, and LRLL 67. We used the available values of their fluxes at 345 GHz to calculate their spectral index, as well as the spectral index for a sample of twenty transition disks. We compared the observations with two kinds of models. In the first set of models, we considered coagulation and fragmentation of dust in a disk in which a cavity is formed by a massive planet located at different positions. The second set of models assumes disks with truncated inner parts at different radii and with power-law dust-size distributions, where the maximum size of grains is calculated considering turbulence as the source of destructive collisions. Results: We show that the integrated spectral index is higher for transition disks (TD) than for regular protoplanetary disks (PD) with mean values of bar{αmmTD} = 2.70 ± 0.13 and bar{αmmPD} = 2.20 ± 0.07 respectively. For transition disks, the probability that the measured spectral index is positively correlated with the cavity radius is 95%. High angular resolution imaging of transition disks is needed to

  17. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  18. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Abramowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.

  19. Fast disk array for image storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Zhu, Zhichun; Jin, Hai; Zhang, Jiangling

    1997-01-01

    A fast disk array is designed for the large continuous image storage. It includes a high speed data architecture and the technology of data striping and organization on the disk array. The high speed data path which is constructed by two dual port RAM and some control circuit is configured to transfer data between a host system and a plurality of disk drives. The bandwidth can be more than 100 MB/s if the data path based on PCI (peripheral component interconnect). The organization of data stored on the disk array is similar to RAID 4. Data are striped on a plurality of disk, and each striping unit is equal to a track. I/O instructions are performed in parallel on the disk drives. An independent disk is used to store the parity information in the fast disk array architecture. By placing the parity generation circuit directly on the SCSI (or SCSI 2) bus, the parity information can be generated on the fly. It will affect little on the data writing in parallel on the other disks. The fast disk array architecture designed in the paper can meet the demands of the image storage.

  20. THE ROLE OF TINY GRAINS ON THE ACCRETION PROCESS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuening

    2011-01-01

    Tiny grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to dramatically reduce the coupling between the gas and magnetic fields in weakly ionized gas such as in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) because they provide a tremendous surface area to recombine free electrons. The presence of tiny grains in PPDs thus raises the question of whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is able to drive rapid accretion consistent with observations. Charged tiny grains have similar conduction properties as ions, whose presence leads to qualitatively new behaviors in the conductivity tensor, characterized by n-bar /n e >1, where n e and n-bar denote the number densities of free electrons and all other charged species, respectively. In particular, Ohmic conductivity becomes dominated by charged grains rather than by electrons when n-bar /n e exceeds about 10 3 , and Hall and ambipolar diffusion (AD) coefficients are reduced by a factor of ( n-bar /n e ) 2 in the AD-dominated regime relative to that in the Ohmic regime. Applying the methodology of Bai, we find that in PPDs, when PAHs are sufficiently abundant (∼> 10 -9 per H 2 molecule), there exists a transition radius r trans of about 10-20 AU, beyond which the MRI active layer extends to the disk midplane. At r trans , the optimistically predicted MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that in the grain-free case, which is too small compared with the observed rates, but is in general no smaller than the predicted M-dot with solar-abundance 0.1 μm grains. At r > r trans , we find that, remarkably, the predicted M-dot exceeds the grain-free case due to a net reduction of AD by charged tiny grains and reaches a few times 10 -8 M sun yr -1 . This is sufficient to account for the observed M-dot in transitional disks. Larger grains (∼> 0.1 μm) are too massive to reach such high abundance as tiny grains and to facilitate the accretion process.

  1. Evolution of disk galaxies and the origin of SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.; Tinsley, B.M.; Caldwell, C.N.

    1980-01-01

    We reconsider the relation between spiral and SO galaxies in the light of recent data on the colors and morphology of disk systems, and on the content of clusters at different redshifts. Star formation will strongly deplete the gas in most spirals in a fraction of the Hubble time, so we suggest that the gas in spirals has been replenished by infall from residual envelopes, probably including gas-rich companions and tidal debris. SO's may then be disk systems that lost their gas-rich envelopes at an early stage and consumed their remaining gas by star formation. This picture is consistent with the color of SO's if most of their star formation stopped at least a few gigayears ago, and it is consistent with their small disk-to-bulge ratios relative to spirals, since this is a direct result of the early truncation of star formation. Numerical simulations show that the gas envelopes of disk galaxies in clusters are largely stripped away when the clusters collapse, but star formation can continue in the spirals for several gigayears while their remaining disk gas is consumed. These results can explain the blue galaxies observed by Butcher and Oemler in two condensed clusters at zapprox.0.4: these clusters are seen just before most of their galaxies run out of gas, so that star formation is still occurring in them but will soon die out, causing the spirals to evolve into SO's with normal present colors. A rapid evolution of the galaxy content of condensed clusters is predicted at moderate redshifts, ranging from a large fraction of blue galaxies at zapprox.0.4 to very few at zapprox.0

  2. Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: samadimojarad@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

  3. Planet Formation in Disks with Inclined Binary Companions: Can Primordial Spin-Orbit Misalignment be Produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.

  4. ON THE COMMONALITY OF 10–30 AU SIZED AXISYMMETRIC DUST STRUCTURES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ke; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail

    2016-01-01

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive millimeter-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small-scale structures. Here, we investigate dust structures in the (sub)millimeter continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296, and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations to date. We retrieve the surface brightness distributions using synthesized images and fitting visibilities with analytical functions. We find that the continuum emission of the four disks is ∼axisymmetric but rich in 10–30 AU-sized radial structures, possibly due to physical gaps, surface density enhancements, or localized dust opacity variations within the disks. These results suggest that small-scale axisymmetric dust structures are likely to be common, as a result of ubiquitous processes in disk evolution and planet formation. Compared with recent spatially resolved observations of CO snow lines in these same disks, all four systems show enhanced continuum emission from regions just beyond the CO condensation fronts, potentially suggesting a causal relationship between dust growth/trapping and snow lines

  5. ON THE COMMONALITY OF 10–30 AU SIZED AXISYMMETRIC DUST STRUCTURES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schwarz, Kamber R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cleeves, L. Ilsedore [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail, E-mail: kezhang@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-02-10

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive millimeter-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small-scale structures. Here, we investigate dust structures in the (sub)millimeter continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296, and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations to date. We retrieve the surface brightness distributions using synthesized images and fitting visibilities with analytical functions. We find that the continuum emission of the four disks is ∼axisymmetric but rich in 10–30 AU-sized radial structures, possibly due to physical gaps, surface density enhancements, or localized dust opacity variations within the disks. These results suggest that small-scale axisymmetric dust structures are likely to be common, as a result of ubiquitous processes in disk evolution and planet formation. Compared with recent spatially resolved observations of CO snow lines in these same disks, all four systems show enhanced continuum emission from regions just beyond the CO condensation fronts, potentially suggesting a causal relationship between dust growth/trapping and snow lines.

  6. Inefficient volatile loss from the Moon-forming disk: Reconciling the giant impact hypothesis and a wet Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    The Earth's Moon is thought to have formed from a circumterrestrial disk generated by a giant impact between the proto-Earth and an impactor approximately 4.5 billion years ago. Since this impact was energetic, the disk would have been hot (4000-6000 K) and partially vaporized (20-100% by mass). This formation process is thought to be responsible for the geochemical observation that the Moon is depleted in volatiles (e.g., K and Na). To explain this volatile depletion, some studies suggest the Moon-forming disk was rich in hydrogen, which was dissociated from water, and it escaped from the disk as a hydrodynamic wind accompanying heavier volatiles (hydrodynamic escape). This model predicts that the Moon should be significantly depleted in water, but this appears to contradict some of the recently measured lunar water abundances and D/H ratios that suggest that the Moon is more water-rich than previously thought. Alternatively, the Moon could have retained its water if the upper parts (low pressure regions) of the disk were dominated by heavier species because hydrogen would have had to diffuse out from the heavy-element rich disk, and therefore the escape rate would have been limited by this slow diffusion process (diffusion-limited escape). To identify which escape the disk would have experienced and to quantify volatiles loss from the disk, we compute the thermal structure of the Moon-forming disk considering various bulk water abundances (100-1000 ppm) and mid-plane disk temperatures (2500-4000 K). Assuming that the disk consists of silicate (SiO2 or Mg2SiO4) and water and that the disk is in the chemical equilibrium, our calculations show that the upper parts of the Moon-forming disk are dominated by heavy atoms or molecules (SiO and O at Tmid > 2500- 2800 K and H2O at Tmid lost water and hydrogen would have been small compared to the initial abundance assumed. This result indicates that the giant impact hypothesis can be consistent with the water-rich Moon

  7. Dynamics of dense particle disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Tremaine, S.; Toronto Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation of mechanical equilibrium and collisional transport processes in dense, differentially rotating particle disks is based on the Enskog (1922) theory of dense, hard sphere gases, with the single exception that the spheres are inelastic. The viscous instability suggested as a source of Saturn B ring structure does not arise in the models presented, although the ring may be subject to a phase transition analogous to the liquid-solid transition observed in molecular dynamics simulations of elastic hard spheres. In such a case, the ring would alternately exhibit zero-shear, or solid, and high shear, or liquid, zones. 29 references

  8. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G

    2006-01-01

    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  9. Rotation of gas above the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Lominadze, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The galactic disk is modeled by an oblate spheroid with confocal spherodial isodensity surfaces. An explicit analytic expression is found for the angular velocity of the gas outside the disk. The parameters of a three-component model of a spiral galaxy (oblate spheroid with central hole, bulge, and massive corona) are chosen in such a way as to obtain in the disk a two-hump rotation curve (as in the Galaxy, M 31, and M 81). It is shown that at heights absolute value z ≤ 2 kpc the gas rotates in the same manner as the disk. However, at greater heights the rotation curve ceases to have two humps. Allowance for the pressure gradient of the gas slightly changes the rotation curve directly above the disk (r r/sub disk/)

  10. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  11. Circumstellar Gas in Young Planetary Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    Circumstellar (CS) disks orbiting young stars fall into two categories: primordial disks, composed of unprocessed interstellar dust and gas, and debris disks, produced by the destruction of solid planetary bodies. In the first class, the most abundant gas is H_2; in the second, it appears that the H_2 gas has disappeared, possibly through incorporation into gas giant planets. The lifetime of H_2 gas in a CS disk is therefore of great importance, as it dictates the timescale for the formation of giant planets. FUSE observations of H_2 in CS disk systems have shown that FUV absorption spectroscopy may sensitively probe for small amounts of gas along the line of sight to the star. Most importantly, the FUSE non-detection of H_2 gas in the Beta Pictoris disk suggests that the primordial gas lifetime is less than about 12 Myr, and that gas giant planets must form very quickly. However, this suggestion is based on one system, and needs to be tested in additional systems with a range of ages, especially since there are indications that age is not the only factor in the evolution of a CS disk. We propose for FUSE observations of 3 additional debris disk systems, Fomalhaut, HD3003, and HD2884. Fomalhaut is an intermediate age debris disk, one of the Fabulous Four CS disks first discovered in 1984. The other two disks are younger, with ages similar to that of Beta Pic. All three stars are brighter in the FUV than Beta Pic, permitting us to sensitively probe for traces of H_2 gas. We will also measure the amount of secondary atomic gas produced from planetary bodies in these disks, in an effort to understand the entire evolution of CS gas in young planetary systems.

  12. MOLECULAR GAS IN YOUNG DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Kiss, Cs.; Juhasz, A.; Kospal, A.; Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.; Henning, Th.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J = 3-2 survey with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities of HD21997 and 49 Ceti are not particularly high, these objects seem to harbor the most extended disks within our sample. The double-peaked profiles of HD21997 were reproduced by a Keplerian disk model combined with the LIME radiative transfer code. Based on their similarities, 49 Ceti and HD21997 may be the first representatives of a so far undefined new class of relatively old (∼>8 Myr), gaseous dust disks. From our results, neither primordial origin nor steady secondary production from icy planetesimals can unequivocally explain the presence of CO gas in the disk of HD21997.

  13. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  14. Disk access controller for Multi 8 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segalard, Jean

    1970-01-01

    After having presented the initial characteristics and weaknesses of the software provided for the control of a memory disk coupled with a Multi 8 computer, the author reports the development and improvement of this controller software. He presents the different constitutive parts of the computer and the operation of the disk coupling and of the direct access to memory. He reports the development of the disk access controller: software organisation, loader, subprograms and statements

  15. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  16. Thermal Comptonization in standard accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Molendi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Using the theory of geometrically thin accretion disks (where the effects of viscosity are parametrized in terms of the total pressure, viscosity parameter, α) equations are presented for the innermost region of the disk (where the pressure is due to radiation, and the main source of opacity is Thompson scattering). It is important to stress that the four equations can be solved without making use of an equation for the temperature. This is not true for the other regions of the disk. An equation given is used to determine the temperature, assuming that the disk is homogeneous and isothermal in the vertical direction. (author)

  17. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  18. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  19. The Stability of Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the Bayesian posterior. Marginalizing over all galaxies, we find a median value of QRW = 2.0±0.9 at 1.5 scale lengths. We also find that QRW is anti-correlated with the star-formation rate surface density (Σ*), which can be predicted using a closed set of empirical scaling relations. Finally, we find that the star-formation efficiency (Σ*/Σg) is correlated with Σ* and weakly anti-correlated with QRW. The former is consistent with an equilibrium prediction of Σ*/Σg ∝ Σ*1/2. Despite its order-of-magnitude range, we find no correlation of Σ*/ΣgΣ*1/2 with any other physical quantity derived by our study.

  20. Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Haapanala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ice clouds on solar disk and circumsolar radiances is investigated using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The monochromatic direct and diffuse radiances are simulated at angles of 0 to 8° from the center of the sun. Input data for the model are derived from measurements conducted during the 2010 Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS campaign together with state-of-the-art databases of optical properties of ice crystals and aerosols. For selected cases, the simulated radiances are compared with ground-based radiance measurements obtained by the Sun and Aureole Measurements (SAM instrument. First, the sensitivity of the radiances to the ice cloud properties and aerosol optical thickness is addressed. The angular dependence of the disk and circumsolar radiances is found to be most sensitive to assumptions about ice crystal roughness (or, more generally, non-ideal features of ice crystals and size distribution, with ice crystal habit playing a somewhat smaller role. Second, in comparisons with SAM data, the ice cloud optical thickness is adjusted for each case so that the simulated radiances agree closely (i.e., within 3 % with the measured disk radiances. Circumsolar radiances at angles larger than ≈ 3° are systematically underestimated when assuming smooth ice crystals, whereas the agreement with the measurements is better when rough ice crystals are assumed. Our results suggest that it may well be possible to infer the particle roughness directly from ground-based SAM measurements. In addition, the results show the necessity of correcting the ground-based measurements of direct radiation for the presence of diffuse radiation in the instrument's field of view, in particular in the presence of ice clouds.

  1. Conservative diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)

  2. ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J.

    2012-01-01

    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  3. [The possibilities for diagnostics of prescription of death coming based on the changes in the lumbar intervertebral disks (the comparison of the morphological, immunohistochemical and topographical findings)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byval'tsev, V A; Stepanov, I A; Semenov, A V; Perfil'ev, D V; Belykh, E G; Bardonova, L A; Nikiforov, S B; Sudakov, N P; Bespyatykh, I V; Antipina, S L

    The objective of the present study was the comprehensive analysis of the postmortem changes in the lumbar intervertebral disks within different periods after death. A total of seven vertebromotor segments were distinguished in the lumbosacral region of the vertebral column based on the examination of 7 corpses. All these segments were divided into three groups in accordance with the prescription of death coming as follows: up to 12 hours (group 1), between 12 and 24 hours (group 2), and between 24 and 36 hours (group 3) after death. The models of the segments thus obtained were subjected to the study by means of diffusion weighted MRI. The removed intervertebral disks were used for morphological and immunohistochemical investigations. The comparison of the diffusion coefficients (DI) revealed the significant difference between the intervertebral disks assigned to groups 1 and 2 (p<0.01). The number of the cells in the pulpal core, the vertebral end plate, and the fibrous ring in all the above groups of the intervertebral disks was significantly reduced (p<0.01). The analysis of the correlation dependence between cell density and diffusion coefficients has demonstrated the well apparent relationship between these characteristics of the intervertebral disks comprising groups 1 and 2. It is concluded that diffusion weighted MRI in the combination with the calculation of diffusion coefficients for the intervertebral disks provides a tool for diagnostics of prescription of death coming as confirmed by the results of the morphometric studies and immunohistochemical analysis.

  4. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. RADIAL DEPENDENCE AND GLOBAL PICTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Xuening, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects play a crucial role in determining the mechanism and efficiency of angular momentum transport as well as the level of turbulence in protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are the key to understanding PPD evolution and planet formation. It was shown in our previous work that at 1 AU, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed when both ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD) are taken into account, resulting in a laminar flow with accretion driven by magnetocentrifugal wind. In this work, we study the radial dependence of the laminar wind solution using local shearing-box simulations. The scaling relation on the angular momentum transport for the laminar wind is obtained, and we find that the wind-driven accretion rate can be approximated as M-dot approx. 0.91 x 10{sup -8}R{sub AU}{sup 1.21}(B{sub p}/10 mG){sup 0.93} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where B{sub p} is the strength of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field threading the disk. The result is independent of disk surface density. Four criteria are outlined for the existence of the laminar wind solution: (1) ohmic resistivity dominated the midplane region, (2) the AD-dominated disk upper layer, (3) the presence of a (not too weak) net vertical magnetic flux, and (4) sufficiently well-ionized gas beyond the disk surface. All these criteria are likely to be met in the inner region of the disk from {approx}0.3 AU to about 5-10 AU for typical PPD accretion rates. Beyond this radius, the angular momentum transport is likely to proceed due to a combination of the MRI and disk wind, and eventually completely dominated by the MRI (in the presence of strong AD) in the outer disk. Our simulation results provide key ingredients for a new paradigm on the accretion processes in PPDs.

  5. SIMULATING THE FORMATION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS. I. RADIATIVE FEEDBACK AND ACCRETION DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kuiper, Rolf [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Banerjee, Robi, E-mail: klassm@mcmaster.ca [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-20

    We present radiation hydrodynamic simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with initial masses of 30, 100, and 200 M {sub ⊙}. We follow their gravitational collapse and the formation of a massive protostar and protostellar accretion disk. We employ a new hybrid radiative feedback method blending raytracing techniques with flux-limited diffusion for a more accurate treatment of the temperature and radiative force. In each case, the disk that forms becomes Toomre-unstable and develops spiral arms. This occurs between 0.35 and 0.55 freefall times and is accompanied by an increase in the accretion rate by a factor of 2–10. Although the disk becomes unstable, no other stars are formed. In the case of our 100 and 200 M {sub ⊙} simulations, the star becomes highly super-Eddington and begins to drive bipolar outflow cavities that expand outwards. These radiatively driven bubbles appear stable, and appear to be channeling gas back onto the protostellar accretion disk. Accretion proceeds strongly through the disk. After 81.4 kyr of evolution, our 30 M {sub ⊙} simulation shows a star with a mass of 5.48 M {sub ⊙} and a disk of mass 3.3 M {sub ⊙}, while our 100 M {sub ⊙} simulation forms a 28.8 M {sub ⊙} mass star with a 15.8 M {sub ⊙} disk over the course of 41.6 kyr, and our 200 M {sub ⊙} simulation forms a 43.7 M {sub ⊙} star with an 18 M {sub ⊙} disk in 21.9 kyr. In the absence of magnetic fields or other forms of feedback, the masses of the stars in our simulation do not appear to be limited by their own luminosities.

  6. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  7. Attention Novices: Friendly Intro to Shiny Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardes, D'Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of how optical storage technologies--videodisk, Write-Once disks, and CD-ROM CD-I disks are built into and controlled via DEC, Apple, Atari, Amiga, and IBM PC compatible microcomputers. Several available products are noted and a list of producers is included. (EM)

  8. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  9. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  10. Improper colouring of (random) unit disk graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, R.J.; Müller, T.; Sereni, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    For any graph G, the k-improper chromatic number ¿k(G) is the smallest number of colours used in a colouring of G such that each colour class induces a subgraph of maximum degree k. We investigate ¿k for unit disk graphs and random unit disk graphs to generalise results of McDiarmid and Reed

  11. A PRIMER ON UNIFYING DEBRIS DISK MORPHOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  12. A PRIMER ON UNIFYING DEBRIS DISK MORPHOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  13. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  14. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  15. Recent development of disk lasers at TRUMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Sven-Silvius; Gottwald, Tina; Kuhn, Vincent; Ackermann, Matthias; Bauer, Dominik; Scharun, Michael; Killi, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The disk laser is one of the most important laser concepts for today's industrial laser market. Offering high brilliance at low cost, high optical efficiency and great application flexibility the disk laser paved the way for many industrial laser applications. Over the past years power and brightness increased and the disk laser turned out to be a very versatile laser source, not only for welding but also for cutting. Both, the quality and speed of cutting are superior to CO2-based lasers for a vast majority of metals, and, most important, in a broad thickness range. In addition, due to the insensitivity against back reflections the disk laser is well suited for cutting highly reflective metal such as brass or copper. These advantages facilitate versatile cutting machines and explain the high and growing demand for disk lasers for applications besides welding applications that can be observed today. From a today's perspective the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over fiber lasers or direct diode lasers. This paper will give insight in the latest progress in kilowatt class cw disk laser technology at TRUMPF and will discuss recent power scaling results as well.

  16. Disk Galaxies : Building Blocks of the Universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In my talk I look at the origin of disk galaxies from the theoretical perspective. In particular I look at simple ways to use the properties of disk galaxies, and their evolution, to test our current paradigm for galaxy formation within the CDM scenario.

  17. Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets in scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.

    2017-01-01

    High-contrast imaging facilitates the direct detection of protoplanetary disks in scattered light and self-luminous exoplanets on long-period orbits. The combined power of extreme adaptive optics and differential imaging techniques delivers high spatial resolution images of disk morphologies down to

  18. 10 MB disk platter from CDC 7638

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic disk was one of three which interfaced with various Control Data machines. This single platter came from a Control Data 7638 Disk Storage Subsystem and could contain up to 10MB - about the size of a few MP4's on your iPod.

  19. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danila, Bogdan [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Kovacs, Zoltan

    2015-05-15

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)

  20. Pebble Accretion in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyan; Bai, Xue-Ning; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2017-09-01

    It has been realized in recent years that the accretion of pebble-sized dust particles onto planetary cores is an important mode of core growth, which enables the formation of giant planets at large distances and assists planet formation in general. The pebble accretion theory is built upon the orbit theory of dust particles in a laminar protoplanetary disk (PPD). For sufficiently large core mass (in the “Hill regime”), essentially all particles of appropriate sizes entering the Hill sphere can be captured. However, the outer regions of PPDs are expected to be weakly turbulent due to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), where turbulent stirring of particle orbits may affect the efficiency of pebble accretion. We conduct shearing-box simulations of pebble accretion with different levels of MRI turbulence (strongly turbulent assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics, weakly turbulent in the presence of ambipolar diffusion, and laminar) and different core masses to test the efficiency of pebble accretion at a microphysical level. We find that accretion remains efficient for marginally coupled particles (dimensionless stopping time {τ }s˜ 0.1{--}1) even in the presence of strong MRI turbulence. Though more dust particles are brought toward the core by the turbulence, this effect is largely canceled by a reduction in accretion probability. As a result, the overall effect of turbulence on the accretion rate is mainly reflected in the changes in the thickness of the dust layer. On the other hand, we find that the efficiency of pebble accretion for strongly coupled particles (down to {τ }s˜ 0.01) can be modestly reduced by strong turbulence for low-mass cores.

  1. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: faus@mit.edu [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-12-05

    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  2. Chemical evolution of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Gilmore, G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of enriched material in the stars and gas of their Galaxy contains information pertaining to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way from its formation epoch to the present day, and provides general constraints on theories of galaxy formation. The separate stellar components of the Galaxy cannot readily be understood if treated in isolation, but a reasonably self-consistent model for Galactic chemical evolution may be found if one considers together the chemical properties of the extreme spheroid, thick disk and thin disk populations of the Galaxy. The three major stellar components of the Galaxy are characterized by their distinct spatial distributions, metallicity structure, and kinematics, with the newly-identified thick disk being approximately three times more massive than the classical metal-poor, non-rotating extreme spheroid. Stellar evolution in the thick disk straightforwardly provides the desired pre-enrichment for resolution of the thin disk G dwarf problem

  3. Hydrodynamical winds from a geometrically thin disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Hydrodynamical winds emanating from the surface of a geometrically thin disk under the gravitational field of the central object are examined. The attention is focused on the transonic nature of the flow. For a given configuration of streamlines, the flow fields are divided into three regions: the inner region where the gas near the disk plane is gravitationally bound to form a corona; the intermediate wind region where multiple critical points appear and the gas flows out from the disk passing through critical points; and the outer region where the gas is unbound to escape to infinity without passing through critical points. This behavior of disk winds is due to the shape of the gravitational potential of the central object along the streamline and due to the energy source distribution at the flow base on the disk plane where the potential in finite. (author)

  4. Disk Evolution and the Fate of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee; Ciesla, Fred; Gressel, Oliver; Alexander, Richard

    2017-10-01

    We review the general theoretical concepts and observational constraints on the distribution and evolution of water vapor and ice in protoplanetary disks, with a focus on the Solar System. Water is expected to freeze out at distances greater than 1-3 AU from solar-type central stars; more precise estimates are difficult to obtain due to uncertainties in the complex processes involved in disk evolution, including dust growth, settling, and radial drift, and the level of turbulence and viscous dissipation within disks. Interferometric observations are now providing constraints on the positions of CO snow lines, but extrapolation to the unresolved regions where water ice sublimates will require much better theoretical understanding of mass and angular momentum transport in disks as well as more refined comparison of observations with sophisticated disk models.

  5. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  6. THE DARK DISK OF THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Chris W.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    Massive satellite accretions onto early galactic disks can lead to the deposition of dark matter in disk-like configurations that co-rotate with the galaxy. This phenomenon has potentially dramatic consequences for dark matter detection experiments. We utilize focused, high-resolution simulations of accretion events onto disks designed to be Galaxy analogues, and compare the resultant disks to the morphological and kinematic properties of the Milky Way's thick disk in order to bracket the range of co-rotating accreted dark matter. In agreement with previous results, we find that the Milky Way's merger history must have been unusually quiescent compared to median Λ cold dark matter expectations and, therefore, its dark disk must be relatively small: the fraction of accreted dark disk material near the Sun is about 20% of the host halo density or smaller and the co-rotating dark matter fraction near the Sun, defined as particles moving with a rotational velocity lag less than 50 km s -1 , is enhanced by about 30% or less compared to a standard halo model. Such a dark disk could contribute dominantly to the low energy (of order keV for a dark matter particle with mass 100 GeV) nuclear recoil event rate of direct detection experiments, but it will not change the likelihood of detection significantly. These dark disks provide testable predictions of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter models and should be considered in detailed comparisons to experimental data. Our findings suggest that the dark disk of the Milky Way may provide a detectable signal for indirect detection experiments, contributing up to about 25% of the dark matter self-annihilation signal in the direction of the center of the Galaxy, lending the signal a noticeably oblate morphology.

  7. DUST FILTRATION BY PLANET-INDUCED GAP EDGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Dong Ruobing [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P. [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Espaillat, Catherine [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hartmann, Lee, E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rdong@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    By carrying out two-dimensional two-fluid global simulations, we have studied the response of dust to gap formation by a single planet in the gaseous component of a protoplanetary disk-the so-called dust filtration mechanism. We have found that a gap opened by a giant planet at 20 AU in an {alpha} = 0.01, M-dot =10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} disk can effectively stop dust particles larger than 0.1 mm drifting inward, leaving a submillimeter (submm) dust cavity/hole. However, smaller particles are difficult to filter by a gap induced by a several M{sub J} planet due to (1) dust diffusion and (2) a high gas accretion velocity at the gap edge. Based on these simulations, an analytic model is derived to understand what size particles can be filtered by the planet-induced gap edge. We show that a dimensionless parameter T{sub s} /{alpha}, which is the ratio between the dimensionless dust stopping time and the disk viscosity parameter, is important for the dust filtration process. Finally, with our updated understanding of dust filtration, we have computed Monte Carlo radiative transfer models with variable dust size distributions to generate the spectral energy distributions of disks with gaps. By comparing with transitional disk observations (e.g., GM Aur), we have found that dust filtration alone has difficulties depleting small particles sufficiently to explain the near-IR deficit of moderate M-dot transitional disks, except under some extreme circumstances. The scenario of gap opening by multiple planets studied previously suffers the same difficulty. One possible solution is to invoke both dust filtration and dust growth in the inner disk. In this scenario, a planet-induced gap filters large dust particles in the disk, and the remaining small dust particles passing to the inner disk can grow efficiently without replenishment from fragmentation of large grains. Predictions for ALMA have also been made based on all these scenarios. We conclude that dust filtration

  8. An observational study of disk-population globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armandroff, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy was obtained for twenty-seven globular clusters at the Ca II infrared triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities were measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the CA II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates obtained using a variety of techniques. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths compared to the blue region of the spectrum has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from infrared photometry by Malkan. Color-magnitude diagrams were constructed for six previously unstudied metal-rich globular clusters and for the well-studied cluster 47 Tuc. The V magnitudes of the horizontal branch stars in the six clusters are in poor agreement with previous estimates based on secondary methods. The horizontal branch morphologies and reddenings of the program clusters were also determined. Using the improved set of metallicities, radial velocities, and distance moduli, the spatial distribution, kinematics, and metallicity distribution of the Galactic globulars were analyzed. The revised data supports Zinn's conclusion that the metal-rich clusters form a highly flattened, rapidly rotating disk system, while the metal-poor clusters make up the familiar, spherically distributed, slowly rotating halo population. The scale height, metallicity distribution, and kinematics of the metal-rich globulars are in good agreement with those of the stellar thick disk. Luminosity functions were constructed, and no significant difference is found between disk and halo samples. Metallicity gradients seem to be present in the disk cluster system. The implications of these results for the formation and evol

  9. X-ray Ionization of Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Meijerink, Rowin

    The consequences of the Auger effect on the population of heavy-element ions are analyzed for the case of relatively cool gas irradiated by keV X-rays with intended applications to the accretion disks of young stellar objects. Highly charged ions are rapidly reduced to the doubly charged state in

  10. DISCOVERY OF CANDIDATE H2O DISK MASERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND ESTIMATIONS OF CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Moran, James M.; Tilak, Avanti; Kondratko, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Based on spectroscopic signatures, about one-third of known H 2 O maser sources in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to arise in highly inclined accretion disks around central engines. These 'disk maser candidates' are of interest primarily because angular structure and rotation curves can be resolved with interferometers, enabling dynamical study. We identify five new disk maser candidates in studies with the Green Bank Telescope, bringing the total number published to 30. We discovered two (NGC 1320, NGC 17) in a survey of 40 inclined active galaxies (v sys -1 ). The remaining three disk maser candidates were identified in monitoring of known sources: NGC 449, NGC 2979, and NGC 3735. We also confirm a previously marginal case in UGC 4203. For the disk maser candidates reported here, inferred rotation speeds are 130-500 km s -1 . Monitoring of three more rapidly rotating candidate disks (CG 211, NGC 6264, VV 340A) has enabled measurement of likely orbital centripetal acceleration, and estimation of central masses ((2-7) x10 7 M sun ) and mean disk radii (0.2-0.4 pc). Accelerations may ultimately permit estimation of distances when combined with interferometer data. This is notable because the three AGNs are relatively distant (10,000 km s -1 sys -1 ), and fractional error in a derived Hubble constant, due to peculiar motion of the galaxies, would be small. As signposts of highly inclined geometries at galactocentric radii of ∼0.1-1 pc, disk masers also provide robust orientation references that allow analysis of (mis)alignment between AGNs and surrounding galactic stellar disks, even without extensive interferometric mapping. We find no preference among published disk maser candidates to lie in high-inclination galaxies. This provides independent support for conclusions that in late-type galaxies, central engine accretion disks and galactic plane orientations are not correlated.

  11. Improving the Friction Durability of Magnetic Head-Disk Interfaces by Thin Lubricant Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowear and viscoelasticity were evaluated to study the nanotribological properties of lubricant films of Z-tetraol, D-4OH, and A20H, including their retention and replenishment properties. For A20H and thick Z-tetraol-coated disks, the disk surface partially protrudes, and the phase lag (tan⁡δ increases with friction. This result is consistent with replenishment of the lubricant upon tip sliding. For the D-4OH-coated disk, the tan⁡δ value decreases with tip sliding, similar to the case for the unlubricated disk. The durability of the lubricant-coated magnetic disks was then evaluated by load increase and decrease friction tests. The friction force of the unlubricated disk rapidly increases after approximately 30 reciprocating cycles, regardless of the load. The lubrication state can be estimated by mapping the dependence of friction coefficient on the reciprocating cycle number and load. The friction coefficient can be classified into one of four areas. The lowest friction area constitutes fluid lubrication. The second area constitutes the transition to mixed lubrication. The third area constitutes boundary lubrication. The highest friction of the fourth area results from surface fracture. The boundary lubricating area of the A20H lubricant was wide, because of its good retention and replenishment properties.

  12. Inefficient Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers: Angular Momentum Belt in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.

  13. Diffusive separation of particles by diffusion in swirled turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, V.N.; Shiliaev, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of turbulent flow and diffusive separation of solid particles in a centrifugal air separator (consisting of two flat disks rotating at the same angular velocity) is presented. A closed set of balances for all the components of the tensor of turbulent stresses, extended to the entire flow region, is employed in the numerical analysis of transition and turbulent air flows between the rotating disks. The analytical relationships obtained for the case of the mixed flow for the various components of the average velocity, energy of fluctuations, and turbulence level in the circumferential direction agreed well with the theoretical and experimental distributions of Bakke, et al. (1973). It is shown that at high Reynolds numbers the flow is isotropic, the dependence of the circumferential component of the average velocity obeys a power law, and the generation of the radial component is controlled by the local centrifugal field. The sharpness of particle separation was calculated by the eddy diffusion equation and was found to depend on the geometry and the operating conditions. 8 references

  14. Modeling collisions in circumstellar debris disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Observations of resolved debris disks show a spectacular variety of features and asymmetries, including inner cavities and gaps, inclined secondary disks or warps, and eccentric, sharp-edged rings. Embedded exoplanets could create many of these features via gravitational perturbations, which sculpt the disk directly and by generating planetesimal collisions. In this thesis, I present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. I show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 107 yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. As an example of the algorithm's capabilities, I use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit and demonstrate that differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring. To demonstrate SMACK's utility in studying debris disk physics, I apply SMACK to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (alpha = 2/7). I find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by alpha = 0.32(t/ tcoll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion

  15. Time-Dependent Variations of Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Weon Na

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available In dward nova we assume the primary star as a white dwarf and the secondary as the late type star which filled Roche lobe. Mass flow from the secondary star leads to the formation of thin accretion disk around the white dwarf. We use the α parameter as viscosity to maintain the disk form and propose that the outburst in dwarf nova cause the steep increase of source term. With these assumptions we solve the basic equations of stellar structure using Newton-Raphson method. We show the physical parameters like temperature, density, pressure, opacity, surface density, height and flux to the radius of disk. Changing the value of α, we compare several parameters when mass flow rate is constant with those of when luminosity of disk is brightest. At the same time, we obtain time-dependent variations of luminosity and mass of disk. We propose the suitable range of α is 0.15-0.18 to the difference of luminosity. We compare several parameters of disk with those of the normal late type stars which have the same molecular weight of disk is lower. Maybe the outburst in dwarf nova is due to the variation of the α value instead of increment of mass flow from the secondary star.

  16. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.

  17. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Paul; Lammel, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard

  18. GIANT PLANET MIGRATION, DISK EVOLUTION, AND THE ORIGIN OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii ∼<1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of 'transitional' disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  19. CT-guided percutaneous laser disk decompression for cervical and lumbar disk hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kanichiro; Koyama, Tutomu; Harada, Junta; Abe, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous laser disk decompression under X-ray fluoroscopy was first reported in 1987 for minimally invasive therapy of lumbar disk hernia. In patients with disk hernia, laser vaporizes a small portion of the intervertebral disk thereby reducing the volume and pressure of the affected disk. We present the efficacy and safety of this procedure, and analysis of fair or poor response cases. In our study, 226 cases of lumbar disk hernia and 7 cases of cervical disk hernia were treated under CT guided PLDD. Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Mac-Nab criteria were investigated to evaluate the response to treatment. Improvement ratio based on the JOA score was calculated as follows. Overall success rate was 91.6% in cases lumber disk hernia, and 100% in cases of cervical disk hernia. We experienced two cases with two cases with postoperative complication. Both cases were treated conservatively. The majority of acute cases and post operative cases were reported to be 'good' on Mac-Nab criteria. Cases of fair or poor response on Mac-Nab criteria were lateral type, foraminal stenosis or large disk hernia. CT-guided PLDD is a safe and accurate procedure. The overall success rate can be increased by carefully selecting patients. (author)

  20. Latest advances in high brightness disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Vincent; Gottwald, Tina; Stolzenburg, Christian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Killi, Alexander; Ryba, Tracey

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade diode pumped solid state lasers have become an important tool for many industrial materials processing applications. They combine ease of operation with efficiency, robustness and low cost. This paper will give insight in latest progress in disk laser technology ranging from kW-class CW-Lasers over frequency converted lasers to ultra-short pulsed lasers. The disk laser enables high beam quality at high average power and at high peak power at the same time. The power from a single disk was scaled from 1 kW around the year 2000 up to more than 10 kW nowadays. Recently was demonstrated more than 4 kW of average power from a single disk close to fundamental mode beam quality (M²=1.38). Coupling of multiple disks in a common resonator results in even higher power. As an example we show 20 kW extracted from two disks of a common resonator. The disk also reduces optical nonlinearities making it ideally suited for short and ultrashort pulsed lasers. In a joint project between TRUMPF and IFSW Stuttgart more than 1.3 kW of average power at ps pulse duration and exceptionally good beam quality was recently demonstrated. The extremely low saturated gain makes the disk laser ideal for internal frequency conversion. We show >1 kW average power and >6 kW peak power in multi ms pulsed regime from an internally frequency doubled disk laser emitting at 515 nm (green). Also external frequency conversion can be done efficiently with ns pulses. >500 W of average UV power was demonstrated.

  1. Formation and Atmosphere of Complex Organic Molecules of the HH 212 Protostellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) Class 0 protostellar system recently found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a radius of ∼60 au, deeply embedded in an infalling-rotating flattened envelope. We have spatially resolved this envelope-disk system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at up to ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The envelope is detected in HCO{sup +} J = 4–3 down to the dusty disk. Complex organic molecules (COMs) and doubly deuterated formaldehyde (D{sub 2}CO) are detected above and below the dusty disk within ∼40 au of the central protostar. The COMs are methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), deuterated methanol (CH{sub 2}DOH), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and formamide (NH{sub 2}CHO, a prebiotic precursor). We have modeled the gas kinematics in HCO{sup +} and COMs and found a centrifugal barrier (CB) at a radius of ∼44 au, within which a Keplerian rotating disk is formed. This indicates that HCO{sup +} traces the infalling-rotating envelope down to the CB and COMs trace the atmosphere of a Keplerian rotating disk within the CB. The COMs are spatially resolved for the first time, both radially and vertically, in the atmosphere of a disk in the earliest, Class 0 phase of star formation. Our spatially resolved observations of COMs favor their formation in the disk rather than a rapidly infalling (warm) inner envelope. The abundances and spatial distributions of the COMs provide strong constraints on models of their formation and transport in low-mass star formation.

  2. Magnetically Induced Disk Winds and Transport in the HL Tau Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Okuzumi, Satoshi, E-mail: yasuhiro@caltech.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    The mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understanding the distributions of gas and dust in the disks. The unprecedented ALMA observations taken toward HL Tau at high spatial resolution and subsequent radiative transfer modeling reveal that a high degree of dust settling is currently achieved in the outer part of the HL Tau disk. Previous observations, however, suggest a high disk accretion rate onto the central star. This configuration is not necessarily intuitive in the framework of the conventional viscous disk model, since efficient accretion generally requires a high level of turbulence, which can suppress dust settling considerably. We develop a simplified, semi-analytical disk model to examine under what condition these two properties can be realized in a single model. Recent, non-ideal MHD simulations are utilized to realistically model the angular momentum transport both radially via MHD turbulence and vertically via magnetically induced disk winds. We find that the HL Tau disk configuration can be reproduced well when disk winds are properly taken into account. While the resulting disk properties are likely consistent with other observational results, such an ideal situation can be established only if the plasma β at the disk midplane is β {sub 0} ≃ 2 × 10{sup 4} under the assumption of steady accretion. Equivalently, the vertical magnetic flux at 100 au is about 0.2 mG. More detailed modeling is needed to fully identify the origin of the disk accretion and quantitatively examine plausible mechanisms behind the observed gap structures in the HL Tau disk.

  3. Magnetically Induced Disk Winds and Transport in the HL Tau Disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understanding the distributions of gas and dust in the disks. The unprecedented ALMA observations taken toward HL Tau at high spatial resolution and subsequent radiative transfer modeling reveal that a high degree of dust settling is currently achieved in the outer part of the HL Tau disk. Previous observations, however, suggest a high disk accretion rate onto the central star. This configuration is not necessarily intuitive in the framework of the conventional viscous disk model, since efficient accretion generally requires a high level of turbulence, which can suppress dust settling considerably. We develop a simplified, semi-analytical disk model to examine under what condition these two properties can be realized in a single model. Recent, non-ideal MHD simulations are utilized to realistically model the angular momentum transport both radially via MHD turbulence and vertically via magnetically induced disk winds. We find that the HL Tau disk configuration can be reproduced well when disk winds are properly taken into account. While the resulting disk properties are likely consistent with other observational results, such an ideal situation can be established only if the plasma β at the disk midplane is β 0 ≃ 2 × 10 4 under the assumption of steady accretion. Equivalently, the vertical magnetic flux at 100 au is about 0.2 mG. More detailed modeling is needed to fully identify the origin of the disk accretion and quantitatively examine plausible mechanisms behind the observed gap structures in the HL Tau disk.

  4. Golden mean Siegel disk universality and renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidashev, Denis; Yampolsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We provide a computer-assisted proof of one of the central open questions in one-dimensional renormalization theory -- universality of the golden-mean Siegel disks. We further show that for every function in the stable manifold of the golden-mean renormalization fixed point the boundary of the Siegel disk is a quasicircle which coincides with the closure of the critical orbit, and that the dynamics on the boundary of the Siegel disk is rigid. Furthermore, we extend the renormalization from on...

  5. Disk degeneration in 14 year old children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkintalo, M.; Salminen, J.J.; Paajanen, H.; Terho, P.; Kormano, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports low back symptoms of 1,500 school children (14 years old) evaluated with a questionnaire and with a standardized clinical examination. Forty children who complained of recurrent and/or persistent low back pain and 40 matching symptomless controls were randomly chosen to undergo MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Premature disk degeneration was seen in 25.5% of asymptomatic children and in 40% of those with low back pain. The difference was statistically not significant. Disk degeneration is a surprisingly frequent MR finding in symptomless children. Premature disk degeneration may be the cause of low back pain in some children but is not always symptomatic in childhood

  6. Gas Flow Across Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Lubow, Steve H.; D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the gas accretion flow through a planet-produced gap in a protoplanetary disk. We adopt the alpha disk model and ignore effects of planetary migration. We develop a semi-analytic, one-dimensional model that accounts for the effects of the planet as a mass sink and also carry out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a planet embedded in a disk. The predictions of the mass flow rate through the gap based on the semi-analytic model generally agree with the hydrodynamical simu...

  7. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  8. Mottled Protoplanetary Disk Ionization by Magnetically Channeled T Tauri Star Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J. J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by angular momentum transport resulting from magnetized disk winds and turbulent viscosity. The ionization of the disk that is essential for these processes has been thought to be due to host star coronal X-rays but could also arise from energetic particles produced by coronal flares, or traveling shock waves, and advected by the stellar wind. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of energetic protons propagating into a realistic T Tauri stellar wind, including a superposed small-scale magnetostatic turbulence. The isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesized along the individual particle trajectories. We have investigated the energy range [0.1–10] GeV, consistent with expectations from Chandra X-ray observations of large flares on T Tauri stars and recent indications by the Herschel Space Observatory of a significant contribution of energetic particles to the disk ionization of young stars. In contrast with a previous theoretical study finding a dominance of energetic particles over X-rays in the ionization throughout the disk, we find that the disk ionization is likely dominated by X-rays over much of its area, except within narrow regions where particles are channeled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent magnetic field. The radial thickness of such regions is 5 stellar radii close to the star and broadens with increasing radial distance. This likely continues out to large distances from the star (10 au or greater), where particles can be copiously advected and diffused by the turbulent wind.

  9. PROPERTIES OF BULGELESS DISK GALAXIES. II. STAR FORMATION AS A FUNCTION OF CIRCULAR VELOCITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Linda C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martini, Paul; Wong, Man-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lisenfeld, Ute [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Boeker, Torsten [European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: lwatson@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We study the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in 20 moderately inclined, bulgeless disk galaxies (Sd-Sdm Hubble types) using CO(1-0) data from the IRAM 30 m telescope, H I emission line data from the VLA/EVLA, H{alpha} data from the MDM Observatory, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission data derived from Spitzer IRAC observations. We specifically investigate the efficiency of star formation as a function of circular velocity (v{sub circ}). Previous work found that the vertical dust structure and disk stability of edge-on, bulgeless disk galaxies transition from diffuse dust lanes with large scale heights and gravitationally stable disks at v{sub circ} < 120 km s{sup -1} (M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }) to narrow dust lanes with small scale heights and gravitationally unstable disks at v{sub circ} > 120 km s{sup -1}. We find no transition in star formation efficiency ({Sigma}{sub SFR}/{Sigma}{sub Hi+H{sub 2}}) at v{sub circ} = 120 km s{sup -1} or at any other circular velocity probed by our sample (v{sub circ} = 46-190 km s{sup -1}). Contrary to previous work, we find no transition in disk stability at any circular velocity in our sample. Assuming our sample has the same dust structure transition as the edge-on sample, our results demonstrate that scale height differences in the cold interstellar medium of bulgeless disk galaxies do not significantly affect the molecular fraction or star formation efficiency. This may indicate that star formation is primarily affected by physical processes that act on smaller scales than the dust scale height, which lends support to local star formation models.

  10. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS DRIVEN BY FAR-ULTRAVIOLET IONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. Disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by small condensates, ranging from ∼0.01 μm sized grains to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. Here we show that ionization by stellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. The FUV-ionized layer, of thickness 0.01-0.1 g cm -2 , behaves in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit and can accrete at observationally significant rates at radii ∼> 1-10 AU. Surface layer accretion driven by FUV ionization can reproduce the trend of increasing accretion rate with increasing hole size seen in transitional disks. At radii ∼<1-10 AU, FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance, and unless turbulent mixing of plasma can thicken the MRI-active layer, an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets.

  11. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Draper, Zachary H.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Grady, Carol A.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging

  12. THE PDS 66 CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AS SEEN IN POLARIZED LIGHT WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perrin, Marshall; Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Nielsen, Eric L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Jason; Dong, Ruobing; Duchêne, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cardwell, Andrew [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Room 552, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Hung, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goodsell, Stephen J. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale, E-mail: swolff9@jh.edu [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  13. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, M J; Wiberg, G K H; Arenz, M

    2015-06-01

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H2SO4, the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1-101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  14. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, M. J.; Wiberg, G. K. H.; Arenz, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H 2 SO 4 , the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1–101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

  15. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleige, M. J.; Wiberg, G. K. H.; Arenz, M. [Department of Chemistry and Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Ø Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1–101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  16. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, M. J.; Wiberg, G. K. H.; Arenz, M.

    2015-06-01

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H2SO4, the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1-101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  17. DUST FILTRATION BY PLANET-INDUCED GAP EDGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Dong Ruobing; Nelson, Richard P.; Espaillat, Catherine; Hartmann, Lee

    2012-01-01

    By carrying out two-dimensional two-fluid global simulations, we have studied the response of dust to gap formation by a single planet in the gaseous component of a protoplanetary disk—the so-called dust filtration mechanism. We have found that a gap opened by a giant planet at 20 AU in an α = 0.01, M-dot =10 -8 M ☉ yr -1 disk can effectively stop dust particles larger than 0.1 mm drifting inward, leaving a submillimeter (submm) dust cavity/hole. However, smaller particles are difficult to filter by a gap induced by a several M J planet due to (1) dust diffusion and (2) a high gas accretion velocity at the gap edge. Based on these simulations, an analytic model is derived to understand what size particles can be filtered by the planet-induced gap edge. We show that a dimensionless parameter T s /α, which is the ratio between the dimensionless dust stopping time and the disk viscosity parameter, is important for the dust filtration process. Finally, with our updated understanding of dust filtration, we have computed Monte Carlo radiative transfer models with variable dust size distributions to generate the spectral energy distributions of disks with gaps. By comparing with transitional disk observations (e.g., GM Aur), we have found that dust filtration alone has difficulties depleting small particles sufficiently to explain the near-IR deficit of moderate M-dot transitional disks, except under some extreme circumstances. The scenario of gap opening by multiple planets studied previously suffers the same difficulty. One possible solution is to invoke both dust filtration and dust growth in the inner disk. In this scenario, a planet-induced gap filters large dust particles in the disk, and the remaining small dust particles passing to the inner disk can grow efficiently without replenishment from fragmentation of large grains. Predictions for ALMA have also been made based on all these scenarios. We conclude that dust filtration with planet(s) in the disk is a

  18. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have taunted astrophysicists for a quarter century. How do these objects produce huge luminosities---in some cases, far outshining our galaxy---from a region perhaps no larger than the solar system? Accretion onto supermassive black holes has been widely considered the best buy in theories of AGN. Much work has gone into accretion disk theory, searches for black holes in galactic nuclei, and observational tests. These efforts have not proved the disk model, but there is progress. Evidence for black holes in the nuclei of nearby galaxies is provided by observations of stellar velocities, and radiation from the disk's hot surface may be observed in the ultraviolet (UV) and neighboring spectral bands. In the review, the author describe some of the recent work on accretion disks in AGN, with an emphasis on points of contact between theory and observation

  19. Effect of massive disks on bulge isophotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monet, D.G.; Richstone, D.O.; Schechter, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Massive disks produce flattened equipotentials. Unless the stars in a galaxy bulge are preferentially hotter in the z direction than in the plane, the isophotes will be at least as flat as the equipotentials. The comparison of two galaxy models having flat rotation curves with the available surface photometry for five external galaxies does not restrict the mass fraction which might reside in the disk. However, star counts in our own Galaxy indicate that unless the disk terminates close to the solar circle, no more than half the mass within that circle lies in the disk. The remaining half must lie either in the bulge or, more probably, in a third dark, round, dynamically distinct component

  20. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J; Mathews, G J

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet. (note)

  1. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  2. Review of gravitomagnetic acceleration from accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2015-11-01

    We review the development of the equations of gravitoelectromagnetism and summarize how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near the accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism to produce collimated jets, it is a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  3. CO Gas Inside the Protoplanetary Disk Cavity in HD 142527: Disk Structure from ALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, S.; Casassus, S.; Ménard, F.; Roman, P.; van der Plas, G.; Cieza, L.; Pinte, C.; Christiaens, Valentin; Hales, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 AU from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue 2-1 line ...

  4. Contact statuses between functionally graded brake disk and pure pad disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.M.; Sahari, B.B.; Bayat, M.; Mustapha, F.; Ismarrubie, Z.N.; Shahrjerdi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The contact statuses between functionally graded (FG) brake disks and pure pad disk are investigated by using finite element method (FEM). Two types of variation is considered for FG brake disk, the variation of materials are considered change in radial and thickness direction of disk. The material properties of these two types of FG brake disks are assumed to be represented by power-law distributions in the radius and thickness direction. The results are obtained and then compared. For the radial FG brake disk, the inner and outer surfaces are considered metal and ceramic respectively, and friction coefficient between metal surface and ceramic surface of FG brake dick with pad are considered 1.4 and 0.75 respectively. For the thickness FG brake disk the contact surface with pure pad brake disk is ceramic and the free surface is metal and friction coefficient between ceramic (contact) surface and pure pad brake disk is considered 0.75. In both types of FG brake disks the Coulomb contact friction is applied. Mechanical response of FG brake disks are compared and verified with the known results in the literatures. Three types of contact statuses are introduced as Sticking, Contact and Near Contact. The contact status between pad and disk for different values for pad thickness, grading index,n , and percentage of friction coefficient (λ) is shown. It can be seen that for all values of percentage of friction coefficient,λ , and grading indices, n, by increasing the thickness of pad cause the contact status changes from sticking to contact and then to near contact. (author)

  5. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  6. Disk partition function and oscillatory rolling tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, Niko; Jaervinen, Matti; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Majumder, Jaydeep

    2008-01-01

    An exact cubic open string field theory rolling tachyon solution was recently found by Kiermaier et al and Schnabl. This oscillatory solution has been argued to be related by a field redefinition to the simple exponential rolling tachyon deformation of boundary conformal theory. In the latter approach, the disk partition function takes a simple form. Out of curiosity, we compute the disk partition function for an oscillatory tachyon profile, and find that the result is nevertheless almost the same

  7. CLUSTER DYNAMICS LARGELY SHAPES PROTOPLANETARY DISK SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: kvincke@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  8. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characteri...

  9. A New M Dwarf Debris Disk Candidate in a Young Moving Group Discovered with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven M.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Wisniewski, John P.; Gagne, Jonathan; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Currie, Thayne R.; Debes, John R.; Biggs, Joseph R; Bosch, Milton

    2016-01-01

    We used the Disk Detective citizen science project and the BANYAN II Bayesian analysis tool to identify a new candidate member of a nearby young association with infrared excess. WISE J080822.18-644357.3, an M5.5-type debris disk system with significant excess at both 12 and 22 microns, is a likely member (approx.90% BANYAN II probability) of the approx.45 Myr old Carina association. Since this would be the oldest M dwarf debris disk detected in a moving group, this discovery could be an important constraint on our understanding of M dwarf debris disk evolution.

  10. YottaYotta announces new world record set for TCP disk-to-disk bulk transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Yottabyte NetStorage(TM) Company, today announced a new world record for TCP disk-to-disk data transfer using the company's NetStorager(R) System. The record-breaking demonstration transferred 5 terabytes of data between Chicago, Il. to Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON, at a sustained average throughput of 11.1 gigabits per second. Peak throughput exceeded 11.6 gigabits per second, more than 15-times faster than previous records for TCP transfer from disk-to-disk (1 page).

  11. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  12. Stratified Simulations of Collisionless Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: hirabayashi-k@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    This paper presents a series of stratified-shearing-box simulations of collisionless accretion disks in the recently developed framework of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which can handle finite non-gyrotropy of a pressure tensor. Although a fully kinetic simulation predicted a more efficient angular-momentum transport in collisionless disks than in the standard MHD regime, the enhanced transport has not been observed in past kinetic-MHD approaches to gyrotropic pressure anisotropy. For the purpose of investigating this missing link between the fully kinetic and MHD treatments, this paper explores the role of non-gyrotropic pressure and makes the first attempt to incorporate certain collisionless effects into disk-scale, stratified disk simulations. When the timescale of gyrotropization was longer than, or comparable to, the disk-rotation frequency of the orbit, we found that the finite non-gyrotropy selectively remaining in the vicinity of current sheets contributes to suppressing magnetic reconnection in the shearing-box system. This leads to increases both in the saturated amplitude of the MHD turbulence driven by magnetorotational instabilities and in the resultant efficiency of angular-momentum transport. Our results seem to favor the fast advection of magnetic fields toward the rotation axis of a central object, which is required to launch an ultra-relativistic jet from a black hole accretion system in, for example, a magnetically arrested disk state.

  13. Transport coefficients for dense hard-disk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Ramón; Luding, Stefan; Brey, J Javier

    2006-12-01

    A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for event-driven molecular dynamics algorithms with periodic boundary conditions. The density and size dependence of the results are analyzed, and comparison with the predictions from Enskog's theory is carried out. In particular, the behavior of the transport coefficients in the vicinity of the fluid-solid transition is investigated and a striking power law divergence of the viscosity with density is obtained in this region, while all other examined transport coefficients show a drop in that density range in relation to the Enskog's prediction. Finally, the deviations are related to shear band instabilities and the concept of dilatancy.

  14. HD95881 : a gas rich to gas poor transition disk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Acke, B.; van Boekel, R.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Mulders, G. D.; de Koter, A.; Bouwman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Based on the far infrared excess the Herbig class of stars is divided into a group with flaring circumstellar disks (group I) and a group with flat circumstellar disks (group II). Dust sedimentation is generally proposed as an evolution mechanism to transform flaring disks into flat disks.

  15. Head-Disk Interface Technology: Challenges and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    Magnetic hard disk drive (HDD) technology is believed to be one of the most successful examples of modern mechatronics systems. The mechanical beauty of magnetic HDD includes simple but super high accuracy positioning head, positioning technology, high speed and stability spindle motor technology, and head-disk interface technology which keeps the millimeter sized slider flying over a disk surface at nanometer level slider-disk spacing. This paper addresses the challenges and possible approaches on how to further reduce the slider disk spacing whilst retaining the stability and robustness level of head-disk systems for future advanced magnetic disk drives.

  16. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  17. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: quarkosmos@kasi.re.kr [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  18. Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchao; Ou, Lily M L; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-11-01

    We report herein a digital signal readout protocol for screening disk-based bioassays with standard optical drives of ordinary desktop/notebook computers. Three different types of biochemical recognition reactions (biotin-streptavidin binding, DNA hybridization, and protein-protein interaction) were performed directly on a compact disk in a line array format with the help of microfluidic channel plates. Being well-correlated with the optical darkness of the binding sites (after signal enhancement by gold nanoparticle-promoted autometallography), the reading error levels of prerecorded audio files can serve as a quantitative measure of biochemical interaction. This novel readout protocol is about 1 order of magnitude more sensitive than fluorescence labeling/scanning and has the capability of examining multiplex microassays on the same disk. Because no modification to either hardware or software is needed, it promises a platform technology for rapid, low-cost, and high-throughput point-of-care biomedical diagnostics.

  19. Optical veiling, disk accretion, and the evolution of T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.W.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of 31 K7-M1 T Tauri stars (TTs) in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud demonstrate that most of these objects exhibit substantial excess emission at 5200 A. Extrapolations of these data consistent with low-resolution spectrophotometry indicate that the extra emission is comparable to the stellar luminosity in many cases. If this continuum emission arises in the boundary layers of accreting disks, more than about 30 percent of all TTs may be accreting material at a rate which is sufficiently rapid to alter their evolution from standard Hayashi tracks. It is estimated that roughly 10 percent of the final stellar mass is accreted in the TT phase. This amount of material is comparable to the minimum gravitationally unstable disk mass estimated by Larson and it is speculated that the TT phase represents the final stages of disk accretion driven by gravitational instabilities. 40 refs

  20. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  1. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  2. The age of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.

    1988-07-01

    The galactic disk is a dissipative structure and must, therefore be younger than the halo if galaxy formation generally proceeds by collapse. Just how much younger the oldest stars in the galactic disk are than the oldest halo stars remains an open question. A fast collapse (on a time scale no longer than the rotation period of the extended protogalaxy) permits an age gap of the order of approximately 10 to the 9th power years. A slow collapse, governed by the cooling rate of the partially pressure supported falling gas that formed into what is now the thick stellar disk, permits a longer age gap, claimed by some to be as long as 6 Gyr. Early methods of age dating the oldest components of the disk contain implicit assumptions concerning the details of the age-metallicity relation for stars in the solar neighborhood. The discovery that this relation for open clusters outside the solar circle is different that in the solar neighborhood (Geisler 1987), complicates the earlier arguments. The oldest stars in the galactic disk are at least as old as NGC 188. The new data by Janes on NGC 6791, shown first at this conference, suggest a disk age of at least 12.5 Gyr, as do data near the main sequence termination point of metal rich, high proper motion stars of low orbital eccentricity. Hence, a case can still be made that the oldest part of the galactic thick disk is similar in age to the halo globular clusters, if their ages are the same as 47 Tuc

  3. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  4. The Tilt between Acretion Disk and Stellar Disk Shiyin Shen1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, China. 2Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai 200234, China. ∗ e-mail: ssy@shao.ac.cn. Abstract. The orientations .... shows the model prediction from the stellar dust model (section 5). 4. Result: The tilt between the accretion disk and stellar disk. We parameterize the inclinations of the ...

  5. Cold disks : Spitzer spectroscopy of disks around young stars with large gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G. A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Merin, B.; Augereau, J. C.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Evans, N. J.; Geers, V. C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brown, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified four circumstellar disks with a deficit of dust emission from their inner 15-50 AU. All four stars have F-G spectral type and were uncovered as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope "Cores to Disks" Legacy Program Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) first-look survey of similar to 100 pre -

  6. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun

    2017-06-01

    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ˜0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ˜ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  7. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.

    1976-01-01

    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  8. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN TRANSITIONAL AND CONVENTIONAL DISKS: FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    'Transitional' T Tauri disks have optically thin holes with radii ∼>10 AU, yet accrete up to the median T Tauri rate. Multiple planets inside the hole can torque the gas to high radial speeds over large distances, reducing the local surface density while maintaining accretion. Thus multi-planet systems, together with reductions in disk opacity due to grain growth, can explain how holes can be simultaneously transparent and accreting. There remains the problem of how outer disk gas diffuses into the hole. Here it has been proposed that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) erodes disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays. In contrast to previous work, we find that the extent to which surface layers are MRI-active is limited not by ohmic dissipation but by ambipolar diffusion, the latter measured by Am: the number of times a neutral hydrogen molecule collides with ions in a dynamical time. Simulations by Hawley and Stone showed that Am ∼ 100 is necessary for ions to drive MRI turbulence in neutral gas. We calculate that in X-ray-irradiated surface layers, Am typically varies from ∼10 -3 to 1, depending on the abundance of charge-adsorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whose properties we infer from Spitzer observations. We conclude that ionization of H 2 by X-rays and cosmic rays can sustain, at most, only weak MRI turbulence in surface layers 1-10 g cm -2 thick, and that accretion rates in such layers are too small compared to observed accretion rates for the majority of disks.

  9. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, R; Cornell, M E

    2011-01-20

    The masses of supermassive black holes are known to correlate with the properties of the bulge components of their host galaxies. In contrast, they seem not to correlate with galaxy disks. Disk-grown 'pseudobulges' are intermediate in properties between bulges and disks; it has been unclear whether they do or do not correlate with black holes in the same way that bulges do. At stake in this issue are conclusions about which parts of galaxies coevolve with black holes, possibly by being regulated by energy feedback from black holes. Here we report pseudobulge classifications for galaxies with dynamically detected black holes and combine them with recent measurements of velocity dispersions in the biggest bulgeless galaxies. These data confirm that black holes do not correlate with disks and show that they correlate little or not at all with pseudobulges. We suggest that there are two different modes of black-hole feeding. Black holes in bulges grow rapidly to high masses when mergers drive gas infall that feeds quasar-like events. In contrast, small black holes in bulgeless galaxies and in galaxies with pseudobulges grow as low-level Seyfert galaxies. Growth of the former is driven by global processes, so the biggest black holes coevolve with bulges, but growth of the latter is driven locally and stochastically, and they do not coevolve with disks and pseudobulges.

  10. Buoyancy limits on magnetic viscosity stress-law scalings in quasi stellar object accretion disk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakimoto, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are apparently the excessively bright nuclei of distant galaxies. They are thought to be powered by accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes: however, proof of this presumption is hampered by major uncertainties in the viscous stress necessary for accretion to occur. Models generally assume an and hoc stress law which scales the stress with the total pressure. Near the black hole, radiation pressure dominates gas pressure; scaling the stress with the radiation pressure results in disk models that are thermally unstable and optically thin. This dissertation shows that a radiation pressure scaling for the stress is not possible if the viscosity is due to turbulent magnetic Maxwell stresses. The argument is one of internal self-consistency. First, four model accretion disks that bound the reasonably expected ranges of viscous stress scalings and vertical structures are constructed. Magnetic flux tubes of various initial field strengths are then placed within these models, nd their buoyancy is modeled numerically. In disks using the radiation pressure stress law scaling, low opacities allow rapid heat flow into the flux tubes: the tubes are extremely buoyant, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the required stress cannot be retained. If an alternative gas pressure scaling for the stress is assumed, then the disks are optically thick; flux tubes have corresponding lower buoyancy, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the stress can be retained for dynamically significant time periods

  11. Lupus Disks with Faint CO Isotopologues: Low Gas/Dust or High Carbon Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotello, Anna

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of ALMA, complete surveys of gas and dust in protoplanetary disks are being carried out in different star forming regions. In particular, continuum emission is used to trace the large (mm-sized) dust grains and CO isotopologues are observed in order to trace the bulk of the gas. The attempt is to simultaneously constrain the gas and dust disk mass as well as the gas/dust mass ratio. In this presentation I will present the Lupus disk survey observations, analyzed with thermo-chemical disk models, including radiative transfer, CO isotope-selective processes and freeze-out. The main result is that CO-based gas masses are very low, often smaller than Jupiter Mass. Moreover, gas/dust mass ratios are much lower than value of 100 found in the ISM, being mainly between 1 and 10. This result can be interpreted either as rapid loss of gas, or as a chemical effect removing carbon from CO and locking it into more complex molecules or in larger bodies. Previous data cannot distinguish between the two scenarios (except for sources with detected HD lines), but new Cycle 4 observations of hydrocarbon lines will be presented and they can help to calibrate CO-based gas masses and to constrain disk gas masses.

  12. CH Cygni. I. Observational Evidence for a Disk-Jet Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloski, J. L.; Kenyon, S. J.

    2003-02-01

    We investigate the role of accretion in the production of jets in the symbiotic star CH Cygni. Assuming that the rapid stochastic optical variations in CH Cygni come from the accretion disk, as in cataclysmic variables, we use changes in this flickering to diagnose the state of the disk in 1997. At that time, CH Cygni dropped to a very low optical state, and Karovska et al. report that a radio jet was produced. For approximately 1 yr after the jet production, the amplitude of the fastest (timescale of minutes) variations was significantly reduced, although smooth, hour-timescale variations were still present. This light-curve evolution indicates that the inner disk may have been disrupted, or emission from this region suppressed, in association with the mass ejection event. We describe optical spectra that support this interpretation of the flickering changes. The simultaneous state change, jet ejection, and disk disruption suggest a comparison between CH Cygni and some black hole candidate X-ray binaries that show changes in the inner-disk radius in conjunction with discrete ejection events on a wide range of timescales (e.g., the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564).

  13. The FU Orionis outburst as a thermal accretion event: Observational constraints for protostellar disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Hartmann, L. W.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the time-dependent disk models developed in Bell & Lin are compared with observed properties of FU Orionis variables. Specific models are fit to the light curves of Fu Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg. The slow risetime of V1515 Cyg can be matched by a self-regulated outburst model. The rapid risetimes of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg can be fitted with the application of modest perturbations to the disk surface density. Model disks display spectral features characteristic of observed objects. The color evolution of V1057 Cyg is naturally explained if mass flux drops in the inner disk (r less than 1/4 AU) while remaining steady in the outer disk. The decrease in optical line width (rotational velocity) observed during the decay of V1057 Cyg may be accounted for by an outward-propagating ionization front. We predict that before final decay to the quiescent phase, short-wavelength line widths (lambda less than 1.5 microns) will again increase. It is suggested that FU Orionis outbursts primarily occur to systems during the embedded phase with ages less than several times 10(exp 5) yr.

  14. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  15. Preparation of thin actinide metal disks using a multiple disk casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1975-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for preparing multiple actinide metal disks which have a minimum thickness of 0.006 inch. This technique was based on an injection casting procedure which utilizes the weight of a tantalum metal rod to force the molten metal into the mold cavity. Using the proper mold design and casting parameters, it has been possible to prepare ten 1/2 inch diameter neptunium or plutonium metal disks in a single casting, This casting technique is capable of producing disks which are very uniform. The average thickness of the disks from a typical casting will vary no more than 0.001 inch and the variation in the thickness of the individual disks will range from 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch. (Auth.)

  16. Preparation of thin actinide metal disks using a multiple disk casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for preparing multiple actinide metal disks which have a minimum thickness of 0.006 inch. This technique was based on an injection casting procedure which utilizes the weight of a tantalum metal rod to force the molten metal into the mold cavity. Using the proper mold design and casting parameters, it has been possible to prepare ten 1/2 inch diameter neptunium or plutonium metal disks in a single casting. This casting technique is capable of producing disks which are very uniform. The average thickness of the disks from a typical casting will vary no more than 0.001 inch and the variation in the thickness of the individual disks will range from 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch. (author)

  17. Manipulation of magnetic vortex parameters in disk-on-disk nanostructures with various geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. Stebliy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanostructures in the form of a sandwich consisting of two permalloy (Py disks with diameters of 600 and 200 nm separated by a nonmagnetic interlayer are studied. Magnetization reversal of the disk-on-disk nanostructures depends on the distance between centers of the small and big disks and on orientation of an external magnetic field applied during measurements. It is found that manipulation of the magnetic vortex chirality and the trajectory of the vortex core in the big disk is only possible in asymmetric nanostructures. Experimentally studied peculiarities of a motion path of the vortex core and vortex parameters by the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE magnetometer are supported by the magnetic force microscopy imaging and micromagnetic simulations.

  18. Probing Protoplanetary Disks: From Birth to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil

    2018-01-01

    Disks are very important in the evolution of protostars and their subsequent planets. How early disks can form has implications for early planet formation. In the youngest protostars (i.e., Class 0 sources) magnetic fields can control disk growth. When the field is parallel to the collapsing core’s rotation axis, infalling material loses angular momentum and disks form in later stages. Sub-/millimeter polarization continuum observations of Class 0 sources at ~1000 au resolution support this idea. However, in the inner (~100 au), denser regions, it is unknown if the polarization only traces aligned dust grains. Recent theoretical studies have shown that self-scattering of thermal emission in the disk may contribute significantly to the polarization. Determining the scattering contribution in these sources is important to disentangle the magnetic field. At older times (the Class II phase), the disk structure can both act as a modulator and signpost of planet formation, if there is enough of a mass reservoir. In my dissertation talk, I will present results that bear on disk evolution at both young and late ages. I will present 8 mm polarization results of two Class 0 protostars (IRAS 4A and IC348 MMS) from the VLA at ~50 au resolution. The inferred magnetic field of IRAS 4A has a circular morphology, reminiscent of material being dragged into a rotating structure. I will show results from SOFIA polarization data of the area surrounding IRAS 4A at ~4000 au. I will also present ALMA 850 micron polarization data of ten protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Most of these sources show very ordered patterns and low (~0.5%) polarization in their inner regions, while having very disordered patterns and high polarization patterns in their extended emission that may suggest different mechanisms in the inner/outer regions. Finally, I will present results from our ALMA dust continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in Rho Ophiuchus; we measured both the sizes and fluxes of

  19. IONIZATION AND DUST CHARGING IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Akimkin, V. V., E-mail: ivlev@mpe.mpg.de [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-10

    Ionization–recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  20. Chemical Evolution of a Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Dmitry A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we review recent progress in our understanding of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. Current observational constraints and theoretical modeling on the chemical composition of gas and dust in these systems are presented. Strong variations of temperature, density, high-energy radiation intensities in these disks, both radially and vertically, result in a peculiar disk chemical structure, where a variety of processes are active. In hot, dilute and heavily irradiated atmosphere only the most photostable simple radicals and atoms and atomic ions exist, formed by gas-phase processes. Beneath the atmosphere a partly UV-shielded, warm molecular layer is located, where high-energy radiation drives rich ion-molecule and radical-radical chemistry, both in the gas phase and on dust surfaces. In a cold, dense, dark disk midplane many molecules are frozen out, forming thick icy mantles where surface chemistry is active and where complex polyatomic (organic) species are synthesized. Dynamical processes affect disk chemical composition by enriching it in abundances of complex species produced via slow surface processes, which will become detectable with ALMA.

  1. Theory of Disk-to-Vesicle Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Shi, An-Chang

    2009-03-01

    Self-assembled membranes from amphiphilic molecules, such as lipids and block copolymers, can assume a variety of morphologies dictated by energy minimization of system. The membrane energy is characterized by a bending modulus (κ), a Gaussian modulus (κG), and the line tension (γ) of the edge. Two basic morphologies of membranes are flat disks that minimize the bending energy at the cost of the edge energy, and enclosed vesicles that minimize the edge energy at the cost of bending energy. In our work, the transition from disk to vesicle is studied theoretically using the string method, which is designed to find the minimum energy path (MEP) or the most probable transition path between two local minima of an energy landscape. Previous studies of disk-to-vesicle transition usually approximate the transitional states by a series of spherical cups, and found that the spherical cups do not correspond to stable or meta-stable states of the system. Our calculation demonstrates that the intermediate shapes along the MEP are very different from spherical cups. Furthermore, some of these transitional states can be meta-stable. The disk-to-vesicle transition pathways are governed by two scaled parameters, κG/κ and γR0/4κ, where R0 is the radius of the disk. In particular, a meta-stable intermediate state is predicted, which may correspond to the open morphologies observed in experiments and simulations.

  2. Computational Diffusion MRI : MICCAI Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Grussu, Francesco; Ning, Lipeng; Tax, Chantal; Veraart, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This volume presents the latest developments in the highly active and rapidly growing field of diffusion MRI. The reader will find numerous contributions covering a broad range of topics, from the mathematical foundations of the diffusion process and signal generation, to new computational methods and estimation techniques for the in-vivo recovery of microstructural and connectivity features, as well as frontline applications in neuroscience research and clinical practice. These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 2017 MICCAI Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI (CDMRI’17) held in Québec, Canada on September 10, 2017, sharing new perspectives on the most recent research challenges for those currently working in the field, but also offering a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning computational techniques in diffusion MRI. This book includes rigorous mathematical derivations, a large number of rich, full-colour visualisations and clinically relevant results. As such, it wil...

  3. Diffusion from cylindrical waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.F.

    1985-05-01

    The diffusion of a single component material from a finite cylindrical waste form, initially containing a uniform concentration of the material, is investigated. Under the condition that the cylinder is maintained in a well-stirred bath, expressions for the fractional inventory leached and the leach rate are derived with allowance for the possible permanent immobilization of the diffusant through its decay to a stable product and/or its irreversible reaction with the waste form matrix. The usefulness of the reported results in nuclear waste disposal applications is emphasized. The results reported herein are related to those previously derived at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by Bell and Nestor. A numerical scheme involving the partial decoupling of nested infinite summations and the use of rapidly converging rational approximants is recommended for the efficient implementation of the expressions derived to obtain reliable estimates of the bulk diffusion constant and the rate constant describing the diffusant-waste form interaction from laboratory data

  4. HOT GAS HALOS AROUND DISK GALAXIES: CONFRONTING COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Kristian; Toft, Sune; Grove, Lisbeth F.; Benson, Andrew; Bower, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Models of disk galaxy formation commonly predict the existence of an extended reservoir of accreted hot gas surrounding massive spirals at low redshift. As a test of these models, we use X-ray and Hα data of the two massive, quiescent edge-on spirals NGC 5746 and NGC 5170 to investigate the amount and origin of any hot gas in their halos. Contrary to our earlier claim, the Chandra analysis of NGC 5746, employing more recent calibration data, does not reveal any significant evidence for diffuse X-ray emission outside the optical disk, with a 3σ upper limit to the halo X-ray luminosity of 4 x 10 39 erg s -1 . An identical study of the less massive NGC 5170 also fails to detect any extraplanar X-ray emission. By extracting hot halo properties of disk galaxies formed in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we compare these results to expectations for cosmological accretion of hot gas by spirals. For Milky-Way-sized galaxies, these high-resolution simulations predict hot halo X-ray luminosities which are lower by a factor of ∼2 compared to our earlier results reported by Toft et al. We find the new simulation predictions to be consistent with our observational constraints for both NGC 5746 and NGC 5170, while also confirming that the hot gas detected so far around more actively star-forming spirals is in general probably associated with stellar activity in the disk. Observational results on quiescent disk galaxies at the high-mass end are nevertheless providing powerful constraints on theoretical predictions, and hence on the assumed input physics in numerical studies of disk galaxy formation and evolution.

  5. EVOLUTION OF WARPED ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. ROLES OF FEEDING AT THE OUTER BOUNDARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the alignment processes of spinning black holes and their surrounding warped accretion disks in a frame of two different types of feeding at the outer boundaries. We consider (1) fixed flows in which gas is continually fed with a preferred angular momentum, and (2) free flows in which there is no gas supply and the disks diffuse freely at their outer edges. As expected, we find that for the cases of fixed flows the black hole disk systems always align on timescales of several 10 6 yr, irrespective of the initial inclinations. If the initial inclination angles are larger than π/2, the black hole accretion transits from retrograde to prograde fashion, and the accreted mass onto the black holes during these two phases is comparable. On the other hand, for the cases of free flows, both alignments and anti-alignments can occur, depending on the initial inclinations and the ratios of the angular momentum of the disks to that of the black holes. In such cases, the disks will be consumed within timescales of 10 6 yr by black holes accreting at the Eddington limit. We propose that there is a close connection between the black hole spin and the lifetime for which the feeding persists, which determines the observable episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei. We conclude that careful inclusion of the disk feeding at the outer boundaries is crucial for modeling the evolution of the black hole spin.

  6. Chemical constraints on the formation of the Galactic thick disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltzing S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We highlight some results from our detailed abundance analysis study of 703 kinematically selected F and G dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood. The analysis is based on spectra of high-resolution (R = 45000 to 110 000 and high signal-to-noise (S/N ≈ 150 to 300. The main findings include: (1 at a given metallicity, the thick disk abundance trends are more α-enhanced than those of the thin disk; (2 the metal-rich limit of the thick disk reaches at least solar metallicities; (3 the metal-poor limit of the thin disk is around [Fe/H] ≈−0.8; (4 the thick disk shows an age-metallicity gradient; (5 the thin disk does not show an age-metallicity gradient; (6 the most metal-rich thick disk stars at [Fe/H] ≈ 0 are significantly older than the most metal-poor thin disk stars at [Fe/H] ≈−0.7; (7 based on our elemental abundances we find that kinematical criteria produce thin and thick disk stellar samples that are biased in the sense that stars from the low-velocity tail of the thick disk are classified as thin disk stars, and stars from the high-velocity tail of the thin disk are classified as thick disk stars; (8 age criteria appears to produce thin and thick disk stellar samples with less contamination.

  7. Numerical Analysis of The Effect of Hydrodynamics and Operating Conditions on Biodiesel Synthesis in a Rotor-Stator Spinning Disk Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhuqing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A rotor-stator spinning disk reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated in the present research. The reactor consists of two flat disks, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm between the disks. The upper disk is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disk is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG and methanol are injected into the reactor from centres of rotating disk and stationary disk, respectively. Fluid hydrodynamics in the reactor for synthesis of biodiesel from TG and methanol in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst are simulated, using convection-diffusion-reaction multicomponent transport model with the CFD software ANSYS©Fluent v. 13.0. Effect of operating conditions on TG conversion is particularly investigated. Simulation results indicate that there is occurrence of back flow close to the stator at the outlet zone. Small gap size and fast rotational speed generally help to intensify mixing among reagents, and consequently enhance TG conversion. However, increasing rotational speed of spinning disk leads to more backflow, which decreases TG conversion. Large flow rate of TG at inlet is not recommended as well because of the short mean residence time of reactants inside the reactor.

  8. Intelligent multi-unit disk controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirot, Lucien

    1982-01-01

    This controller has been designed as a link between a 16 bits minicomputer and two types of disks units interface: the SMD interface and an equivalent to the DRI unit interface. Four units of each type can be handled by the controller. A bit slice microprocessor controls the interface with the disks units. The maximum exchange rate is 8 megabits per second. A CRC feature has been provided for error detection. A 16 bits microprocessor implements the interface to the computer, assuring head positioning, the management of bad tracks, as well as the supervision of each transfer. A internal buffer memory allows an asynchronous dialogue with the computer. The implementation of the controller makes easy the adaptation to disks units of various types, and though it has been initially intended for a minicomputer of the MITRA type, its microprocessor based design makes it fitted to any minicomputer. (author) [fr

  9. Industrial application of high power disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David

    2008-02-01

    Laser welding has become one of the fastest growing areas for industrial laser applications. The increasing cost effectiveness of the laser process is enabled by the development of new highly efficient laser sources, such as the Disk laser, coupled with decreasing cost per Watt. TRUMPF introduced the Disk laser several years ago, and today it has become the most reliable laser tool on the market. The excellent beam quality and output powers of up to 10 kW enable its application in the automotive industry as well as in the range of thick plate welding, such as heavy construction and ship building. This serves as an overview of the most recent developments on the TRUMPF Disk laser and its industrial applications like cutting, welding, remote welding and hybrid welding, too. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented.

  10. CARBON ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Paul M.; Willacy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry in the inner 30 AU of a typical protoplanetary disk (PPD) using a new model which calculates the gas temperature by solving the gas heating and cooling balance and which has an improved treatment of the UV radiation field. We discuss inner-disk chemistry in general, obtaining excellent agreement with recent observations which have probed the material in the inner regions of PPDs. We also apply our model to study the isotopic fractionation of carbon. Results show that the fractionation ratio, 12 C/ 13 C, of the system varies with radius and height in the disk. Different behavior is seen in the fractionation of different species. We compare our results with 12 C/ 13 C ratios in the solar system comets, and find a stark contrast, indicative of reprocessing.

  11. Multimegawatt disk generator system for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbes, A.; Iwata, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 100 megawatt - 500 seconds disk MHD generator system suitable as a burst power source for a space based neutral particle beam (NPB) is presented. The system features two disk generators operated in the magnetic field produced by a single circular superconducting magnet. Gelled reactants are used as the energy source. The oxidizer gel includes the alkali seed. The high heat flux areas of the power train are water cooled. Heat is rejected to a hydrogen stream which is also used for cooling of the exit section. The hydrogen is also used to mitigate the effects of the exhaust products of combustion on the platform. The two disk channels are operated in parallel. A dc to dc converter consolidates the channel's output into a single 100 kilovolt dc output

  12. Seeded inert gas driven disk generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines the present status of work being carried out in closed cycle MHD and disk generators. It gives the basic principles and discusses a proposal for setting up an experimental facility to study nonequilibrium plasmas using an inert gas driven disk generator. Disk geometry is a near ideal geometry for plasma studies since it has single or few pair electrodes combined with near perfect insulating walls. The proposed outlay of facility with components and subsystem is given. The facility may also be used to study the concept of fully ionized seed and to develop advanced diagnostic techniques. The absic equation describing the working parameters of such a system is also given in the Appendix. (author). 57 refs

  13. METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-12-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

  14. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Visser, Ruud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-10

    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ∼20–100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant- α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ∼3–10 au for 0.1–1 μ m grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  15. z~2: An Epoch of Disk Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raymond C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Heckman, Timothy M.; Trump, Jonathan; SIGMA, DEEP2

    2018-01-01

    At z = 0, the majority of massive star-forming galaxies contain thin, rotationally supported gas disks. It was once accepted that galaxies form thin disks early: collisional gas with high velocity dispersion should dissipate energy, conserve angular momentum, and develop strong rotational support in only a few galaxy crossing times (~few hundred Myr). However, this picture is complicated at high redshift, where the processes governing galaxy assembly tend to be violent and inhospitable to disk formation. We present results from our SIGMA survey of star-forming galaxy kinematics at z = 2. These results challenge the simple picture described above: galaxies at z = 2 are unlike local well-ordered disks. Their kinematics tend to be much more disordered, as quantified by their low ratios of rotational velocity to gas velocity dispersion (Vrot/σg): less than 35% of galaxies have Vrot/σg > 3. For comparison, nearly 100% of local star-forming galaxies meet this same threshold. We combine our high redshift sample with a similar low redshift sample from the DEEP2 survey. This combined sample covers a continuous redshift baseline over 0.1 < z < 2.5, spanning 10 Gyrs of cosmic time. Over this period, galaxies exhibit remarkably smooth kinematic evolution on average. All galaxies tend towards rotational support with time, and it is reached earlier in higher mass systems. This is due to both a significant decline in gas velocity dispersion and a mild rise in ordered rotational motions. These results indicate that z = 2 is a period of disk assembly, during which the strong rotational support present in today’s massive disk galaxies is only just beginning to emerge.

  16. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  17. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  18. SHAKEN, NOT STIRRED: THE DISRUPTED DISK OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the recent history of the nearby Sculptor Group spiral NGC 253, which is one of the nearest starburst galaxies. Bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are traced out to projected distances of ∼22-26 kpc (∼13-15 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, in the sense that the projected density of AGB stars in the northeast portion of the disk between 10 and 20 kpc from the galaxy center is ∼0.5 dex higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. A large population of red supergiants is also found in the northeast portion of the disk and, with the exception of the central 2 kpc, this area appears to have been the site of the highest levels of star-forming activity in the galaxy during the past ∼0.1 Gyr. It is argued that such high levels of localized star formation may have produced a fountain that ejected material from the disk, and the extraplanar H I detected by Boomsma et al. may be one manifestation of such activity. Diffuse stellar structures are found in the periphery of the disk, and the most prominent of these is to the south and east of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars, including cool C stars that are identified based on their J - K colors, are detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane, and these are part of a diffusely distributed, flattened extraplanar component. Comparisons between observed and model luminosity functions suggest that the extraplanar regions contain stars that formed throughout much of the age of the universe. Additional evidence of a diffuse, extraplanar stellar component that contains moderately young stars comes from archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer images. It is suggested that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter with a now defunct companion. This encounter introduced asymmetries that remain to this day, and the projected distribution of stars in and

  19. WL 17: A Young Embedded Transition Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the highest spatial resolution ALMA observations to date of the Class I protostar WL 17 in the $\\rho$ Ophiuchus L1688 molecular cloud complex, which show that it has a 12 AU hole in the center of its disk. We consider whether WL 17 is actually a Class II disk being extincted by foreground material, but find that such models do not provide a good fit to the broadband SED and also require such high extinction that it would presumably arise from dense material close to the source such...

  20. Frequency modulation of semiconductor disk laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-31

    A numerical model is constructed for a semiconductor disk laser mode-locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and the effect that the phase modulation caused by gain and absorption saturation in the semiconductor has on pulse generation is examined. The results demonstrate that, in a laser cavity with sufficient second-order dispersion, alternating-sign frequency modulation of pulses can be compensated for. We also examine a model for tuning the dispersion in the cavity of a disk laser using a Gires–Tournois interferometer with limited thirdorder dispersion. (control of radiation parameters)

  1. On radial flow between parallel disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, A Y L; Gorin, A

    2015-01-01

    Approximate analytical solutions are presented for converging flow in between two parallel non rotating disks. The static pressure distribution and radial component of the velocity are developed by averaging the inertial term across the gap in between parallel disks. The predicted results from the first approximation are favourable to experimental results as well as results presented by other authors. The second approximation shows that as the fluid approaches the center, the velocity at the mid channel slows down which is due to the struggle between the inertial term and the flowrate. (paper)

  2. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  3. Development of Disk Rover, wall-climbing robot using permanent magnet disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Shigeo; Tsutsumitake; Hiroshi; Toyama, Ryousei; Kobayashi, Kengo.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of wall climbing robot, named Disk Rover, using permanent magnet disks are developed. The newly introduced permanent magnet disk is to rotate the magnet disk on the surface of wall with partly contacted posture. It allows to produce high magnetic attraction force compared with conventional permanent wheel which utilizes only a small portion of the magnet installed around the wheel. The optimum design of the magnetic wheel is done by using finit element method and it is shown that the magnetic attraction force vs. weight ratio can be designed about three times higher than conventional type magnet wheel. The developed Disk Rover is 25 kg in weight including controller and battery, about 685 mm in diameter, 239 mm in height and has a pair of permanent magnet disks. It is demonstrated by the experiments that the Disk Rover can move around on the surface of the wall quite smoothly by radio control and has payload of about its own weight. Several considerations are also done in order to surmount bead weld. (author)

  4. Debris Disks in Aggregate: Using Hubble Space Telescope Coronagraphic Imagery to Understand the Scattered-Light Disk Detection Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of coronagraphic imaging of debris disk candidate stars, only 16 have been imaged in scattered light. Since imaged disks provide our best insight into processes which sculpt disks, and can provide signposts of the presence of giant planets at distances which would elude radial velocity and transit surveys, we need to understand under what conditions we detect the disks in scattered light, how these disks differ from the majority of debris disks, and how to increase the yield of disks which are imaged with 0.1" angular resolution. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from a shallow HSTINICMOS NIR survey of debris disks, and present first results from our on-going HST /STIS optical imaging of bright scattered-light disks.

  5. Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Tamura, Motohide; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuhn, Jonas; Serabyn, Eugene; Singh, Garima; Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, Carol; Uyama, Taichi; Akiyama, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    We present H -band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r ∼ 0.″3 to r ∼1″ (34–114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east–west direction (PA ∼ 75°), is inclined by i ∼ 70°–75°, and is strongly forward-scattering (g > 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disk’s eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t ∼ 1–250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (3–10 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Auriga’s star formation history. SCExAO’s planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r > 20 au may explain the disk’s visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk may be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet–disk interactions.

  6. Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Tamura, Motohide; Kuzuhara, Masayuki [Astrobiology Center, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Schlieder, Joshua E. [IPAC-NExScI, Mail Code 100-22, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brandt, Timothy D. [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kuhn, Jonas [Institute for Astronomy, ETH-Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Serabyn, Eugene; Singh, Garima [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA (United States); Janson, Markus [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC (United States); Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, Carol [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Uyama, Taichi [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Eiji [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2017-02-10

    We present H -band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r ∼ 0.″3 to r ∼1″ (34–114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east–west direction (PA ∼ 75°), is inclined by i ∼ 70°–75°, and is strongly forward-scattering (g > 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disk’s eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t ∼ 1–250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (3–10 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Auriga’s star formation history. SCExAO’s planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r > 20 au may explain the disk’s visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk may be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet–disk interactions.

  7. Spinning-disk confocal microscopy: present technology and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, John; Berman, Richard; Browne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Live-cell imaging requires not only high temporal resolution but also illumination powers low enough to minimize photodamage. Traditional single-point laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is generally limited by both the relatively slow speed at which it can acquire optical sections by serial raster scanning (a few Hz) and the higher potential for phototoxicity. These limitations have driven the development of rapid, parallel forms of confocal microscopy, the most popular of which is the spinning-disk confocal microscope (SDCM). Here, we briefly introduce the SDCM technique, discuss its strengths and weaknesses against LSCM, and update the reader on some recent developments in SDCM technology that improve its performance and expand its utility for life science research now and in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FOMALHAUT'S DEBRIS DISK AND PLANET: CONSTRAINING THE MASS OF FOMALHAUT B FROM DISK MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, E.; Kalas, P.; Graham, J. R.; Kite, E.; Clampin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Following the optical imaging of exoplanet candidate Fomalhaut b (Fom b), we present a numerical model of how Fomalhaut's debris disk is gravitationally shaped by a single interior planet. The model is simple, adaptable to other debris disks, and can be extended to accommodate multiple planets. If Fom b is the dominant perturber of the belt, then to produce the observed disk morphology it must have a mass M pl J , an orbital semimajor axis a pl > 101.5 AU, and an orbital eccentricity e pl = 0.11-0.13. These conclusions are independent of Fom b's photometry. To not disrupt the disk, a greater mass for Fom b demands a smaller orbit farther removed from the disk; thus, future astrometric measurement of Fom b's orbit, combined with our model of planet-disk interaction, can be used to determine the mass more precisely. The inner edge of the debris disk at a ∼ 133 AU lies at the periphery of Fom b's chaotic zone, and the mean disk eccentricity of e ∼ 0.11 is secularly forced by the planet, supporting predictions made prior to the discovery of Fom b. However, previous mass constraints based on disk morphology rely on several oversimplifications. We explain why our constraint is more reliable. It is based on a global model of the disk that is not restricted to the planet's chaotic zone boundary. Moreover, we screen disk parent bodies for dynamical stability over the system age of ∼ 100 Myr, and model them separately from their dust grain progeny; the latter's orbits are strongly affected by radiation pressure and their lifetimes are limited to ∼ 0.1 Myr by destructive grain-grain collisions. The single planet model predicts that planet and disk orbits be apsidally aligned. Fomalhaut b's nominal space velocity does not bear this out, but the astrometric uncertainties may be large. If the apsidal misalignment proves real, our calculated upper mass limit of 3M J still holds. If the orbits are aligned, our model predicts M pl = 0.5M J , a pl = 115 AU, and e pl = 0

  9. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Harvey, Paul M.; Pinte, Christophe; Merin, Bruno; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Evans, Neal J., II; Najita, Joan; Henning, Thomas; Menard, Francois

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d = 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. (2011) recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron) of T Cha from the "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) Key Program, which bridges the wavelength ...

  10. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    that are available to them. They do this by spreading - the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand. Significant changes happen only if some process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The consequences are very general: evolution by spreading happens in stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks. This meeting is about disk galaxies, so the evolution most often involves the redistribution of angular momentum. We now have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the center. Numerical simulations reproduce observed morphologies very well. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities that are seen in CO observations. Star formation rates measured (e.g.) in the mid-infrared show that many barred and oval galaxies grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central `pseudobulges' that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). Our resulting picture of secular evolution accounts for the richness observed in morphological classification schemes such as those of de Vaucouleurs (1959) and Sandage (1961). State-of-the art morphology discussions include the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies (Buta et al. 2007) and Buta (2012, 2013). Pseudobulges as disk-grown alternatives to merger-built classical bulges are important because they impact many aspects of our understanding of galaxy evolution. For example, they are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well known, tight correlations between BH mass and host properties (Kormendy et al. 2011). We can distinguish between classical and pseudo bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of

  11. Minaturized disk bend tests of neutron-irradiated path A type alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Grant, N.J.; Harling, O.K.

    1983-01-01

    Path A Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) has been rapidly solidified and consoliated by extrusion. Twenty percent CW samples, precision TEM disks, 3 phi x 0.254 mm, were irradiated in the mixed flux of the Oak Ridge HFIR reactor up to approx. 8.5 dpa (360 appm He) and approx. 34 dpa (3100 appm He) at 300, 400, 500 and 600 0 C. Similar samples of conventionally processed PCA were also irradiated for comparison. Mechanical properties were characterized using a minaturized disk bend test (MDBT) developed at MIT. These tests indicate major decreases in strength and ductility especially for the 500 and 600 0 C irradiations. No major differences were found between this first version of a rapidly solidified and extruded PCA type alloy and conventionally processed PCA

  12. The Distribution of Water in a Viscous Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, F. J.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of water in the solar nebula is important to understand for a number of reasons. Firstly, in the inner regions of the solar nebula, the concentration of water vapor is expected to have played a major role in determining its oxidation state, and therefore would control which minerals would form there. Secondly, in the outer nebula, water would be a major condensable, making up nearly 50% of the mass of the solids and thus possibly playing a role in determining where giant planets formed. Lastly, liquid water is important for forming and sustaining life, and therefore understanding where and how water was transported to the habitable zone of a a star is critical to understanding how common life may be in the galaxy. Because of its importance, the distribution of water in the solar nebula has been studied by a number of authors. The main transport mechanisms which would determine the distribution of water would be diffusion and gas drag migration. Water vapor and small solids would diffuse in the nebula, moving away from areas of high concentrations. Larger bodies, while also subject to diffusion, though to a lesser extent, would experience gas drag migration, causing them to move inwards with time. The bodies most affected by this transport mechanism would be on the order of 1 meter in size. As objects continued to grow larger, their inertia would also grow, making them nearly immobile to gas drag. While efforts have been made to understand how water would be distributed in a protoplanetary disk, none of the published models simultaneously consider the effects of nebular evolution, transport of material throughout the nebula, and the existence of solids of various sizes at a given location of the nebula. We are currently developing a model which allows for these effects and is consistent with models for the accretion of bodies in the solar nebula.

  13. In-vitro transdentinal diffusion of monomers from adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeys, Eveline; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Coppens, Lieve; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Godderis, Lode; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L

    2018-06-01

    Biocompatibility of adhesives is important since adhesives may be applied on dentin near the pulp. Accurate knowledge of the quantity of monomers reaching the pulp is important to determine potential side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the transdentinal diffusion of residual monomers from dental adhesive systems using an in-vitro pulp chamber model. Dentin disks with a thickness of 300 µm were produced from human third molars. These disks were fixed between two open-ended glass tubes, representing an in-vitro pulp chamber. The etch-and-rinse adhesive OptiBond FL and the self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond were applied to the dentin side of the disks, while on in the pulpal side, the glass tube was filled with 600 µL water. The transdentinal diffusion of different monomers was quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The monomers HEMA, CQ, BisGMA, GPDM, 10-MDP and UDMA eluted from the dental materials and were able to diffuse through the dentin disks to a certain extent. Compounds with a lower molecular weight (uncured group: HEMA 7850 nmol and CQ 78.2 nmol) were more likely to elute and diffuse compared to monomers with a higher molecular weight (uncured group: BisGMA 0.42 nmol). When the adhesives were left uncured, diffusion was up to 10 times higher compared to the cured conditions. This in-vitro research resulted in the quantification of various monomers able to diffuse through dentin and therefore contributes to a more detailed understanding about the potential exposure of the dental pulp to monomers from dental adhesives. Biocompatibility of adhesives is important since adhesives may be applied on dentin near the pulp, where tubular density and diameter are greatest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Intervertebral disk prolapse in a ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Neus; Valls, Xavier; Mascort, Joan

    2006-09-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and resolution of an inter-vertebral disk prolapse in a 6-year-old ferret. No predisposing causes were found in the patient's history. A right hemilaminectomy, performed 1 week after presentation, was chosen to treat the patient surgically, and complete remission of clinical signs was achieved 2 months after presentation.

  15. Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Properties and Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.; Testi, L.; Calvet, N.; Henning, T.; Waters, R.; Wilner, D.

    2007-01-01

    We review the properties of dust in protoplanetary disks around optically visible pre-main-sequence stars obtained with a variety of observational techniques, from measurements of scattered light at visual and infrared wavelengths to mid-infrared spectroscopy and millimeter interferometry. A general

  16. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks : porosity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C. W.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    Context. Sticking of colliding dust particles through van der Waals forces is the first stage in the grain growth process in protoplanetary disks, eventually leading to the formation of comets, asteroids and planets. A key aspect of the collisional evolution is the coupling between dust and gas

  17. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  18. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...

  19. Stochastic Oscillations of General Relativistic Disks Described

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4

    spectral slope at high frequencies of the power spectrum density of disk ..... has a negative sign, the process is antipersistence or anti-correlated. ..... We can find that the computation of a Grünwald-Letnikov derivative requires knowledge of.

  20. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  1. QPOs and Resonance in Accretion Disks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluzniak, W.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bursa, Michal; Török, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, Marzo 2007 (2007), s. 18-25 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : quasi-periodic oscillations * accretion disks * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigl, A.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical and radiative consequences of disk accretion onto magnetic T Tauri stars (TTS) are examined using the Ghosh and Lamb model. It is shown that a prolonged disk accretion phase is compatible with the low rotation rates measured in these stars if they possess a kilogauss strength field that disrupts the disk at a distance of a few stellar radii from the center. It is estimated that a steady state in which the net torque exerted on the star is zero can be attained on a time scale that is shorter than the age of the youngest visible TTS. Although the disk does not develop an ordinary shear boundary layer in this case, one can account for the observed UV excess and Balmer emission in terms of the shocks that form at the bottom of the high-latitude magnetic accretion columns on the stellar surface. This picture also provides a natural explanation of some of the puzzling variability properties of stars like DF Tau and RY Lup. YY Ori stars are interpreted as magnetic TTS in which the observer's line of sight is roughly parallel to an accretion column. 37 refs

  3. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  4. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi &. Matsuda would radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, ...

  5. Island universes structure and evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    DE JONG, R. S

    2007-01-01

    This book contains an up-to-date review of the structure and evolution of disk galaxies from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The book is the proceedings of the "Island Universes" conference held at the island of Terschelling, The Netherlands in July 2005, which attracted about 130 experts and students in the field. The conference was organized as a tribute to Dr. Piet C. van der Kruit for receiving the honorary Jacobus C. Kapteyn Professorship in Astronomy. The eight topical themes discussed at the meeting are reflected in these proceedings: 1) Properties of Stellar Disks, 2) Kinematics and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies, 3) Bars, Spiral Structure, and Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies, 4) The Outskirts and Environment of Disk Galaxies, 5) Interstellar Matter, 6) (Evolution of) Star Formation in Galactic Disks, 7) Disk Galaxies through Cosmic Time, and 8) Formation Models of Disk Galaxies. These proceedings are concluded with a conference summary reflecting on the most significant recent pro...

  6. Comparison of calculated and experimental characteristics of MHD flow between a rotaing disk and stationary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, S.A.; Dovganchuk, I.I.; Sozinov, Y.A.

    1988-01-01

    The laminar flow of a liquid metal in the clearance between rotating disks is examined in an axial magnetic field. A comparison is made between the experimental and calculated values of the potential difference

  7. MODELING DUST EMISSION OF HL TAU DISK BASED ON PLANET–DISK INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sheng; Ji, Jianghui; Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 M Jup at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed

  8. The First 40 Million Years of Circumstellar Disk Evolution: The Signature of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Gáspár, András, E-mail: hyameng@lpl.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We characterize the first 40 Myr of evolution of circumstellar disks through a unified study of the infrared properties of members of young clusters and associations with ages from 2 Myr up to ∼40 Myr: NGC 1333, NGC 1960, NGC 2232, NGC 2244, NGC 2362, NGC 2547, IC 348, IC 2395, IC 4665, Chamaeleon I, Orion OB1a and OB1b, Taurus, the β Pictoris Moving Group, ρ Ophiuchi, and the associations of Argus, Carina, Columba, Scorpius–Centaurus, and Tucana–Horologium. Our work features: (1) a filtering technique to flag noisy backgrounds; (2) a method based on the probability distribution of deflections, P ( D ), to obtain statistically valid photometry for faint sources; and (3) use of the evolutionary trend of transitional disks to constrain the overall behavior of bright disks. We find that the fraction of disks three or more times brighter than the stellar photospheres at 24 μ m decays relatively slowly initially and then much more rapidly by ∼10 Myr. However, there is a continuing component until ∼35 Myr, probably due primarily to massive clouds of debris generated in giant impacts during the oligarchic/chaotic growth phases of terrestrial planets. If the contribution from primordial disks is excluded, the evolution of the incidence of these oligarchic/chaotic debris disks can be described empirically by a log-normal function with the peak at 12–20 Myr, including ∼13% of the original population, and with a post-peak mean duration of 10–20 Myr.

  9. The First 40 Million Years of Circumstellar Disk Evolution: The Signature of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Gáspár, András

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the first 40 Myr of evolution of circumstellar disks through a unified study of the infrared properties of members of young clusters and associations with ages from 2 Myr up to ∼40 Myr: NGC 1333, NGC 1960, NGC 2232, NGC 2244, NGC 2362, NGC 2547, IC 348, IC 2395, IC 4665, Chamaeleon I, Orion OB1a and OB1b, Taurus, the β Pictoris Moving Group, ρ Ophiuchi, and the associations of Argus, Carina, Columba, Scorpius–Centaurus, and Tucana–Horologium. Our work features: (1) a filtering technique to flag noisy backgrounds; (2) a method based on the probability distribution of deflections, P ( D ), to obtain statistically valid photometry for faint sources; and (3) use of the evolutionary trend of transitional disks to constrain the overall behavior of bright disks. We find that the fraction of disks three or more times brighter than the stellar photospheres at 24 μ m decays relatively slowly initially and then much more rapidly by ∼10 Myr. However, there is a continuing component until ∼35 Myr, probably due primarily to massive clouds of debris generated in giant impacts during the oligarchic/chaotic growth phases of terrestrial planets. If the contribution from primordial disks is excluded, the evolution of the incidence of these oligarchic/chaotic debris disks can be described empirically by a log-normal function with the peak at 12–20 Myr, including ∼13% of the original population, and with a post-peak mean duration of 10–20 Myr.

  10. The First 40 Million Years of Circumstellar Disk Evolution: The Signature of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Gáspár, András

    2017-02-01

    We characterize the first 40 Myr of evolution of circumstellar disks through a unified study of the infrared properties of members of young clusters and associations with ages from 2 Myr up to ˜40 Myr: NGC 1333, NGC 1960, NGC 2232, NGC 2244, NGC 2362, NGC 2547, IC 348, IC 2395, IC 4665, Chamaeleon I, Orion OB1a and OB1b, Taurus, the β Pictoris Moving Group, ρ Ophiuchi, and the associations of Argus, Carina, Columba, Scorpius-Centaurus, and Tucana-Horologium. Our work features: (1) a filtering technique to flag noisy backgrounds; (2) a method based on the probability distribution of deflections, P(D), to obtain statistically valid photometry for faint sources; and (3) use of the evolutionary trend of transitional disks to constrain the overall behavior of bright disks. We find that the fraction of disks three or more times brighter than the stellar photospheres at 24 μm decays relatively slowly initially and then much more rapidly by ˜10 Myr. However, there is a continuing component until ˜35 Myr, probably due primarily to massive clouds of debris generated in giant impacts during the oligarchic/chaotic growth phases of terrestrial planets. If the contribution from primordial disks is excluded, the evolution of the incidence of these oligarchic/chaotic debris disks can be described empirically by a log-normal function with the peak at 12-20 Myr, including ˜13% of the original population, and with a post-peak mean duration of 10-20 Myr.

  11. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density

  12. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Matthew [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Evans, N. Wyn, E-mail: matthewmolloy@gmail.com, E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: nwe@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density.

  13. CN rings in full protoplanetary disks around young stars as probes of disk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoletti, P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Facchini, S.; Bruderer, S.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Bright ring-like structure emission of the CN molecule has been observed in protoplanetary disks. We investigate whether such structures are due to the morphology of the disk itself or if they are instead an intrinsic feature of CN emission. With the intention of using CN as a diagnostic, we also address to which physical and chemical parameters CN is most sensitive. Methods: A set of disk models were run for different stellar spectra, masses, and physical structures via the 2D thermochemical code DALI. An updated chemical network that accounts for the most relevant CN reactions was adopted. Results: Ring-shaped emission is found to be a common feature of all adopted models; the highest abundance is found in the upper outer regions of the disk, and the column density peaks at 30-100 AU for T Tauri stars with standard accretion rates. Higher mass disks generally show brighter CN. Higher UV fields, such as those appropriate for T Tauri stars with high accretion rates or for Herbig Ae stars or for higher disk flaring, generally result in brighter and larger rings. These trends are due to the main formation paths of CN, which all start with vibrationally excited H_2^* molecules, that are produced through far ultraviolet (FUV) pumping of H2. The model results compare well with observed disk-integrated CN fluxes and the observed location of the CN ring for the TW Hya disk. Conclusions: CN rings are produced naturally in protoplanetary disks and do not require a specific underlying disk structure such as a dust cavity or gap. The strong link between FUV flux and CN emission can provide critical information regarding the vertical structure of the disk and the distribution of dust grains which affects the UV penetration, and could help to break some degeneracies in the SED fitting. In contrast with C2H or c-C3H2, the CN flux is not very sensitive to carbon and oxygen depletion.

  14. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: c.carrasco@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: r.galvan@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: linz@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.

  15. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura; Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra; Flock, Mario; Menten, Karl; Testi, Leonardo; Torrelles, José M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10 −3 M ⊙ , depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings

  16. From circumstellar disks to planetary systems: observation and modeling of protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Macías Quevedo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The existence of exoplanetary systems was first predicted after the discovery of accretion disks around young stars. Nowadays, with nearly 3500 exoplanets discovered, and almost 5000 more candidates identified by the Kepler space mission, planetary systems are now known to be ubiquitous around low-mass stars. The formation of these systems takes place during the stellar formation itself, from the dust and gas orbiting around the star in the protoplanetary disks. However, the process that lead...

  17. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J.; Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Merín, Bruno; Najita, Joan

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d ∼ 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huélamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 μm without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond ∼40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  18. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Menard, Francois [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Agency (ESAC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, Joan, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    T Cha is a nearby (d {approx} 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 {mu}m without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond {approx}40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  19. DISK BATTERIES IN THE ESOPHAGUS OF NIGERIAN CHILDREN: CASE SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    LUCKY OBUKOWHO ONOTAI; ADAOBI ELIZABETH OSUJI

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is common in clinical practice especially in children. Its impaction in the esophagus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our environment. Due to technological advancement and increase use of disk batteries to power children toys and remote control gadgets, ingestion of disk batteries is now commonplace. In our environment there is paucity of information on disk batteries hence we decided to present case series of disk batteries in the esop...

  20. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2012-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity...

  1. Application of vertical micro-disk MHD electrode to the analysis of heterogeneous magneto-convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hashiride, Makoto; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Nagai, Yutaka; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    2004-01-01

    With a micro-disk electrode in vertical magnetic fields, heterogeneous magneto-convection in vertical magnetic fields was quantitatively examined for the redox reaction of ferrocyanide-ferricyanide ions. It was concluded that the current density controlled by the magneto-convection is in proportion to the 1/3rd power of the product of the magnetic flux density and its gradient. Then, by using the same electrode system, the diffusion current induced by the vertical MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) flow was measured for the reduction of cuprous ions to copper atoms. The current density in this case was, as theoretically predicted, a function of the 1st power of the magnetic flux density. Finally, to visualize this characteristic flow pattern of the vertical MHD flow, copper electrodeposition onto the micro-disk electrode in a vertical magnetic field was performed; a typical morphological pattern of the deposit (single micro-mystery circle) was observed, as expected

  2. Application of vertical micro-disk MHD electrode to the analysis of heterogeneous magneto-convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, A. [Saitama Industrial Technology Center, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Kawaguchi (Japan). Domestic Research Fellowship; Hashiride, M.; Morimoto, R.; Nagai, Y. [Saitama Industrial Technology Center, Kawaguchi (Japan). Materials Engineering Division; Aogaki, R. [Polytechnic University, Sagamihara (Japan). Department of Product Design

    2004-11-01

    With a micro-disk electrode in vertical magnetic fields, heterogeneous magneto-convection in vertical magnetic fields was quantitatively examined for the redox reaction of ferrocyanide-ferricyanide ions. It was concluded that the current density controlled by the magneto-convection is in proportion to the 1/3rd power of the product of the magnetic flux density and its gradient. Then, by using the same electrode system, the diffusion current induced by the vertical MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) flow was measured for the reduction of cuprous ions to copper atoms. The current density in this case was, as theoretically predicted, a function of the 1st power of the magnetic flux density. Finally, to visualize this characteristic flow pattern of the vertical MHD flow, copper electrodeposition onto the micro-disk electrode in a vertical magnetic field was performed; a typical morphological pattern of the deposit (single micro-mystery circle) was observed, as expected. (author)

  3. DISK DETECTIVE: DISCOVERY OF NEW CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK CANDIDATES THROUGH CITIZEN SCIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States); Silverberg, Steven M.; Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Oklahoma 440 W. Brooks St. Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bans, Alissa S. [Valparaiso University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Neils Science Center, 1610 Campus Drive East, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Bhattacharjee, Shambo [International Space University 1 Rue Jean-Dominique Cassini F-67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France); Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Dr. Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Currie, Thayne [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 N A’ohokhu Place Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); García, Luciano [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina); Jung, Dawoon [Korea Aerospace Research Institute Lunar Exploration Program Office 169-84 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Lintott, Chris [Denys Wilkinson Building Keble Road Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Rebull, Luisa M. [Infrared Processing and Analaysis Center Caltech M/S 314-6 1200 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nesvold, Erika, E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov, E-mail: michael.w.mcelwain@nasa.gov, E-mail: deborah.l.padgett@nasa.gov, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov, E-mail: silverberg@ou.edu, E-mail: wisniewski@ou.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Collaboration: Disk Detective Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-20

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 μ m excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 μ m excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  4. DISK DETECTIVE: DISCOVERY OF NEW CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK CANDIDATES THROUGH CITIZEN SCIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; García, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; Rebull, Luisa M.; Nesvold, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 μ m excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 μ m excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  5. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; Garcia, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 micron excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASAs Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and proto planetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137,and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 micron excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  6. Failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  7. Development of a rotating graphite carbon disk stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Hiroo; Okuno, Hiroki; Tatami, Atsushi; Tachibana, Masamitsu; Murakami, Mutsuaki; Kuboki, Hironori; Imao, Hiroshi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Kase, Masayuki; Kamigaito, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    Highly oriented graphite carbon sheets (GCSs) were successfully used as disk strippers. An irradiation test conducted in 2015 showed that GCS strippers have the longest lifetime and exhibit improved stripping and transmission efficiencies. The problem of disk deformation in previously used Be-disk was solved even with higher beam intensity.

  8. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction

    OpenAIRE

    Moro-Martin, Amaya

    2007-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  9. Simulations of minor mergers. I. General properties of thick disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, Álvaro; Helmi, Amina

    2008-01-01

    We present simulations of the formation of thick disks via the accretion of twocomponent satellites onto a pre-existing thin disk. Our goal is to establish the detailed characteristics of the thick disks obtained in this way, as well as their dependence on the initial orbital and internal properties

  10. New models of general relativistic static thick disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    New families of exact general relativistic thick disks are constructed using the "displace, cut, fill, and reflect" method. A class of functions used to fill the disks is derived imposing conditions on the first and second derivatives to generate physically acceptable disks. The analysis of the

  11. Interactions between massive dark halos and warped disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    The normal mode theory for warping of galaxy disks, in which disks are assumed to be tilted with respect to the equator of a massive, flattened dark halo, assumes a rigid, fixed halo. However, consideration of the back-reaction by a misaligned disk on a massive particle halo shows there to be strong

  12. A self-consistent model of the three-phase interstellar medium in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study the author analyzes a number of physical processes concerning velocity and spatial distributions, ionization structure, pressure variation, mass and energy balance, and equation of state of the diffuse interstellar gas in a three phase model. He also considers the effects of this model on the formation of molecular clouds and the evolution of disk galaxies. The primary purpose is to incorporate self-consistently the interstellar conditions in a typical late-type galaxy, and to relate these to various observed large-scale phenomena. He models idealized situations both analytically and numerically, and compares the results with observational data of the Milky Way Galaxy and other nearby disk galaxies. Several main conclusions of this study are: (1) the highly ionized gas found in the lower Galactic halo is shown to be consistent with a model in which the gas is photoionized by the diffuse ultraviolet radiation; (2) in a quasi-static and self-regulatory configuration, the photoelectric effects of interstellar grains are primarily responsible for heating the cold (T ≅ 100K) gas; the warm (T ≅ 8,000K) gas may be heated by supernova remnants and other mechanisms; (3) the large-scale atomic and molecular gas distributions in a sample of 15 disk galaxies can be well explained if molecular cloud formation and star formation follow a modified Schmidt Law; a scaling law for the radial gas profiles is proposed based on this model, and it is shown to be applicable to the nearby late-type galaxies where radio mapping data is available; for disk galaxies of earlier type, the effect of their massive central bulges may have to be taken into account

  13. THE COUPLED PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF GAS AND DUST IN THE IM Lup PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Öberg, Karin I.; Wilner, David J.; Huang, Jane; Loomis, Ryan A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Czekala, Ian, E-mail: ilse.cleeves@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The spatial distribution of gas and solids in protoplanetary disks determines the composition and formation efficiency of planetary systems. A number of disks show starkly different distributions for the gas and small grains compared to millimeter–centimeter-sized dust. We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum, CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O in the IM Lup protoplanetary disk, one of the first systems where this dust–gas dichotomy was clearly seen. The {sup 12}CO is detected out to a radius of 970 au, while the millimeter continuum emission is truncated at just 313 au. Based upon these data, we have built a comprehensive physical and chemical model for the disk structure, which takes into account the complex, coupled nature of the gas and dust and the interplay between the local and external environment. We constrain the distributions of gas and dust, the gas temperatures, the CO abundances, the CO optical depths, and the incident external radiation field. We find that the reduction/removal of dust from the outer disk exposes this region to higher stellar and external radiation and decreases the rate of freeze-out, allowing CO to remain in the gas out to large radial distances. We estimate a gas-phase CO abundance of 5% of the interstellar medium value and a low external radiation field ( G {sub 0} ≲ 4). The latter is consistent with that expected from the local stellar population. We additionally find tentative evidence for ring-like continuum substructure, suggestions of isotope-selective photodissociation, and a diffuse gas halo.

  14. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. II. SOUTHERN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC (ESA), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Smith Castelli, Analia V. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allen, Lori E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2012-04-10

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  15. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. II. SOUTHERN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Cieza, Lucas A.; Merín, Bruno; Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Allen, Lori E.; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from ∼ JUP , and accretion rates ranging from ∼ –11 to 10 –7.7 M ☉ yr –1 . Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  16. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  17. Diffusion of gases in solids: rare gas diffusion in solids; tritium diffusion in fission and fusion reactor metals. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, P.M.; Chandra, D.; Mintz, J.M.; Elleman, T.S.; Verghese, K.

    1976-01-01

    Major results of tritium and rare gas diffusion research conducted under the contract are summarized. The materials studied were austenitic stainless steels, Zircaloy, and niobium. In all three of the metal systems investigated, tritium release rates were found to be inhibited by surface oxide films. The effective diffusion coefficients that control tritium release from surface films on Zircaloy and niobium were determined to be eight to ten orders of magnitude lower than the bulk diffusion coefficients. A rapid component of diffusion due to grain boundaries was identified in stainless steels. The grain boundary diffusion coefficient was determined to be about six orders of magnitude greater than the bulk diffusion coefficient for tritium in stainless steel. In Zircaloy clad fuel pins, the permeation rate of tritium through the cladding is rate-limited by the extremely slow diffusion rate in the surface films. Tritium diffusion rates through surface oxide films on niobium appear to be controlled by cracks in the surface films at temperatures up to 600 0 C. Beyond 600 0 C, the cracks appear to heal, thereby increasing the activation energy for diffusion through the oxide film. The steady-state diffusion of tritium in a fusion reactor blanket has been evaluated in order to calculate the equilibrium tritium transport rate, approximate time to equilibrium, and tritium inventory in various regions of the reactor blanket as a function of selected blanket parameters. Values for these quantities have been tabulated

  18. Resonant Drag Instabilities in protoplanetary disks: the streaming instability and new, faster-growing instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.

  19. Deformation and Life Analysis of Composite Flywheel Disk and Multi-disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; AlZoubi, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study an attempt is made to put into perspective the problem of a rotating disk, be it a single disk or a number of concentric disks forming a unit. An analytical model capable of performing an elastic stress analysis for single/multiple, annular/solid, anisotropic/isotropic disk systems, subjected to both pressure surface tractions, body forces (in the form of temperature-changes and rotation fields) and interfacial misfits is derived and discussed. Results of an extensive parametric study are presented to clearly define the key design variables and their associated influence. In general the important parameters were identified as misfit, mean radius, thickness, material property and/or load gradation, and speed; all of which must be simultaneously optimized to achieve the "best" and most reliable design. Also, the important issue of defining proper performance/merit indices (based on the specific stored energy), in the presence of multiaxiality and material anisotropy is addressed. These merit indices are then utilized to discuss the difference between flywheels made from PMC and TMC materials with either an annular or solid geometry. Finally two major aspects of failure analysis, that is the static and cyclic limit (burst) speeds are addressed. In the case of static limit loads, upper, lower, and out-of-plane bounds for disks with constant thickness are presented for both the case of internal pressure loading (as one would see in a hydroburst test) and pure rotation (as in the case of a free spinning disk). The results (interaction diagrams) are displayed graphically in designer friendly format. For the case of fatigue, a representative fatigue/life master curve is illustrated in which the normalized limit speed versus number of applied cycles is given for a cladded TMC disk application.

  20. Optic disk findings in hypervitaminosis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D F; Turgeon, P; Aaberg, T M; Wiznia, R A; Wetzig, P C; Bovino, J A

    1985-07-01

    Three cases of papilledema secondary to chronic excessive vitamin A intake are presented, and the optic disk changes are documented with intravenous fluorescein angiography. Two of the three patients reported in this study were symptomatic with blurred vision and systemic complaints. The symptoms of blurred vision and systemic complaints disappeared within one week, and papilledema resolved over several months after discontinuance of vitamin A. The fluorescein angiographic changes observed in the optic disk of patients with hypervitaminosis A are similar to those associated with other known causes of papilledema. Since vitamin A is a nonprescription drug, and its indiscriminate use is potentially great, any history of vitamin ingestion should be elicited during the evaluation of papilledema.

  1. Terabyte IDE RAID-5 Disk Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Sanders et al.

    2003-09-30

    High energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. We examine some techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. We report on tests of redundant arrays of integrated drive electronics (IDE) disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. IDE redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) prices now are less than the cost per terabyte of million-dollar tape robots! The arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to institutions without robots and used when fast random access at low cost is important.

  2. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevestam, Goeran; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas; Tagziria, Hamid; Vanhavere, Filip; Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm -2 s -1 , where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm -2 s -1 , again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved

  3. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevestam, Goeran [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: goeran.loevestam@ec.europa.eu; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tagziria, Hamid [EC-JRC-Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); Vanhavere, Filip [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved.

  4. Warm Debris Disk Candidates from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.

  5. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  6. Heating and cooling processes in disks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitke Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed.

  7. Turbulence in the TW Hya Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Teague, Richard; Simon, Jacob B.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental parameter in models of grain growth during the early stages of planet formation. As such, observational constraints on its magnitude are crucial. Here we self-consistently analyze ALMA CO(2–1), SMA CO(3–2), and SMA CO(6–5) observations of the disk around TW Hya and find an upper limit on the turbulent broadening of equilibrium in the presence of a vertical temperature gradient and/or the confinement of CO to a thin molecular layer above the midplane, although further work is needed to quantify the influence of these prescriptions. Assumptions about hydrostatic equilibrium and the CO distribution are physically motivated, and may have a small influence on measuring the kinematics of the gas, but they become important when constraining small effects such as the strength of the turbulence within a protoplanetary disk.

  8. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R g , where R g  = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations

  9. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R{sub g}, where R{sub g} = 2GM/c{sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations.

  10. Overdetermined elliptic problems in topological disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Pablo

    2018-06-01

    We introduce a method, based on the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem, to classify solutions to overdetermined problems for fully nonlinear elliptic equations in domains diffeomorphic to a closed disk. Applications to some well-known nonlinear elliptic PDEs are provided. Our result can be seen as the analogue of Hopf's uniqueness theorem for constant mean curvature spheres, but for the general analytic context of overdetermined elliptic problems.

  11. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  12. Cryogenic Yb: YAG Thin-Disk Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    as a 4- level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG thin disk laser performance...Air Force Base, NM USA 87117 4RINI Technologies, 582 South Econ Circle, Oviedo, FL USA 32765 Keywords: Laser materials; Lasers, ytterbium...temperatures, Yb:YAG behaves as a 4- level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG

  13. The MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Possibilities exist for applying the MDBT approach to the determination of other mechanical properties. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly

  14. Vibration of circular bladed disk with imperfections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2011), s. 2893-2904 ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : circular bladed disk * vibration * imperfection * nonlinear damping Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijbc/21/2110/S0218127411030210.html

  15. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.