WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid digit naming

  1. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  2. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  3. Why is rapid automatized naming related to reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral and silent reading fluency. The results of regression analyses indicated that RAN is related to reading because both involve serial processing and oral production of the names of the stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Literacy acquisition influences children's rapid automatized naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Arnett, Anne B; Pennington, Bruce F; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K

    2017-08-15

    Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4. Consistent with previous research, literacy showed bidirectional relationships with reading-related oral language skills. We found novel evidence for an effect of earlier literacy on later RAN, which was most evident in children at early phases of literacy development. In contrast, the influence of earlier RAN on later literacy was predominant among older children. These findings imply that the association between these two related skills is moderated by development. Implications for models of reading development and for dyslexia research are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  6. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  7. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  8. The Digital, the Virtual and the Naming of Knowledge

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    Darren Jorgensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amidst changing regimes of disciplinarity, the digital has become a term used to delineate a mode of knowledge and educational methodology. Its currency comes from the technologies that share its name, yet the territory that it marks is much greater than this, referring to the cultural, economic and social. The digital is too proximate to the technological to adequately account for this territory. Instead, I argue for radical interventions in the naming of knowledge in order to defamiliarise the digital. Different accounts of the virtual by Pierre Lévy, Katherine Hayles and David Summers suggest that this term establishes a greater range of enquiry and contestation. The virtual is but one alternative to the digital as a means by which new disciplines, methodologies and pedagogies might be constituted.

  9. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

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    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  10. Students' performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading, and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Lanza, Simone Cristina

    2010-01-01

    phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with learning difficulties of a municipal public school. to characterize and compare the performance of students from public schools with and without learning difficulties in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing. participants were 60 students from the 2nd to the 4th grades of municipal public schools divided into 6 groups. Each group was composed by 10 students, being 3 groups of students without learning difficulties and 3 groups with students with learning difficulties. As testing procedure phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, oral reading and writing under dictation assessments were used. the results highlighted the better performance of students with no learning difficulties. Students with learning difficulties presented a higher ratios considering time/speed in rapid naming tasks and, consequently, lower production in activities of phonological awareness and reading and writing, when compared to students without learning difficulties. students with learning difficulties presented deficits when considering the relationship between naming and automatization skills, and among lexical access, visual discrimination, stimulus frequency use and competition in using less time for code naming, i.e. necessary for the phoneme-grapheme conversion process required in the reading and writing alphabetic system like the Portuguese language.

  11. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  12. Rapid automatized naming, phonology and dyslexia in Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowicz-Kupis, Grazyna; Borkowska, Aneta R; Pietras, Izabela

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that children with reading difficulties have deficits in both rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological skills (PS). The double-deficit hypothesis suggests that phonological and naming-speed deficits are two separable causes of reading problems. The main goal of our study was to investigate naming speed in Polish fourth grade children with dyslexia. 33 dyslexic children (10 girls and 23 boys) and 30 good readers participated in the study. They were given the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-R) and a battery of diagnostic tests for dyslexia for fourth-grade children, consisting of tests for single word reading, nonsense word reading, reading with word canceling, text comprehension, spelling on dictation, rapid automatic naming, phoneme elision, and phonological skills, as well as the Zetotest (a phonological memory test). The dyslexic children performed significantly more slowly than controls on the RAN tests, which suggests a generalized deficit in the speed of access to the mental lexicon. Significant correlations were found only between the RAN test and the text comprehension text. Among all the phonological measures applied in the study, slight but significant correlations were found only between phonological memory and speed naming. Dyslexic children with low speed naming abilities and high speed naming abilities showed no differences in phonological functions. Our results confirm the double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia.

  13. Why Does Rapid Naming Predict Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) robustly predicts early reading abilities across languages, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study found that RAN associated significantly with processing speed but not with phonological awareness or orthographic knowledge in 89 Hong Kong Chinese second-graders. RAN overlaps more with processing…

  14. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  15. Systems and methods for automatically identifying and linking names in digital resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Charles T.; Lyons, Catherine M.; Roston, Gerald P.; Garrity, George M.

    2017-06-06

    The present invention provides systems and methods for automatically identifying name-like-strings in digital resources, matching these name-like-string against a set of names held in an expertly curated database, and for those name-like-strings found in said database, enhancing the content by associating additional matter with the name, wherein said matter includes information about the names that is held within said database and pointers to other digital resources which include the same name and it synonyms.

  16. The contribution of discrete-trial naming and visual recognition to rapid automatized naming deficits of dyslexic children with and without a history of language delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eGasperini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD are impaired in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN tasks, where subjects are asked to name arrays of high frequency items as quickly as possible. However the reasons why RAN speed discriminates DD from typical readers are not yet fully understood. Our study was aimed to identify some of the cognitive mechanisms underlying RAN-reading relationship by comparing one group of 32 children with DD with an age-matched control group of typical readers on a naming and a visual recognition task both using a discrete-trial methodology , in addition to a serial RAN task, all using the same stimuli (digits and colors. Results showed a significant slowness of DD children in both serial and discrete-trial naming tasks regardless of type of stimulus, but no difference between the two groups on the discrete-trial recognition task. Significant differences between DD and control participants in the RAN task disappeared when performance in the discrete-trial naming task was partialled out by covariance analysis for colors, but not for digits. The same pattern held in a subgroup of DD subjects with a history of early language delay (LD. By contrast, in a subsample of DD children without LD the RAN deficit was specific for digits and disappeared after slowness in discrete-trial naming was partialled out. Slowness in discrete-trial naming was more evident for LD than for noLD DD children. Overall, our results confirm previous evidence indicating a name-retrieval deficit as a cognitive impairment underlying RAN slowness in DD children. This deficit seems to be more marked in DD children with previous LD. Moreover, additional cognitive deficits specifically associated with serial RAN tasks have to be taken into account when explaining deficient RAN speed of these latter children. We suggest that partially different cognitive dysfunctions underpin superficially similar RAN impairments in different subgroups of DD subjects.

  17. Rapid naming in Brazilian students with dyslexia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Luciana eMendonça Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effective development of reading and writing skills requires the concerted action of several abilities, one of which is phonological processing. One of the foremost components of phonological processing is rapid automatized naming (RAN- the ability to identify and recognize a given item by the activation and concomitant articulation of its name. Objective: To assess the RAN performance of schoolchildren with dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD compared with their peers. Methods: In total, 70 schoolchildren aged between 8‒11 years participated in the study. Of these, 16 children had a multiprofessional diagnosis of ADHD while 14 had been diagnosed with dyslexia. Matched with these groups, 40 schoolchildren with no history of developmental impairments were also evaluated. The RAN test was administered to assess the length of time required to name a series of familiar visual stimuli. The statistical analysis was conducted using measures of descriptive statistics and the 2-sample t-test at the 5% significance level. Results: The performance of the group with dyslexia was inferior to that of the control group, in all tasks and the ADHD group had inferior performance for color and letters-naming tasks. The schoolchildren with dyslexia and those with ADHD showed very similar response times. Age has shown to be an important variable to be analyzed separately. Children with typical language development have faster answers as they aged on colors and digits tasks while children with dyslexia or ADHD do not show improvement with age. Conclusions: The schoolchildren with dyslexia took longer to complete all tasks and ADHD took longer to complete digits and objects tasks in comparison to their peers with typical development. This ability tends to improve with age, which is not the case, however, with schoolchildren who have ADHD or dyslexia.

  18. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) in children with ADHD: An ex-Gaussian analysis.

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    Ryan, Matthew; Jacobson, Lisa A; Hague, Cole; Bellows, Alison; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2017-07-01

    Children with ADHD demonstrate increased frequent "lapses" in performance on tasks in which the stimulus presentation rate is externally controlled, leading to increased variability in response times. It is less clear whether these lapses are also evident during performance on self-paced tasks, e.g., rapid automatized naming (RAN), or whether RAN inter-item pause time variability uniquely predicts reading performance. A total of 80 children aged 9 to 14 years-45 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 35 typically developing (TD) children-completed RAN and reading fluency measures. RAN responses were digitally recorded for analyses. Inter-stimulus pause time distributions (excluding between-row pauses) were analyzed using traditional (mean, standard deviation [SD], coefficient of variation [CV]) and ex-Gaussian (mu, sigma, tau) methods. Children with ADHD were found to be significantly slower than TD children (p reading fluency. RAN response time distributions were also significantly more variable (SD, tau) in children with ADHD. Hierarchical regression revealed that the exponential component (tau) of the letter-naming response time distribution uniquely predicted reading fluency in children with ADHD (p reading, ADHD symptom severity and age. The findings suggest that children with ADHD (without word-level reading difficulties) manifest slowed performance on tasks of reading fluency; however, this "slowing" may be due in part to lapses from ongoing performance that can be assessed directly using ex-Gaussian methods that capture excessively long response times.

  19. Taking back place-names – from dusty library to digital life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    atlas of the Danish historical-administrative geography. Digitization and presentation of a scientific place-names edition poses many interesting problems in itself, especially regarding the variation over time in both the selection of names and the build-up of scholarly knowledge. How are we to convey...... to end users the understanding of the limitations of the early volumes compared to the newer ones, and how are we to avoid confusion due to the uneven distribution of the names selected for publication – even in neighbouring parishes? And, furthermore, how can we transfer the advantage of the physical...... mobility of the book format into a digital context – by making the content available as an application for mobile devices such as smart phones and iPads? Adding geocodes to the name articles could open up the possibility of a digital place-name lexicon allowing the end user to move around in a place...

  20. Examining the relationship between rapid automatized naming and arithmetic fluency in Chinese kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiaxin; Georgiou, George K; Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Yixun; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction). The results indicated first that RAN was a significant correlate of arithmetic fluency and the correlations did not vary as a function of type of RAN or arithmetic fluency tasks. In addition, RAN continued to predict addition and subtraction fluency even after controlling for all other processing skills. Taken together, these findings challenge the existing theoretical accounts of the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship and suggest that, similar to reading fluency, multiple processes underlie the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) test: A new measure of rapid picture naming for concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Lucy; Hasanaj, Lisena; Amorapanth, Prin; Rizzo, John-Ross; Nolan, Rachel; Serrano, Liliana; Raynowska, Jenelle; Rucker, Janet C; Jordan, Barry D; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2017-01-15

    This study introduces a rapid picture naming test, the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES), as a novel, vision-based performance measure for concussion screening. The MULES is a visual-verbal task that includes 54 original photographs of fruits, objects and animals. We piloted MULES in a cohort of volunteers to determine feasibility, ranges of picture naming responses, and the relation of MULES time scores to those of King-Devick (K-D), a rapid number naming test. A convenience sample (n=20, age 34±10) underwent MULES and K-D (spiral bound, iPad versions). Administration order was randomized; MULES tests were audio-recorded to provide objective data on temporal variability and ranges of picture naming responses. Scores for the best of two trials for all tests were 40-50s; average times required to name each MULES picture (0.72±0.14s) was greater than those needed for each K-D number ((spiral: 0.33±0.05s, iPad: 0.36±0.06s, 120 numbers), psystems than more commonly used rapid number naming tasks. Rapid picture naming may require additional processing devoted to color perception, object identification, and categorization. Both tests rely on initiation and sequencing of saccadic eye movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

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    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  3. RAPID: A random access picture digitizer, display, and memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Rayfield, M.; Eskenazi, R.

    1976-01-01

    RAPID is a system capable of providing convenient digital analysis of video data in real-time. It has two modes of operation. The first allows for continuous digitization of an EIA RS-170 video signal. Each frame in the video signal is digitized and written in 1/30 of a second into RAPID's internal memory. The second mode leaves the content of the internal memory independent of the current input video. In both modes of operation the image contained in the memory is used to generate an EIA RS-170 composite video output signal representing the digitized image in the memory so that it can be displayed on a monitor.

  4. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

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    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Beyond Phonology: Visual Processes Predict Alphanumeric and Nonalphanumeric Rapid Naming in Poor Early Readers

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    Kruk, Richard S.; Luther Ruban, Cassia

    2018-01-01

    Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded…

  6. Rapid naming, phonological memory and reading fluency in Brazilian bilingual students.

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    Fleury, Fernanda Oppenheimer; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of Brazilian students exposed to two languages in reading fluency, phonological memory, and rapid naming, according to grade level, and to investigate correlations between these variables. Sixty students took part in this study (50% female), enrolled in the third to the fifth grades of two elementary schools of the city of São Paulo. They constituted two groups - bilingual group: 30 Brazilian children whose mother tongue and language spoken at home was Brazilian Portuguese and who were daily exposed to English at school for a period not shorter than three years; monolingual group: 30 students, from a monolingual Brazilian elementary school, who were paired by gender, age, and grade level with the bilingual students. Foreign children, children with complaint or indication of speech and language disorder, or who had been retained were excluded. A rapid automatized naming, pseudoword repetition, and oral reading tests were administered. The bilingual children were assessed in both languages and their performances were compared among themselves and with the monolingual group, which was only assessed in Brazilian Portuguese. The bilingual group showed better performance in English, rapid naming, and pseudoword repetition tasks, whereas Brazilian Portuguese, in reading fluency. A higher number of correlations were found in Brazilian Portuguese. The results suggest that the acquisition of a second language may positively influence the abilities of rapid naming, reading rate, and accuracy. Brazilian bilingual students performed better in tasks of phonological memory in English and Brazilian Portuguese performed better in reading fluency. Different correlation patterns were found between the rapid naming, accuracy, and reading rate, in the bilingual group analysis, in both languages.

  7. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

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    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  8. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  9. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex.

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    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-04-19

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence "lateralized Whorfian" effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing.

  10. Clinical course of acute atrial fibrillation treated with rapid digitalization.

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    Weiner, P; Bassan, M M; Jarchovsky, J; Iusim, S; Plavnick, L

    1983-02-01

    Forty-seven episodes of acute atrial fibrillation (AF) in 45 patients were examined prospectively to determine the course of the disorder treated with rapid digitalization. Patients received 1.5 mg of digoxin intravenously over 12 hours. In 40 of the 47 attacks, reversion to sinus rhythm occurred with no additional therapy at 1 to 96 hours (median 4 hours) after beginning digoxin. In thirty-two patients, conversion occurred within 8 hours; only one patient showed important ventricular slowing before conversion. Thus, if digoxin facilitates conversion, it does not do so by slowing the ventricular response. Of the 11 patients still in AF at 16 hours, conversion subsequently occurred in only four who were receiving digoxin alone. We conclude that the prognosis for quick reversion to sinus rhythm in patients with acute AF treated with rapid digitalization alone is excellent. If reversion does not occur by 16 to 24 hours, additional measures to restore sinus rhythm are indicated.

  11. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    for the RAN-reading correlation. One hundred and sixty-nine preschool students were given measures of RAN and additional measures of phonological awareness, lexical search speed, letter knowledge, and paired associate learning. Their reading skills were tested a year later along with speed of processing......It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus...

  12. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and hierarchical regression methods to determine the connection among RAN, reading comprehension, and WM components. Results showed that WM played a significant mediating role in the RAN-reading relation and that auditory WM made stronger contributions than visual WM. Taking into account of the multi-component nature of WM and the specificity of Chinese reading processing, this study discussed the mediating powers of the WM components, particularly auditory WM, further clarifying the possible components involved in the RAN-reading relation and thus providing some insight into the complicated Chinese reading process.

  13. Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

  14. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Problems of rapid digitalization in severe congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K O; Assmann, I; Fiehring, H

    1980-02-01

    The pharmacodynamic effects (changes of systolic time intervals, STI, reaction of pulmonary arterial pressure) of digitoxin were studied in 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure in comparison with the corresponding plasma level. STI indicated glycoside-dependent changes, i.e. shortening of LVETc and QS2c and normalization of prolonged PEPc, while ICT shortening was less observed. In 2 patients with cor pulmonale a pulmonary oedema occurred accompanied with prolonged LVETc. During the early period of glycoside-dependent recompensation no significant correlation between STI shortening and glycoside plasma level was observed. Because of the retarded normalization of the haemodynamics of the pulmonary circulation and because of possible side-effects, rapid digitalization has to be reconsidered.

  16. Alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric Rapid Automatized Naming in children with reading and/or spelling difficulties and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, M.; Kroesbergen, E.; Slot, E.; Van Viersen, S.; De Bree, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is a risk factor for reading and/or spelling difficulties (RSD) as well as for mathematical difficulties (MD), many questions surround this relationship. The main objective of the present study was to obtain insight in the relationship between

  17. Alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid automatized naming in children with reading and/or spelling difficulties and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, M.H.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Slot, E.M.; Viersen, S. van; Bree, E.H. de

    2016-01-01

    Although poor Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is a risk factor for reading and/or spelling difficulties (RSD) as well as for mathematical difficulties (MD), many questions surround this relationship. The main objective of the present study was to obtain insight in the relationship between

  18. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  19. The Effect of Orthographic Depth on Letter String Processing: The Case of Visual Attention Span and Rapid Automatized Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzaka, Alexia; Martin, Clara; Caffarra, Sendy; Schlöffel, Sophie; Carreiras, Manuel; Lallier, Marie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated whether orthographic depth can increase the bias towards multi-letter processing in two reading-related skills: visual attention span (VAS) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). VAS (i.e., the number of visual elements that can be processed at once in a multi-element array) was tested with a visual 1-back task and RAN…

  20. Rapid naming and phonemic awareness in children with reading disabilities and/or specific language impairment : Differentiating processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J.A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). A composite word reading index and

  1. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with or without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Barry J.A.; van den Bos, Kees P.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid

  2. What's in a Name? The Anatomy of Defining New/Multi/Modal/Digital/Media Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In a 2009 "Computers and Composition" article, I examined how the terms multimedia and multimodal were used in academic and industry situations. This webtext extends that argument to investigate the ways in which a variety of other terms, including digital media and new media, are defined by scholars in the fields of computers and composition and…

  3. A Hitchhiker's Guide to the Turing Galaxy: on naming the age of the networked digital computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRASSMUCK, Volker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used name for our era is that of the `information society, which is a rather unexpressive and, strictly speaking, tautological term. The informatics & society scholar Wolfgang Coy, following the example of McLuhan`s Gutenberg Galaxy, has introduced the concept of the Turing Galaxy. The paper retraces the pre-history of the concept, its grounding in the fundamental breakthroughs of the British mathematician Alan M. Turing, the Turing Machine and the Turing Test, analyses the reception of the concept in a variety of fields of scholarship and asks for its value in the further debate on the knowledge environment of the networked computer.

  4. Combined Digital Holography and Speckle Correlation for Rapid Shape Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodadad, Davood

    2014-01-01

    In manufacturing industry there is a high demand for on line quality control to minimize the risk of incorrectly produced objects. Conventional contact measurement methods are usually slow and invasive, meaning that they cannot be used for soft materials and for complex shapes without influencing thecontrolled parts. In contrast, interferometry and digital holography in combination with computers become faster, more reliable and highly accurate as an alternative non-contact technique for indu...

  5. Switch costs occur at lemma stage when bilinguals name digits: evidence from language-switching and event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potential (ERP technique to explore the locus of swtich costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian-Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and the stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the ERPs that were time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals read digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage.

  6. Switch Costs Occur at Lemma Stage When Bilinguals Name Digits: Evidence from Language-Switching and Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Xie, Jiushu; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore the locus of switch costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian-Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the analysis that was time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals spoke digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage.

  7. Examining Factors of Engagement With Digital Interventions for Weight Management: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emma Elizabeth; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-10-23

    Digital interventions for weight management provide a unique opportunity to target daily lifestyle choices and eating behaviors over a sustained period of time. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a lack of user engagement with digital health interventions, impacting on the levels of intervention effectiveness. Thus, it is critical to identify the factors that may facilitate user engagement with digital health interventions to encourage behavior change and weight management. The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the available evidence to gain insights about users' perspectives on factors that affect engagement with digital interventions for weight management. A rapid review methodology was adopted. The search strategy was executed in the following databases: Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated users' engagement with a digital weight management intervention and were published from 2000 onwards. A narrative synthesis of data was performed on all included studies. A total of 11 studies were included in the review. The studies were qualitative, mixed-methods, or randomized controlled trials. Some of the studies explored features influencing engagement when using a Web-based digital intervention, others specifically explored engagement when accessing a mobile phone app, and some looked at engagement after text message (short message service, SMS) reminders. Factors influencing engagement with digital weight management interventions were found to be both user-related (eg, perceived health benefits) and digital intervention-related (eg, ease of use and the provision of personalized information). The findings highlight the importance of incorporating user perspectives during the digital intervention development process to encourage engagement. The review contributes to our understanding of what facilitates user engagement and points toward a coproduction approach for developing digital

  8. Digital image capture and rapid prototyping of the maxillofacial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Jennifer V; Grant, Gerald T; Liacouras, Peter; Rouse, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In order to restore an extraoral maxillofacial defect, a moulage impression is commonly made with traditional impression materials. This technique has some disadvantages, including distortion of the site due to the weight of the impression material, changes in tissue location with modifications of the patient position, and the length of time and discomfort for the patient due to the impression procedure and materials used. The use of the commercially available 3dMDface™ System creates 3D images of soft tissues to form an anatomically accurate 3D surface image. Rapid prototyping converts the virtual designs from the 3dMDface™ System into a physical model by converting the data to a ZPrint (ZPR) CAD format file and a stereolithography (STL) file. The data, in conjunction with a Zprinter(®) 450 or a Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA), can be used to fabricate a model for prosthesis fabrication, without the disadvantages of the standard moulage technique. This article reviews this technique and how it can be applied to maxillofacial prosthetics. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the oCelloScope s...

  10. JMorph: Software for performing rapid morphometric measurements on digital images of fossil assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, Peter G.; Grey, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative morphometric analyses of form are widely used in palaeontology, especially for taxonomic and evolutionary research. These analyses can involve several measurements performed on hundreds or even thousands of samples. Performing measurements of size and shape on large assemblages of macro- or microfossil samples is generally infeasible or impossible with traditional instruments such as vernier calipers. Instead, digital image processing software is required to perform measurements via suitable digital images of samples. Many software packages exist for morphometric analyses but there is not much available for the integral stage of data collection, particularly for the measurement of the outlines of samples. Some software exists to automatically detect the outline of a fossil sample from a digital image. However, automatic outline detection methods may perform inadequately when samples have incomplete outlines or images contain poor contrast between the sample and staging background. Hence, a manual digitization approach may be the only option. We are not aware of any software packages that are designed specifically for efficient digital measurement of fossil assemblages with numerous samples, especially for the purposes of manual outline analysis. Throughout several previous studies, we have developed a new software tool, JMorph, that is custom-built for that task. JMorph provides the means to perform many different types of measurements, which we describe in this manuscript. We focus on JMorph's ability to rapidly and accurately digitize the outlines of fossils. JMorph is freely available from the authors.

  11. Rapid Prototyping — A Tool for Presenting 3-Dimensional Digital Models Produced by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Pekka Virtanen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping has received considerable interest with the introduction of affordable rapid prototyping machines. These machines can be used to manufacture physical models from three-dimensional digital mesh models. In this paper, we compare the results obtained with a new, affordable, rapid prototyping machine, and a traditional professional machine. Two separate data sets are used for this, both of which were acquired using terrestrial laser scanning. Both of the machines were able to produce complex and highly detailed geometries in plastic material from models based on terrestrial laser scanning. The dimensional accuracies and detail levels of the machines were comparable, and the physical artifacts caused by the fused deposition modeling (FDM technique used in the rapid prototyping machines could be found in both models. The accuracy of terrestrial laser scanning exceeded the requirements for manufacturing physical models of large statues and building segments at a 1:40 scale.

  12. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  13. Study on Morphological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming through Word Reading and Comprehension in Normal and Disabled Reading Arabic-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role and extent of the involvement of morphological awareness (MA) in contrast to rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading and comprehension of Arabic as a morphologically based orthography. We gave measures of word reading, reading comprehension, MA, and RAN in addition to a nonverbal mental ability test to 3 groups…

  14. Phoneme Awareness, Visual-Verbal Paired-Associate Learning, and Rapid Automatized Naming as Predictors of Individual Differences in Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Meesha; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent relationships between phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading skills in 7- to 11-year-old children. Path analyses showed that visual-verbal paired-associate learning and RAN, but not phoneme awareness, were unique predictors of word recognition,…

  15. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  16. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  17. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Romero

    Full Text Available This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system.From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data.Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants.

  18. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  19. [Effect of rapid digitalization on the left-ventricular myocardial function according to the echocardiographic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkov, Iu N; At'kov, O Iu; Tsibekmakher, T D

    1977-09-01

    The article deals with the data of echocardiographic examination of 61 patients (37 with rheumatic heart disease and 17 with atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis) subjected to rapid stage-by-stage digitalization by intravenous administration of various rapidly acting glycosides. In 10 patients with ischemic heart disease echocardiography was performed following a single strophanthin injection. Decrease in the volumes of the left ventricle and increase in the indices of central hemodynamics were noted as a result of rapid stage-by-stage saturation with strophanthin. The maximum inotropic effect of strophanthin does not coincide in time with the maximum chronotropic effect. The increase in the stroke volume noted in maximum deceleration of cardiac contractions is probably realized due to the Frank-Starling mechanism. Strophanthin increases the rate of myocardial contractions without changing the duration of the systole. The rate of diastolic relaxation grows, the phase of rapid filling becomes shorter and the phase of slow filling longer, which creates favourable conditions for the next contraction.

  20. Effects of rapid digitalization on total and regional myocardial performance in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlinz, J; DelVicario, M; Aronow, W S

    1978-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of rapid digitalization on LV volumes, ejection fraction, and asynergy, 21 patients without heart failure were studied with a combination of hemodynamic and angiographic techniques before and after administration of intravenous ouabain (0.007 mg./Kg.). Seven patients had no CAD and served as normal (control) subjects (Group I), while 14 patients had extensive coronary disease (Group II). All pre-ouabain parameters were within the normal limits in Group I. After ouabain infusion, all indices of LV contractility: dP/dt, VCF, and ejection fraction rose significantly in the normal group, while LV filling pressure and end-diastolic volume remained unchanged. The baseline hemodynamic and volumetric values for Group II patients corresponded closely to their normal (Group I) counterparts, and exhibited similar changes after ouabain administration. Eight patients in Group II also had regional disorders of LV contractility, delineated by 23 abnormal hemiaxes of shortening. After ouabain, 15 out of 23 asynergic segments (65 per cent) improved, seven remained unchanged, and one worsened. It is therefore concluded that rapid digitalization not only enhances LV performance in normal subjects and in patients with CAD, but can also markedly reduce the extent of LV asynergy.

  1. Can juvenile corals be surveyed effectively using digital photography?: implications for rapid assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Scott C; Osborne, Kate; Sfiligoj, Bianca; Sweatman, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    The widespread decline of coral reefs requires integrated management measures across whole regions. Knowledge of demographic processes of reef organisms is important for informed management, yet current techniques for assessing such processes are time consuming, making it impractical to gather relevant information over large scales. We tested the usefulness of digital still photography as a rapid assessment technique to estimate coral recruitment--an important process in coral reef recovery. Estimates of the density and diversity of juvenile hard corals from digital images were compared with direct visual estimates from the same plots made in the field. Multiple plots were sampled on four reefs from a range of locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. On average, estimates of juvenile densities from photographic images were lower, in both absolute and relative terms, than that estimated from images. This was the case whether colonies <20 mm or <50 mm in diameter were considered. Overall differences between methods were generally greater at reefs where recruitment was higher, though proportional differences (density from images/density from direct visual census) still varied among reefs. Although the ranking of taxa, in terms of their densities, from the two methods were similar, the density of common genera was generally underestimated in images, and the occurrence of 'unknown' taxa was higher. We conclude that photographic images do not constitute a reliable rapid assessment method for estimating the spatial patterns in the density or diversity of juvenile hard corals.

  2. A digital social network for rapid collection of earthquake disaster information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. H.; Nie, G. Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-02-01

    Acquiring disaster information quickly after an earthquake is crucial for disaster and emergency rescue management. This study examines a digital social network - an earthquake disaster information reporting network - for rapid collection of earthquake disaster information. Based on the network, the disaster information rapid collection method is expounded in this paper. The structure and components of the reporting network are introduced. Then the work principles of the reporting network are discussed, in which the rapid collection of disaster information is realised by using Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) messages to report the disaster information and Geographic information system (GIS) to analyse and extract useful disaster information. This study introduces some key technologies for the work principles, including the methods of mass sending and receiving of SMS for disaster management, the reporting network grouping management method, brief disaster information codes, and the GIS modelling of the reporting network. Finally, a city earthquake disaster information quick reporting system is developed and with the support of this system the reporting network obtained good results in a real earthquake and earthquake drills. This method is a semi-real time disaster information collection method which extends current SMS based method and meets the need of small and some moderate earthquakes.

  3. Rapid detection of single bacteria in unprocessed blood using Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Ku; Ali, M. Monsur; Zhang, Kaixiang; Huang, Susan S.; Peterson, Ellena; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Zhao, Weian

    2014-01-01

    Blood stream infection or sepsis is a major health problem worldwide, with extremely high mortality, which is partly due to the inability to rapidly detect and identify bacteria in the early stages of infection. Here we present a new technology termed ‘Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection’ (IC 3D) that can selectively detect bacteria directly from milliliters of diluted blood at single-cell sensitivity in a one-step, culture- and amplification-free process within 1.5–4 h. The IC 3D integrates real-time, DNAzyme-based sensors, droplet microencapsulation and a high-throughput 3D particle counter system. Using Escherichia coli as a target, we demonstrate that the IC 3D can provide absolute quantification of both stock and clinical isolates of E. coli in spiked blood within a broad range of extremely low concentration from 1 to 10,000 bacteria per ml with exceptional robustness and limit of detection in the single digit regime. PMID:25391809

  4. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  5. Advances based on digital technology named TEDDY+ for inspection of eddy current; Avances a partir de las prestaciones digitales del sistema de inspeccion de corrientes inducidas TEDDY+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcenilla, V.; Hernandez, J.; Ribes, B.

    2007-07-01

    As a result of the recent developing line of eddy current data acquisition system a new product based on digital technology named TEDDY+, comes to the market. With only 4 kg of weight constitutes a great advance with regards to other equipment's available in the market. These advances, have enabled, among others, to increase considerably the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, avoid typical saturation problems in the eddy current signal, increase the inspection speed, eliminate the reference probe, detect the air/tube signal in real time, and the possibility to integrate the tester inside a push puller thanks to its reduced size and to have integrated as part of the ET equipment the mechanical systems control board. Two product lines have been developed, one oriented to any market and application (nuclear market, industrial and aeronautical, chemical and petrochemical, etc) and other specially dedicated to the massive inspection of tubes, named TEDDY+SP (Suitcase Pusher). Both lines are prepared to use eddy current arrays which clearly constitute the future of the eddy current inspection systems. The new TEDDY+ line of products presented in this paper constitutes one of the most powerful and reliable existing in the market. These improvements and novelties place the new ET inspection system from Tecnatom as one of the most powerful and reliable in the market. (Author)

  6. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  7. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as "eDTCA") is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the "disruptive" qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored. PMID:27239871

  8. Rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic resistance on a programmable digital microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Sumit; Valiadi, Martha; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Parry-Jones, Lesley; Jacobs, Adrian; Watson, Rob; Turner, Carrie; Amos, Robert; Hadwen, Ben; Buse, Jonathan; Brown, Chris; Sutton, Mark; Morgan, Hywel

    2015-07-21

    The widespread dissemination of CTX-M extended spectrum β-lactamases among Escherichia coli bacteria, both in nosocomial and community environments, is a challenge for diagnostic bacteriology laboratories. We describe a rapid and sensitive detection system for analysis of DNA containing the blaCTX-M-15 gene using isothermal DNA amplification by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on a digital microfluidic platform; active matrix electrowetting-on-dielectric (AM-EWOD). The devices have 16,800 electrodes that can be independently controlled to perform multiple and simultaneous droplet operations. The device includes an in-built impedance sensor for real time droplet position and size detection, an on-chip thermistor for temperature sensing and an integrated heater for regulating the droplet temperature. Automatic dispensing of droplets (45 nL) from reservoir electrodes is demonstrated with a coefficient of variation (CV) in volume of approximately 2%. The RPA reaction is monitored in real-time using exonuclease fluorescent probes. Continuous mixing of droplets during DNA amplification significantly improves target DNA detection by at least 100 times compared to a benchtop assay, enabling the detection of target DNA over four-order-of-magnitude with a limit of detection of a single copy within ~15 minutes.

  9. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  10. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D. Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  11. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

  12. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages.

  13. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monochromatic Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Marisa J.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a lesson for middle school students involving their names, with outlets for uniqueness and self-expression. Focusing on contrast, design elements, and a monochromatic color scheme, students created name designs that they loved. Tips for adaptation for special needs students are included. The lesson confirms basic design and…

  15. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  16. Validity of palatal superimposition of 3-dimensional digital models in cases treated with rapid maxillary expansion and maxillary protraction headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Il; Cha, Bong-Kuen; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Choi, Dong-Soon; Jang, In-San

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the 3-dimensional (3D) superimposition method of digital models in patients who received treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and maxillary protraction headgear. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment maxillary dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 30 patients, who underwent RME and maxillary protraction headgear treatment. Digital models were superimposed using the palate as a reference area. The movement of the maxillary central incisor and the first molar was measured on superimposed cephalograms and 3D digital models. To determine whether any difference existed between the 2 measuring techniques, intra-class correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were analyzed. The measurements on the 3D digital models and cephalograms showed a very high correlation in the antero-posterior direction (ICC, 0.956 for central incisor and 0.941 for first molar) and a moderate correlation in the vertical direction (ICC, 0.748 for central incisor and 0.717 for first molar). The 3D model superimposition method using the palate as a reference area is as clinically reliable for assessing antero-posterior tooth movement as cephalometric superimposition, even in cases treated with orthopedic appliances, such as RME and maxillary protraction headgear.

  17. [Computer-aided method and rapid prototyping for the personalized fabrication of a silicone bandage digital prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura Ferreira, Nuno; Leal, Nuno; Correia Sá, Inês; Reis, Ana; Marques, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of digital prostheses has acquired growing importance not only for the possibility for the patient to overcome psychosocial trauma but also to promote grip functionality. An application method of three dimensional-computer-aided design technologies for the production of passive prostheses is presented by means of a fifth finger amputee clinical case following bilateral hand replantation.Three-dimensional-computerized tomography was used for the collection of anthropometric images of the hands. Computer-aided design techniques were used to develop the digital file-based prosthesis from the reconstruction images by inversion and superimposing the contra-lateral finger images. The rapid prototyping manufacturing method was used for the production of a silicone bandage prosthesis prototype. This approach replaces the traditional manual method by a virtual method that is basis for the optimization of a high speed, accurate and innovative process.

  18. An Educational Laboratory for Digital Control and Rapid Prototyping of Power Electronic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Saeedifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new educational power electronics laboratory that was developed primarily to reinforce experimentally the fundamental concepts presented in a power electronics course. The developed laboratory combines theoretical design, simulation studies, digital control, fabrication, and verification of power-electronic circuits based on…

  19. Additive manufacturing technologies: 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Ian; Rosen, David; Stucker, B

    2015-01-01

    .... This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also...

  20. The Role of Digitization in the Rapid Reproduction of an Obturator in a Frail Elderly Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Sumita, Yuka I; Hattori, Mariko; Aswehlee, Amel M; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    This case report describes the reproduction of the current obturator of a frail elderly patient using the digitization concept. A computed tomography scanner was used to scan the obturator. The virtual model was created using three-dimensional modeling software. The model was printed using a plastic with a low melting point with a fused deposition modeling technique in a three-dimensional printer and then conventionally processed. The definitive obturator was inserted and evaluated for fit, function, and esthetics and was successfully delivered at the second visit. The patient was satisfied with the oral function and esthetics of the reproduced obturator. This case report confirms the effectiveness of digitization in the reproduction of an obturator that enabled satisfactory oral function and esthetics.

  1. Additive manufacturing technologies 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Ian; Stucker, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This book covers in detail the various aspects of joining materials to form parts. A conceptual overview of rapid prototyping and layered manufacturing is given,  beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Unusual and emerging applications such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace, and rapid manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also: Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI, and other standards Includes chapters on automotive technology, aerospace technology and low-cost AM technologies Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered  

  2. Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Michael Dretsch, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...imaging and salivary biomarkers. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? MAJ Dretsch and Ms. Fauth met

  3. The asynchronous rapid single-flux quantum electronics ─ a promising alternative for the development of high-performance digital circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terzieva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the application of the asynchronous logic approach for the realization of ultra high-speed digital electronics with high complexity. We evaluate the possible physical, technological, and schematical origins of restrictions limiting such an application, and propose solutions for their overcoming. Although our considerations are based on the rapid single-flux quantum technique, the conclusions derived can be generalized about any type of digital information coding.

  4. A digital approach for design and fabrication by rapid prototyping of orthosis for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munhoz

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Immobilization in a hip spica cast is required in surgical and nonsurgical treatments for children aged three months to four years diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Skin complications are associated with the use of the spica cast in 30% of the cases. This research explores the use of photogrammetry and rapid prototyping for the production of a lighter, shower friendly and hygienic hip orthosis that could replace the hip spica cast. Methods Digitalized data of a plastic dool was used for design and fabrication of a customised hip orthosis following four steps: 1 Digitalization of the external anatomical structure by photogrammetry using a smartphone and open source software; 2 Idealization and 3D modeling of the hip orthosis; 3 Rapid prototyping of a low cost orthosis in polymer polylact acid; 4 Evaluation tests. Results Photogrammetry provided a good 3D reconstruction of the dool's hip and legs. The manufacture method to produce the hip orthosis was accurate in fitting the hip orthosis to the contours of the doll. The orthosis could be easily placed on the doll ensuring mechanical strength to immobilize the region of the hip. Conclusion A new approach and the feasibility of both techniques for hip orthosis fabrication were described. It represents an exciting advance for the development of hip orthosis that could be used in orthopedics. To test the effectiveness of this orthosis for developmental dysplasia of the hip treatment in newborns, material and mechanical tests, design optimization and physical tests with patients should be carried.

  5. Differences between visual hemifields in identifying rapidly presented target stimuli: Letters and digits, faces, and shapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz eAsanowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The right hemisphere has been shown to play a dominant role in processing of visuo-spatial information. Recently, this role has been studied in the two-stream rapid serial visual presentation task. In this task, two alphanumerical targets are embedded in left and right simultaneous streams of rapidly changing letters. The second target (T2 is identified better in the left than in the right visual field. This difference has been interpreted as advantage of the right hemisphere (RH. However, a disadvantage of the left hemisphere (LH could not be excluded so far. The LH, specialized for processing of verbal stimuli, might be overloaded due to constant input of letters from both visual fields. In the present study, this overload hypothesis was tested by reducing demands on verbal processing (Experiments 1, and by overloading the RH with nonverbal stimuli: faces (Experiment 2 and irregular shapes (Experiment 3. The left visual field advantage proved to be largely independent from the level of verbal load and from stimulus type. Therefore, although not entirely disproving the overload hypothesis, these results suggest as the most parsimonious explanation this asymmetry reflects a RH advantage, presumably in perceptual and attentional processing, rather than a LH disadvantage caused by verbal overload.

  6. Naming Speed of Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Differences in Alphanumeric Versus Color/Object Naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Brittany D; Nelson, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of adolescents and young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Reading Disorder (RD), and ADHD/RD on measures of alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric naming speed and the relationship between naming speed and academic achievement. The sample (N = 203) included students aged 17-28 years diagnosed with ADHD (n = 83), RD (n = 71), or ADHD/RD (n = 49). Individuals with ADHD performed significantly faster on measures of alphanumeric naming compared with RD and comorbid groups and, within group, demonstrated significantly quicker naming of letters/digits compared with colors/objects. Both alphanumeric rapid naming scores and processing speed scores variably predicted academic achievement scores across groups, whereas nonalphanumeric rapid naming only predicted reading comprehension scores within the ADHD group. Results support findings that older individuals with ADHD show relative weakness in rapid naming of objects and colors. Implications of these findings in regard to assessment of older individuals for ADHD are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Rapid mapping of digital integrated circuit logic gates via multi-spectral backside imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Adato, Ronen; Zangeneh, Mahmoud; Zhou, Boyou; Joshi, Ajay; Goldberg, Bennett; Unlu, M Selim

    2016-01-01

    Modern semiconductor integrated circuits are increasingly fabricated at untrusted third party foundries. There now exist myriad security threats of malicious tampering at the hardware level and hence a clear and pressing need for new tools that enable rapid, robust and low-cost validation of circuit layouts. Optical backside imaging offers an attractive platform, but its limited resolution and throughput cannot cope with the nanoscale sizes of modern circuitry and the need to image over a large area. We propose and demonstrate a multi-spectral imaging approach to overcome these obstacles by identifying key circuit elements on the basis of their spectral response. This obviates the need to directly image the nanoscale components that define them, thereby relaxing resolution and spatial sampling requirements by 1 and 2 - 4 orders of magnitude respectively. Our results directly address critical security needs in the integrated circuit supply chain and highlight the potential of spectroscopic techniques to addres...

  8. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Prosser, Sean W J; Sones, Jayme E; McKeown, Jaclyn T A; Mantle, Beth; La Salle, John

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera) species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp) were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  9. A DNA 'barcode blitz': rapid digitization and sequencing of a natural history collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D N Hebert

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.

  10. Periodontal and dental effects of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, assessed by using digital study models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Furquim Siqueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the maxillary dental arch changes produced by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME. METHODS: Dental casts from 18 patients (mean age of 23.3 years were obtained at treatment onset (T1, three months after SARME (T2 and 6 months after expansion (T3. The casts were scanned in a 3D scanner (D-250, 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark. Maxillary dental arch width, dental crown tipping and height were measured and assessed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Increased transversal widths from T1 and T2 and the maintenance of these values from T2 and T3 were observed. Buccal teeth tipping also showed statistically significant differences, with an increase in all teeth from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3. No statistically significant difference was found for dental crown height, except for left first and second molars, although clinically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: SARME proved to be an effective and stable procedure, with minimum periodontal hazards.

  11. A digital microfluidic system for the investigation of pre-steady-state enzyme kinetics using rapid quenching with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, K.P.F.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2007-01-01

    A digital microfluidic system based on electrowetting has been developed to facilitate the investigation of pre-steady-state reaction kinetics using rapid quenching and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The device consists of individually

  12. Rapid palatal expansion effects on mandibular transverse dimensions in unilateral posterior crossbite patients: a three-dimensional digital imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ugolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate indirect effects on mandibular arch dimensions, 1 year after rapid palatal expansion (RPE therapy. Methods Thirty-three patients in mixed dentition (mean age 8.8 years showing unilateral posterior crossbite and maxillary deficiency were treated with a RPE (Haas type cemented on the first permanent molars. Treatment protocol consisted of two turns per day until slight overcorrection of the molar transverse relationship occurred. The Haas expander was kept on the teeth as a passive retainer for an average of 6 months. Study models were taken prior (T1 and 15 months on average (T2 after expansion. A control group of 15 untreated subjects with maxillary deficiency (mean age 8.3 years was also recorded with a 12-month interval. Stone casts were digitized with a 3D scanner (3Shape, DK. Results In the treated group, both mandibular intermolar distance (+1.9 mm and mandibular molar angulation (+9° increased. Mandibular incisor angulation showed an increase of 1.9°. There was little effect on intercanine distance and canine angulation. Controls showed a reduction in transverse arch dimension and a decrease in molar and canine angulation values. Conclusions RPE protocol has indirect widening effects on the mandibular incisors and first molars.

  13. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  14. Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  15. Predictors of picture naming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F Xavier; Ferrand, Ludovic; Laganaro, Marina; New, Boris; Frauenfelder, Uli H; Segui, Juan

    2004-02-01

    We report the results of a large-scale picture naming experiment in which we evaluated the potential contribution of nine theoretically relevant factors to naming latencies. The experiment included a large number of items and a large sample of participants. In order to make this experiment as similar as possible to classic picture naming experiments, participants were familiarized with the materials during a training session. Speeded naming latencies were determined by a software key on the basis of the digital recording of the responses. The effects of various variables on these latencies were assessed with multiple regression techniques, using a repeated measures design. The interpretation of the observed effects is discussed in relation to previous studies and current views on lexical access during speech production.

  16. Digital still images from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images taken during CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes images of substrate type and species....

  17. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  18. Naming names: eponyms and biological history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V K

    2012-01-01

    The constraints imposed by available experimental data, and the need for precision, typically limits the eloquence of researchers. Scientists, however, indulge in their literary and poetic selves in the names that they bestow on genes and proteins, on organisms and diseases. We briefly review some familiar names in the Inside Passage, and explore their historical antecedents.

  19. Digital Audiobooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben; Pedersen, Birgitte Stougaard

    Audiobooks are rapidly gaining popularity with widely accessible digital downloading and streaming services. The paper is framing how the digital audiobook expands and changes the target groups for book publications and how it as an everyday activity is creating new reading experiences, places...

  20. What's in a Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Albanese, Judith; Karp, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, some baby names have been more popular during a specific time span, whereas other names are considered timeless. The Internet article, "How to Tell Someone's Age When All You Know Is Her Name" (Silver and McCann 2014), describes the phenomenon of the rise and fall of name popularity, which served as a catalyst for the…

  1. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  2. Digital Clinical Communication for Families and Caregivers of Children or Young People With Short- or Long-Term Conditions: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Sturt, Jackie; Phelps, Emma Elizabeth; Walker, Clare-Louise; Court, Rachel; Taggart, Frances; Sutcliffe, Paul; Griffiths, Frances; Atherton, Helen

    2018-01-05

    The communication relationship between parents of children or young people with health conditions and health professionals is an important part of treatment, but it is unclear how far the use of digital clinical communication tools may affect this relationship. The objective of our study was to describe, assess the feasibility of, and explore the impact of digital clinical communication between families or caregivers and health professionals. We searched the literature using 5 electronic databases. We considered all types of study design published in the English language from January 2009 to August 2015. The population of interest included families and caregivers of children and young people aged less than 26 years with any type of health condition. The intervention was any technology permitting 2-way communication. We included 31 articles. The main designs were randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n=10), cross-sectional studies (n=9), pre- and postintervention uncontrolled (pre/post) studies (n=7), and qualitative interview studies (n=2); 6 had mixed-methods designs. In the majority of cases, we considered the quality rating to be fair. Many different types of health condition were represented. A breadth of digital communication tools were included: videoconferencing or videoconsultation (n=14), and Web messaging or emails (n=12). Health care professionals were mainly therapists or cognitive behavioral therapists (n=10), physicians (n=8), and nurses (n=6). Studies were very heterogeneous in terms of outcomes. Interventions were mainly evaluated using satisfaction or acceptance, or outcomes relating to feasibility. Clinical outcomes were rarely used. The RCTs showed that digital clinical communication had no impact in comparison with standard care. Uncontrolled pre/post studies showed good rates of satisfaction or acceptance. Some economic studies suggested that digital clinical communication may save costs. This rapid review showed an emerging body of literature on

  3. WARP (workflow for automated and rapid production): a framework for end-to-end automated digital print workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parag

    2006-02-01

    Publishing industry is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the advent of digital publishing technologies. A large number of components in the publishing and print production workflow are transformed in this shift. However, the process as a whole requires a great deal of human intervention for decision making and for resolving exceptions during job execution. Furthermore, a majority of the best-of-breed applications for publishing and print production are intrinsically designed and developed to be driven by humans. Thus, the human-intensive nature of the current prepress process accounts for a very significant amount of the overhead costs in fulfillment of jobs on press. It is a challenge to automate the functionality of applications built with the model of human driven exectution. Another challenge is to orchestrate various components in the publishing and print production pipeline such that they work in a seamless manner to enable the system to perform automatic detection of potential failures and take corrective actions in a proactive manner. Thus, there is a great need for a coherent and unifying workflow architecture that streamlines the process and automates it as a whole in order to create an end-to-end digital automated print production workflow that does not involve any human intervention. This paper describes an architecture and building blocks that lay the foundation for a plurality of automated print production workflows.

  4. Simultaneous high speed digital cinematographic and X-ray radiographic imaging of a intense multi-fluid interaction with rapid phase changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio; Park, Hyun Sun; Dinh, Truc-Nam [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    As typical for the study of the vapor explosions, the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the phenomena requires visualization of both material and interface dynamics. A new approach to multi-fluid multiphase visualization is presented with the focus on the development of a synchronized high-speed visualization by digital cinematography and X-ray radiography. The developed system, named SHARP (simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography), and its image processing methodology, directed to an image synchronization procedure and a separate quantification of vapor and molten material dynamics, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, we exploit an intrinsic property of the X-ray radiation, namely the differences in linear mass attenuation coefficients over the beam path through a multi-component system, to characterize the evolution of molten material distribution. Analysis of the data obtained by the SHARP system and image processing procedure developed granted new insights into the physics of the vapor explosion phenomena, as well as, quantitative information of the associated dynamic micro-interactions. (author)

  5. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  6. Cataloguing Urdu Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The major problem in cataloging Urdu names is in the identification of the personal name and the entry word. The author examines practices followed by various libraries, and then discusses the rules for entry. (28 references) (Author/SJ)

  7. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  8. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change....... Second, it offers practical support to organizations, private as well as public, who find themselves in a situation where changing the name of the organization could be a way to reach either communicative or organizational goals....

  9. What's in a name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Feature interaction may arise in many dierent ways, but one of the core topics is the issue of name binding: When two or more entities are composed, say A and B, and they provide more than one declaration of the same name, say n, should the composed entity contain one subentity under that name n...

  10. AVSynDEx: A Rapid Prototyping Process Dedicated to the Implementation of Digital Image Processing Applications on Multi-DSP and FPGA Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fresse

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We present AVSynDEx (concatenation of AVS + SynDEx, a rapid prototyping process aiming to the implementation of digital signal processing applications on mixed architectures (multi-DSP + FPGA. This process is based on the use of widely available and efficient CAD tools established along the design process so that most of the implementation tasks become automatic. These tools and architectures are judiciously selected and integrated during the implementation process to help a signal processing specialist without relevant hardware experience. We have automated the translation between the different levels of the process to increase and secure it. One main advantage is that only a signal processing designer is needed, all the other specialized manual tasks being transparent in this prototyping methodology, hereby reducing the implementation time.

  11. Clinical Application of Picodroplet Digital PCR Technology for Rapid Detection of EGFR T790M in Next-Generation Sequencing Libraries and DNA from Limited Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsu, Laetitia; Intrieri, Julie; Thampi, Linta; Yu, Helena; Riely, Gregory; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chandramohan, Raghu; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2016-11-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a robust technology for comprehensive assessment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, it may not provide sufficiently rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR T790M mutation, the most clinically relevant resistance biomarker. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR) assay for rapid T790M detection on aliquots of NGS libraries prepared for comprehensive profiling, fully maximizing broad genomic analysis on limited samples. Tumor DNAs from patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were prepared for Memorial Sloan-Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets sequencing, a hybrid capture-based assay interrogating 410 cancer-related genes. Precapture library aliquots were used for rapid EGFR T790M testing by dPCR, and results were compared with NGS and locked nucleic acid-PCR Sanger sequencing (reference high sensitivity method). Seventy resistance samples showed 99% concordance with the reference high sensitivity method in accuracy studies. Input as low as 2.5 ng provided a sensitivity of 1% and improved further with increasing DNA input. dPCR on libraries required less DNA and showed better performance than direct genomic DNA. dPCR on NGS libraries is a robust and rapid approach to EGFR T790M testing, allowing most economical utilization of limited material for comprehensive assessment. The same assay can also be performed directly on any limited DNA source and cell-free DNA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...... digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...

  13. Spoken name pronunciation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepperman, Joseph; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    Recognition of spoken names is an important ASR task since many speech applications can be associated with it. However, the task is also among the most difficult ones due to the large number of names, their varying origins, and the multiple valid pronunciations of any given name, largely dependent upon the speaker's mother tongue and familiarity with the name. In order to explore the speaker- and language-dependent pronunciation variability issues present in name pronunciation, a spoken name database was collected from 101 speakers with varying native languages. Each speaker was asked to pronounce 80 polysyllabic names, uniformly chosen from ten language origins. In preliminary experiments, various prosodic features were used to train Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to identify misplaced syllabic emphasis within the name, at roughly 85% accuracy. Articulatory features (voicing, place, and manner of articulation) derived from MFCCs were also incorporated for that purpose. The combined prosodic and articulatory features were used to automatically grade the quality of name pronunciation. These scores can be used to provide meaningful feedback to foreign language learners. A detailed description of the name database and some preliminary results on the accuracy of detecting misplaced stress patterns will be reported.

  14. Development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cremonesi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a third-generation PCR provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4×106 to 4×101 CFU/g of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection.Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (102 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay without the necessity of a standard curve.In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  15. Development of a Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid and Simultaneous Identification of Common Foodborne Pathogens in Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Cortimiglia, Claudia; Picozzi, Claudia; Minozzi, Giulietta; Malvisi, Michela; Luini, Mario; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a "third-generation PCR") provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4 × 106 to 4 × 101 CFU/g) of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection. Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (102 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay) without the necessity of a standard curve. In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  16. Origins of NASA names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  17. What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    A study examined the preferences of British teenagers for names of higher education institutions, including the use of terms such as "academy, college, college of higher education, college of arts and sciences, institute, or school," and geographic, religious, royal, or personal names. (MSE)

  18. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  19. Names and Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

  20. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  1. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  2. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  3. Digital asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Clinton D; Tollefson, Travis T; Kriet, J David

    2010-05-01

    Facial plastic surgeons are accumulating massive digital image databases with the evolution of photodocumentation and widespread adoption of digital photography. Managing and maximizing the utility of these vast data repositories, or digital asset management (DAM), is a persistent challenge. Developing a DAM workflow that incorporates a file naming algorithm and metadata assignment will increase the utility of a surgeon's digital images. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  5. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, M.; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  6. Christian Names of Karelians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the forms of Christian names used in the past and in the present on the territory of the Karelian ethnic group’s settlement — in Finland, as well as in Russian Karelia, Tver and Leningrad regions. The main aim of the article is to sum up the findings of previous research and to provide an analysis of new anthroponymic data retrieved from the 16th–17th centuries historical documents or collected by the author and other researchers during field trips. After outlining the main stages of the development of the Orthodox religion on the Karelian lands, the author gives an insight into the history of the formation of the Karelian Orthodox anthroponymicon. The article shows that after the adoption of Orthodox religion in 1227 Karelians adopted a large number of Christian names which later were modified according to the phonetic and morphologic patterns of the Karelian language. In Karelian, canonical Christian names received numerous folk variants, part of which derived from the Russian language forms used on the neighboring Russian lands. The article focuses on the main ways of phonetic and morphological adaptation of Russian forms in the Karelian language. The author emphasizes that Karelian forms of Christian names feature a rather well-built phonetic and morphological system, which allows not only to explain the origin of obscure forms but to restore a number of forms which might have been used earlier in the Karelian language but were completely lost.

  7. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  8. Name Searching and Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, P; Thompson, Paul; Dozier, Christopher C.

    1997-01-01

    The main application of name searching has been name matching in a database of names. This paper discusses a different application: improving information retrieval through name recognition. It investigates name recognition accuracy, and the effect on retrieval performance of indexing and searching personal names differently from non-name terms in the context of ranked retrieval. The main conclusions are: that name recognition in text can be effective; that names occur frequently enough in a variety of domains, including those of legal documents and news databases, to make recognition worthwhile; and that retrieval performance can be improved using name searching.

  9. What's in a Name? Understanding Profile Name Reuse on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Mariconti, E.; Onaolapo, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nikiforou, N.(Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, NY, United States); Egele, M.; Nikiforakis, N.; Stringhini, G.

    2017-01-01

    Users on Twitter are commonly identified by their profile names. These names are used when directly addressing users on Twitter, are part of their profile page URLs, and can become a trademark for popular accounts, with people referring to celebrities by their real name and their profile name, interchangeably. Twitter, however, has chosen to not permanently link profile names to their corresponding user accounts. In fact, Twitter allows users to change their profile name, and afterwards makes...

  10. Auditory responsive naming versus visual confrontation naming in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly M; Finney, Glen R; Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W

    2010-01-01

    Dysnomia is typically assessed during neuropsychological evaluation through visual confrontation naming. Responsive naming to description, however, has been shown to have a more distributed representation in both fMRI and cortical stimulation studies. While naming deficits are common in dementia, the relative sensitivity of visual confrontation versus auditory responsive naming has not been directly investigated. The current study compared visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming in a dementia sample of mixed etiologies to examine patterns of performance across these naming tasks. A total of 50 patients with dementia of various etiologies were administered visual confrontation naming and auditory responsive naming tasks using stimuli that were matched in overall word frequency. Patients performed significantly worse on auditory responsive naming than visual confrontation naming. Additionally, patients with mixed Alzheimer's disease/vascular dementia performed more poorly on auditory responsive naming than did patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, although no group differences were seen on the visual confrontation naming task. Auditory responsive naming correlated with a larger number of neuropsychological tests of executive function than did visual confrontation naming. Auditory responsive naming appears to be more sensitive to effects of increased of lesion burden compared to visual confrontation naming. We believe that this reflects more widespread topographical distribution of auditory naming sites within the temporal lobe, but may also reflect the contributions of working memory and cognitive flexibility to performance.

  11. The taxonomic name resolution service: an online tool for automated standardization of plant names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Brad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digitization of biodiversity data is leading to the widespread application of taxon names that are superfluous, ambiguous or incorrect, resulting in mismatched records and inflated species numbers. The ultimate consequences of misspelled names and bad taxonomy are erroneous scientific conclusions and faulty policy decisions. The lack of tools for correcting this ‘names problem’ has become a fundamental obstacle to integrating disparate data sources and advancing the progress of biodiversity science. Results The TNRS, or Taxonomic Name Resolution Service, is an online application for automated and user-supervised standardization of plant scientific names. The TNRS builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for name parsing and fuzzy matching. Names are standardized against multiple reference taxonomies, including the Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos database. Capable of processing thousands of names in a single operation, the TNRS parses and corrects misspelled names and authorities, standardizes variant spellings, and converts nomenclatural synonyms to accepted names. Family names can be included to increase match accuracy and resolve many types of homonyms. Partial matching of higher taxa combined with extraction of annotations, accession numbers and morphospecies allows the TNRS to standardize taxonomy across a broad range of active and legacy datasets. Conclusions We show how the TNRS can resolve many forms of taxonomic semantic heterogeneity, correct spelling errors and eliminate spurious names. As a result, the TNRS can aid the integration of disparate biological datasets. Although the TNRS was developed to aid in standardizing plant names, its underlying algorithms and design can be extended to all organisms and nomenclatural codes. The TNRS is accessible via a web interface at http://tnrs.iplantcollaborative.org/ and as a RESTful web service and application programming interface. Source code

  12. What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Just, Mike; Matthews, Greg

    We study the efficiency of statistical attacks on human authentication systems relying on personal knowledge questions. We adapt techniques from guessing theory to measure security against a trawling attacker attempting to compromise a large number of strangers' accounts. We then examine a diverse corpus of real-world statistical distributions for likely answer categories such as the names of people, pets, and places and find that personal knowledge questions are significantly less secure than graphical or textual passwords. We also demonstrate that statistics can be used to increase security by proactively shaping the answer distribution to lower the prevalence of common responses.

  13. Fracture eponyms: personal names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zolotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the origin of bone fracture eponyms. The authors compiled a list of 60 most established fracture names proposed by physicians in 16th-20th centuries who mainly were skilled, mature and outstanding experts from countries with advanced conventional medicine and often represented the recognized surgical schools. Eponym records are important for understanding the history and subject of the chosen profession as well as knowledge of eponymic fractures facilitates communication between physicians of allied disciplines.

  14. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  15. Intermountain Range plant names and symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Perry Plummer; Stephen B. Monsen; Richard Stevens

    1977-01-01

    This revised alphabetical list of botanical and common names of vascular plants that primarily grow on wildlands of the Intermountain region and adjacent areas has been assembled for use in quickly recording occurrence of plants in the field and for rapid machine processing of field data. Included are plants found in Utah, Nevada, southern Idaho, and Wyoming, and most...

  16. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  17. Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to "text mine" these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted.

  18. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  19. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  20. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  1. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  2. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform.What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR.What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  3. NameClarifier: A Visual Analytics System for Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiaomu; Wu, Tongshuang; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Yanhong; Qu, Huamin; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visual analytics system called NameClarifier to interactively disambiguate author names in publications by keeping humans in the loop. Specifically, NameClarifier quantifies and visualizes the similarities between ambiguous names and those that have been confirmed in digital libraries. The similarities are calculated using three key factors, namely, co-authorships, publication venues, and temporal information. Our system estimates all possible allocations, and then provides visual cues to users to help them validate every ambiguous case. By looping users in the disambiguation process, our system can achieve more reliable results than general data mining models for highly ambiguous cases. In addition, once an ambiguous case is resolved, the result is instantly added back to our system and serves as additional cues for all the remaining unidentified names. In this way, we open up the black box in traditional disambiguation processes, and help intuitively and comprehensively explain why the corresponding classifications should hold. We conducted two use cases and an expert review to demonstrate the effectiveness of NameClarifier.

  4. Name agreement in picture naming: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G

    2010-06-01

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded whilst 19 healthy, native English speakers silently named pictures which had either high or low name agreement. A series of ERP components was examined: P1 approximately 120ms from picture onset, N1 around 170ms, P2 around 220ms, N2 around 290ms, and P3 around 400ms. Additionally, a late time window from 800 to 900ms was considered. Name agreement had an early effect, starting at P1 and possibly resulting from uncertainty of picture identity, and continuing into N2, possibly resulting from alternative names for pictures. These results support the idea that name agreement affects two consecutive processes: first, object recognition, and second, lexical selection and/or phonological encoding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1955-01-01

    Families and higher taxa have been entered under their name. Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (tribes, e.g.).

  6. Desempenho de escolares com e sem dificuldades de aprendizagem de ensino particular em habilidade fonológica, nomeação rápida, leitura e escrita Performance of students with and without learning difficulties in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing from the private education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida Capellini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar e comparar o desempenho de escolares com e sem dificuldades de aprendizagem no ensino particular em habilidades fonológicas, nomeação rápida, leitura e escrita. MÉTODOS: participaram desse estudo 60 escolares de 2ª a 4ª séries de escola de ensino particular, distribuídos em 6 grupos, sendo cada grupo composto por 10 escolares, sendo 3 grupos de escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem e 3 grupos de escolares sem dificuldades de aprendizagem. Como procedimentos, foram realizadas a prova de nomeação automática rápida, a de consciência fonológica e a prova de leitura oral e escrita sob ditado. RESULTADOS: os resultados desse estudo evidenciaram desempenho superior dos escolares sem dificuldades de aprendizagem em relação àqueles com dificuldades. Os escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem apresentaram maior relação velocidade/tempo em tarefas de nomeação e, conseqüentemente, desempenho inferior em tarefas de consciência fonológica e leitura e escrita de palavras isoladas quando comparados aos sem dificuldades de aprendizagem. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem apresentaram comprometimento na relação entre as capacidades de nomeação e automatização dos estímulos apresentados com a capacidade de acesso lexical, discriminação visual, freqüência de uso dos estímulos e competição para a apresentação do menor tempo possível na nomeação dos códigos necessários para o estabelecimento do mecanismo de conversão fonema-grafema, exigido para a realização da leitura e escrita em um sistema alfabético como o português.PURPOSE: characterizing and comparing the performance of students with and without learning difficulties from the private education in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing. METHODS: sixty private students from 2nd to 4th grade participated, distributed into 6 groups - each one was composed of 10 students being 3 groups of

  7. Armenian Names of Sky Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The work is devoted to the correction and recovery of the Armenian names of the sky constellations, as they were forgotten or distorted during the Soviet years, mainly due to the translation from Russian. A total of 34 constellation names have been corrected. A brief overview of the history of the division of the sky into constellations and their naming is also given. At the end, the list of all 88 constellations is given with the names in Latin, English, Russian and Armenian.

  8. Uncovering trends in gene naming

    OpenAIRE

    Seringhaus, Michael R.; Cayting, Philip D; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    We take stock of current genetic nomenclature and attempt to organize strange and notable gene names. We categorize, for instance, those that involve a naming system transferred from another context (for example, Pavlov’s dogs). We hope this analysis provides clues to better steer gene naming in the future.

  9. Uncovering trends in gene naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seringhaus, Michael R; Cayting, Philip D; Gerstein, Mark B

    2008-01-31

    We take stock of current genetic nomenclature and attempt to organize strange and notable gene names. We categorize, for instance, those that involve a naming system transferred from another context (for example, Pavlov's dogs). We hope this analysis provides clues to better steer gene naming in the future.

  10. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in New Zealand and in the. Cape Province, A cursory glance at any list of names will show how many places there are with the same name. Toponyms in any particular language are also used in other languages, and in other countries. So we speak of Am- sterdam, London, New York and Ot- tawa. Sometimes the names ...

  11. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  12. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  13. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...... affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......-word brand names....

  14. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can......-word brand names....

  15. Rapid, Fully Automated Digital Immunoassay for p24 Protein with the Sensitivity of Nucleic Acid Amplification for Detecting Acute HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Carlos; Chang, Lei; Stone, Mars; Busch, Michael; Wilson, David H

    2015-11-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) has become the standard for high sensitivity in detecting low levels of virus. However, adoption of NAT can be cost prohibitive in low-resource settings where access to extreme sensitivity could be clinically advantageous for early detection of infection. We report development and preliminary validation of a simple, low-cost, fully automated digital p24 antigen immunoassay with the sensitivity of quantitative NAT viral load (NAT-VL) methods for detection of acute HIV infection. We developed an investigational 69-min immunoassay for p24 capsid protein for use on a novel digital analyzer on the basis of single-molecule-array technology. We evaluated the assay for sensitivity by dilution of standardized preparations of p24, cultured HIV, and preseroconversion samples. We characterized analytical performance and concordance with 2 NAT-VL methods and 2 contemporary p24 Ag/Ab combination immunoassays with dilutions of viral isolates and samples from the earliest stages of HIV infection. Analytical sensitivity was 0.0025 ng/L p24, equivalent to 60 HIV RNA copies/mL. The limit of quantification was 0.0076 ng/L, and imprecision across 10 runs was 4000-fold greater sensitivity than contemporary immunoassays for p24 and sensitivity equivalent to that of NAT methods for early detection of HIV. The data indicate that NAT-level sensitivity for acute HIV infection is possible with a simple, low-cost digital immunoassay. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    nomenclature. Use of standardized naming conventions is important to facilitate comparison of dosimetry across patient datasets. The guidelines presented here will facilitate international acceptance across a wide range of efforts, including groups organizing clinical trials, Radiation Oncology Institute, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise, Radiation Oncology domain (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  18. a New Tool for Facilitating the Retrieval and Recording of the Place Name Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, C.; Conedera, M.; Krebs, P.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional place names (toponyms) represent the immaterial cultural heritage of past land uses, particular characteristics of the territory, landscape related events or inhabitants, as well as related cultural and religious background. In Euopean countries where the cultural landscape has a very long history, this heritage is particularly considerable. Often most of the detailed knowledge about traditional place names and their precise localization is non-written and familiar only to old local native persons who experienced the former rural civilization. In the next future this important heritage will be seriously threatened because of the physical disappearance of its living custodians. One of the major problems that one has to face, when trying to trace and document the knowledge related to place names and their localization, is to translate the memory and the former landscape experiences of the respondents into maps and structured records. In this contribution we present a new tool based on the monoplotting principle and ad hoc developed to enable the synchronization of terrestrial oblique landscape pictures with the represented digital elevation model. The local respondents are then just asked to show the place name localization on historical landscape pictures they are familiar with. The tool automatically gives back the corresponding world coordinates, what makes the interviewing process more rapid and smooth as well as motivating and less stress-inducing for the informants.

  19. Emergent Principles for Digital Documentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDigital Documentaries are an area of rapid invention and experimentation at all levels, including creative content, production techniques, and business models.  As with many forms of digital storytelling, a focus on technologies can be distracting; platforms change rapidly, and are

  20. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  1. Armenian Names of the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, Haik A.

    2007-08-01

    Striking similarities between the Armenian names of visible to the naked eye planets and their ancient Greek names used before 6 - 5 centuries BC are presented. Mercury, for instance, was called Stilbon in Greece which means “the Gleaming” and coincides with Armenian Paylatsou. One of the names of Venus was Phosphoros and in Armenia it is called Lusaber - both of these terms meaning the “Bringer of Light”. Ancient Greeks named the fourth planet Pyroeis meaning “fiery”. The Armenian name of this planet Hrat consists of the word “hur” meaning fire and a suffix “at”. Jupiter's and Saturn's ancient names are considered as well. Moreover, the term planet has its Armenian version being in the use more than 2500 years.

  2. Digital signal coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    It seems that digital video has gone by as many names as Jim Blinn has Siggraph ribbons. Some of its various formats and names are: DV, Dl, 4:2:2, CCIR 601-1, ITU-Rec. 601-4,, SMPTE RP125M, and SMPTE 259M. CCIR and CCITT were both absorbed into their parent organization, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), so technically speaking, CCIR 601 has been renamed to ITU-Rec. 601-4 (``Rec.`` stands for recommendation). But convention is often hard to change, so for some time you will see and hear Dl and CCIR 601 used for serial digital component video. Below are brief descriptions of the various names and formats for digital video.

  3. Desempenho em consciência fonológica, nomeação rápida, leitura e escrita em escolares com dislexia secundária a retardo mental e com bom desempenho acadêmico Performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with secondary dyslexia to mental retardation and with good academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Donadon Germano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar o desempenho em provas de consciência fonológica, de nomeação rápida e de leitura e escrita em escolares com dislexia secundária a retardo mental e com bom desempenho acadêmico. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 20 escolares da 1ª a 4ª séries do ensino fundamental da rede pública municipal da cidade de Marília-SP, com faixa etária de 8 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, divididos em GI (10 escolares com o diagnóstico interdisciplinar de dislexia secundária a retardo mental leve e GII (10 escolares com bom desempenho acadêmico, pareados segundo sexo e faixa etária com o GI. Os escolares foram submetidos à Prova de Consciência Fonológica, à Prova de Leitura e Escrita e à Prova de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida. RESULTADOS: houve diferença significante em relação ao desempenho dos escolares nas provas silábicas e fonêmicas, na prova de leitura e escrita e na prova de nomeção rápida; os escolares de GII apresentaram melhor desempenho que os escolares de GI. CONCLUSÃO: houve relação entre os achados de velocidade de nomeação, leitura oral e escrita sob ditado, sendo relacionados ao déficit fonológico, à característica cognitivo-linguística do GI e à interferência da falta de instrução direta da correspondência grafofonêmica em situação de atividades acadêmicas para ambos os grupos.PURPOSE: to characterize the performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with developmental dyslexia secondary to mental retardation and good readers. METHOD: 20 students from first to fourth grade of a public school of Marília - SP, both genders, from to 8 to 12-year old took part in this study, divided into GI (10 students with interdisciplinary diagnosis of dyslexia, secondary to mild mental retardation and GII (10 studentswith good academic development according to gender, age and grade level. The students were submitted to the Phonological Awareness

  4. Digital Identifier Systems: Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khedmatgozar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS. The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other systems. To achieve the research objective, researchers have considered two major steps: first, identifying main criteria for distinguishing digital identifier based on literature review and focus group interview; and second, performing a comparative evaluation on common identifier systems in the world. Findings of first step demonstrated seven main criteria in three domains for distinguishing digital identifier systems: identifier uniqueness and persistency in the identifier features domain, digital identification, digital uniqueness, digital persistency and digital actionability in the digital coverage domain, and globality in the comprehensiveness of scope domain. In the second step, results of the comparative evaluation on common identifier systems indicated that six identifier systems, included, DOI, Handle, UCI, URN, ARK and PURL, are appropriate choices for using as a digital identifier system. Also, according to these results, three identification systems Including NBN, MARIAM and ISNI were identified as suitable choices for digital identification in certain specialized fields. According to many benefits of using these identifiers in important applied fields, such as, digital content chains and networks integration, digital right management, cross referencing, digital libraries and citation analysis, results of this study can help digital environment experts to diagnose digital identifier and their effective use in applied fields.

  5. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil; Schenk, Ryan; Norton, Catherine N

    2008-05-13

    Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs) and societal importance (e.g., world wars). The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  6. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  7. A name is a name is a name: some thoughts and personal opinions about molluscan scientific names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dance, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1758, with the publication of Systema Naturae by Linnaeus, thousands of scientific names have been proposed for molluscs. The derivation and uses of many of them are here examined from various viewpoints, beginning with names based on appearance, size, vertical distribution, and location.

  8. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To further the standardization of geo- graphical names at both the national and international levels, the United Na- tions Group of Experts on. Geo- graphical Names (UNGEGN) was es- tablished in pursuance of Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) resolu- tions 715 A (XXVII) of 23 April 1959 and. 1314 (LXIV) of 31 May ...

  9. Translating African Names in Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Bariki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the sociocultural and ethnopragmatic significance of African names as used by the Yoruba and Izon of Nigeria and the Akan of Ghana. From the perspective of linguistic anthropology, we show the non-arbitrary nature of these names and demonstrate the need to translate them, particularly in fictional texts, so that their significance may be preserved.

  10. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1993-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.). Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceeded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  11. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1997-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.). Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  12. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2002-01-01

    Numbers refer to page numbers. Infrageneric epithets have been entered directly under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subg., sect., etc.). Infraspecific epithets have been entered under the specific name to which they belong, preceded by the

  13. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1996-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.)- Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  14. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1948-01-01

    Suprageneric epiphels have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (tribes, e.g.). Supraspecific epithets have been entered under the generic name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (sections, series).

  15. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...

  16. Rapid analysis of heterogeneously methylated DNA using digital methylation-sensitive high resolution melting: application to the CDKN2B (p15) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candiloro, Ida Lm; Mikeska, Thomas; Hokland, Peter

    2008-01-01

    MS-HRM) that involves the amplification of single templates after limiting dilution to quantify and to determine the degree of methylation. We used this approach to study methylation of the CDKN2B (p15) cell cycle progression inhibitor gene which is inactivated by DNA methylation in haematological malignancies...... and other heterogeneously methylated genes. It eliminates both PCR and cloning bias towards either methylated or unmethylated DNA. Potentially complex information is simplified into a digital output, allowing counting of methylated and unmethylated alleles and providing an overall picture of methylation...... at the given locus. Downstream sequencing is minimised as dMS-HRM acts as a screen to select only methylated clones for further analysis....

  17. Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Vetle I; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently described "Author-ity," a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. METHODS: Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. RESULTS: Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. IMPACT: The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. AVAILABILITY: The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic

  18. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  19. Chadwick named college communications manager

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Heather Riley Chadwick of Blacksburg, Va., has been named communications manager for the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech. Previously, she served as the marketing and communications manager for Virginia Tech's Office of Student Programs.

  20. Place Names in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hylland Eriksen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is not unthinkable that in a not too distant future, citizens of Oslo will have the opportunity to meet for appointments at Salimi Square, to shop for vegetables in Kharian Street, to enjoy their picnics in Rubina Rana Park and to drive to the nearby town of Drammen on Mogadishu Road. Historical change may lead to politically motivated changes in place names, although often slow and uneven, and major upheavals such as revolutions tend to entail a total renovation of the names of streets, parks and other urban fixtures. The names of towns and villages tend to stick more stubbornly. This short essay looks at these three modes, drawing on exam- ples from Tehran, Trinidad and Toronto, eventually relating them ten- tatively to the emergent multiethnic reality in Oslo and the future prospects for place names in the city.

  1. Using a voice to put a name to a face: the psycholinguistics of proper name comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J; Jackson, Laura; Phillips, Isobel

    2014-02-01

    We propose that hearing a proper name (e.g., Kevin) in a particular voice serves as a compound memory cue that directly activates representations of a mutually known target person, often permitting reference resolution without any complex computation of shared knowledge. In a referential communication study, pairs of friends played a communication game, in which we monitored the eyes of one friend (the addressee) while he or she sought to identify the target person, in a set of four photos, on the basis of a name spoken aloud. When the name was spoken by a friend, addressees rapidly identified the target person, and this facilitation was independent of whether the friend was articulating a message he or she had designed versus one from a third party with whom the target person was not shared. Our findings suggest that the comprehension system takes advantage of regularities in the environment to minimize effortful computation about who knows what.

  2. Named Entity Recognition for IDEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qianzhou; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    This project explored how to apply Named Entity Recognition to large Twitter and web page datasets to extract useful entities such as people, organization, location, and date. In addition, this NER utility has been scaled to the MapReduce framework on the Hadoop cluster. A schema and software allow this to be integrated with IDEAL. The term “Named Entity”, which was first introduced by Grishman and Sundheim, is widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The researchers were focusing...

  3. The European Digital Kitchen Project

    OpenAIRE

    Seedhouse, Paul; Preston, Anne; Olivier, Patrick; Dan, Jackson; Philip, Heslop; Madeline, Balaam; Rafiev, Ashur; Kipling, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the European Digital Kitchen, an EU-funded language learning project which promotes learning of languages, cultures and cuisines in digital interactive kitchens. The project involves taking a normal kitchen and specifically adapting it for language learning using the next generation of digital technology, namely activity recognition and sensor technology. We intend that learners will be able to learn aspects of the language whilst performing a meaningful real-world tas...

  4. Elemental Etymology: What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the origin of the names (or etymologies) of the chemical elements. Includes tables listing elements: (1) with names of obscure origin; (2) named for colors; (3) named after real or mythical people; (4) named after places; (5) named after heavenly bodies; and (6) having names of miscellaneous origin. (JN)

  5. Development and application of a reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) for sensitive and rapid detection of Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xulong; Lin, Hua; Chen, Shijie; Xiao, Lu; Yang, Miao; An, Wei; Wang, Yin; Yao, Xueping; Yang, Zexiao

    2017-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most common zoonoses caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a novel sensitive, accurate method that enables absolute quantitation without the need for calibration curves. The aim of this study was to develop a RT-ddPCR method to detect JEV, and to compare its sensitivity with real-time TaqMan RT-PCR by analysis of clinical samples. The methods of JEV real-time RT-PCR and RT-ddPCR were established and optimal reaction conditions were confirmed. Each method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection and specificity. A total of 103 porcine samples were analysed by both methods and the detection rate was calculated. Both methods showed a high degree of linearity and positive correlation for standards (R(2)≥0.999). The assays indicated that the detection limit for RT-ddPCR was approximately 2 copies/20μL well, a 100-fold greater sensitivity than TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. The detection results for clinical samples showed that the positive detection rate of RT-ddPCR (27.2%) was higher than that of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR (16.5%). The cross-reaction was performed with other porcine pathogens, and negative amplification of the cross-reaction assay demonstrated the high specificity of this method. The novel JEV RT-ddPCR assay could be used as an efficient molecular biology tool to diagnose JEV, which would facilitate the surveillance of reproductive failure disease in swineries and would be beneficial for public health security. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of numbered minor planets has now well exceeded a quarter million. The new sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, which is the IAU’s official reference work for the field, now covers more than 17,000 named minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names provides authoritative information on the basis of the rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to artists, from scientists to Nobel laureates, from historical or political figures to ordinary women and men, from mountains to buildings, as well as a variety of compound terms and curiosities. This sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names has grown by more than 7,000 entries compared to the fifth edition and by more than 2,000 compared to the fifth edition, including its two addenda published in 2006 and 2009. In addition, there are many  corrections, revisions and updates to the entries published in earlier editions....

  7. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...... pace, which demand a closer look at the relations between arts and technology. The composers’ understanding of her occupation is challenged – and alongside, mediatisation and changes in distribution mark an incursion on solid conceptions of the artwork. Together, this means changing conditions for both...

  8. Names of infamy: tainted eponyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, F J E; Davis, S M; Byrne, E

    2015-04-01

    The use of eponyms is controversial. A distinction must be made between those doctors and scientists after whom disorders and syndromes are named in honour of their discoveries, and those whose discoveries were made as a result of maltreatment of defenceless prisoners, utilizing specimens from victims of Nazi extermination policies, and euthanasia victims of racial policies. The second group of scientists should have their names expunged from the historical record, and their deeds brought to the attention of their colleagues. We are not however advocating the abolition of eponyms in general, only tainted ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Names of the Heavier Elements. Jitendra K Bera. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp 53-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/03/0053-0061. Author Affiliations.

  10. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  11. Who named it in anaesthesia?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communicAtion. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2015; 21(1):12-14 ... http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Who named it in .... Oxygen comes from a Greek word meaning “becoming sharp” because he claimed that the sharp taste of acid, comes from.

  12. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  13. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  14. Name Authority Challenges for Indexing and Abstracting Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Beaubien Bennett

    2006-03-01

    rather than name authority control may become an attractive option for catalogues, I&A databses and digital library collections.

  15. Practical digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Virginia Mason Medical Center, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques.

  16. Digital food photography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manna, Lou; Moss, Bill

    2005-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Digital Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Digital Process...

  17. Digital squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

    1988-01-01

    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages. ....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept......Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages...

  18. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  19. Three Essays on Digital Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhewei

    2016-01-01

    Digital products are rapidly shaping our world into a ubiquitous computing world. Because of its unique characteristics, digital artifacts are generative and highly evolving through the recombination of existing elements as well as by the invention of new elements. In this thesis, I first propose an evolutionary view to examine how digital…

  20. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation; Comment on “Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as “eDTCA” is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA notices of violations (NOVs and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the “disruptive” qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored.

  1. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K

    2016-02-03

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as "eDTCA") is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the "disruptive" qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  3. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  4. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    Accepted Abstract: Most current Human Resource Management discourse stresses coaching, developing and empowering in order to do ‘good' and care for the ‘well-being' of the employees (Steyaert & Janssens, 1999). Legge (1999) symbolizes HRM discourse by the employee being a family member subordinated...... for mankind - in the name of care for the other", and Zizek (2003:23) in a similar matter when he points out that "the ultimate source of evil is compassion itself". Butler (2005) refers to ethical violence when she describes the rigid ethical standards set out to be what Kaulingfreks calls the ‘keeper...

  5. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  6. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  7. Against the naming of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular bar-coding and consensus on nomenclatural practices has encouraged optimism about the future of fungal taxonomy and systematics. There are, however, profound deficiencies in our understanding of fungal diversity and broader problems with the taxonomic enterprise that deserve greater attention. For 250 years mycologists have tried to reconcile fungal diversity with the Linnean fantasy of a divine order throughout nature that included unambiguous species. This effort has failed and today's taxonomy rests on an unstable philosophical foundation. Rather than persisting with the present endeavour, it may be more fruitful to abandon the notion of fungal species pending further basic research. In the meantime, mycologists should consider tagging collections with digital codes and assigning these operational taxonomic units to higher taxonomic ranks whose objective reality is corroborated by strong phylogenetic evidence. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Fossil quality and naming dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J

    2008-12-23

    The intense interest in dinosaurs through the past 30 years might have led to an increase in poor practice in naming new species. A review of the data shows that the reverse is the case. For 130 years, from the 1820s to the 1950s, most new species of dinosaurs were based on scrappy and incomplete material. After 1960, the majority of new species have been based on complete skulls or skeletons, and sometimes on materials from several individuals. This switch in the quality of type specimens corresponds to the recent explosive renaissance of interest in dinosaurs, during which the number of new species named per year has risen, from three or four in the 1950s, to thirty or more today. The pattern of specimen quality varies by continent, with the highest proportion of new species based on good material in North America, then Asia, then South America, then Africa and finally Europe. This ranking reflects a complex pattern of perhaps overstudy in Europe, immensely rich reserves of new dinosaur materials in North America and Asia, and a relative paucity in South America and Africa.

  9. Formation of new linguistic competences in education space: naming examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remchukova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The naming examination is a new kind of linguistic examination. The article deals with linguistic aspects of teaching this course in higher school for the special training of experts. In order to form professional competence on naming examination in the process of teaching special attention is paid to studies of theory of nomination and onomastics, to examination of language units from the point of view of component analysis, semantic-stylistic analysis and others, as well as the formation of the skills of work with different lexicographic sources and digital resources and database. In the laboratory course “Applied and mathematical linguistics,” the skills of lexico-semantic, morphological, etymological, morphemic, word-formation, phonetic analysis of concrete names are practiced. We focus on the studies of artificial naming patterns, including advertising names, which bring out the creative potential of the Russian language. Creative trends dominate in this area of nomination. Naming examination as a new kind of forensic linguistic examination is taught within the course ”Forensic linguistic examination” which accomplishes technical education of students

  10. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  11. Digital Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    This dissertation forwards the theory of digital consumer-response as a perspective to examine how digital media practices influence consumers’ response to advertising. Digital consumer-response is a development of advertising theory that encompasses how consumers employ their knowledge...... and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising...... response. The dissertation argues that digital consumer-response changes our understanding of texts, contexts, consumers, and agency, because digital consumer-response operates with a discursive analytical perspective, as opposed to the micro-textual analyses of much advertising research. Further...

  12. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  13. Emergent Principles for Digital Documentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lachman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital Documentaries are an area of rapid invention and experimentation at all levels, including creative content, production techniques, and business models.  As with many forms of digital storytelling, a focus on technologies can be distracting; platforms change rapidly, and are dependent on external commercial forces rather than creative potential.  This article presents several design strategies for driving experimentation in digital documentary above and beyond the specific of platform and technology. The core focus is on treating digital docs as experiences, with an expanded range of designable moments, as well as a strategic approach to designing interactions for their unique set of challenges.  The discussion is not intended to fully define digital documentary design factors, but rather, defines a useful subset of methods that can lead emerging practitioners to new innovations in their approach.

  14. DIGITAL FORGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan M. Musa1

    2017-01-01

    Forgery is the criminal act that provides misleading information about a product or service. It is the process of making, adapting, or imitating documents or objects with the intent to deceive. Digital forgery (or digital tampering) is the process of manipulating documents or images for the intent of financial, social or political gain. This paper provides a brief introduction to the digital forgery.

  15. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  16. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  17. Name fashion dynamics and social class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07072024X; Schraagen, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315552204

    2011-01-01

    Modern parents in The Netherlands choose the first names they like for their children. In this decision most follow fashion and as a typical property of fashion, many popular names now have a life cycle of only one generation. Some names show a symmetry between rise and fall of the name, but most

  18. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association

  19. A Colossus Gets its Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Today, the first of the two ALMA antenna transporters was given its name at a ceremony on the compounds of the manufacturer, the heavy-vehicle specialist Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik GmbH, in Baden-Württemberg. The colossus, 10 metres wide, 20 metres long and 6 metres high, will be shipped to Chile by the end of the month. The second one will follow in a few weeks. ESO PR Photo 45a/07 ESO PR Photo 45a/07 The ALMA Antenna Transprorter The transporter was named 'Otto' in honour of Otto Rettenmaier, the owner of the Scheuerle company. "The rather unusual move to name a vehicle is a recognition of the remarkable achievement these unique machines represent," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Their sizes alone would justify using superlatives to describe them. But they are also outstanding as they will operate at 5000 metres altitude, where the air is rare, and they have to be able to place 115-ton antennas with a precision of a few millimetres," he added. "The ALMA antenna transporters are the proof of the excellence of our staff and of our ability to build heavy vehicles that are at the limits of the possible," said Otto Rettenmaier. "Never in the history of our company have we had to comply with such exceptional requirements on material and techniques as we had to do with these machines. We are proud as a company to have been able to contribute with such an exceptional piece of technology for astronomical research." The ALMA Project, in which ESO leads the construction and the operations on behalf of Europe, is a giant, international observatory currently in construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile, which will be composed initially of 66 high-precision telescopes, operating at wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. The ALMA antennas will be electronically combined and provide astronomical observations which are equivalent to a single large telescope of tremendous size and resolution. The 66 antennas of the array can be placed on 192

  20. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  1. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  2. The discrimination of object names and object sounds in children with autism: a procedure for teaching verbal comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeseth, Svein; Hayward, Diane W

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether 2 preschoolers with autism learned to discriminate between the sounds of musical instruments more rapidly than the spoken names of the instruments. After the children learned the sound-object relations more rapidly than the name-object relations, we then evaluated a prompt-delay procedure for transferring stimulus control from the sounds to the names of the instruments. The prompt-delay procedure facilitated the acquisition of name-object relations for both children.

  3. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  4. Digital Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Simson L.

    2013-01-01

    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  5. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors.

  6. Signatura digital

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Mateos, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Aquest projecte tracta la Signatura Digital des del punt de vista d'un Enginyer de Software que ha d'iniciar un projecte que doni serveis de Signatura Digital a un projecte més ampli d'Administració Electrònica. El projecte contempla: els conceptes bàsics de la Signatura Digital, les particularitats de la Signatura Digital, les funcionalitats i serveis que pot proporcionar a una plataforma de tramitació electrònica, els requeriments de Signatura Electrònica per l'AE, la selecció d'un prov...

  7. Name writing in Mandarin-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Treiman, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Name writing plays an important role in early literacy development. Most previous studies of name writing have examined learners of alphabetic writing systems. Analyzing data from two studies with young speakers of Mandarin Chinese, we found that 2-year-olds did not produce names that were recognizable as such. Although 3-year-olds never wrote their names correctly, Chinese adults performed significantly above the level of chance at judging the names as names as opposed to single-character words. Adults were also above chance at judging whether a production was that child's name as opposed to another child's name. Some 4-year-olds wrote their names correctly, producing more correct renditions of the characters in their names than of non-name characters. Whereas learners of alphabetic writing systems generally learn to write their names starting with the first letter, the Chinese children were more influenced by the visual properties of a character than by the character's position in their names. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    ) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  9. Fine-grained Dutch named entity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, Bart; Hoste, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of a fine-grained named entity annotation scheme and corpus for Dutch, and experiments on automatic main type and subtype named entity recognition. We give an overview of existing named entity annotation schemes, and motivate our own, which describes six main types (persons, organizations, locations, products, events and miscellaneous named entities) and finer-grained information on subtypes and metonymic usage. This was applied to a one-million-word subset o...

  10. Ethnology and the Study of Proper Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Susan S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of uncovering the universal features of proper names and relating them to different naming systems. Suggests that this viewpoint may lead to an appreciation of proper names as a sociolinguistic universal and a cultural variable, beyond the particulars on which most of the literature has focused. (MES)

  11. SOCIOLINGUISTIC IMPORT OF NAME-CLIPPING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... about the semantic significance of African names, Bariki observed that: In many African languages, personal names have a strong, socio-cultural and ethnopragmatic bearing that go beyond mere identity or referentiality… What is obvious is that African names have strikingly semantic and semiotic load.

  12. An MEG study of picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Praamstra, P.; Meyer, A.S.; Helenius, P.I.; Salmelin, R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate a psycholinguistic processing model of picture naming to the dynamics of cortical activation during picture naming. The activation was recorded from eight Dutch subjects with a whole-head neuromagnetometer. The processing model, based on extensive naming

  13. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  14. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  15. Development and testing of a fast digital electronic system for ion identification and spectroscopy; Etude et realisation d'une chaine d'instrumentation numerique rapide pour l'identification des ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legou, Th

    2002-02-01

    This report deals with a fast digital electronic system developed for ion identification and spectroscopy. The system, called IRIS, has been conceived for the super heavy element research program: FUSION. In order to observe a super heavy element, the energy of the compound nucleus implanted in a silicon detector must be measured, and the alpha decay also registered. The associated electronics must therefore handle a very wide range of energies and also exhibit a small recovery time after the implantation of the compound nucleus. IRIS is connected to the output of a charge preamplifier. It digitizes the signal and then executes two digital signal processes: the first to detect the particle, and the second to determine the energy deposited in the silicon detector. The use of programmed processing allows for the adjustment of the digital processing parameters, as well as a choice of other digital signal processing procedures, depending the application. After having explained why a conventional electronic system cannot be used for the detection of super-heavy ions, IRIS' structure is detailed and a number of digital signal processing procedures are studied and tested. (author)

  16. Digital bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2009-01-01

    Digital microfluidics has recently emerged as a new paradigm in the world of lab-on-a-chip technology. A wide variety of bioanalyses have been successfully implemented in this format. This paper reviews the various techniques that have been adapted to digital microfluidic systems, and the current state of the field.

  17. Digital TMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

  18. [Overview of Chinese digital medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, S Z; Ouyang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Digital medicine is a newly developed interdiscipline, which is based on the rapid development of medical imaging technology and other advanced technologies in information science, such as computer and internet etc. To let academic world comprehend the history, status, mission, and prospect of this new branch of science, this comment primarily review the major events related to the booming process in Chinese digital medicine, the published milestone works, and dominating applied technology.

  19. Digital imaging in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan

    2011-01-01

    Information technology is vital to operations, marketing, accounting, finance and administration. One of the most exciting and quickly evolving technologies in the modern dental office is digital applications. The dentist is often the business manager, information technology officer and strategic planning chief for his small business. The information systems triangle applies directly to this critical manager supported by properly trained ancillary staff and good equipment. With emerging technology driving all medical disciplines and the rapid pace at which it emerges, it is vital for the contemporary practitioner to keep abreast of the newest information technology developments. This article compares the strategic and operational advantages of digital applications, specifically imaging. The focus of this paper will be on digital radiography (DR), 3D computerized tomography, digital photography and digitally-driven CAD/CAM to what are now considered obsolescing modalities and contemplates what may arrive in the future. It is the purpose of this essay to succinctly evaluate the decisions involved in the role, application and implications of employing this tool in the dental environment

  20. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional Sports Digitalization Thirty Eighth International Conference on Information Systems, Seoul 2017 2 characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance...

  1. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  2. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Pokorná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  3. Official Naming in Hå, Klepp and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Særheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Toponyms localize, reflect and give information about historical traditions and various phenomena in an area. They form part of the local heritage and culture. The relationship between place names, heritage and identity is often underlined in guidelines regarding official naming of streets and roads. In what way is heritage and local identity reflected in the road names of the three municipalities Hå, Klepp and Time (Southwest-Norway, and how is the special character of this area expressed in the names? More than half of the official road names in the three municipalities are either identical with a local toponym, or they consist of a word for ‘road’ and a local toponym (or an appellative describing the location. This shows that there is a strong commitment to base the official naming on local tradition and thus contribute to identity. Quite a few elements from the dialect, e.g. special pronunciation, grammatical forms or local words, appear in the names, especially in the road names from Hå, reflecting that the names are part of the local culture, and due to the fact that the dialect is unique. Consistency is a challenge, however; the same word is sometimes spelled in different ways in different names. It appears that, with some exceptions, cultural heritage and local tradition have been preferred principles and guidelines with regard to naming of roads in the three municipalities, due to a consciousness that heritage and tradition create identity.

  4. Construction of geographical names knowledge base with ontology and production rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Du, Qingyun

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development of the gazetteers, more and more geographical names databases has been established. Since the geographical names exit in form of records which provide little qualitative description other than quantitative information, geographical names are hardly shared and interoperable. In order to solve this problem, we urgently need to set up knowledge base for geographical names that shall provide qualitative knowledge to describe the essence of the elements. So, we use ontology and production rules to build geographical name knowledge base, where the geographical names ontology is regarded as the foundation for reuse and sharing of the geographical names information, and production rules are used to enhance the expressivity of the ontology. First of all, we analyzed the geographical names concepts and their semantics, the concepts of space and time and their relationships in geographical names to describe the knowledge structure for this field, used Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide formal descriptions to give them explicit semantics, and proposed a unified semantic framework for description. Secondly, we established the common-sense rules and spatial relations inference rules coded with Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) which laid the foundation for geographical names knowledge discovery and automatic reasoning. Finally, we established a geographical name knowledge base combining both the geographical names ontology and rules established above. Through the analysis of examples we showed that based on the geographical names knowledge base the geographical names information can be well shared and reused.

  5. Timed picture naming norms for Mandarin Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyi Liu

    Full Text Available The present study reports timed norms for 435 object pictures in Mandarin Chinese. These data include naming latency, name agreement, concept agreement, word length, and age of acquisition (AoA based on children's naming and adult ratings, and several other adult ratings of concept familiarity, subjective word frequency, image agreement, image variability, and visual complexity. Furthermore, we examined factors that influence the naming latencies of the pictures. The results show that concept familiarity, AoA, concept agreement, name agreement, and image agreement are significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas subjective word frequency is not a reliable determinant. These results are discussed in light of picture naming data in other languages. An item-based index for the norms is provided in the Table S1.

  6. Asymptotic properties of restricted naming games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Datta, Amitava; Manna, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Asymptotic properties of the symmetric and asymmetric naming games have been studied under some restrictions in a community of agents. In one version, the vocabulary sizes of the agents are restricted to finite capacities. In this case, compared to the original naming games, the dynamics takes much longer time for achieving the consensus. In the second version, the symmetric game starts with a limited number of distinct names distributed among the agents. Three different quantities are measured for a quantitative comparison, namely, the maximum value of the total number of names in the community, the time at which the community attains the maximal number of names, and the global convergence time. Using an extensive numerical study, the entire set of three power law exponents characterizing these quantities are estimated for both the versions which are observed to be distinctly different from their counter parts of the original naming games.

  7. Digital Radiography: A Technology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ben A.

    1982-12-01

    Digital radiography, a term hardly recognized two years ago, has grown to become the talk of the radiology community and the excitement of many commercial companies. M2st of this attention has been directed toward digital subtraction intravenous angiography), although during this same time period, a variety of digital radiography apparatus and image processing techniques have been under development. In November of 1980 at the RSNA Conference in Chicago, three commercial digital angiography systems were announced by Philips, Technicare and ADAC Corporations. During this same time period, the University of Arizona was discussing the concept of a photo electronic radiology department2, the University of Pittsburg and Stanford University were investigating line scan radiography3,4 and approximately five laboratories were carrying out clinical IV angiography with digital video systems.5-9 These developments followed basic research programs in digital electronic and computerized imaging at various locations around the world. 10-18 In the spring of 1981 we attempted to review the state of digital radiography, focusing on the various detector systems and image acquisition approaches.19 Since that time, rapid advancements in digital radiography have occurred. A major conference was held on digital radiography at Stanford UniversityzO, a new area detector system for digital radiography was announced by Fuji Film Corporation, clinical testing began on the Picker line scan digital chest unit21, and improvements were made in selenium detectors for digital radiography. Several additional companies announced digital video angiography systems, bringing the total now to approximately 15 companies worldwide. Digital video subtraction angiography is now well established as an important clinical diagnostic procedure and a variety of improvements and extensions of digital angiography systems are now ongoing. Digital acquisition and storage systems are increasing in both speed and

  8. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  9. Digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a substantial description of the principles and applications of digital holography.The first part of the book deals with mathematical basics and the linear filtering theory necessary to approach the topic. The next part describes the fundamentals of diffraction theory and exhaustively details the numerical computation of diffracted fields using FFT algorithms. A thorough presentation of the principles of holography and digital holography, including digital color holography, is proposed in the third part.A special section is devoted to the algorithms and method

  10. Digital Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri

    2016-01-01

    . With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills.......Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media...

  11. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  12. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  13. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mateos

    Full Text Available Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science

  14. Ethnicity and population structure in personal naming networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how 'naming networks', constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply 'emerge' from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  15. The Stability of Literacy-Related Cognitive Contributions to Chinese Character Naming and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Li, Wenling; Tian, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental issue of cognitive factors that explain Chinese literacy. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, short-term memory, orthographic awareness and morphological awareness and two literacy tasks (character naming and reading fluency) were administered to 408 second-graders, 428 fourth-graders and…

  16. Digital food photography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manna, Lou; Moss, Bill

    2005-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Digital Photography: The Necessities 21 Selecting a Digital Camera and Accessories...

  17. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.

  18. Digital Discretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

  19. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    . Originality/value: The study contributes to ethnographic research in public administration by combining two separate subfields, e-government and street-level bureaucracy, to discern recent transformations in public service delivery. In the digital era, tasks, control and equality are distributed in ways......The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of e-government reforms on street-level bureaucrats’ professionalism and relation to citizens, thus demonstrating how the bureaucratic encounter unfolds in the digital era. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on an ethnographic study....... An ethnographic account of how digital reforms are implemented in practice shows how street-level bureaucrat’s classic tasks such as specialized casework are being reconfigured into educational tasks that promote the idea of “becoming digital”. In the paper, the author argues that the work of “becoming digital...

  20. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...... the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types...

  1. Digital Snaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    The New Face of Snapshot Photography / Jonas Larsen and Mette Sandbye -- pt. I. IMAGES ON WEB 2.0 AND THE CAMERA PHONE -- ch. 1. Overlooking, Rarely Looking and Not Looking / Martin Lister -- ch. 2. The (Im)mobile Life of Digital Photographs: The Case of Tourist Photography / Jonas Larsen -- ch. 3....... Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... Purikura Photography / Mette Sandbye -- ch. 7. 'Buying an Instrument Does Not Necessarily Make You a Musician': Studio Photography and the Digital Revolution / Sigrid Lien -- pt. III. NEW PUBLIC FORMS -- ch. 8 Paparazzi Photography, Seriality and the Digital Photo Archive / Anne Jerslev and Mette Mortensen...

  2. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  3. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  4. Neural Reranking for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Dong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    We propose a neural reranking system for named entity recognition (NER). The basic idea is to leverage recurrent neural network models to learn sentence-level patterns that involve named entity mentions. In particular, given an output sentence produced by a baseline NER model, we replace all entity mentions, such as \\textit{Barack Obama}, into their entity types, such as \\textit{PER}. The resulting sentence patterns contain direct output information, yet is less sparse without specific named ...

  5. Digital Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    KOCIÁNOVÁ, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Digital steganography is a technique for hiding data mostly into multimedia files (images, audio, video). With the development of information technology this technique has found its use in the field of copyright protection and secret data transfer, could be even applied in places where is limited possibility of using cryptography (e. g. by law). This thesis gives insight into digital steganography and contains an application using this technique.

  6. Confusing brand names: Nightmare of medical profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Amit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. OBSERVATIONS: Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. CONCLUSION: Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic, or similar sounding (phonological. Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.

  7. Confusing brand names: nightmare of medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataboli, P V; Garg, A

    2005-01-01

    India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic), or similar sounding (phonological). Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.

  8. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  9. Digital video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed.

  10. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  11. Gene Name Thesaurus - Gene Name Thesaurus | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene names found in various databases and articles to show associations between them. Data file File name: dictionary....zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/lsdb_gene_thesaurus/LATEST/dictionary...ary. 5. Add non-detected words to the dictionary and repeat 4-5 using other literat...ribe gene names from MEDLINE abstracts and collect unregistered names. 4. Evaluate detection performance of gene names in the diction

  12. Digital microarray analysis for digital artifact genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger; Handley, James; Williams, Deborah

    2013-06-01

    We implement a Spatial Voting (SV) based analogy of microarray analysis for digital gene marker identification in malware code sections. We examine a famous set of malware formally analyzed by Mandiant and code named Advanced Persistent Threat (APT1). APT1 is a Chinese organization formed with specific intent to infiltrate and exploit US resources. Manidant provided a detailed behavior and sting analysis report for the 288 malware samples available. We performed an independent analysis using a new alternative to the traditional dynamic analysis and static analysis we call Spatial Analysis (SA). We perform unsupervised SA on the APT1 originating malware code sections and report our findings. We also show the results of SA performed on some members of the families associated by Manidant. We conclude that SV based SA is a practical fast alternative to dynamics analysis and static analysis.

  13. Composing for Digital Publication: Rhetoric, Design, Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, Douglas; Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the state of digital publication with the claim that, at this historical moment, nearly all composition is digital composition. But, as a field, composition studies has not yet made that shift completely explicit in the discussions of composing processes and writing pedagogies. A deeper engagement with this very rapid shift in…

  14. Application of Digital Music Technology in Music Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Peiwei Zhang; Xin Sui

    2017-01-01

    This paper expounds the concept and current development of digital music technology in modern times by exploration and analysis around the music technology, in order to better develop music pedagogy. In allusion to the contemporary music pedagogy, a new instruction idea is proposed by analyzing the digital music technologies such as MIDI, digital audio and other new music carriers, namely, an instruction model which integrates the digital music technology and the traditional teaching mode and...

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  16. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  17. Enhancing Communication through Gesture and Naming Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caute, Anna; Pring, Tim; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Best, Wendy; Marshall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether gesture, naming, and strategic treatment improved the communication skills of 14 people with severe aphasia. Method: All participants received 15 hr of gesture and naming treatment (reported in a companion article [Marshall et al., 2012]). Half the group received a further 15 hr of strategic…

  18. Kindness Curbs Kids' Name-Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact of name-calling towards the student's academic performance and emotions and cites some measures on how should teachers address this problem in order to facilitate effective learning among students. Psychologists recognize that name-calling and other forms of verbal bullying and harassment are more…

  19. The Sociolinguistic Basis of Yoruba Personal Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1980-01-01

    Suggests the outlines of a theory of how sociocultural and grammatical knowledge are integrated in the construction of personal names and how such knowledge can be retrieved from surface linguistic forms. Draws on anthropological and linguistic procedures to analyse the Yoruba personal naming system and the sociolinguistic principles that underly…

  20. MILITARY NAMES IN SOUTH AFRICA - QUO VADIS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    postal delivery, communication and geographical identification. For the military anthropologist or eth- nologist there isvirtually no area of lo- cal culture, thinking, customs or expres- sions which is not already reflected somewhere in the place names given by a local population. Knowledge of these place names contributes to ...

  1. Marketing Message Components in Commercial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Romanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the marketing potential of commercial names involved in the clientoriented communication and, more precisely, on the mechanisms of semantic derivation proper to the formation of commercial names. The author argues that the semantic shifts in the meaning of the original word result from its use as a part of a commercial message, i.e. for the transmission of specific marketing information. One of the current trends in contemporary Russian commercial naming is related to the actualization of the marketing content components (MCCs ‘big’ and ‘small’ which communicate complementary information about the named object. The marketing content component ‘big’ communicates the idea of respectability, economic might, wide choice of goods. This idea is most commonly transmitted by the foreign language prefixes mega-, super-, hyper-, grand-, maxi-, macro-, big-. In commercial naming their meanings overlap, making them stereotypic means of advertising. The marketing content component ‘small’ often appears in the names of cosy cafés and restaurants, cheap shops and child care institutions. This marketing content component can be communicated by foreign language prefixes, e.g. mini-, micro-, nano-, but it is most often actualized by Russian diminutive suffixes. The analised MCCs are also transmitted by means of direct, metaphoric, metonymic and symbolic names in which it is also possible to distinguish stereotypic patterns of commercial naming.

  2. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  3. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients.

  4. Naming and Defining in World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seargeant, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a taxonomy of the names used within world Englishes studies to refer to the object of investigation at the heart of the discipline. With the emergence of English as a global language, and with the concomitant increase in scholarship that critically studies this emergence, there has been a proliferation of names used to refer to…

  5. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... positive and the students felt more secure; the relations between the students and the teacher was improved; the students were encouraged to learn each others' names; and they found I was professional and committed. Im sum, learning the students' names matters....... on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...

  6. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIPO......) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  7. HMM based Korean Named Entity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Gyu Hwang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a named entity recognition model for Korean Language. Named entity recognition is an essential and important process of Question Answering and Information Extraction system. This paper proposes a HMM based named entity recognition using compound word construction principles. In Korean, above 60% of NE (Named-Entity is a compound word. This compound word may be consisted of proper noun, common noun, or bound noun, etc. There is an intercontextual relationship among nouns which consists NE. NE and surrounding words of NE have a contextual relationship. For considering these relationships, we classified nouns into 4 word classes (Independent Entity, Constituent Entity, Adjacent Entity, Not an Entity. With this classification, our system gets contextual and lexical information by stochastic based machine leaning method from a NE labeled training data. Experimental result shows that this approach is better approach than rulebased in the Korean named-entity recognition.

  8. The Digital Archive Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    This article, as well as the book, investigates the ways in which new digital media may enhance the experience of the art-archive. Taken as a whole, the new media is a vital component of a 'transdisciplinary' and transformative field, a cultural landscape that is changing rapidly the conditions....... The book discusses the challenges of the archive and the (art)museum in the age of digital media. It is based upon documentation from a research project, MAP - Media Art Platform, that drew upon the talents and collaboration of many institutions, artists, programmers, art historians, designers and others...... and domains of the archive and the (art)museum. How, then, should the functions and strengths of both archive and museum be shaped to meet those cultural and technological changes? When the Internet and world wide web became 'the place to be' commercially, museums followed suit and established their own sites...

  9. An introduction to digital computing

    CERN Document Server

    George, F H

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Computing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of digital computing. This book represents a major step towards the universal availability of programmed material.Organized into four chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental workings of the computer, including the way it handles simple arithmetic problems. This text then provides a brief survey of the basic features of a typical computer that is divided into three sections, namely, the input and output system, the memory system for data storage, and a processing system. Other c

  10. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  11. Digital watermark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Maver

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.

  12. Digital Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson Brooks, Eva; Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children’s play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The paper addresses questions related to how digital technology can foster creativity in early childhood learning environments. It consists of an analysis of children......’s interaction with the KidSmart furniture focusing on digital creativity potentials and play values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively...... consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children’s digital creativity....

  13. Digital "X"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baiyere, Abayomi; Grover, Varun; Gupta, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using digital before existing research concepts seem to be on the rise in the IS field. This panel is positioned to explore what value lies in labelling our research as digital “x” as opposed to the well established IT “x” (where “x” can be strategy, infrastructure, innovation, artifact......, capability e.t.c). The question this raises is that of how much this contributes novel insight to IS scholarship versus how much this is merely a relabeling of old wines in new wine bottles. The panel is expected to provide conceptual clarity on the use of the digital “x” concept and provide a delineation...

  14. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... of residual deposits from technology in organizations and its effect on individuals ability to connect to one another. Based on the case study the paper describes indications and suggests potential implication hereof. Given the inherent enhancement possibilities of technology our expectation for entertainment......-­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper...

  15. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  16. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  17. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  18. Author Name Disambiguation for PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kim, Sun; Comeau, Donald C; Kim, Won; Yeganova, Lana; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2014-04-01

    Log analysis shows that PubMed users frequently use author names in queries for retrieving scientific literature. However, author name ambiguity may lead to irrelevant retrieval results. To improve the PubMed user experience with author name queries, we designed an author name disambiguation system consisting of similarity estimation and agglomerative clustering. A machine-learning method was employed to score the features for disambiguating a pair of papers with ambiguous names. These features enable the computation of pairwise similarity scores to estimate the probability of a pair of papers belonging to the same author, which drives an agglomerative clustering algorithm regulated by 2 factors: name compatibility and probability level. With transitivity violation correction, high precision author clustering is achieved by focusing on minimizing false-positive pairing. Disambiguation performance is evaluated with manual verification of random samples of pairs from clustering results. When compared with a state-of-the-art system, our evaluation shows that among all the pairs the lumping error rate drops from 10.1% to 2.2% for our system, while the splitting error rises from 1.8% to 7.7%. This results in an overall error rate of 9.9%, compared with 11.9% for the state-of-the-art method. Other evaluations based on gold standard data also show the increase in accuracy of our clustering. We attribute the performance improvement to the machine-learning method driven by a large-scale training set and the clustering algorithm regulated by a name compatibility scheme preferring precision. With integration of the author name disambiguation system into the PubMed search engine, the overall click-through-rate of PubMed users on author name query results improved from 34.9% to 36.9%.

  19. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  20. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2010-01-01

    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  1. Digital literacies

    CERN Document Server

    Hockly, Nicky; Pegrum, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic shifts in our communication landscape have made it crucial for language teaching to go beyond print literacy and encompass the digital literacies which are increasingly central to learners' personal, social, educational and professional lives. By situating these digital literacies within a clear theoretical framework, this book provides educators and students alike with not just the background for a deeper understanding of these key 21st-century skills, but also the rationale for integrating these skills into classroom practice. This is the first methodology book to address not jus

  2. Digital photogrammetry

    CERN Document Server

    Egels, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry is the use of photography for surveying primarily and is used for the production of maps from aerial photographs. Along with remote sensing, it represents the primary means of generating data for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). As technology develops, it is becoming easier to gain access to it. The cost of digital photogrammetric workstations are falling quickly and these new tools are therefore becoming accessible to more and more users. Digital Photogrammetry is particularly useful as a text for graduate students in geomantic and is also suitable for people with a good basic scientific knowledge who need to understand photogrammetry, and who wish to use the book as a reference.

  3. What’s in a Name? – Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names ...... etc. in our societies today, and asks the question of what the consequences of naming non-human animals are for us, for the beings named and for the power relations between our species and the non-human species and individuals we name.......The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names...... have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways...

  4. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  5. Hypothesis-Driven Treatment of Naming Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K M; Grossman, M

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes to use information processing models of cognition to guide behaviorally based treatments of language deficits, specifically, single-word object naming. Our approach is illustrated with a clinical case of a transcortical sensory aphasic. Clinical neuropsychological and functional imaging data demonstrate that the components comprising the information processing network that underpins naming can be mapped onto a cerebral neural network in the neurologically intact and that reorganization of function seen in transcortical sensory aphasia can demonstrate plasticity in this neural network. The observed balance of impaired and preserved clinical and physiological components in reorganizing neural networks such as this can be used to design treatment strategies to alleviate naming deficits.

  6. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  7. Usages of people names as cohesive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sipavicius Seide

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usages of people names (proper name, nickname and pseudonym as cohesive elements. In this brief study, some usages of people names which ocurred in journalistic texts are analysed from an onomastic point of view. Emphasis  is placed on cultural, social and historic values of such usages. Data presented are parcial results of a broader research whose objective is to analyse textually and rethorically lexical cohesion tools observed in a sample of journalistic texts published by three Brazilian magazines (Istoé, Época and Veja during the second semester of 2008.

  8. Listing of awardee names: Active awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This catalog/directory presents DOE`s procurement and assistance data system, arranged according to awardee name, bin, completion date, description of work, division, vendor ID, city, state, congressional district, contract value, obligations to date, P/S.

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Names in Neo-Punic inscriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeling, Karel

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the names in neo-punic inscriptions. It tries to combine the studies from Benz and others, to give the reader a rather complete view of the Phoenician and Punic inscriptions. ... Zie: Introduction

  13. Resolving Person Names in Web People Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Krisztian; Azzopardi, Leif; de Rijke, Maarten

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the problem presents many difficulties and challenges. This chapter treats the task of person name disambiguation as a document clustering problem, where it is assumed that the documents represent particular people. This leads to the person cluster hypothesis, which states that similar documents tend to represent the same person. Single Pass Clustering, k-Means Clustering, Agglomerative Clustering and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis are employed and empirically evaluated in this context. On the SemEval 2007 Web People Search it is shown that the person cluster hypothesis holds reasonably well and that the Single Pass Clustering and Agglomerative Clustering methods provide the best performance.

  14. The change of religion and the names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kousgård Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available What actually happened at the time when Denmark was christianized? An important viewpoint to the topic is the nomenclature, both personal names and place-names. What happened to these in the missionary period? Can they be exploited as evidence about the change of religion? What happened to these and to the naming practices in connection with the introduction of Christianity? These questions are relevant, because several pre-Christian cultic words entered into the personal nomenclature which the Christian mission found in use on its arrival. The fate of the nomenclature in the period does suggest that the change in religion took place reasonably peacefully and gradually. There are, however, certain features about the place-names suggesting that there were local differences in the conduct of the mission.

  15. VT E911 road name geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road name geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode addresses...

  16. Director of Office for Equal Opportunity named

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Sally L.

    2005-01-01

    Kevin G. McDonald, of Baltimore, former associate director for Compliance and Conflict Resolution at The Johns Hopkins University, has been named director of Virginia Tech's Office for Equal Opportunity. He will begin work at Virginia Tech in July.

  17. Digital books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  18. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals

  19. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  20. Digital Badges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, they…

  1. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified it...

  2. Digital forvaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Larsen, Torben; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Større effektivitet, bedre service og mere demokrai er blot nogle af forventningerne til indførelse af digital forveltning i kommunerne. Kapitlet giver bland andet svar på spørgsmålene : Hvordan lever kommunerne op hertil i dagligdagen? hvilke virkemidler anvender de? Hvilke barrierer har der været...

  3. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  4. Named Entity Resources - Overview and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Nicoletta; Choukri, Khalid; Declerck, Thierry; Grobelnik, Marko; Maegaard, Bente; Mariani, Joseph; Moreno, Asuncion; Odijk, Jan; Piperidis, Stelios; Ehrmann, Maud; Nouvel, Damien; Rosset, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of real-world entities is crucial for most NLP applications. Since its introduction some twenty years ago, named entity processing has undergone a significant evolution with, among others, the definition of new tasks (e.g. entity linking) and the emergence of new types of data (e.g. speech transcriptions, micro-blogging). These pose certainly new challenges which affect not only methods and algorithms but especially linguistic resources. Where do we stand with respect to named ent...

  5. Robust Named Entity Recognition in Idiosyncratic Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sebastian; Gers, Felix A.; Kilias, Torsten; Löser, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Named entity recognition often fails in idiosyncratic domains. That causes a problem for depending tasks, such as entity linking and relation extraction. We propose a generic and robust approach for high-recall named entity recognition. Our approach is easy to train and offers strong generalization over diverse domain-specific language, such as news documents (e.g. Reuters) or biomedical text (e.g. Medline). Our approach is based on deep contextual sequence learning and utilizes stacked bidir...

  6. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Ole Finnemann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital materials centred on the digitisation of non-digital, finite works, corpora and oeuvres. The second section discusses “the big tent” of contemporary digital humanities. It is argued that there can be no unifying interpretation of digital humanities above the level of studying digital materials with the help of software-supported methods. This is so, in part, because of the complexity of the world and, in part, because digital media remain open to the projection of new epistemologies onto the functional architecture of these media. The third section discusses the heterogeneous character of digital materials and proposes that the study of digital materials should be established as a field in its own right.

  7. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Ole Finnemann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital materials centred on the digitisation of non-digital, finite works, corpora and oeuvres. The second section discusses “the big tent” of contemporary digital humanities. It is argued that there can be no unifying interpretation of digital humanities above the level of studying digital materials with the help of software-supported methods. This is so, in part, because of the complexity of the world and, in part, because digital media remain open to the projection of new epistemologies onto the functional architecture of these media. The third section discusses the heterogeneous character of digital materials and proposes that the study of digital materials should be established as a field in its own right.

  8. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children's developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling.

  9. Between Ethnic and English Names: Name Choice for Transnational Chinese Students in a US Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…

  10. The past is the present and future: Ambivalent names and naming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the past and the present are also connected through names and naming patterns that straddle the three Chimurengas with ambivalent meanings and political significance, shaped by spatio-temporal forces peculiar to the historical periods. Comprehending political meanings that such names and nicknames produce in ...

  11. [Progress in digital PCR technology and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaqi; Su, Guocheng; Su, Wenjin; Zhou, Changyi

    2017-02-25

    Digital PCR is an emerging analysis technology for absolute quantification after realtime-PCR. Through digital PCR, single DNA molecules are distributed into isolated reactions, and the product with fluorescence signal can be detected and analyzed after amplification. With the advantages of higher sensitivity and accuracy, digital PCR, independent of a standard curve, is developing rapidly and applied widely to the next generation sequencing and detection fields, such as gene mutation, copy number variation, microorganism, and genetically modified food. In this article, we reviewed the quantitative method and research progress of digital PCR technology in the main application fields.

  12. Integrating various resources for gene name normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuncui; Li, Yanpeng; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Cheng, Liangxi

    2012-01-01

    The recognition and normalization of gene mentions in biomedical literature are crucial steps in biomedical text mining. We present a system for extracting gene names from biomedical literature and normalizing them to gene identifiers in databases. The system consists of four major components: gene name recognition, entity mapping, disambiguation and filtering. The first component is a gene name recognizer based on dictionary matching and semi-supervised learning, which utilizes the co-occurrence information of a large amount of unlabeled MEDLINE abstracts to enhance feature representation of gene named entities. In the stage of entity mapping, we combine the strategies of exact match and approximate match to establish linkage between gene names in the context and the EntrezGene database. For the gene names that map to more than one database identifiers, we develop a disambiguation method based on semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology and MEDLINE abstracts. To remove the noise produced in the previous steps, we design a filtering method based on the confidence scores in the dictionary used for NER. The system is able to adjust the trade-off between precision and recall based on the result of filtering. It achieves an F-measure of 83% (precision: 82.5% recall: 83.5%) on BioCreative II Gene Normalization (GN) dataset, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art.

  13. Integrating various resources for gene name normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncui Hu

    Full Text Available The recognition and normalization of gene mentions in biomedical literature are crucial steps in biomedical text mining. We present a system for extracting gene names from biomedical literature and normalizing them to gene identifiers in databases. The system consists of four major components: gene name recognition, entity mapping, disambiguation and filtering. The first component is a gene name recognizer based on dictionary matching and semi-supervised learning, which utilizes the co-occurrence information of a large amount of unlabeled MEDLINE abstracts to enhance feature representation of gene named entities. In the stage of entity mapping, we combine the strategies of exact match and approximate match to establish linkage between gene names in the context and the EntrezGene database. For the gene names that map to more than one database identifiers, we develop a disambiguation method based on semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology and MEDLINE abstracts. To remove the noise produced in the previous steps, we design a filtering method based on the confidence scores in the dictionary used for NER. The system is able to adjust the trade-off between precision and recall based on the result of filtering. It achieves an F-measure of 83% (precision: 82.5% recall: 83.5% on BioCreative II Gene Normalization (GN dataset, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art.

  14. Confrontation naming errors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Chen, Ting-Bin; Lin, Ker-Neng; Yeh, Yen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ta; Wang, Kuo-Shu; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in visual interpretation, semantic conception, or word retrieval may contribute to the naming errors identified in the Boston Naming Test (BNT). We investigated the possible cognitive mechanism of the naming difficulty in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analyzing the error patterns presented in the BNT. The Chinese version of the 30-item BNT (BNT-30) was performed on 115 normal control (NC) subjects and 104 mild-to-moderate AD patients. Accurate rates after semantic and phonemic cues were analyzed. The frequencies of 7 types of error patterns in the AD patients and the NC subjects were compared. The accurate rate after semantic cues was significantly lower in the AD than in the NC groups, but phonemic cues were more helpful than semantic cues to achieve accurate naming in both groups. The AD patients made more errors in all error patterns. Particularly, the frequency of nonresponse errors (n = 806) in the AD group significantly exceeded that in the NC group (n = 382). However, the distribution of the error patterns did not differ between the two groups. Naming difficulties in AD might be attributed to progressive semantic knowledge degradation. The AD and the NC groups differ quantitatively but not qualitatively in the error patterns in confrontation naming. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  16. Differences in functional MR imaging activation patterns associated with confrontation naming and responsive naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewki Farias, Sarah; Harrington, Gregory; Broomand, Catherine; Seyal, Maysud

    2005-01-01

    Direct cortical stimulation studies suggest that responsive naming is more widely distributed within the temporal lobe than confrontation naming and involves anterior temporal regions typically resected in a standard temporal lobectomy. The aim of the current study was to further demonstrate the anatomic dissociation between confrontation and responsive naming by using functional MR imaging (fMRI). Twenty participants underwent fMRI while performing either a confrontation or responsive naming task. Regions of interest were identified within the anterior and posterior temporal lobe. Responsive naming produced more activation than confrontation naming within the dominant temporal lobe, with activation extending into the temporal pole. Activation in the dominant temporal lobe associated with responsive naming was observed in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri but was limited to the middle temporal gyrus for confrontation naming. Although both naming tasks produced activation within the posterior temporal region of interest in all participants, responsive and confrontation naming produced activation within the anterior temporal region of interest in 90% versus 60% of the sample, respectively. Areas of the dominant hemisphere activated by both tasks included parts of the middle occipital and middle temporal gyri, inferior frontal lobe, and hippocampus, among others. Findings are consistent with cortical stimulation studies and suggest that responsive naming produces more widespread activation within the temporal lobe compared with confrontation naming. The activation more often included anterior temporal regions during responsive naming as compared with confrontation naming. In clinical cases where the functional assessment of the temporal lobe-particularly the anterior regions-is important, the current results suggest responsive naming should be a useful fMRI paradigm and may ultimately help predict the risk of postsurgical language changes.

  17. Conscious intention to speak proactively facilitates lexical access during overt object naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkers, Kristof; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored when and how the top-down intention to speak influences the language production process. We did so by comparing the brain’s electrical response for a variable known to affect lexical access, namely word frequency, during overt object naming and non-verbal object categorization. We found that during naming, the event-related brain potentials elicited for objects with low frequency names started to diverge from those with high frequency names as early as 152 ms after stimulus onset, while during non-verbal categorization the same frequency comparison appeared 200 ms later eliciting a qualitatively different brain response. Thus, only when participants had the conscious intention to name an object the brain rapidly engaged in lexical access. The data offer evidence that top-down intention to speak proactively facilitates the activation of words related to perceived objects. PMID:24039339

  18. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation: Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters"

    OpenAIRE

    Tim K. Mackey

    2016-01-01

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as “eDTCA”) is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing...

  19. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  20. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  1. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  2. The modeling of a digital forensic readiness approach to WLAN digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available digital forensics is seen as not only a counterproposal but as a solution to the rapid increase of cyber crime in WLANs. The key issue impacting WLAN digital forensics is that, it is an enormous challenge to intercept and preserve all the communications...

  3. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the ...... to be published in ”User Generated Law. Reconstructing Intellectual Property Law in a Knowledge Society” edited by Thomas Riis (forthcoming on Edward Elgar)....... on cases where trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”). The article is part of a research project on “User Generated Law” and uses the methodologies developed as part of this. It is scheduled....... the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  4. SNAD: sequence name annotation-based designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbalenya Alexander E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Results Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. Conclusion A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.

  5. Color naming across languages reflects color use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R

    2017-09-18

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  6. An Analytic Creativity Assessment Scale for Digital Game Story Design: Construct Validity, Internal Consistency and Interrater Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Yun-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology has rapidly made digital games a popular entertainment to this digital generation, and thus digital game design received considerable attention in both the game industry and design education. Digital game design involves diverse dimensions in which digital game story design (DGSD) particularly attracts our interest, as the…

  7. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    government, and draws on empirical material generated through observations, field notes, interviews and policy documents. The material is documenting how service is performed by frontline agents in the ‘bureaucratic encounter’ with citizens, who needs assistance to use digital self-service in order to apply...... online for a public benefit. Findings: The paper shows that e-government technology changes the mode of professionalism in citizen service from service to support. The paper gives an empirical account of recent Danish digital reforms and shows how the reforms both enable and constrain the work...... of ‘becoming digital’ by frontline agents. Overall the street-level bureaucrat’s classical tasks such as specialized casework are being displaced into promoting and educational tasks. An implication of this is blurred distinctions between professional skills and personal competences of the frontline agent...

  8. [Digital radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendle, J

    1983-03-01

    Digital radiography is a generally accepted term comprising all x-ray image systems producing a projected image which resembles the conventional x-ray film image, and which are linked to any type of digital image processing. Fundamental criteria of differentiation are based on the production and detection method of the x-ray image. Various systems are employed, viz. the single-detector, line-detector or fanbeam detector and the area-beam or area-detector image converters, which differ from one another mainly in the manner of conversion of the radiation produced by the x-ray tube. The article also deals with the pros and cons of the various principles, the multitude of systems employed, and the varying frequency of their use in x-ray diagnosis work.

  9. Digital resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliotheca Latinitatis Mediaevalis (circa VII sec. - XIV sec. IntraText Digital Library [01/06] Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum. A digital library of Latin literature by David Camden [01/06] Fonti disponibili online concernenti la vita religiosa medievale Rete Vitae Religiosae Mediaevalis Studia Conectens [01/06] Fuentes del Medievo Hispanico Instituto de Historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [01/06] Latin Literature Forum Romanum [01/06] Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Dissertazioni sopra le antichità italiane, 1751 Biblioteca dei Classici Italiani di Giuseppe Bonghi [01/06] Medieval Latin The Latin Library [01/06] Médiévales Presses Universitaires de Vincennes - Revues.org [01/06] Regesta imperii Deutsche Kommission für die Bearbeitung der Regesta Imperii e.V. [01/06] Suda On Line Byzantine Lexicography [01/06

  10. Dynamic reorganization of functional brain networks during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Benquet, Pascal; Biraben, Arnaud; Berrou, Claude; Dufor, Olivier; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    For efficient information processing during cognitive activity, functional brain networks have to rapidly and dynamically reorganize on a sub-second time scale. Tracking the spatiotemporal dynamics of large scale networks over this short time duration is a very challenging issue. Here, we tackle this problem by using dense electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a picture naming task. We found that (i) the picture naming task can be divided into six brain network states (BNSs) characterized by significantly high synchronization of gamma (30-45 Hz) oscillations, (ii) fast transitions occur between these BNSs that last from 30 msec to 160 msec, (iii) based on the state of the art of the picture naming task, we consider that the spatial location of their nodes and edges, as well as the timing of transitions, indicate that each network can be associated with one or several specific function (from visual processing to articulation) and (iv) the comparison with previously-used approach aimed at localizing the sources showed that the network-based approach reveals networks that are more specific to the performed task. We speculate that the persistence of several brain regions in successive BNSs participates to fast and efficient information processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Name Collision in Multiple Classification Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Jørgen Lindskov

    Supporting multiple classification in object-oriented programming languages is the topic of discussion in this paper. Supporting multiple classification gives rise to one important question - namely the question of inheritance of attributes with identical names from multiple paths in the classification hierarchy. The problem is to decide how these multiple classification paths are reflected in the class being defined. One of the conclusions in this paper is, that by choosing strict and simple inheritance rules, one is excluding some particular usages of multiple classification. This leads to the notion of attribute-resolution at class definition, which means that the programmer in some cases is forced or allowed to resolve the potential ambiguity of the inherited names. The concept of attribute-resolution is managed through the identification of two conceptually different utilizations of specialization (unification and intersection), and two different attribute properties (plural and singleton) to guide the attribute-resolution.

  12. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  13. The National Solar Observatory Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F.; Branston, D.; Erdwurm, W.

    1997-05-01

    NSO provides several important data sets to the solar physics community, such as full-disk daily magnetograms, He 10380 spectroheliograms, and solar spectral atlases from Kitt Peak; as well as H-alpha and Ca K spectroheliograms, and coronal scans from Sacramento Peak. The usage of these data sets has rapidly increased over the last 3 years as indicated in the logs of NSO/KP anonymous FTP activity which show increases of 400% in the number of logins, and 100% in the number of files transferred. In order to provide better access to these data for the solar physics community, NSO is developing a digital library. A robotic jukebox that holds 300 CD ROMs (about 210 GB) on-line has been installed at NSO, and the migration of data into this system is substantially underway. At the present time, the entire set of spectra from the Fourier Transform Spectrometer is on-line, as well as about 15% of the Kitt Peak magnetograms and He 10830 images. The Sacramento Peak H-alpha and Ca K spectroheliograms are now being digitized and transferred to CDs. A web-based user interface and search tool is also in development. Oracle has been selected and installed as the RDBMS search engine. Software to populate the database tables using FITS header parameters has been developed. Issues of file name conventions, user request tracking, and download strategies are under study. We expect to have a simple prototype interface and search tool for the Kitt Peak magnetograms available for testing by the user community by Summer 1997. This will provide a foundation that can be easily extended to include additional data sets.

  14. Predicting protein subcellular location using digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Xi; Li, Da-Wei; Duan, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Zhou; Xu, Ming-Qing; Feng, Guo-Yin; He, Lin

    2005-02-01

    The biological functions of a protein are closely related to its attributes in a cell. With the rapid accumulation of newly found protein sequence data in databanks, it is highly desirable to develop an automated method for predicting the subcellular location of proteins. The establishment of such a predictor will expedite the functional determination of newly found proteins and the process of prioritizing genes and proteins identified by genomic efforts as potential molecular targets for drug design. The traditional algorithms for predicting these attributes were based solely on amino acid composition in which no sequence order effect was taken into account. To improve the prediction quality, it is necessary to incorporate such an effect. However, the number of possible patterns in protein sequences is extremely large, posing a formidable difficulty for realizing this goal. To deal with such difficulty, a well-developed tool in digital signal processing named digital Fourier transform (DFT) [1] was introduced. After being translated to a digital signal according to the hydrophobicity of each amino acid, a protein was analyzed by DFT within the frequency domain. A set of frequency spectrum parameters, thus obtained, were regarded as the factors to represent the sequence order effect. A significant improvement in prediction quality was observed by incorporating the frequency spectrum parameters with the conventional amino acid composition. One of the crucial merits of this approach is that many existing tools in mathematics and engineering can be easily applied in the predicting process. It is anticipated that digital signal processing may serve as a useful vehicle for many other protein science areas.

  15. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  16. Gene name ambiguity of eukaryotic nomenclatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifeng; Liu, Hongfang; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-15

    With more and more scientific literature published online, the effective management and reuse of this knowledge has become problematic. Natural language processing (NLP) may be a potential solution by extracting, structuring and organizing biomedical information in online literature in a timely manner. One essential task is to recognize and identify genomic entities in text. 'Recognition' can be accomplished using pattern matching and machine learning. But for 'identification' these techniques are not adequate. In order to identify genomic entities, NLP needs a comprehensive resource that specifies and classifies genomic entities as they occur in text and that associates them with normalized terms and also unique identifiers so that the extracted entities are well defined. Online organism databases are an excellent resource to create such a lexical resource. However, gene name ambiguity is a serious problem because it affects the appropriate identification of gene entities. In this paper, we explore the extent of the problem and suggest ways to address it. We obtained gene information from 21 organisms and quantified naming ambiguities within species, across species, with English words and with medical terms. When the case (of letters) was retained, official symbols displayed negligible intra-species ambiguity (0.02%) and modest ambiguities with general English words (0.57%) and medical terms (1.01%). In contrast, the across-species ambiguity was high (14.20%). The inclusion of gene synonyms increased intra-species ambiguity substantially and full names contributed greatly to gene-medical-term ambiguity. A comprehensive lexical resource that covers gene information for the 21 organisms was then created and used to identify gene names by using a straightforward string matching program to process 45,000 abstracts associated with the mouse model organism while ignoring case and gene names that were also English words. We found that 85.1% of correctly retrieved mouse

  17. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  18. Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programming Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Tie Jun; Qi, Mei Qing; Wan, Xiang; Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    As artificial structures, metamaterials are usually described by macroscopic effective medium parameters, which are named as "analog metamaterials". Here, we propose "digital metamaterials" in two steps. Firstly, we present "coding metamaterials" that are composed of only two kinds of unit cells with 0 and {\\pi} phase responses, which we name as "0" and "1" elements. By coding "0" and "1" elements with controlled sequences (i.e., 1-bit coding), we can manipulate electromagnetic (EM) waves and...

  19. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital...... of software-supported methods. This is so, in part, because of the complexity of the world and, in part, because digital media remain open to the projection of new epistemologies onto the functional architecture of these media. The third section discusses the heterogeneous character of digital materials...

  20. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 7. Spelling the names of plant varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the practice of transliteration of the Ukrainian cultivar names and rendering foreign names by means of the Ukrainian language, as well as special aspects of cultivar names spelling in special literature. Results. Cultivar names as a special category require preservation of primary graphics or sound type in the other language. This can be achieved by direct inclusion of the original name to the Ukrainian text or by practical transcribing, but not by transliteration or translation. Otherwise, Ukrainian names should be transliterated for inclusion to the texts in Latin characters. Transcription/transliteration in both directions is performed from the source language, though, as practice shows, in some Ukrainian publications the Russian is wrongly used as an intermediary language. Some national scientific publications ignore the recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that is not conducive to the success of scientific communication in the globalized world. Conclusions. The foreign names of plant varieties should be entered into the Ukrainian text keeping the original spelling or by means of practical transcription. The loan of foreign names is performed by transcribing directly from the source language; if the language doesn’t have the Latin alphabet, Latinized name transcription is acceptable. Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that concern graphic highlighting of the cultivar names in the text enclosing them in single quotation marks and writing each word of a cultivar name with a capital letter should necessarily be applied in the foreign-language publications and extended to the Ukrainian special literature, at least, in terms of the use of single quotation marks. Ukrainian names should be transliterated only in accordance with the regulations.

  1. Considering the issue of aligning Ukrainian plant names. Communication 3. Names for Ribes L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature and the system of genus Ribes s.l., application of indigenous and introduced plant names, from which such commercial small fruit crops as gooseberry, black and red currant have been formed, is considered. Scientifi c names based on Ukrainian generic name Porichky are streamlined. Ukrainian names for 64 taxa at the rank of species and variety were given. For hybrids nothotaxa ×Ribelaria Mezhenskyj, nothosubg. nov. (= subg. Ribes × subg. Grossularia and ×Сalocalyx Mezhenskyj, nothosect. nov. (= sect. Calobotrya × sect. Symplocalyx were defi ned.

  2. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  3. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  4. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  5. The names of physics: plasma, fission, photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-09-01

    The study of the origin and dissemination of names used in science is a useful but largely uncultivated historiographical method. What I call the etymological approach to the history of science is here illustrated by an examination of three important terms that originated in the 1920s and 1930s and are today as popular as ever. The names "plasma" and "fission" were introduced in physics in 1928 and 1939, respectively, in both cases by borrowing a name that was already firmly established in the biological sciences. The etymology of "photon" is different and more complex. Although it was quickly understood as just a synonym for Einstein's light quantum going back to 1905, when it was originally introduced it was with a different meaning. It can be traced back to 1916, when it was proposed as a unit for the illumination of the retina, and ten years later the name was revived in still another non-Einsteinian context. Apart from examining how the three words first entered physics, I also look at how the physics community initially responded to them.

  6. Hurricane names: A bunch of hot air?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that female-named hurricanes are deadlier because people do not take them seriously. However, this conclusion is based on a questionable statistical analysis of a narrowly defined data set. The reported relationship is not robust in that it is not confirmed by a straightforward analysis of more inclusive data or different data.

  7. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    evolutionary change, and the name sources of the Navy’s ships have not been immune to this change.”9 The July 2012 Navy report to Congress states that...Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with Gilt Star and 2 palms; Whereas during World War II, Clifton B. Cates led Marines at Guadalcanal, and

  8. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.6 Name checks. (a) Information contained in... special duty assignments, and security clearance procedures. Any information released must be restricted... agencies for counterintelligence purposes. (d) COPS MPRS is a database, which will contain all military...

  9. The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled. The scope of nomenclature is limited to common functional groups that are covered by undergraduate courses in colleges and universities. (Contains 1…

  10. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  11. Graph Convolutional Networks for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cetoli, A.; Bragaglia, S.; O'Harney, A. D.; Sloan, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of the dependency tree in a named entity recognizer upon using a set of GCN. We perform a comparison among different NER architectures and show that the grammar of a sentence positively influences the results. Experiments on the ontonotes dataset demonstrate consistent performance improvements, without requiring heavy feature engineering nor additional language-specific knowledge.

  12. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  13. Digital radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, H; Gerke, O; Rosendahl, K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New developments in processing of digital radiographs (DR), including multi-frequency processing (MFP), allow optimization of image quality and radiation dose. This is particularly promising in children as they are believed to be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults...... image processing parameters, a significant dose reduction is possible without significant loss of image quality........ OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the use of MFP software reduces the radiation dose without compromising quality at DR of the femur in 5-year-old-equivalent anthropomorphic and technical phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 110 images of an anthropomorphic phantom were imaged on a DR system (Canon DR...

  14. Digital pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  15. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  16. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  17. Applying Digital Sensor Technology: A Problem-Solving Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Paul; Knight, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an explosion in the number and range of new devices coming onto the technology market that use digital sensor technology to track aspects of human behaviour. In this article, we present and exemplify a three-stage model for the application of digital sensor technology in applied linguistics that we have developed, namely,…

  18. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Crous, Pedro W.; Kirk, Paul M.; Hawksworth, David L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D’souza, Melvina J.; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E. B.Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D.; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H. A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Bhat, D. Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G. Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Miller, Andrew N.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A.; Shivas, Roger S.; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E.; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H. C.; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data. PMID:27284275

  19. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes-2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Crous, Pedro W; Kirk, Paul M; Hawksworth, David L; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D'souza, Melvina J; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E B Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H A; Bahkali, Ali H; Bhat, D Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H C; Miller, Andrew N; Phillips, Alan J L; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A; Shivas, Roger S; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-11-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data.

  20. Action naming in anomic aphasic speakers : Effects of instrumentality and name relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a

  1. Purposeful naming: The case of beer halls named during both the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the reasons behind names given to beer halls from their inception in colonial Rhodesia to present day Zimbabwe. To achieve this goal, it analyses names of beer halls, beer outlets built in the former townships of colonial Rhodesia (now called high-density suburbs), and those built at growth points, ...

  2. Colour-Name versus Shape-Name Learning in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study designed to compare color-name with shape-name learning by three-year-old children in an experimentally controlled format. Results show that children learned color-label associates significantly more slowly than matched shape-label associates, and they committed more errors with colors than with shapes during learning. Provides a…

  3. Identifying and naming plant-pathogenic fungi: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Hawksworth, David L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Scientific names are crucial in communicating knowledge about fungi. In plant pathology, they link information regarding the biology, host range, distribution, and potential risk. Our understanding of fungal biodiversity and fungal systematics has undergone an exponential leap, incorporating genomics, web-based systems, and DNA data for rapid identification to link species to metadata. The impact of our ability to recognize hitherto unknown organisms on plant pathology and trade is enormous and continues to grow. Major challenges for phytomycology are intertwined with the Genera of Fungi project, which adds DNA barcodes to known biodiversity and corrects the application of old, established names via epi- or neotypification. Implementing the one fungus-one name system and linking names to validated type specimens, cultures, and reference sequences will provide the foundation on which the future of plant pathology and the communication of names of plant pathogens will rest.

  4. Digitizing the Seminar Paper. A graduate student perspective on how digital tools shape scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sarnacki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early twentieth century, Grand Rapids, Michigan addressed a major political scandal, which was the tipping point of municipal politics in Grand Rapids between politics rooted in personal connections and those centered on business-like administration. However, reform moved slowly, hindered by the social and spatial relationships of the élite. Using digital tools in a digital history seminar shaped my analysis of these personal and spatial relations. As a vital step in my research process, the construction of a digital project not only informed my written argument, but also fundamentally shaped it. It also reveals the importance of small scale digital research projects, made accessible through the use of open access tools, in the ultimate widespread adoption of the digital humanities.

  5. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  6. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all

  7. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  8. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  9. Clinical Psychopharmacology Update: What's in a Name? Confusion Prompts Change for Vortioxetine's Brand Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas J; Tobin, Mary L

    2016-09-01

    Similar names between two unrelated drugs have led the FDA to issue warnings about and now approve a name change for vortioxetine, which was branded as Brintellix® until recently. While the trade name had been screened prior to the product's launch, the FDA received numerous reports of prescribing and dispensing errors, specifically with regard to the anti-coagulant drug Brilinta® (ticagrelor). Starting 1 June 2016, vortioxetine will be marketed under the name Trintellix™ in an effort to reduce confusion. Clinicians are advised that while the name and National Drug Code number with this product will change, it will retain the same formulation, indication, and dosage information. To the extent possible, clinicians can and should take actions to identify and reduce potential medication errors in prescriptions, especially when using electronic records and e-prescription systems.

  10. Content Espresso: A Distributed Large File Sharing System for Digital Content Productions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANDO, Daisuke; TERAOKA, Fumio; KANEKO, Kunitake

    2017-01-01

    With rapid growth of producing high-resolution digital contents such as Full HD, 4K, and 8K movies, the demand for low cost and high throughput sharing of content files is increasing at digital content productions...

  11. Design and realization of a fast digital system for the protection of a linear accelerator; Conception et realisation d'un systeme numerique rapide pour la protection d'un accelerateur lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, A

    2004-07-01

    The new generation of light sources based on SASE Free-Electron-Lasers driven by LINACs operate with electron beams with high beam currents and duty cycles. This is especially true for the superconducting machines like TTF 2 and the X-RAY FEL, under construction or planning at DESY. Elaborate fast protections systems are required not only to protect the machine from electron beams hitting and destroying the vacuum chamber, but also to prevent the machine from running at high loss levels, dangerous for components like the FEL undulator. This document presents the different protection systems currently under construction for TTF 2. The very fast systems, based on transmission measurements and distributed loss detection monitors, are described in detail. This description includes the fast electronics to collect and to transmit the different interlock and status signals: analog to digital converters, DSP and FPGA, interfaces, toroid protection system (TPS) card. The implementation and validation (simulation and tests) of the TPS card at DESY is presented.

  12. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 5. Species names for pome fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyse the modern classification and nomenclature of species of pome fruit crops which varieties are listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine, and improve terminological system of the Ukrainian names of both species and garden crops. Results. Fruit cultivars and most apple clonal rootstocks belong to Malus pumila, and ornamental cultivars belong to Malus gloriosa. The most common scientific name of the cultivated apple, especially among horticulturists, is Malus domestica, although according to the principle of priority the name Malus pumila should have the advantage. As far as Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants has rejected the proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica, Malus pumila is correct name for the cultivated apple. The use of synonymic name Malus domestica should be avoided in both scientific and scientific-popular papers for stability of nomenclature. Pear cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine are presented by Pyrus communis, and pear rootstocks – by Cydonia oblonga. Fruit cultivars of the latter belong to separate fruit crop named quince. An apple-quince hybrid was registered as universal clonal rootstock for pome fruit crops. The State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine also contains nonconventional fruit crops such as Chaenomeles and hawthorn that consist of some species and nothospecies. Conclusions. In scientific publications one should stop the use of synonymic name Malus domestica in favour of the correct name for cultivated apple Malus pumila. Apple, pears and Chaenomeles cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine have a complex multispecies origin whereas quince, hawthorn and pear roostock cultivars systematically are monospecies. A universal roootstock of pome fruit crops is Cydolus, or apple-quince, that resulted

  13. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Their Name is Half-Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of the Soviet architecture of the late 1950s – 60s. The name of the article is “Their name is halfway”. It expresses the sense of all the processes occurring both in society and architecture during the Khrushchev Thaw. Developing the socalled Stalin’s Empire in the 1930-1950s, the masters of architecture had travelled only half the way. If the power had not abruptly stopped this movement, we would probably have a unique modern architecture dissimilar to the “international style”. The collapse of the Soviet Union stopped the evolution of architecture again: the unique features of the Soviet architecture of the 1960s ceased to develop. Architects were carried away with ironic games of postmodernism, which led them to deadlock.

  15. Semantic effects in single-word naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E; Patterson, K; Seidenberg, M S

    1995-09-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that, for lower frequency words, reading aloud is affected not only by spelling-sound typicality but also by a semantic variable, imageability. Participants were slower and more error prone when naming exception words with abstract meanings (e.g., scarce) than when naming either abstract regular words (e.g., scribe) or imageable exception words (e.g., soot). It is proposed that semantic representations of words have the largest impact on translating orthography to phonology when this translation process is slow or noisy (i.e., for low-frequency exceptions) and that words with rich semantic representations (i.e., high-imageability words) are most likely to benefit from this interaction.

  16. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate......This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  17. Vehicular Inter-Networking via Named Data

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Giulio; Pesavento, Davide; Wang, Lucas; Pau, Giovanni; Vuyyuru, Rama; Wakikawa, Ryuji; Zhang, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the Named Data Networking, a newly proposed Internet architecture, to networking vehicles on the run. Our initial design, dubbed V-NDN, illustrates NDN's promising potential in providing a unifying architecture that enables networking among all computing devices independent from whether they are connected through wired infrastructure, ad hoc, or intermittent DTN. This paper describes the prototype implementation of V-NDN and its preliminary performance assessment.

  18. The Simmel effect and babies’ names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Dydejczyk, A.; Kułakowski, K.

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of the Simmel effect are performed for agents in a scale-free social network. The social hierarchy of an agent is determined by the degree of his/her node. Particular features, once selected by a highly connected agent, become common in lower classes but soon fall out of fashion and become extinct. Numerical results reflect the dynamics of frequency of American babies’ names in 1880-2011.

  19. [Choosing the name in international adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Effenterre, Aude; Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sandra; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international adoption, the question is raised of the links which the adoptive parents may or may not maintain with the culture of the child's birth country. The name which the adoptive parents choose reflects this questioning. A study was carried out into this subject with parents and children in order to gain a better understanding of the feelings of belonging, filiation and affiliation in these situations.

  20. Biomedical Named Entity Recognition: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Basel Alshaikhdeeb; Kamsuriah Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER) is the task of identifying biomedical instances such as chemical compounds, genes, proteins, viruses, disorders, DNAs and RNAs. The key challenge behind BNER lies on the methods that would be used for extracting such entities. Most of the methods used for BNER were relying on Supervised Machine Learning (SML) techniques. In SML techniques, the features play an essential role in terms of improving the effectiveness of the recognition process. Features...

  1. Deep Active Learning for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yanyao; Yun, Hyokun; Lipton, Zachary C.; Kronrod, Yakov; Anandkumar, Animashree

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has yielded state-of-the-art performance on many natural language processing tasks including named entity recognition (NER). However, this typically requires large amounts of labeled data. In this work, we demonstrate that the amount of labeled training data can be drastically reduced when deep learning is combined with active learning. While active learning is sample-efficient, it can be computationally expensive since it requires iterative retraining. To speed this up, we intr...

  2. CAp 2017 challenge: Twitter Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Cédric; Partalas, Ioannis; Balikas, Georgios; Derbas, Nadia; Martin, Amélie; Reutenauer, Coralie; Segond, Frédérique; Amini, Massih-Reza

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the CAp 2017 challenge. The challenge concerns the problem of Named Entity Recognition (NER) for tweets written in French. We first present the data preparation steps we followed for constructing the dataset released in the framework of the challenge. We begin by demonstrating why NER for tweets is a challenging problem especially when the number of entities increases. We detail the annotation process and the necessary decisions we made. We provide statistics on the inter-...

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Modular Rapidly Manufactured SmallSat Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapidly fabricated, modular and integrated small satellite subsystems will be developed from digital fabrication workflows. The following are planned modular...

  4. Gender congruency effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-X; Matos, Rafael E; Segui, Juan

    2004-10-01

    The analysis of speech error corpora in various gender-marked languages has shown that noun substitutions tend to preserve grammatical gender. This result has been taken as an indication that grammatical gender could play a constraining role during the process of lexical selection. To gain insights on the status of grammatical gender in the speech production system, we discuss this hypothesis and we report three picture naming experiments. We attempted to observe gender-marked context effects in the course of error-free speech production. Participants named pictures shortly after processing a prime that was or was not gender marked and that was or was not congruent with the name of the picture. A clear congruency effect was observed, involving both facilitation in the gender congruent conditions and inhibition in gender incongruent conditions. Different interpretations of this effect and of previously reported gender context effects are discussed in the context of current models of speech production. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Could digital imaging be an alternative for digital colorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Alper; Yamanel, Kivanc; Gulsahi, Kamran; Bagis, Bora; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the colour parameters of composite and ceramic shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method with illuminants at different colour temperatures. Two different resin composite shade guides, namely Charisma (Heraeus Kulzer) and Premise (Kerr Corporation), and two different ceramic shade guides, Vita Lumin Vacuum (VITA Zahnfabrik) and Noritake (Noritake Co.), were evaluated at three different colour temperatures (2,700 K, 2,700-6,500 K, and 6500 K) of illuminants. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2 and C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc.). The data were analysed using two-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation. While mean L* values of both composite and ceramic shade guides were not affected from the colour temperature, L* values obtained with the colorimeter showed significantly lower values than those of the digital imaging (p 0.05). For both composite and ceramic shade guides, L* and b* values obtained from colorimeter and digital imaging method presented a high level of correlation. High-level correlations were also acquired for a* values in all shade guides except for the Charisma composite shade guide. Digital imaging method could be an alternative for the colorimeters unless the proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings and suitable illumination conditions could be supplied. However, variations in shade guides, especially for composites, may affect the correlation.

  6. The Mystery of the River Name Mezen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Kabinina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the name Mezen that refers to a large river in the north of the European part of Russia. The author critically reviews the earlier etymologies, in which the hydronym has been interpreted on the basis of the Ugric and Balto-Fennic-Sami data, and hypothesizes for Proto-Permic or Finno-Permic origins of the name as an alternative. According to this hypothesis, the name Mezen originates from an old lexical item related to the obsolete Komi-Zyrian mös and Udmurtian -mes (Permic *mεs with the general meaning of ‘source, spring, brook,’ which in toponymy stands for ‘river’ or ‘stream’. In evidence of the former toponymic productivity of this Permic word, the author provides multiple examples of hydronyms with the determinant -mVs to be found on the territory of the Republic of Komi and adjacent regions — the Russian North and the Perm Region (Vaimos, Kochmas, Madmas, Chermos, etc.. The author suggests that the lexical unit correlating with the Komi-Zyrian mös, Udmurtian -mes, and Common Permic *mεs was once part of a more complex term represented not only in the name Mezen, but also in its North Russian “counterparts,” Mezen’ga and Mezenda, as well as in substrate toponymy of the Komi Republic (Mozyn / Mozym = Russian Mezen; Mozimdіn, Mozimlyva, Mozimözin and in some substrate hydronyms of the modern Ob-Ugric areas (Khanty dialectal Mǒśaŋ = Russian Mozym, and Mоsəm = Nazym. Recognizing that ethnolinguistic attribution of the original lexical unit for these names seems problematic, the author is inclined to think that this is an old compound in which the final component, reconstructed as Common Permic *-εŋ, had the meaning of ‘river, stream’. Summing up all phonetic, morphological, semantic, and geographical evidence, the author concludes that the presently multilingual hydronyms of the MVsVn / MVsVm type most likely date back to the dialects of ancient “Permians,” still

  7. Adapting Digital Libraries to Continual Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Finch, Melinda; Ferebee, Michelle; Mackey, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe five investment streams (data storage infrastructure, knowledge management, data production control, data transport and security, and personnel skill mix) that need to be balanced against short-term operating demands in order to maximize the probability of long-term viability of a digital library. Because of the rapid pace of information technology change, a digital library cannot be a static institution. Rather, it has to become a flexible organization adapted to continuous evolution of its infrastructure.

  8. Digital imaging applications in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2003-03-01

    Digital imaging has progressed at a rapid rate and is likely to eventually replace chemical photography in most areas of professional and amateur digital image acquisition. In pathology, digital microscopy has implications beyond that of taking a photograph. The arguments for adopting this new medium are compelling, and given similar developments in other areas of pathology and radiologic imaging, acceptance of the digital medium should be viewed as a component of the technological evolution of the laboratory. A digital image may be stored, replicated, catalogued, employed for educational purposes, transmitted for further interpretation (telepathology), analyzed for salient features (medical vision/image analysis), or form part of a wider digital healthcare strategy. Despite advances in digital camera technology, good image acquisition still requires good microscope optics and the correct calibration of all system components, something which many neglect. The future of digital imaging in pathology is very promising and new applications in the fields of automated quantification and interpretation are likely to have profound long-term influence on the practice of anatomic pathology. This paper discusses the state of the art of digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

  9. The effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on confrontation naming performance: An examination of three naming tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Marceaux, Janice C; Galindo, Juliette; Sordahl, Jeffrey A; Highsmith, Jonathan M; O'Rourke, Justin J F; González, David Andrés; Critchfield, Edan A; McCoy, Karin J M

    2016-01-01

    Confrontation naming tests are a common neuropsychological method of assessing language and a critical diagnostic tool in identifying certain neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is limited literature examining the visual-perceptual demands of these tasks. This study investigated the effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on three confrontation naming tests, the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test, and Visual Naming Test (VNT) to elucidate the diverse cognitive functions underlying these tasks to assist with test selection procedures and increase diagnostic accuracy. A mixed clinical sample of 121 veterans were administered the BNT, NAB, VNT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (WAIS-IV) Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Multiple regression indicated that PRI accounted for 23%, 13%, and 15% of the variance in BNT, VNT, and NAB scores, respectively, but dropped out as a significant predictor once VCI was added. Follow-up bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that PRI had a significant indirect effect on naming performance after controlling education, primary language, and severity of cognitive impairment, as well as the mediating effect of general verbal abilities for the BNT (B = 0.13; 95% confidence interval, CI [.07, .20]), VNT (B = 0.01; 95% CI [.002, .03]), and NAB (B = 0.03; 95% CI [.01, .06]). Findings revealed a complex relationship between perceptual reasoning abilities and confrontation naming that is mediated by general verbal abilities. However, when verbal abilities were statistically controlled, perceptual reasoning abilities were found to have a significant indirect effect on performance across all three confrontation naming measures with the largest effect noted with the BNT relative to the VNT and NAB Naming Test.

  10. Fokus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    i det digitale domæne – udviklinger, der foregår hastigt og er gennemgribende, og som derfor kræver et nærmere blik på forholdet mellem kunsten og teknologien. Komponistens forståelse af sin metier udfordres – samtidig med at befæstede ideer om kunstværket møder modstand fra nye mediemæssige...... sammenhænge og fra forandrede distributionsformer. Dette betyder ændrede betingelser for både produktion og reception af kunstmusik og lydkunst. Med Digital tager vi udgangspunkt i fire komponisters meget forskellige bud på hvordan teknologien spiller en rolle i arbejdet. Juliana Hodkinson beskriver hvordan...

  11. Digital entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Richter, Chris; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    What's mine is yours. An increasing number of people are participating in sharing and exchanging information, knowledge, data and goods. As research addressing the so-called ‘sharing economy’ is still in its infancy, this article aims to shed light on it. To do this, a qualitative research approach...... comprising guided interviews with 14 companies from Germany, Austria and Switzerland provides detailed insights into different aspects of the sharing economy phenomenon. Our results make a direct contribution to sharing economy research, especially regarding the new business models of start-ups. Here, we...... find a clear difference between the relevance of economic and social orientation. The latter appears to be in higher demand among customers than entrepreneurs. The increasingly digitalized environment has led to a changed living situation characterized by urbanity, openness to new solutions, changed...

  12. Learning to Read in Spanish: Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Coding, and Rapid Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Amanda; Christo, Catherine; Shriberg, David

    2013-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, many respective reading processes have been delineated, and much is now known about reading acquisition in children. Most of this research has been completed using English-dominant subjects. As such, the literature focuses on an opaque orthography and aspects of learning to read in this context. In this study, predictors…

  13. Communicating mathematics in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, Jonathan; Rodrigues, Jose Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The digital era has dramatically changed the ways that researchers search, produce, publish, and disseminate their scientific work. These processes are still rapidly evolving due to improvements in information science, new achievements in computer science technologies, and initiatives such as DML and open access journals, digitization projects, scientific reference catalogs, and digital repositories. These changes have prompted many mathematicians to play an active part in the developments of the digital era, and have led mathematicians to promote and discuss new ideas with colleagues from other fields, such as technology developers and publishers. This book is a collection of contributions by key leaders in the field, offering the paradigms and mechanisms for producing, searching, and exploiting scientific and technical scholarship in mathematics in the digital era.

  14. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  15. Digits vs. Pictures: The Influence of Stimulus Type on Language Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli used in cued language switching studies typically consist of digits or pictures. However, the comparability between both stimulus types remains unclear. In the present study, we directly compared digit and picture naming in a German-English language switching experiment. Because digits represent a semantic group and contain many cognates,…

  16. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  17. Journal of digital information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    Contains articles, book reviews and lab reports dealing with digital libraries, hypermedia systems, intelligent agents, information management, interfaces to digital information, social consequences...

  18. Star names their lore and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Richard H

    1963-01-01

    Here is an unusual book for anyone who appreciates the beauty and wonder of the stars. Solidly based upon years of thorough research into astronomical writings and observations of the ancient Chinese, Arabic, Euphrates, Hellenic, and Roman civilizations, it is an informative, non-technical excursion into the vast heritage of folklore and history associated with the heavenly bodies. From his studies of the writings of scores of ancient astronomers, the author has come up with a fascinating history of the names various cultures have given the constellations, the literary and folkloristic uses

  19. ISO Abbreviations for Names of Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jarm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of abbreviations for the names of polymers is practical and economic in written and spoken language. Taking into consideration the several hundreds of polymers appearing in literature annually, some of them having complicated structures, it is almost impossible to derive a systematic and unique abbreviation to polymer structures. Therefore, IUPAC has taken over the well-established ISO list of abbreviated terms (about 120 items mainly selected on the basis of the scale of production. The presented ISO nomenclature is not necessarily in accord with IUPAC recommendations.

  20. Named data networking-based smart home

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Hassan Ahmed; Dongkyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Named data networking (NDN) treats content/data as a “first class citizen” of the network by giving it a “name”. This content “name” is used to retrieve any information, unlike in device-centric networks (i.e., the current Internet), which depend on physical IP addresses. Meanwhile, the smart home concept has been gaining attention in academia and industries; various low-cost embedded devices are considered that can sense, process, store, and communicate data autonomously. In this paper, we s...

  1. Pattern Mining for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvel, Damien; Antoine, Jean-Yves; Friburger, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Many evaluation campaigns have shown that knowledge-based and data-driven approaches remain equally competitive for Named Entity Recognition. Our re-search team has developed CasEN, a symbolic system based on finite state tran-ducers, which achieved promising results during the Ester2 French-speaking eval-uation campaign. Despite these encouraging results, manually extending the cov-erage of such a hand-crafted system is a difficult task. In this paper, we present a no...

  2. Neural Architectures for Named Entity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lample, Guillaume; Ballesteros, Miguel; Subramanian, Sandeep; Kawakami, Kazuya; Dyer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art named entity recognition systems/nrely heavily on hand-crafted features and/ndomain-specific knowledge in order to learn/neffectively from the small, supervised training/ncorpora that are available. In this paper, we/nintroduce two new neural architectures—one/nbased on bidirectional LSTMs and conditional/nrandom fields, and the other that constructs/nand labels segments using a transition-based/napproach inspired by shift-reduce parsers./nOur models rely on two sources of in...

  3. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  4. Specific relations between alphanumeric-naming speed and reading speeds of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Zijlstra, B.J H; van den Broeck, W

    The goals of this study are to investigate, at three elementary school grade levels, how word reading speed is related to rapidly naming series of numbers, letters, colors, and pictures, and to general processing speed (measured by nonnaming or visual matching tasks), and also to determine how these

  5. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  6. Are Phonological Processes Separate from the Processes Underlying Naming Speed in a Shallow Orthography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Escribano, Carmen; Katzir, Tami

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the contributions of phonological decoding skills and rapid naming to the prediction of reading skills in Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia. Method: Thirty-eight dyslexic readers with phonological decoding processing deficits (mean age 9;11) were assessed on reading speed, reading comprehension, word…

  7. What's in a Name? Sound Symbolism and Gender in First Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sidhu

    Full Text Available Although the arbitrariness of language has been considered one of its defining features, studies have demonstrated that certain phonemes tend to be associated with certain kinds of meaning. A well-known example is the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which nonwords like bouba are associated with round shapes while nonwords like kiki are associated with sharp shapes. These sound symbolic associations have thus far been limited to nonwords. Here we tested whether or not the Bouba/Kiki effect extends to existing lexical stimuli; in particular, real first names. We found that the roundness/sharpness of the phonemes in first names impacted whether the names were associated with round or sharp shapes in the form of character silhouettes (Experiments 1a and 1b. We also observed an association between femaleness and round shapes, and maleness and sharp shapes. We next investigated whether this association would extend to the features of language and found the proportion of round-sounding phonemes was related to name gender (Analysis of Category Norms. Finally, we investigated whether sound symbolic associations for first names would be observed for other abstract properties; in particular, personality traits (Experiment 2. We found that adjectives previously judged to be either descriptive of a figuratively 'round' or a 'sharp' personality were associated with names containing either round- or sharp-sounding phonemes, respectively. These results demonstrate that sound symbolic associations extend to existing lexical stimuli, providing a new example of non-arbitrary mappings between form and meaning.

  8. Undersea Feature Place Names as of June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are approximately 5100 undersea features with names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) currently in the Geographic Names Data Base...

  9. Research on the Ancient Mongolian Place-Name Along the Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashunwuritu; Baiyinbateer; Duoxi

    2016-06-01

    "Silk Road" is an ancient commercial trade channel connecting China with Asia, Africa and Europe and a major link of the economy, politics and culture of the East and West as well. In the 13th Century, with the westward expedition of Mongolian, the communication and integration of culture among different countries was accelerated, which led to many Mongolian place-names scattered in the countries along the silk-road, such as Khwarezmia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Kipchak, Persian, involving today's Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Serbia, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India and many other countries and regions. The place-name is a kind of important factor that can represent the changes of culture, economic in history. We analyzed the current place-names in different countries or regions with different language to find out ancient Mongolian place-names, and marked the names on the digital map. Through the changes and transition of the place-name, we explored the development of Mongolian language changes itself, Mongolian blends with other languages, and furtherly reveal information of culture exchange.

  10. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  11. Digital dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    I al vores iver efter at få presset nogle flere digitale dimser ind i skolen, er vi i fare for at glemme hvad det er vi skal med disse dimser. Der er store forventninger til at de kan gøre det lettere at være lærer (og dermed billigere), og det kan det måske. Men der er jo også et dannelsesspørgs......I al vores iver efter at få presset nogle flere digitale dimser ind i skolen, er vi i fare for at glemme hvad det er vi skal med disse dimser. Der er store forventninger til at de kan gøre det lettere at være lærer (og dermed billigere), og det kan det måske. Men der er jo også et...... dannelsesspørgsmål knyttet til it. Hvad er egentlig digital dannelse? Og hvad betyder det for danskfaget?...

  12. Digital produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen sætter fokus på digital produktion, som er en stærk læringsform, der faciliterer elevernes læreprocesser og kvalificerer elevernes faglige læringsresultater. Det sker når lærerne udarbejder didaktiske rammedesign, hvor eleverne arbejder selvstændigt inden for dette rammedesign, og hvor mål og...... procesevaluering stilladserer elevernes faglige proces. I digitale produktionsprocesser arbejder eleverne iterativt, de udvikler ejerskab til produktionen og fastholder selv deres læreprocesser. It’s multimodalitet, elevernes kollaborative tilgange, videndeling mellem eleverne og elevernes uformelle lege- og...... elevernes digitale produktion er lærernes didaktiske rammesætning og stilladserende tilgange. Her lægger lærerne op til, at eleverne som didaktiske designere i relation til rammesætningen skal organisere og planlægge deres læreprocesser, inddrages i målsætning, evaluering og valg af digitale ressourcer...

  13. Digital Copies and Digital Museums in a Digital Cultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Marius Hylland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how a digital turn and digital copies have influenced ideas, roles and authorities within a national museum sector. It asks whether digital mu-seums and their digital reproductions expand and/or challenge a traditional cul-tural policy. Two specific cases are highlighted to inform the discussion on these questions - the Norwegian digital museum platform DigitaltMuseum and Google Art Project. The article argues that there is a certain epochalism at play when the impact of a digital turn is analysed. At the same time, some clear major changes are taking place, even if their impact on cultural policies might be less than expec-ted. I propose that one of the changes is the replacing of authenticity with accessi-bility as the primary legitimating value of museum objects.

  14. Digital platforms as enablers for digital transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mokter; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    transformation is crucial. This study aims at exploring how organizations are driven towards transformation in various ways to embrace digital platforms for ideas, technologies, and knowledge. It shows the opportunities and challenges digital platforms bring in organizations. It also highlights underlying......Digital platforms offer new ways for organizations to collaborate with the external environment for ideas, technologies, and knowledge. They provide new possibilities and competence but they also bring new challenges for organizations. Understanding the role of these platforms in digital...... mechanisms and potential outcomes of various digital platforms. The contribution of the submission is valuable for scholars to understand and further explore this area. It provides insight for practitioners to capture value through digital platforms and accelerate the pace of organizations’ digital...

  15. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  16. Computer Security: in the name of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This summer, the American/Canadian dating website Ashley Madison was successfully compromised by a group of hackers (see here) who subsequently published tons of confidential information: addresses, dates of birth, e-mail addresses, ethnicities, genders, names, passwords, payment histories, phone numbers, security questions, sexual preferences, usernames and website activity.   Initially, these attackers blackmailed Ashley Madison and requested that the service be shut down. Later, however, they just made their stolen data public on the Internet. More than 30 million unique e-mail addresses – a hallelujah for miscreants. What can they do with this data? One possibility is blackmailing the people whose e-mail addresses were exposed by threatening to tell their spouses (“Pay me X bitcoins or I will tell your spouse that you are looking for a date!”). Another is targeting those people who have registered with their company e-...

  17. Forgotten names: herpetologist Boris Vladimirovich Pestinskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlin Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boris Pestinskiy was the herpetologist whose name, unfortunately, is lost in history. We decided to restore justice, and in this article we describe the life of this remarkable person. He was really engaged both in painting and in herpetology. After graduating from the Academy of Arts in Leningrad he wrote mainly the portraits of his contemporaries, illustrated magazines, taught children to draw. Some of his paintings were placed in the Russian Museum. He also studied reptiles. He was devoted to Middle Asia and spent the main part of his life in Tashkent. In Tashkent’s zoo he organized the department of reptiles and on the base of it the first in Middle Asia serpentarium. There poison was regularly taken from venomous snakes. Boris studied snakes’ biology, methods of their capture, conditions of their keeping in captivity, organization of the work of the serpentarium. His students were the young men who later became prominent Russian biologists.

  18. The Chartherm process, what's in the name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, L

    2009-05-01

    Earlier research has identified the Chartherm process (Thermya, France) as a candidate for the best available technology to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. This paper presents the working principle, the characteristics and the current state-of-knowledge related to the process, illustrating clearly the differences with pyrolysis and carbonisation processes. To emphasise the specific nature of the process, it has been given its own name 'chartherisation'. The avoidance of tar and dioxin release, the role of the solid matrix in the metal behaviour and the separation process are described. Furthermore, the possible benefits of working at elevated pressure are discussed, based on the experience with charcoal production from coal and biomass. This paper shows that more fundamental research is needed to understand and model all mechanisms contributing to the characteristic nature of chartherisation, in order to control the dynamic behaviour and tune the operating conditions in the reactor on the quality of the products requested.

  19. A no-name tuberculosis tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa; Garrity, Kelli; Hathcock, A Leroy; Crowder, David; Jackson, Robert; Taylor, Zachary

    2003-10-01

    Foreign-born persons from countries where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic make up a significant percentage of poultry industry workers in Delaware, a leading poultry-producing state. Many of these workers enter the United States without documentation and assume multiple identities, making it difficult for public health staff to investigate TB contacts who work in the poultry plants. The Sussex County Health Unit of the Delaware Division of Public Health developed a no-name TB tracking system to facilitate identification and treatment of poultry plant workers with TB infection and disease in a high-risk population whose members assume one or more aliases. Completion rates for treatment of latent TB infection in this group increased from 48% to 64% 2 years after the program's implementation.

  20. Named data networking-based smart home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Named data networking (NDN treats content/data as a “first class citizen” of the network by giving it a “name”. This content “name” is used to retrieve any information, unlike in device-centric networks (i.e., the current Internet, which depend on physical IP addresses. Meanwhile, the smart home concept has been gaining attention in academia and industries; various low-cost embedded devices are considered that can sense, process, store, and communicate data autonomously. In this paper, we study NDN in the context of smart-home communications, discuss the preliminary evaluations, and describe the future challenges of applying NDN in smart-home applications.

  1. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Guest

    Full Text Available Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink, yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  2. H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

  3. Intrusive Rock Database for the Digital Geologic Map of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Ludington, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Digital geologic maps offer the promise of rapid and powerful answers to geologic questions using Geographic Information System software (GIS). Using modern GIS and database methods, a specialized derivative map can be easily prepared. An important limitation can be shortcomings in the information provided in the database associated with the digital map, a database which is often based on the legend of the original map. The purpose of this report is to show how the compilation of additional information can, when prepared as a database that can be used with the digital map, be used to create some types of derivative maps that are not possible with the original digital map and database. This Open-file Report consists of computer files with information about intrusive rocks in Utah that can be linked to the Digital Geologic Map of Utah (Hintze et al., 2000), an explanation of how to link the databases and map, and a list of references for the databases. The digital map, which represents the 1:500,000-scale Geologic Map of Utah (Hintze, 1980), can be obtained from the Utah Geological Survey (Map 179DM). Each polygon in the map has a unique identification number. We selected the polygons identified on the geologic map as intrusive rock, and constructed a database (UT_PLUT.xls) that classifies the polygons into plutonic map units (see tables). These plutonic map units are the key information that is used to relate the compiled information to the polygons on the map. The map includes a few polygons that were coded as intrusive on the state map but are largely volcanic rock; in these cases we note the volcanic rock names (rhyolite and latite) as used in the original sources Some polygons identified on the digital state map as intrusive rock were misidentified; these polygons are noted in a separate table of the database, along with some information about their true character. Fields may be empty because of lack of information from references used or difficulty in finding

  4. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  5. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  6. Danailova_Denitsa_MSc thesis_Digital Maturity.pdf

    OpenAIRE

    Danailova, Denitsa

    2017-01-01

    This thesis adopts recognized antecedents of organizational change in rapid environments such as dynamic capabilities and executive sponsorship to test their validity in the new context of digital transformation.

  7. Digital tissue and what it may reveal about the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Josh L; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2017-10-30

    Imaging as a means of scientific data storage has evolved rapidly over the past century from hand drawings, to photography, to digital images. Only recently can sufficiently large datasets be acquired, stored, and processed such that tissue digitization can actually reveal more than direct observation of tissue. One field where this transformation is occurring is connectomics: the mapping of neural connections in large volumes of digitized brain tissue.

  8. The application of digital technology in community health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the internet and information technologies, coupled with a variety of digital media, the digital technology has become a conventional method of health education for the general public and has the potential to influence health behaviors. Our aim was to conduct a review of how digital technology projects have been used in the health education and health promotion, as well as the disadvantages and barriers in the process.

  9. What's in a name? Group fitness class names and women's reasons for exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theresa C; Miller, Bridget M; Adams, Bailey M

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of intrinsic exercise motivation are well recognized, yet extrinsically focused group-fitness class names/descriptions dominate the fitness industry. To explore the impact of how fitness classes are marketed, women (N = 389) were asked to indicate their preference for either intrinsically or extrinsically focused fitness classes based on title/description. Participants who favored intrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to report greater interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and greater effort and report exercising for health/fitness-related reasons. Those favoring extrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to experience tension/pressure when exercising and report exercising for appearance/weight-related reasons. The results demonstrate the importance of wording when marketing fitness classes.

  10. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  11. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  12. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, M

    2001-03-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion.

  13. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  14. Senior citizens: Digital immigrants in their own country?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.

    2012-01-01

    Populations are aging at a rapid pace in the majority of western countries. At the same time, these countries are increasingly becoming more digitalized and information is supplied to a growing extent in digital form. To what extent is there an actual problem for senior citizens who are looking for

  15. Enhancing Literacy and Curriculum Using Digitalized Collections and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbill, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Digitized collections offer a wealth of resources for improving a wide variety of literacies that promote critical thinking skills, instruction and curriculum enhancements. Digitized collections and processes are increasing rapidly in their development and availability and as such introduce issues such as public access, copyright laws, limitations…

  16. Digital Public Relations: E-Marketing's Big Secret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Online programs and courses are established presences in higher education, and so are processes such as online registration. Prospective students routinely turn to the web for information to help them decide on the most appropriate programs for their situation. Digital public relations (digital PR) is rapidly becoming one of the cornerstones of an…

  17. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  18. Online social networking skills: The social affordances approach to digital inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Yuli Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a theoretical framework for examining implications of digital media uses for digital inequality in the domain of social interaction. First, by drawing on the social affordances perspective, this paper seeks to establish an additional dimension of digital skills, namely, online social networking skills. Furthermore, to explore the implications of interactional ICT use for digital inequality, this paper theorizes how people’s online social networking skills may co...

  19. 19 CFR 145.55 - Trademarks, trade names, and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trademarks, trade names, and copyrights. 145.55... Trademarks, trade names, and copyrights. Merchandise bearing a trademark or trade name entitled to protection against imports, merchandise bearing a mark or name that copies or simulates such a trademark or trade...

  20. Is visual attention automatically attracted to one's own name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, C; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Houmann, K J

    1997-01-01

    Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (tar......, visual attention was not automatically attracted by the subject's own name....

  1. Morphology and semantics of proper names in Northern Sotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to present the identifying features of the Northern Sotho proper name as a subcategory of the broader word category N (noun). The article analyses the identifying morphological features and semantic interpretations of two types of the proper name, namely, personal and place names in ...

  2. Changes to the scientific and common names of southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additions and changes to the scientific and common names of southern African freshwater fishes made since 1993, are recorded and explained. Nineteen new scientific names are listed including five new species, three genus-name changes, three species-name changes and four new records from the area.

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Adopting English Names in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Yen; Ke, I-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of English names in Taiwan through questionnaires and interviews with parents of junior high school students. In total, 564 parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their adoption of an English name, reasons for needing an English name, and their perspectives about their child's English name. We interviewed…

  4. Gender and meaning in Igbo romantic pet names | Anyanwu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaning in names is a cultural matter. Igbo names are mostly symbolic or metaphoric in meaning. Romantic pet names, by their nature, have a gender bias in most cultures of the world, as also in the Igbo language and culture, depending on the situation of usage. Igbo names have gender markers and this, to some extent, ...

  5. An Exploratory Study Of The Meaning And Perception Of Names ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, personal names particularly indigenous names are not arbitrarily given, they bear significant connotative meanings, reflecting the circumstance surrounding the birth of the bearer and the belief and philosophy of the name giver. The significance placed on names gives it immense psychological undertones.

  6. Revisiting the Judicially Changed Personal Names in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents some sociolinguistic observations on the impact of changing political, economic and sociocultural factors on names and naming practices in different administrative regions of Ethiopia. The approach is contrastive by which we compare judicially-changed personal names during three periods, namely ...

  7. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  8. Age-related deficits in auditory confrontation naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Choi, Hyun

    2010-09-01

    The naming of manipulable objects in older and younger adults was evaluated across auditory, visual, and multisensory conditions. Older adults were less accurate and slower in naming across conditions, and all subjects were more impaired and slower to name action sounds than pictures or audiovisual combinations. Moreover, there was a sensory by age group interaction, revealing lower accuracy and increased latencies in auditory naming for older adults unrelated to hearing insensitivity but modest improvement to multisensory cues. These findings support age-related deficits in object action naming and suggest that auditory confrontation naming may be more sensitive than visual naming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. LINGUOCREATIVITY IN THE ASPECT OF THE NAMING EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana P. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    The article features the results of the linguocreative activity on coining trademarks and service marks, company names, trade names as well as urbanonyms in the aspect of the naming examination — a new type of the linguistic examination which is only taking shape at the interface between onomastics, linguistics and jurisprudence. The analysis of the trade marks’ data in the Federal Institute of Industrial Property shows that the names originality is achieved due to creative naming units based...

  10. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials.

  11. Contramine - Reciting names (Reciting the names of the victims of history)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, E

    2006-01-01

    Because it ostentatiously refrains from giving meaning and yet somehow is satisfactory, the recent commemorative strategy of reciting the names of the victims of history does not square well with the (meaning-oriented, representationalist) paradigm of modern historiography. In this essay my thesis

  12. Orthographic Characteristics Speed Hindi Word Naming but Slow Urdu Naming: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu Biliterates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Two primed naming experiments tested the orthographic depth hypothesis in skilled biliterate readers of Hindi and Urdu. These languages are very similar on the spoken level but differ greatly in script; Hindi is a highly transparent script, whereas Urdu is more opaque. It was accordingly hypothesized that form-based priming would be greater for…

  13. Re-naming D Double Prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  14. Paediatrics: the etymology of a name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2011-08-01

    Within the history of paediatrics is the history of the name used to describe it. The etymology of the word 'paediatrics' dates from its first written use, recorded as 'pädiatrik' in the German literature and as 'paediatric', later 'pediatric' in the USA, both first in 1850. Professor Robley Dunglison (1788-1869), the British and American medical lexicographer, first defined 'paediatria' as 'the treatment of the diseases of children' in 1855. 'Pediatric medicine' was promoted as a specialty in the USA in 1880. The oldest monumental inscription defining the specialty of 'paediatrics' in the UK is to be found on a plaque added (in 1950) to the memorial to Dr George Armstrong (1719-1789), a founder of the specialty of paediatrics, in Castleton Cemetery, Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. 'Paediatrics' and 'child health', with subtle semantic distinctions, had become well established in the English-speaking world by the middle of the 20th century. This paper presents an interpretative chronology of the etymology of the descriptors of the specialty that enjoins all who care for children.

  15. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  16. Sarcocystinae: nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J K; Heydorn, A O; Mehlhorn, H; Rommel, M

    1979-02-28

    Examination of the original descriptions of the species of Sarcocystis in cattle, sheep, and swine, and of isosporid oocysts shed sporulated by dogs, cats, man, and other carnivores, has shown that it is not possible in most instances to identify unambiguously recently recognized taxa. The original descriptions are insufficient, and because no type specimens exist, could apply to two or more of the presently recognized taxa. We consider the following nomina dubia: Sarcocystis hirsuta S. miescheriana S. tenella S. cruzi S. bertrami Isospora bigemina (S. bigemina) I. hominis (S. hominis) I. buteonis (Frenkelia buteonis) Because the former type species, Sarcocystis miescheriana, is an indeterminate nomen dubium, we are proposing S. muris as the new type species. Historically, it was the first species described clearly and unambiguously even in the light of present knowledge, and the stages of its life cycle are probably completely known; it was the second species to be named. Old and recent descriptions are reviewed, and definitions are proposed for the following taxa: S. bovifelis S. bovicanis S. bovihominis S. ovifelis S. ovicanis S. muris (type species) S. suihominis S. suicanis S. equicanis Frenkelia microti F. glareoli for which neotypes will be prepared and deposited with designated institutions and curators. A new subfamily, Cystoisosporinae, is created.

  17. Semantic and associative priming in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F X; Segui, J; Ferrand, L

    2000-08-01

    We report four picture-naming experiments in which the pictures were preceded by visually presented word primes. The primes could either be semantically related to the picture (e.g., "boat"--TRAIN: co-ordinate pairs) or associatively related (e.g., "nest"--BIRD: associated pairs). Performance under these conditions was always compared to performance under unrelated conditions (e.g., "flower"--CAT). In order to distinguish clearly the first two kinds of prime, we chose our materials so that (a) the words in the co-ordinate pairs were not verbally associated, and (b) the associate pairs were not co-ordinates. Results show that the two related conditions behaved in different ways depending on the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) separating word and picture appearance, but not on how long the primes were presented. When presented with a brief SOA (114 ms, Experiment 1), the co-ordinate primes produced an interference effect, but the associated primes did not differ significantly from the unrelated primes. Conversely, with a longer SOA (234 ms, Experiment 2) the co-ordinate primes produced no effect, whereas a significant facilitation effect was observed for associated primes, independent of the duration of presentation of the primes. This difference is interpreted in the context of current models of speech production as an argument for the existence, at an automatic processing level, of two distinguishable kinds of meaning relatedness.

  18. Reactive arthritis--the appropriate name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynan, Yoav; Rimar, Doron

    2008-04-01

    Reiter's syndrome is an eponym used to denote the triad of arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. This syndrome is named after Hans Conrad Julius Reiter, who was involved in the activities of the Nazi Racial Hygiene Program related to involuntary sterilization, euthanasia and criminal research projects. Reiter defamed the entire medical profession and it was therefore suggested that the term Reiter's syndrome be changed to reactive arthritis. We undertook to investigate the use of the eponym Reiter syndrome in medical literature, medical schools in Israel and medical textbooks, compared to the term reactive arthritis, by searching Medline between the years 2003 and 2007, 14 current medical textbooks, curricula of the four medical schools in Israel, and computerized patient file systems in Israel. We found a decline in the use of the eponym in articles published between 2003 (18%) and 2007 (9%); however, most textbooks (13/14) still use it. Two of the four medical schools in Israel continue to use the eponym. The eponym appears in the computerized patient files of all four healthcare providers in Israel. We hold that the continued use of the eponym Reiter syndrome in medical textbooks, medical schools and computerized patients files in Israel is honoring an abomination and is inconsistent with medical principles. Awareness is still lacking and we suggest deleting the Reiter syndrome eponym from use, and replacing it with the more appropriate term--reactive arthritis.

  19. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  20. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  1. Digital Parenting and Changing Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl KABAKÇI YURDAKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies are developing rapidly. Developing technologies are integrated in many fields of life. This situation facilitated almost all fields of life. Owing to integration process, children’s technology use and adaption is easy compare to their parents. But technology use and adaption brings several disadvantages for children. Computer and the Internet have been used nearly all home in about last five years. Parents who were worried about their children when they played outside are worried about their children when they are on net at home. Due to these developments, parenting notion has gain new different dimensions and parenting roles are changed. Parents should now be digital parent, the Internet Parent or online parent. In this paper Digital Parenting is examined and described in additon to thisdigital parenting roles are determined. Based on these roles recommendations are presented for future studies and practices

  2. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  3. Pricing and Applications of Digital Installment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Ciurlia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For its theoretical interest and strong impact on financial markets, option valuation is considered one of the cornerstones of contemporary mathematical finance. This paper specifically studies the valuation of exotic options with digital payoff and flexible payment plan. By means of the Incomplete Fourier Transform, the pricing problem is solved in order to find integral representations of the upfront price for European call and put options. Several applications in the areas of corporate finance, insurance, and real options are discussed. Finally, a new type of digital derivative named supercash option is introduced and some payment schemes are also presented.

  4. Digital signal processor fundamentals and system design

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) have been used in accelerator systems for more than fifteen years and have largely contributed to the evolution towards digital technology of many accelerator systems, such as machine protection, diagnostics and control of beams, power supply and motors. This paper aims at familiarising the reader with DSP fundamentals, namely DSP characteristics and processing development. Several DSP examples are given, in particular on Texas Instruments DSPs, as they are used in the DSP laboratory companion of the lectures this paper is based upon. The typical system design flow is described; common difficulties, problems and choices faced by DSP developers are outlined; and hints are given on the best solution.

  5. Evolving Digital Publishing Opportunities across Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawishler, Gail E.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors report since the early 1980s, the profession has seen plenty of changes in the arena of digital scholarly publishing: during this time, while the specific challenges have seldom remained the same, the presence and the pressures of rapid technological change endure. In fact, as an editorial team that has, in part,…

  6. Teacher Development in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbas, Rachida; El Shaban, Abir

    2013-01-01

    Within the rapid changes in communication techniques, culture, pedagogy, and developments in knowledge, it is vital that educators are familiar with new educational changes, mainly those changes which are connected to technology. Change can be accompanied by fear, and thus some teachers might resist changing (Fullan, 2006). In the digital age,…

  7. A digital future for the history of psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the role that digital approaches to the history of psychology are likely to play in the near future. A tentative hierarchy of digital methods is proposed. A few examples are briefly described: a digital repository, a simple visualization using ready-made online database and tools, and more complex visualizations requiring the assembly of the database and, possibly, the analytic tools by the researcher. The relationship of digital history to the old "New Economic History" (Cliometrics) is considered. The question of whether digital history and traditional history need be at odds or, instead, might complement each other is woven throughout. The rapidly expanding territory of digital humanistic research outside of psychology is briefly discussed. Finally, the challenging current employment trends in history and the humanities more broadly are considered, along with the role that digital skills might play in mitigating those factors for prospective academic workers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Digital data recording and interpretational standards in mummy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Ronald G

    2017-12-01

    Beginning during the late19th century, paleoimaging has played an ever-expanding role in mummy science. Increasingly during the 21st century, digital radiographic data collected through imaging efforts have become significant. The rapid influx of imaging data raises questions regarding standardized approaches to both acquisition and interpretation. Reports using digital data presented without contextual considerations commonly lead to interpretational errors. Digital data recording and interpretation require rigorous methodology and standards in order to achieve reproducibility, accuracy and minimization of inter- and intra-observer error. Researchers applying paleoimaging methods in bioarchaeological research must understand the significant limitations inherent in data collection and interpretation from various digital data recording methods. Currently, vast amounts of digital data are being archived, allowing greater potential for hypothesis-based research and informed diagnosis by consensus. Digital databases hold great potential in preparing both radiologists and bioarchaeologists in the appropriate application and interpretation of digital data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Professional Ethics for Digital Age Psychiatry: Boundaries, Privacy, and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James E; Harland, Jonathan Clark

    2017-09-01

    Internet and social media use continue to expand rapidly. Many patients and psychiatrists are bringing digital technologies into the treatment process, but relatively little attention has been paid to the ethical challenges in doing this. This review presents ethical guidelines for psychiatry in the digital age. Surveys demonstrate that patients are eager to make digital technologies part of their treatment. Substantial numbers search for professional and personal information about their therapists. Attitudes among psychiatrists about using digital technologies with patients range from dread to enthusiastic adoption. Digital technologies create four major ethical challenges for psychiatry: managing clinical boundaries; maintaining privacy and confidentiality; establishing realistic expectations regarding digital communications; and upholding professional ideals. Traditional ethical expectations are valid for the evolving digital arena, but guidance must be adapted for actual application in practice.

  10. Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia data and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...

  11. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus, and a famous person’s name (i.e., Yao Ming. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no significant differences in reaction time or accuracy among the names. However, the ERP data showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes elicited by the self-name and religious leader name were larger than those elicited by the famous name. Furthermore, the self-name also elicited a larger P300 amplitude than the religious leader name did. These results suggested that both the self-name and the religious leader name were processed preferentially due to their important social value for the self as compared to a generally famous name. Importantly, the dissociation between the self-name and the religious leader name was observed at a high-order cognitive stage, which might be attributed to their different roles in one’s self-concept.

  12. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  13. Strategi Preservasi Digital di Perpustakaan UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrifah Musrifah

    2017-06-01

    Preservation activities increasingly need special attention. So to speak, in the digital environmen, is an absolute preservation  activities, especially given the growth of digital products very rapidly, and the use of computers in society is increasingly widespread. In this context, the preservation of all types, including digital preservation in libraries, are activities that are planned and managed to ensure that an object (collection digital can continue to be used and accessed as long possible. This is what lies behind the writer to reveal the strategy of digital preservation in the library of UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta. As this research aims to determine the general digital preservation strategy and the challenges faced in conducting digital preservation in the library of UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta. Based on the results of this research concluded that, digital preservation strategy done of technology preservation strategy, the strategy of  backing up, and re-format migration strategies, as well as refreshment strategy. The challenges faced in implementing digital preservation, that is information in digital form is difficult to survive in the long time, the files are preserved to virus attacks and hackers, file corrupted digital collection, and; digital collection of material is lost suddenly and without a trace.

  14. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  15. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  16. Thick Description beyond the Digital Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix Beyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The arrival and rapid spread of digital media can help the humanities better discern general patterns in human societies and cultures, and single out instances or moments which need an in-depth analysis. However, the process of digitization also poses certain threats to the humanities: it introduces new and possibly distorting filters between ourselves and our object of research, it can make us blind to the social, political and cultural situatedness of the sources, and it can cause us to forget that certain aspects of human life are simply too complex to be digitally understood. Briefly elaborating on the case of parliamentary irony in Belgian history, I try to demonstrate the need to combine “flat” digital searches with multilayered hermeneutic approaches based on traditional philological research.

  17. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  18. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  19. Experience with digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Korzhenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital techniques in mammography has become a last step for completing the process of digitization in diagnostic imaging. It is assumed that such a spatial decision will be required for digital mammography, as well as for high-resolution intensifying screen-film systems used in conventional mammography and that the digital techniques will be limited by the digitizer pixel size on detecting minor structures, such as microcalcifications. The introduction of digital technologies in mammography involves a tight control over an image and assures its high quality.

  20. Logic of the digital

    CERN Document Server

    Evens, Aden

    2015-01-01

    Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo