WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid decision making

  1. Impulsivity and rapid decision-making for reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eBurnett Heyes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is a feature of many brain disorders. Although often defined as the predisposition to act with an inadequate degree of deliberation, forethought or control, it has proven difficult to measure. This may in part be because, increasingly, impulsivity is recognized as a multifaceted construct, with impulsive decisions potentially arising due to a number of underlying mechanisms. Indeed, in certain contexts, a ‘functional’ degree of impulsivity may promote effective, motivated behavior in healthy participants. Although many tasks have been developed to study impulsivity, few examine decisions made rapidly, for time-sensitive rewards: In this context, a degree of impulsivity may be adaptive. In the current study we examine behavior in 59 adults on a manual ‘Traffic Light’ task which requires participants to take risks under time pressure, if they are to maximize reward. We show that behavioral variables that index rapid anticipatory responding in this paradigm are correlated with a specific self-report measure of impulsivity: ‘lack of premeditation’ on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Participants who scored more highly on this subscale performed better on the task. Moreover, anticipatory behavior reduced significantly with age (18-79 years, an effect that continued to be upheld after correction for potential age differences in the ability to judge the timing of responses. Based on these findings, we argue that the Traffic Light task provides a parametric method to study a ‘functional’ aspect of impulsivity in health and disease: namely, rapid decision-making in pursuit of risky, time-sensitive rewards.

  2. Augmented cognition tool for rapid military decision making.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Verzi, Stephen J.; Dubicka, Irene; Vineyard, Craig Michael

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the laboratory directed research and development work to model relevant areas of the brain that associate multi-modal information for long-term storage for the purpose of creating a more effective, and more automated, association mechanism to support rapid decision making. Using the biology and functionality of the hippocampus as an analogy or inspiration, we have developed an artificial neural network architecture to associate k-tuples (paired associates) of multimodal input records. The architecture is composed of coupled unimodal self-organizing neural modules that learn generalizations of unimodal components of the input record. Cross modal associations, stored as a higher-order tensor, are learned incrementally as these generalizations form. Graph algorithms are then applied to the tensor to extract multi-modal association networks formed during learning. Doing so yields a novel approach to data mining for knowledge discovery. This report describes the neurobiological inspiration, architecture, and operational characteristics of our model, and also provides a real world terrorist network example to illustrate the model's functionality.

  3. Rapid Response to Decision Making for Complex Issues - How Technologies of Cooperation Can Help

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saveri, Andrea; Vian, Kathi; Rheingold, Howard

    2005-01-01

    .... A new capacity for rapid, ad hoc, and distributed decision making is emerging from the intersection of technologies of cooperation and new knowledge about the nature of cooperation and cooperative strategies...

  4. A taxonomy of rapid reviews links report types and methods to specific decision-making contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, Lisa; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Kato, Elisabeth; Anderson, Johanna; Belinson, Suzanne; Berliner, Elise; Dryden, Donna M; Featherstone, Robin; Mitchell, Matthew D; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Noorani, Hussein; Paynter, Robin; Robinson, Karen A; Schoelles, Karen; Umscheid, Craig A; Whitlock, Evelyn

    2015-12-01

    Describe characteristics of rapid reviews and examine the impact of methodological variations on their reliability and validity. We conducted a literature review and interviews with organizations that produce rapid reviews or related products to identify methods, guidance, empiric evidence, and current practices. We identified 36 rapid products from 20 organizations (production time, 5 minutes to 8 months). Methods differed from systematic reviews at all stages. As time frames increased, methods became more rigorous; however, restrictions on database searching, inclusion criteria, data extracted, and independent dual review remained. We categorized rapid products based on extent of synthesis. "Inventories" list what evidence is available. "Rapid responses" present best available evidence with no formal synthesis. "Rapid reviews" synthesize the quality of and findings from the evidence. "Automated approaches" generate meta-analyses in response to user-defined queries. Rapid products rely on a close relationship with end users and support specific decisions in an identified time frame. Limited empiric evidence exists comparing rapid and systematic reviews. Rapid products have tremendous methodological variation; categorization based on time frame or type of synthesis reveals patterns. The similarity across rapid products lies in the close relationship with the end user to meet time-sensitive decision-making needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Response time distributions in rapid chess: A large-scale decision making experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sigman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: 1 Response time (RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, 2 RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  6. Tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, V; Belojevic, G; Pavlovic, N

    2017-05-01

    To propose a simple and effective tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood. Virtual testing of a tool in a real event. A four-component tool was applied to build an alternative scenario of the catastrophic river flood in Obrenovac, Serbia, on May 2014. The components of this tool are: (1) the amount of precipitation above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; (2) upstream river discharge above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; (3) upstream river level above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; and (4) worsening of the hydrometeorological situation in the following 48 h. In the early morning of 16 May 2014, a rapid river wave flooded 80% of the Obrenovac territory. There were 13 deaths due to drowning. Application of the study tool shows that these lives could have been saved, as the score to recommend general evacuation was reached 1 day before the flooding. The application of this tool to two previous great floods in Serbia shows that the score to recommend general evacuation was reached either 1 day before or on the onset of flash flooding. Due to its simplicity, this tool is universally applicable to facilitate decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood, and it should be further tested in future similar catastrophes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How we learn to make decisions: rapid propagation of reinforcement learning prediction errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olav E; Hassall, Cameron D; Handy, Todd C

    2014-03-01

    Our ability to make decisions is predicated upon our knowledge of the outcomes of the actions available to us. Reinforcement learning theory posits that actions followed by a reward or punishment acquire value through the computation of prediction errors-discrepancies between the predicted and the actual reward. A multitude of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that rewards and punishments evoke neural responses that appear to reflect reinforcement learning prediction errors [e.g., Krigolson, O. E., Pierce, L. J., Holroyd, C. B., & Tanaka, J. W. Learning to become an expert: Reinforcement learning and the acquisition of perceptual expertise. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1833-1840, 2009; Bayer, H. M., & Glimcher, P. W. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron, 47, 129-141, 2005; O'Doherty, J. P. Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 769-776, 2004; Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109, 679-709, 2002]. Here, we used the brain ERP technique to demonstrate that not only do rewards elicit a neural response akin to a prediction error but also that this signal rapidly diminished and propagated to the time of choice presentation with learning. Specifically, in a simple, learnable gambling task, we show that novel rewards elicited a feedback error-related negativity that rapidly decreased in amplitude with learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of a reward positivity at choice presentation, a previously unreported ERP component that has a similar timing and topography as the feedback error-related negativity that increased in amplitude with learning. The pattern of results we observed mirrored the output of a computational model that we implemented to compute reward

  8. Expediting evidence synthesis for healthcare decision-making: exploring attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews using Q methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Rapid reviews expedite the knowledge synthesis process with the goal of providing timely information to healthcare decision-makers who want to use evidence-informed policy and practice approaches. A range of opinions and viewpoints on rapid reviews is thought to exist; however, no research to date has formally captured these views. This paper aims to explore evidence producer and knowledge user attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews. Methods A Q methodology study was conducted to identify central viewpoints about rapid reviews based on a broad topic discourse. Participants rank-ordered 50 text statements and explained their Q-sort in free-text comments. Individual Q-sorts were analysed using Q-Assessor (statistical method: factor analysis with varimax rotation. Factors, or salient viewpoints on rapid reviews, were identified, interpreted and described. Results Analysis of the 11 individual Q sorts identified three prominent viewpoints: Factor A cautions against the use of study design labels to make judgements. Factor B maintains that rapid reviews should be the exception and not the rule. Factor C focuses on the practical needs of the end-user over the review process. Conclusion Results show that there are opposing viewpoints on rapid reviews, yet some unity exists. The three factors described offer insight into how and why various stakeholders act as they do and what issues may need to be resolved before increase uptake of the evidence from rapid reviews can be realized in healthcare decision-making environments.

  9. TEACHERS’ GRADING DECISION MAKING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ida Isnawati; Ali Saukah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered...

  10. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  11. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  12. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  13. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  14. Five shared decision-making tools in 5 months: use of rapid reviews to develop decision boxes for seniors living with dementia and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, Moulikatou Adouni; Valéra, Béatriz; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Légaré, France; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Côté, Luc; Voyer, Philippe; Kröger, Edeltraut; Witteman, Holly; Rodriguez, Charo; Giguere, Anik M C

    2017-03-15

    Decision support tools build upon comprehensive and timely syntheses of literature. Rapid reviews may allow supporting their development by omitting certain components of traditional systematic reviews. We thus aimed to describe a rapid review approach underlying the development of decision support tools, i.e., five decision boxes (DB) for shared decision-making between seniors living with dementia, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. We included studies based on PICO questions (Participant, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) describing each of the five specific decision. We gave priority to higher quality evidence (e.g., systematic reviews). For each DB, we first identified secondary sources of literature, namely, clinical summaries, clinical practice guidelines, and systematic reviews. After an initial extraction, we searched for primary studies in academic databases and grey literature to fill gaps in evidence. We extracted study designs, sample sizes, populations, and probabilities of benefits/harms of the health options. A single reviewer conducted the literature search and study selection. The data extracted by one reviewer was verified by a second experienced reviewer. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the evidence. We converted all probabilities into absolute risks for ease of understanding. Two to five experts validated the content of each DB. We conducted descriptive statistical analyses on the review processes and resources required. The approach allowed screening of a limited number of references (range: 104 to 406/review). For each review, we included 15 to 26 studies, 2 to 10 health options, 11 to 62 health outcomes and we conducted 9 to 47 quality assessments. A team of ten reviewers with varying levels of expertise was supported at specific steps by an information specialist, a biostatistician, and a graphic designer. The time required to complete a rapid review varied from 7 to 31 weeks per review (mean ± SD, 19 ± 10

  15. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  16. Make better decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Traditionally, decision making in organizations has rarely been the focus of systematic analysis. That may account for the astounding number of recent poor calls, such as decisions to invest in and securitize subprime mortgage loans or to hedge risk with credit default swaps. Business books are rich with insights about the decision process, but organizations have been slow to adopt their recommendations. It's time to focus on decision making, Davenport says, and he proposes four steps: (1) List and prioritize the decisions that must be made; (2) assess the factors that go into each, such as who plays what role, how often the decision must be made, and what information is available to support it; (3) design the roles, processes, systems, and behaviors your organization needs; and (4) institutionalize decision tools and assistance. The Educational Testing Service and The Stanley Works, among others, have succeeded in improving their decisions. ETS established a centralized deliberative body to make evidence-based decisions about new-product offerings, and Stanley has a Pricing Center of Excellence with internal consultants dedicated to its various business units. Leaders should bring multiple perspectives to their decision making, beware of analytical models that managers don't understand, be clear about their assumptions, practice "model management," and--because only people can revise decision criteria over time--cultivate human backups.

  17. A rapid decision-making method for the evaluation of pollution-sensitive coastal areas in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Michael O; Kamizoulis, George

    2005-06-01

    Places of natural beauty and/or cultural value in the Mediterranean Sea are presenting adverse effects due to pollution. These environmental threats caused by point and nonpoint sources are mainly the reason why these areas represent "pollution-sensitive areas," where the risk of deterioration is immediate. However, the risk will decrease and eventually disappear if protective measures are applied. In the present article, a multicriteria decision-making method is proposed for the prioritization of the Mediterranean sensitive coastal areas, taking into consideration criteria of pollution risk such as impact on human health, aquatic ecosystems, and socioeconomic value of the area. Weighting factors were then attributed to the different criteria according to their regional priorities, and a total pollution risk score was calculated for every sensitive area. However, some sensitive areas are more vulnerable than others because of their natural characteristics. Therefore, the total pollution risk score was then multiplied by a vulnerability weighting factor and a Total Sensitivity Score was calculated for every sensitive area. With this method, Mediterranean sensitive areas in coastal zones can be ranked on a priority list and then categorized according to their "sensitivity," in a way that decision-makers can select the most urgent cases to direct their attention for the effective protection of the Mediterranean marine environment. The method is rapid and practicable and has already been used with existing data and information in several Mediterranean countries.

  18. Decision Making in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  19. Handbook on Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi C

    2010-01-01

    The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c

  20. Strategic decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision

  1. Quantitative Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Grover H.

    The use of quantitative decision making tools provides the decision maker with a range of alternatives among which to decide, permits acceptance and use of the optimal solution, and decreases risk. Training line administrators in the use of these tools can help school business officials obtain reliable information upon which to base district…

  2. Designing for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  3. Food Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased

  4. Emotion and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-03

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.

  5. Strategic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Stokman, Frans N.; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision setting,consisting of a list of stakeholders with their capabilities, positions, and salience on each of the issues; (3) computer simulation. The computer simulation models incorporate only the main processe...

  6. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  7. Improving decision making in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Guy; Freedman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis.

  8. Responsive Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence...

  9. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses...

  10. MULTICRITERIA DECISION-MAKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENDRIKS, M. M. W. B.; de Boer, J. H.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Interest is growing in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and a large number of these techniques are now available. The purpose of this tutorial is to give a theoretical description of some of the MCDM techniques. Besides this we will give an overview of the differences and similarities

  11. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...

  12. Electroencephalogy (EEG) Feedback in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision- Making The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful...feedback when training rapid decision-making. More specifically, EEG will allow us to provide online feedback about the neural decision processes...Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision-Making Report Title The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful

  13. Coordination and Collective Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Strathclyde, Scotland), Crest International Workshop: Advances in the Plankton Ecosystem Model and the Evaluation of Biodiversity , Tokyo University of...February) “Collective Motion, Collective Decision-Making, and Collective Action: From Microbes to Societies,” MASpread/Rapid Trade Meeting...and Collective Action: From Microbes to Societies.” Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Spring Meeting. Physics of Socio-Economic Systems Division

  14. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  15. Understanding marketing decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.

  16. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  17. Decision Making via AHP

    CERN Document Server

    Andrecut, M

    2014-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a procedure for establishing priorities in multi-criteria decision making problems. Here we discuss the Logarithmic Least Squares (LLS) method for the AHP and group-AHP, which provides an exact and unique solution for the priority vector. Also, we show that for the group-AHP, the LLS method is equivalent with the minimization of the weighted sum of generalized Kullback-Leibler divergences, between the group-priority vector and the priority vector of each expert.

  18. Tactical Decision Making and Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Joel I.

    1986-01-01

    The use of computerized decision support systems in higher education for making tactical institutional decisions is reviewed, with attention to the kind of administrative problems that lie somewhere between programmed to nonprogrammed decisions and require a combination of computer support and administrative judgment. (MSE)

  19. Distributed Decision Making and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rantzer, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by...

  20. Anxiety and Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    While the everyday decision-making of clinically anxious individuals is clearly influenced by their excessive fear and worry, the relationship between anxiety and decision-making remains relatively unexplored in neuroeconomic studies. In this review, we attempt to explore the role of anxiety in decision-making using a neuroeconomic approach. We first review the neural systems mediating fear and anxiety, which overlap with a network of brain regions implicated in studies of economic decision-m...

  1. Composite collective decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. High level referees’ decisions making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Molero López-Barajas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show, in this work, a study based on the analysis of handball referees’ decisions making from the marks got in the spanish adaptation of Decision Making Questionnaire dealing with the following factors: stress in making decisions, quick decision with uncertainty and determination in the commitment of decisions making. We found significant differences in the three factors considered in function of the category of referees but not in terms of their age. With the data are collected and analyzed future lines of action considered in which the basis for this group tutoring

  3. Electronic Communication and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M. S.; Sarbaugh-Thompson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic communication can either facilitate or sabotage decision-making contexts. This article formulates recommendations about when and how to use electronic communication to enhance decision making and describes various decision contexts. Solutions to communication problems such as groupthink, social deadlock, bureaucratic isolation from…

  4. Anxiety and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-15

    Although the everyday decision-making of clinically anxious individuals is clearly influenced by their excessive fear and worry, the relationship between anxiety and decision-making remains relatively unexplored in neuroeconomic studies. In this review, we attempt to explore the role of anxiety in decision-making with a neuroeconomic approach. We first review the neural systems mediating fear and anxiety, which overlap with a network of brain regions implicated in studies of economic decision-making. We then discuss the potential influence of cognitive biases associated with anxiety upon economic choice, focusing on a set of decision-making biases involving choice in the face of potential aversive outcomes. We propose that the neural circuitry supporting fear learning and regulation may mediate the influence of anxiety upon choice and suggest that techniques for altering fear and anxiety may also change decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  6. Organizational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    decision theory to specific medical diagnostic or treatment problems. Giaugue and Peebles (1974) discuss analysis of the treatment of strep throat and...for Streptococcal Sore Throat and Rheumatic Fever", Technical Report, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif., 93940 7- Giaugue, W.C: "A Utility...Sore Throat ang Rheumatic £ever - a Decision THeoLelic 22£roa>cH, Uoctoral THeslsJ Barvard~ Business 5cKool7 Boston, Bass., 1972. 3. Raiffa, H

  7. Making the Decision to Breastfeed

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  8. Robust Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.

  9. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  10. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  11. Decision making: the neuroethological turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision-making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision-making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision-making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision-making in health and disease. PMID:24908481

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Kustubayeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental research of the connection between the efficiency of decision making and emotional intelligence are presented in the article. The empirical data indicate that the ability to regulate emotion is an important indicator of the efficiency of decision making in the conditions of psychological experiment.

  13. Financial Decision Making Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.

  14. Essays in Collective Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Jarman, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three distinct papers related to the analysis of collective decision making. In the first paper I employ a mechanism-design approach to analyze a public procurement problem. In the second and third paper I analyze collective decision making in the form of voting.

  15. Decision Making in the Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that

  16. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  17. Making the Decision to Breastfeed

    Medline Plus

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  18. TOOLS USED IN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Bernabeu Elena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is one of the important tasks of every manager. The process of taking decisions has to be based on knowledge. For optimizing this process some software solutions has been created. In this article we tried to summarize some of the features which exists in some software applications.

  19. A Process Evaluation to Assess Contextual Factors Associated With the Uptake of a Rapid Response Service to Support Health Systems’ Decision-Making in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Mijumbi-Deve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Although proven feasible, rapid response services (RRSs to support urgent decision and policymaking are still a fairly new and innovative strategy in several health systems, more especially in low-income countries. There are several information gaps about these RRSs that exist including the factors that make them work in different contexts and in addition what affects their uptake by potential end users. Methods We used a case study employing process evaluation methods to determine what contextual factors affect the utilization of a RRS in Uganda. We held in-depth interviews with researchers, knowledge translation (KT specialists and policy-makers from several research and policy-making institutions in Uganda’s health sector. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis to develop categories and themes about activities and structures under given program components that affected uptake of the service. Results We identified several factors under three themes that have both overlapping relations and also reinforcing loops amplifying each other: Internal factors (those factors that were identified as over which the RRS had full [or almost full] control; external factors (factors over which the service had only partial influence, a second party holds part of this influence; and environmental factors (factors over which the service had no or only remote control if at all. Internal factors were the design of the service and resources available for it, while the external factors were the service’s visibility, integrity and relationships. Environmental factors were political will and health system policy and decision-making infrastructure. Conclusion For health systems practitioners considering RRSs, knowing what factors will affect uptake and therefore modifying them within their contexts is important to ensure efficient use and successful utilization of the mechanisms.

  20. Surgeons' intraoperative decision making and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Keryn; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Youngson, George

    2011-10-01

    Surgical research on decision making and risk management usually focuses on perioperative care, despite the magnitude and frequency of intraoperative risks. The aim of this study was to examine surgeons' intraoperative decisions and risk management strategies to explore differences in cognitive processes. Critical decision method interviews were conducted with 24 consultant surgeons who recalled cases and selected important decisions during the operations. These decision were then discussed in detail in relation to decision-making style and risk management. The key decision in each case was made using either a rapid, intuitive mode (46%) or a more deliberate comparison of alternative courses of action (50%). Decision strategy was not related to surgical approach (endoscopic vs open), context (elective vs emergency), perceived time pressure, or situational threats. Risk management involved perceiving threats and assessing impact but also indicated the role of personal risk tolerance. Surgeons described making key intraoperative decisions using either an intuitive or an analytic mode of thinking. Surgeons' risk assessment, risk tolerance, and decision strategies appear to be influenced by their personalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heuristic decision making in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care.

  2. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  3. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  4. Unrealistic optimism and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading descriptive theories of decision-making under risk, Tversky & Kahneman's Prospect theory, reveals that normative explanation of decisionmaking, based only on principle of maximizing outcomes expected utility, is unsustainable. It also underlines the effect of alternative factors on decision-making. Framing effect relates to an influence that verbal formulation of outcomes has on choosing between certain and risky outcomes; in negative frame people tend to be risk seeking, whereas in positive frame people express risk averse tendencies. Individual decisions are not based on objective probabilities of outcomes, but on subjective probabilities that depend on outcome desirability. Unrealistically pessimistic subjects assign lower probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes, while unrealistically optimistic subjects assign higher probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes. Experiment was conducted in order to test the presumption that there's a relation between unrealistic optimism and decision-making under risk. We expected optimists to be risk seeking, and pessimist to be risk averse. We also expected such cognitive tendencies, if they should become manifest, to be framing effect resistant. Unrealistic optimism scale was applied, followed by the questionnaire composed of tasks of decision-making under risk. Results within the whole sample, and results of afterwards extracted groups of pessimists and optimists both revealed dominant risk seeking tendency that is resistant to the influence of subjective probabilities as well as to the influence of frame in which the outcome is presented.

  5. Decision Making Under Uncertain Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.

  6. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  7. Naturalistic decision making and macrocognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.; Militello, L.; Ormerod, T.; Lipshitz, R.

    2008-01-01

    This book presents the latest work in the area of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and its extension into the area of macrocognition. It contains 18 chapters relating research centered on the study of expertise in naturalistic settings, written by international experts in NDM and cognitive systems

  8. Making the Decision to Breastfeed

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    Full Text Available ... Health Skip Navigation En Español Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics Printables and Shareables Blog ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision ...

  9. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  10. Making the Decision to Breastfeed

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  11. Making the Decision to Breastfeed

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    Full Text Available ... Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision to breastfeed YouTube embed video: YouTube embed ... and players A federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of ...

  12. Making the Decision to Breastfeed

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  13. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on

  14. Individual decision making, group decision making and deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each of us makes a number of decisions, from the less important to those with far-reaching consequences. As members of different groups, we are also actors of group decision making. In order to make a rational decision, a choice-making procedure must satisfy a number of assumptions (conditions of rationality. In addition, when it comes to group decisions, those procedures should also be “fair.” However, it is not possible to define a procedure of choice-making that would transform individual orders of alternatives based on preferences of perfectly rational individuals into a single social order and still meet conditions of rationality and ethics. The theory of deliberative democracy appeared in response to the impossibility of Social Choice theory. The basic assumption of deliberative democracy is that individuals adjust their preferences taking into account interests of the community. They are open for discussion with other group members and are willing to change their attitudes in order to achieve common interests. Ideally, group members come to an agreement during public discussion (deliberation. Still, this concept cannot completely over­come all the difficulties posed by the theory of social choice. Specifically, there is no solution for strategic and manipulative behavior of individuals. Also, the concept of deliberative democracy faces certain problems particular to this approach, such as, to name but a few, problems with the establishment of equality of participants in the debate and their motivation, as well as problems with the organization of public hearings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  15. Reasoning, decision making and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J S; Over, D E; Manktelow, K I

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that reasoning in the real world supports decision making and is aimed at the achievement of goals. A distinction is developed between two notions of rationality: rationality which is reasoning in such a way as to achieve one's goals--within cognitive constraints--and rationality which is reasoning by a process of logic. This dichotomy is related to the philosophical distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. It is argued that logicality (rationality) does not provide a good basis for rationality and some psychological research on deductive reasoning is re-examined in this light. First, we review belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning, and argue that the phenomena do not support the interpretations of irrationality that are often placed upon them. Second, we review and discuss recent studies of deontic reasoning in the Wason selection task, which demonstrate the decision making, and rational nature of reasoning in realistic contexts. The final section of the paper examines contemporary decision theory and shows how it fails, in comparable manner to formal logic, to provide an adequate model for assessing the rationality of human reasoning and decision making.

  16. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, S; Jennings, NR

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  17. An ABC for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  18. An ABC for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: luiz_mogi@yahoo.com.br [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  19. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  20. Group performance and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott

    2004-01-01

    Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future.

  1. Decision making in incident control teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, S. [Queensland Department of Mines and Energy, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The decision making process during a mine emergency is explored. Using examples from other areas as well as mining industries, poor decision making processes are illustrated. Some decision traps discussed include group think, Abilene paradox, lack of frame control and confirmation bias. Practical techniques that a mine manager, as incident controller, can apply to improve the group decision making process are described. Techniques such as devils advocacy, dialectic decision making, scenario development and decision auditing are explained. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Wildfire Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.

  3. The craft process developing student decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marja-Leena Rönkkö; Jaana Lepistö

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, we examine school students’ decision making during a craft process. The study was conducted during the spring term of 2013 and examines how the students make various decisions during the craft making process...

  4. Decision making with environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity

  5. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  6. Graphic Representations as Tools for Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the use of graphic representations to enable students to improve their decision making skills in the social studies. Explores three visual aids used in assisting students with decision making: (1) the force field; (2) the decision tree; and (3) the decision making grid. (CMK)

  7. Simulation of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Sabina E [Albuquerque, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-06

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  8. Strategic Decision Making and Group Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Michael Robert

    1986-01-01

    Institutional strategic decisions require the participation of every individual with a significant stake in the solution, and group decision support systems are being developed to respond to the political and consensual problems of collective decision-making. (MSE)

  9. Command Decision-Making: Experience Counts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolgast, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making is the mainstay of military leadership and command. Due to the changed nature of the current military environment, military commanders can no longer rely solely on the traditional Military Decision-making Process (MDMP...

  10. Fairness judgments in household decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Kroft, M.

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral economic study of fairness was applied to household decision making. A sample of household partners judged the fairness of a number of hypothetical decisions of a household partner, varying in the context of the decision. Decisions made by the partner to make a large personal

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DECISION-MAKING CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina GLOBA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the stages of development of the theory and practice of decision-making. Emphasis is placed on the contemporary culture of decision-making. At the base of the current trends is the transition from intuition and experience in decision-making to analytics. Modern business intelligence means the development of the culture of work with big data.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DECISION-MAKING CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Galina GLOBA

    2013-01-01

    The article shows the stages of development of the theory and practice of decision-making. Emphasis is placed on the contemporary culture of decision-making. At the base of the current trends is the transition from intuition and experience in decision-making to analytics. Modern business intelligence means the development of the culture of work with big data.

  13. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  14. Fuzzy-like multiple objective multistage decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    Decision has inspired reflection of many thinkers since the ancient times. With the rapid development of science and society, appropriate dynamic decision making has been playing an increasingly important role in many areas of human activity including engineering, management, economy and others. In most real-world problems, decision makers usually have to make decisions sequentially at different points in time and space, at different levels for a component or a system, while facing multiple and conflicting objectives and a hybrid uncertain environment where fuzziness and randomness co-exist in a decision making process. This leads to the development of fuzzy-like multiple objective multistage decision making. This book provides a thorough understanding of the concepts of dynamic optimization from a modern perspective and presents the state-of-the-art methodology for modeling, analyzing and solving the most typical multiple objective multistage decision making practical application problems under fuzzy-like un...

  15. Testing Decision Rules for Multiattribute Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%.

  16. Multicriteria decision analysis: Overview and implications for environmental decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Caroline M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Erickson, Jon D.; Messner, Frank; Ring, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Environmental decision making involving multiple stakeholders can benefit from the use of a formal process to structure stakeholder interactions, leading to more successful outcomes than traditional discursive decision processes. There are many tools available to handle complex decision making. Here we illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) outranking tool (PROMETHEE) to facilitate decision making at the watershed scale, involving multiple stakeholders, multiple criteria, and multiple objectives. We compare various MCDA methods and their theoretical underpinnings, examining methods that most realistically model complex decision problems in ways that are understandable and transparent to stakeholders.

  17. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  18. Applications of decision theory to test-based decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Bayesian decision theory to solve problems in test-based decision making is discussed. Four basic decision problems are distinguished: (1) selection; (2) mastery; (3) placement; and (4) classification, the situation where each treatment has its own criterion. Each type of decision can be

  19. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision...

  20. Shared Decision Making in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Muehlschlegel, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Shared decision making is a collaborative decision-making process between health care providers and patients or their surrogates, taking into account the best scientific evidence available while considering the patient's values, goals, and preferences. Decision aids are tools enabling SDM. This article discusses shared decision making in general and in the intensive care unit in particular and facilitators and barriers for the creation and implementation of International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration-compliant decision aids for the intensive care unit and neuro-intensive care unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tools for collaborative decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Zaraté, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making has evolved recently thanks to the introduction of information and communication technologies in many organizations, which has led to new kinds of decision-making processes, called "collaborative decision-making", at the organizational and cognitive levels. This book looks at the development of the decision-making process in organizations. Decision-aiding and its paradigm of problem solving are defined, showing how decision-makers now need to work in a cooperative way. Definitions of cooperation and associated concepts such as collaboration and coordination are given and a framework of cooperative decision support systems is presented, including intelligent DSS, cooperative knowledge-based systems, workflow, group support systems, collaborative engineering, integrating with a collaborative decision-making model in part or being part of global projects. Several models and experimental studies are also included showing that these new processes have to be supported by new types of tools, several ...

  2. Decision making in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    Many engineering companies experience new challenges when globalising product development. Global product development (GPD) is a relatively nascent research area, and previous research reveals the need for decision support frameworks. This research investigates how decisions are made when companies...... outsource or offshore product development tasks, and how these decisions can be improved. A brief literature review on existing research on GPD and decision making is given, followed by two case studies, where implications of decisions are investigated. The findings point towards further studies required...... for creating a decision support framework for managers to make better decisions in the future....

  3. Decision-making: Theory and Practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpin, SM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available (INTJ) on the Myers-Briggs personality type indicators, and who then proceeded to explain their decision-making behaviour in the light of this. The Recognition-Primed Decision Model was supported in the sense that decision-making was seen by DM2, DM3...

  4. School Counselors and Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    Students and their parents/guardians rely on school counselors to provide counseling services based on ethically sound principles. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence about what influences a school counselor's ethical decision making. Ethical decision making for this study was defined as the degree to which decisions pertaining to…

  5. Shared Decision Making for Better Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Delegating decision making to those closest to implementation can result in better decisions, more support for improvement initiatives, and increased student performance. Shared decision making depends on capable school leadership, a professional community, instructional guidance mechanisms, knowledge and skills, information sharing, power, and…

  6. Causal knowledge and reasoning in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will

  7. The adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, C-H; Wang, P-W; Liu, T-L; Chen, C-S; Yen, C-F; Yen, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively. These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision-making

  8. Making smarter decisions in urban environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Velthausz, D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available environment made up of many domains, actors, resources, asset pools, factors and performance criteria. In his talk, Velthausz will discuss the ability to make and implement sound planning and operational decisions based on better informed decision...

  9. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  10. Decision story strategy: a practical approach for teaching decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J

    1981-12-01

    Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future.

  11. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  12. Decision-Making Deficits Among Maltreated Children

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Joshua A.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Although maltreated children involved with child welfare services are known to exhibit elevated levels of health-risking behaviors, little is known about their decision-making processes leading to these behaviors. Research findings suggest that maltreated children exhibit developmental delays in neurocognitive and emotional regulation systems that could adversely impact their abilities to make decisions under conditions of risk. Whereas prior researchers have examined risky decision making as...

  13. Understanding Optimal Decision-making in Wargaming

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, P.; Kennedy, Q.; Alt, JK; Fricker, RD; Whitaker, L.; Yang, J.; Appleget, JA; Huston, J.; Patton, S

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This research aims to gain insight into optimal wargaming decision-making mechanisms using neurophysiological measures by investigating whether brain activation and visual scan patterns predict attention, perception, and/or decision-making errors through human-in-the-loop wargaming simulation experiments. We investigate whether brain activity and visual scan patterns can explain optimal wargaming decision making and its devel...

  14. Intra-operative decision making by ophthalmic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Keryn; Flin, Rhona; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2013-10-01

    Research on surgical decision making and risk management usually focuses on peri-operative care, despite the magnitude and frequency of intra-operative risks. The aim of this study was to examine ophthalmic surgeons' intra-operative decisions and risk management strategies in order to explore differences in cognitive processes. Critical decision method interviews were conducted with 12 consultant ophthalmologists who recalled cases and selected important decisions during the operations. These decisions were then discussed in detail in relation to decision making style and risk management. Transcripts were coded according to decision making strategy (analytical, recognition primed decision, creative and rule-based) and risk management (threats, risk assessment and risk tolerance). The key decision in each case was made using either a rapid, intuitive mode of thinking (n=6, 50%) or a more deliberate comparison of alternative courses of action (n=6, 50%). Rule-based or creative decision making was not used. Risk management involved the perception of threats and assessment of threat impact but was also influenced by personal risk tolerance. Risk tolerance seemed to play a major role during situations requiring a stopping rule. Risk management did not appear to be influenced by time pressure. Surgeons described making key intra-operative decisions using either an intuitive or an analytical mode of thinking. Ophthalmic surgeons' risk assessment, risk tolerance and decision strategies appear to be influenced by personality.

  15. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanepoel, M

    2010-01-01

    ..., this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology...

  16. Complex Decision Making Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan; Spector, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    The increasingly complex environment of today's world, characterized by technological innovation and global communication, generates myriads of possible and actual interactions while limited physical and intellectual resources severely impinge on decision makers, be it in the public or private domains. At the core of the decision-making process is the need for quality information that allows the decision maker to better assess the impact of decisions in terms of outcomes, nonlinear feedback processes and time delays on the performance of the complex system invoked. This volume is a timely review on the principles underlying complex decision making, the handling of uncertainties in dynamic envrionments and of the various modeling approaches used. The book consists of five parts, each composed of several chapters: I: Complex Decision Making: Concepts, Theories and Empirical Evidence II: Tools and Techniques for Decision Making in Complex Environments and Systems III: System Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling IV:...

  17. Decision making uncertainty, imperfection, deliberation and scalability

    CERN Document Server

    Kárný, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on uncovering the fundamental forces underlying dynamic decision making among multiple interacting, imperfect and selfish decision makers. The chapters are written by leading experts from different disciplines, all considering the many sources of imperfection in decision making, and always with an eye to decreasing the myriad discrepancies between theory and real world human decision making. Topics addressed include uncertainty, deliberation cost and the complexity arising from the inherent large computational scale of decision making in these systems. In particular, analyses and experiments are presented which concern: • task allocation to maximize “the wisdom of the crowd”; • design of a society of “edutainment” robots who account for one anothers’ emotional states; • recognizing and counteracting seemingly non-rational human decision making; • coping with extreme scale when learning causality in networks; • efficiently incorporating expert knowledge in personalized...

  18. Computer Graphics and Administrative Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reduction in prices now makes it possible for almost any institution to use computer graphics for administrative decision making and research. Current and potential uses of computer graphics in these two areas are discussed. (JN)

  19. Efficient group decision making in workshop settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Public land managers must treat multiple values coincidentally in time and space, which requires the participation of multiple resource specialists and consideration of diverse clientele interests in the decision process. This implies decision making that includes multiple participants, both internally and externally. Decades of social science research on decision...

  20. Hybrid multiple criteria decision-making methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; Govindan, K.; Antucheviciene, Jurgita

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-making methods can be used to help improve the overall sustainability of industries and organisations. Recently, there has been a great proliferation of works aggregating sustainability criteria by using diverse multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. A number of review...... the advantages of hybrid approaches over individual methods, and we conclude that they can assist decision-makers in handling information such as stakeholders' preferences, interconnected or contradictory criteria, and uncertain environments. The main contribution of this work is identifying hybrid approaches...... as improvements for decision-making related to sustainability issues, while also promoting future application of the approaches....

  1. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization...... which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...

  2. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  3. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  4. Decision making in software architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Hans; Tang, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, software architecture is seen as the result of the software architecture design process, the solution, usually represented by a set of components and connectors. Recently, the why of the solution, the set of design decisions made by the software architect, is complementing or even

  5. Rationality versus Irrationality in Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Daňková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    The thesis focuses on rationality in decisions by managers. The terms rationality, irrationality and bounded rationality are defined in the first part. The current state of knowledge on the concept of bounded rationality in decision making is then followed by a specific consideration of managerial decision making. The chosen bounded rationality effects, including heuristics, are also described. The purpose of the second part of this study is to examine experimentally the differential uses of ...

  6. Decision Making with Asymmetric Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractEvery day individuals make numerous choices. What is important for making the right choice is that individuals have good information about the consequences of the different alternatives. However, investigating the full consequences of the different alternatives is complicated and

  7. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  8. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  9. Emotion, decision-making and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G

    2008-01-01

    Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels to the automatic system. This chapter will discuss a theoretical framework for understanding the role of emotion in decision-making and evidence supporting the underlying neural substrates. This chapter applies a conceptual framework to understanding the role of emotion in decision-making, and emphasizes a distinction between expected and immediate emotions. Expected emotions refer to anticipated emotional states associated with a given decision that are never actually experienced. Immediate emotions, however, are experienced at the time of decision, and either can occur in response to a particular decision or merely as a result of a transitory fluctuation. This chapter will review research from the neuroeconomics literature that supports a neural dissociation between these two classes of emotion and also discuss a few interpretive caveats. Several lines of research including regret, uncertainty, social decision-making, and moral decision-making have yielded evidence consistent with our formulization--expected and immediate emotions may invoke dissociable neural systems. This chapter provides a more specific conceptualization of the mediating role of emotions in the decision-making process, which has important implications for understanding the interacting neural systems underlying the interface between emotion and cognition--a topic of immediate value to anyone investigating topics within the context of social-cognitive-affective-neuroscience.

  10. 'My kidneys, my choice, decision aid': supporting shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortnum, Debbie; Smolonogov, Tatiana; Walker, Rachael; Kairaitis, Luke; Pugh, Debbie

    2015-06-01

    For patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) a decision of whether to undertake dialysis or conservative care is a critical component of the patient journey. Shared decision making for complex decisions such as this could be enhanced by a decision aid, a practice which is well utilised in other disciplines but limited for nephrology. A multidisciplinary team in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) utilised current decision-making theory and best practice to develop the 'My Kidneys, My Choice', a decision aid for the treatment of kidney disease. A patient-centred, five-sectioned tool is now complete and freely available to all ANZ units to support the ESKD education and shared decision-making process. Distribution and education have occurred across ANZ and evaluation of the decision aid in practice is in the first phase. Development of a new tool such as an ESKD decision aid requires vision, multidisciplinary input and ongoing implementation resources. This tool is being integrated into ANZ, ESKD education practice and is promoting the philosophy of shared decision making. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  11. Ethical decision-making, passivity and pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J

    2008-06-01

    Increasing interest in empirical ethics has enhanced understanding of healthcare professionals' ethical problems and attendant decision-making. A four-stage decision-making model involving ethical attention, reasoning, intention and action offers further insights into how more than reasoning alone may contribute to decision-making. To explore how the four-stage model can increase understanding of decision-making in healthcare and describe the decision-making of an under-researched professional group. 23 purposively sampled UK community pharmacists were asked, in semi-structured interviews, to describe ethical problems in their work and how they were resolved. Framework analysis of transcribed interviews utilised the four decision-making stages, together with constant comparative methods and deviant-case analysis. Pharmacists were often inattentive and constructed problems in legal terms. Ethical reasoning was limited, but examples of appeals to consequences, the golden rule, religious faith and common-sense experience emerged. Ethical intention was compromised by frequent concern about legal prosecution. Ethical inaction was common, typified by pharmacists' failure to report healthcare professionals' bad practices, and ethical passivity emerged to describe these negative examples of the four decision-making stages. Pharmacists occasionally described more ethically active decision-making, but this often involved ethical uncertainty. The four decision-making stages are a useful tool in considering how healthcare professionals try to resolve ethical problems in practice. They reveal processes often ignored in normative theories, and their recognition and the emergence of ethical passivity indicates the complexity of decision-making in practice. Ethical passivity may be deleterious to patients' welfare, and concerns emerge about improving pharmacists' ethical training and promoting ethical awareness and responsibility.

  12. Superstition and Financial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David; Jian, Ming; Zhang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese culture, certain digits are lucky and others unlucky. We test how such numerological superstition affects financial decision in the China IPO market. We find that the frequency of lucky numerical stock listing codes exceeds what would be expected by chance. Also consistent with superstition effects, newly listed firms with lucky listing codes are initially traded at a premium after controlling for known determinants of valuation multiples, the lucky number premium dissipates within...

  13. Customer Decision Support Systems: Resources for Student Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utilize to support their education-related decision making. Finally, the authors discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks such resources engender from a student perspective and conclude with directions for future research.

  14. Decision Making in R&D Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Kneis, Kyra; Lemke, Christine

    2011-01-01

    the decision making process on R&D outsourcing are lacking. To address this gap, we present a framework developed in the context of a multinational pharmaceutical company. The framework builds on general make-or-buy frameworks and incorporates specificities of the service and knowledge-driven areas...... contributes to the emerging area of research into decision making processes on outsourcing in knowledge-intensive industries....

  15. Future Directions in Supported Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Arstein-Kerslake

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supported decision-making is at the forefront of modern disability research. This is due to Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD, which creates a state obligation to provide support for the exercise of legal capacity. This turned the practice of supported decision-making into a human rights imperative. Government and funding agencies are increasingly focusing their attention on the area. Researchers are similarly increasing their interest in the field. The impending danger is that the rush of interest in the area will overshadow the original intention of supported decision-making: to ensure that people with cognitive disability are provided with the freedom and the tools to participate as equal citizens and for every individual to be free to direct their own life. This article explores the theoretical foundations of supported decision-making and the evolution of supported decision-making research. It explains the research that is emerging in leading jurisdictions, the United States and Australia, and its potential to transform disability services and laws related to decision-making. Finally, it identifies areas of concern in the direction of such research and provides recommendations for ensuring that supported decision-making remains protective of the rights, will and preferences of people with cognitive disability.

  16. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  17. Probabilistic Analysis in Management Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delmar, M. V.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    The target group in this paper is people concerned with mathematical economic decision theory. It is shown how the numerically effective First Order Reliability Methods (FORM) can be used in rational management decision making, where some parameters in the applied decision basis are uncertainty...... quantities. The uncertainties are taken into account consistently and the decision analysis is based on the general decision theory in combination with reliability and optimization theory. Examples are shown where the described technique is used and some general conclusion are stated....

  18. Age Effects and Heuristics in Decision Making*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2011-01-01

    Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjects. Second, heuristics differ by age with older subjects relying more on suboptimal decision rules. In a heuristics validation experiment, older subjects make worse decisions than younger subjects. PMID:22544977

  19. Age Effects and Heuristics in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2012-05-01

    Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjects. Second, heuristics differ by age with older subjects relying more on suboptimal decision rules. In a heuristics validation experiment, older subjects make worse decisions than younger subjects.

  20. Handbook on Decision Making Vol 2 Risk Management in Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2012-01-01

    This book presents innovative theories, methodologies, and techniques in the field of risk management and decision making. It introduces new research developments and provides a comprehensive image of their potential applications to readers interested in the area. The collection includes: computational intelligence applications in decision making, multi-criteria decision making under risk, risk modelling,forecasting and evaluation, public security and community safety, risk management in supply chain and other business decision making, political risk management and disaster response systems. The book is directed to academic and applied researchers working on risk management, decision making, and management information systems.

  1. Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and

  2. Customer Decision Support Systems: Resources for Student Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.; David A. Bradbard, Ph.D.; Mary C. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS) to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS) concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utili...

  3. Making sense of adolescent decision-making: challenge and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguru, Yoram

    2011-08-01

    Few topics in pediatric bioethics are as vexing as decision-making. Decision-making in pediatrics presents challenges for children, parents, and physicians alike. The related, yet distinct, concepts of assent and consent are central to pediatric decision-making. Although informed consent is largely regarded as a worthwhile adult principle, assent has been, and continues to be, mired in debate. Controversial subjects include a meaningful definition of assent; how old children should be to assent; who should be included in the assent process; parental permission; how to resolve disputes between children and their parents; the relationship between assent and consent; the quantity and quality of information to disclose to children and their families; how much and what information children desire and need; the necessity and methods for assessing both children's understanding of disclosed information and of the assent process itself; reconciling ethical and legal attitudes toward assent; and finally, an effective, practical, and realistically applicable decision-making model.

  4. Make or buy strategy decision making in supply quality chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Seyedhosseini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the total cost is absolutely the goal of each supply chain, which is most of the time pursued. In this regards, quality related costs that have significant roles are sometimes neglected. Selecting suppliers, which supply relatively high quality raw materials in a lower cost is considered as a strategic decision. Make or Buy decision can be also noticed in supplier selection process. In this paper, the supply strategy: Make or Buy decision (SS: MOB is studied in order to find which strategy (Make or Buy should be chosen to minimize the total costs of supply chain. Therefore, two separate models are generated for each strategy and several examples are solved for the respective models. Computational experiments show the efficiency of the proposed models for making decision about selecting the best strategy.

  5. Making Sustainable Decisions Using the KONVERGENCE Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Dakins, Maxine Ellen

    2003-02-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. “Cleanup” includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done - some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches, including: • New ways (mental model) to analyze and visualize the problem, • Awareness of the option to shift strategy or reframe from a single decision to an adaptable network of decisions, and • Improved tactical processes that account for several challenges. These include the following: • Stakeholder values are a more fundamental basis for decision making and keeping than “meeting regulations.” • Late-entry players and future generations will question decisions. • People may resist making “irreversible” decisions. • People need “compelling reasons” to take action in the face of uncertainties. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period—from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept “as is” or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: • Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? • Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? • Resources: what is available to implement

  6. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Jen

    1992-01-01

    This monograph is intended for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course as well as for researchers, who want a compilation of developments in this rapidly growing field of operations research. This is a sequel to our previous works: "Multiple Objective Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A state-of-the-Art Survey" (No.164 of the Lecture Notes); "Multiple Attribute Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A State-of-the-Art Survey" (No.186 of the Lecture Notes); and "Group Decision Making under Multiple Criteria--Methods and Applications" (No.281 of the Lecture Notes). In this monograph, the literature on methods of fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been reviewed thoroughly and critically, and classified systematically. This study provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, their characteristics, and applicability to the analysis of fuzzy MADM problems. The basic concepts and algorithms from the classical MADM methods have been used in the development of the f...

  7. Modelling decision making in an uncertain environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, Guy; Ouafae, Bennis; Kratz, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article proposes a generative approach to decision making in a complex and uncertain environment, as n alternative to normative or descriptive approaches. A simple and intuitive graphical model provides management teams with a non-restrictive framework for thinking through their decisions. The second half of the article proposes a mathematical model to estimate the multiple influences between decisions in a complex project, whether they are direct or indirect. Thi...

  8. Clinical models of decision making in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Kaplan, Brent A

    2018-01-01

    As research on decision making in addiction accumulates, it is increasingly clear that decision-making processes are dysfunctional in addiction and that this dysfunction may be fundamental to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. How drug-dependent individuals value and choose among drug and nondrug rewards is consistently different from non-dependent individuals. The present review focuses on the assessment of decision-making in addiction. We cover the common behavioral tasks that have shown to be fruitful in decision-making research and highlight analytical and graphical considerations, when available, to facilitate comparisons within and among studies. Delay discounting tasks, drug demand tasks, drug choice tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of multiple criteria decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Otto

    1989-01-01

    Identification of multiple criteria decision making / Magdalena Mißler-Behr ; Otto Opitz. - In: Conceptual and numerical analysis of data / Otto Opitz (ed.). - Berlin u.a. : Springer, 1989. - S. 407-415

  10. Values and Decision Making in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    1987-01-01

    Argues against the current trends in giving importance to subjective values in educational administration, particularly the argument that attention to subjective values can overcome the perceived irrelevance of scientific administration and organization theory and help administrators make better decisions. (MD)

  11. Ethical Decision Making in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Karen S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Elaborates issues surrounding ethical decision making in counseling and mental health professions. Articles covering implications for training, ethical counseling of adolescents and the elderly, and reviews of research on counselor ethics are included. (BH)

  12. The Perils of Democratic Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, H.L.; Whelan, E.; Parise, S.; Vialle, C.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the organizational decision-making management. Topics mentioned include the development of enterprise social software (ESS), the online corporate communities management, and the project management. Also mentioned are the importance of customer services, the bankruptcy

  13. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a palliative care specialist or social worker. Barrier: Disagreeing with the doctor Solution: In shared decision making, the patient and doctor are partners. And sometimes, partners disagree. Communication is critical if a disagreement occurs. If a ...

  15. Teacher Participation in School Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzell, Arthur

    1979-01-01

    Based partly on his experience at Ravenscote County Middle School, the author illustrates the increasing inappropriateness and indefensibility of headteacher autocracy and the dividends to be reaped from full staff participation in decision making. (Editor)

  16. Women's decision making during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Rosemary

    2010-11-01

    To describe women's experiences during decision making about hormonal and nonhormonal therapies during the menopausal transition. Transcripts from 21 semi-structured audio taped interviews with seven peri- and postmenopausal women who had a recently visited a nurse practitioner (NP) and were making a decision about menopausal management. Decision making was a nonlinear process in which women considered available options, weighed benefits and risks and likely outcomes. Reevaluation of the decision was ongoing. Both internal and external conditions influenced their decisions. Media reports of findings from the Women's Health Initiative study may have influenced some women's perceptions of the risk of using hormones for symptom relief. Women described caring and empowering consultations with the NPs. They appreciated provision of information, adequate time spent at the visit, and decision support. NPs have a critical role to play in providing women with current research findings about hormone therapy and alternatives for symptom relief, and assisting women with understanding risks and benefits of each possible choice. Both individual and group approaches for decision support should be available to women. The approach of a collaborative partnership in decision making is a model that is congruent with nursing practice. ©2010 The Author Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  18. Teacher Empowerment in the Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, George E.; DeWalt, Cassandra Sligh

    2006-01-01

    According to Erlandson and Bifano (1987), teacher empowerment is a vital dimension of the school's organization. Lieberman (1989) defined teacher empowerment as "empowering teachers to participate in group decisions and to have real decision-making roles in the school community" (p. 24). Furthermore, Summers (2006) addressed the need for…

  19. The Neuroscience of Social Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rilling, J.K.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Given that we live in highly complex social environments, many of our most important decisions are made in the context of social interactions. Simple but sophisticated tasks from a branch of experimental economics known as game theory have been used to study social decision-making in the laboratory

  20. Modeling as a Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiler-Baxter, Sarah K.; Stephens, D. Christopher; Baxter, Wesley A.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    The goal in this article is to support teachers in better understanding what it means to model with mathematics by focusing on three key decision-making processes: Simplification, Relationship Mapping, and Situation Analysis. The authors use the Theme Park task to help teachers develop a vision of how students engage in these three decision-making…

  1. The Development of Decision-Making Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettas, Alexandros

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea of using the "technology fair" as a means for promoting pre-service teachers (university students) decision-making skills. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a procedure of working with primary school children to complete and present a technology fair project, on the decision-making…

  2. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  3. Capturing a Commander's decision making style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer

    2017-05-01

    A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.

  4. Cognitive Reflection Versus Calculation in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr eSinayev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005. In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT’s ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes; Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1 or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2. These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.

  5. Managerial Decision Making in Geopolitically Turbulent Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Remigiusz

    2010-01-01

    The presented paper is a presentation of final results of research led throughout past years on a group of Polish and international SME’s. The essential aim was the elaboration of a decisionmaking model including both qualitative and quantitative factors that influence decisionmaking processes. Most focus has been put on geopolitical determinants of international companies’ development. In order to narrow the research field, a further limitation has been made in the type of undertaken s...

  6. On emotion specificity in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Zeelenberg; Rob M. A. Nelissen; Seger M. Breugelmans; Rik Pieters

    2008-01-01

    We present a motivational account of the impact of emotion on decision making, termed the feeling-is-for-doing approach. We first describe the psychology of emotion and argue for a need to be specific when studying emotion's impact on decision making. Next we describe what our approach entails and how it relates emotion, via motivation to behavior. Then we offer two illustrations of our own research that provide support for two important elements in our reasoning. We end with specifying four ...

  7. A neural model of decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: A descriptive neuroeconomic model is aimed for relativity of the concept of economic man to empirical science.Method: A 4-level client-server-integrator model integrating the brain models of McLean and Luria is the general framework for the model of empirical findings.Results: Decision making relies on integration across brain levels of emotional intelligence (LU) and logico-matematico intelligence (RIA), respectively. The integrated decision making formula approaching zero by bot...

  8. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  9. Neutrosophic Logic Applied to Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Burtschy, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Decision making addresses the usage of various methods to select "the best", in some way, alternative strategy (from many available) when a problem is given for solving. The authors propose the usage of neutrosophic way of thinking, called also Smarandache's logic, to select a model by experts when...... degrees of trustability, ultrastability (falsehood), and indeterminacy are used to decide. The procedures deal with multi-attribute neutrosophic decision making and a case study on e-learning software objects is presented....

  10. Biologically inspired intelligent decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a class of powerful machine learning models for classification and function approximation which have analogs in nature. An ANN learns to map stimuli to responses through repeated evaluation of exemplars of the mapping. This learning approach results in networks which are recognized for their noise tolerance and ability to generalize meaningful responses for novel stimuli. It is these properties of ANNs which make them appealing for applications to bioinformatics problems where interpretation of data may not always be obvious, and where the domain knowledge required for deductive techniques is incomplete or can cause a combinatorial explosion of rules. In this paper, we provide an introduction to artificial neural network theory and review some interesting recent applications to bioinformatics problems. PMID:24335433

  11. Neural substrates of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Y; Herrera Jiménez, L F; Omar-Martínez, E

    2016-06-01

    Decision-making is the process of selecting a course of action from among 2 or more alternatives by considering the potential outcomes of selecting each option and estimating its consequences in the short, medium and long term. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has traditionally been considered the key neural structure in decision-making process. However, new studies support the hypothesis that describes a complex neural network including both cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on the anatomical structures underlying the decision-making process, considering new findings that support the existence of a complex neural network that gives rise to this complex neuropsychological process. Current evidence shows that the cortical structures involved in decision-making include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This process is assisted by subcortical structures including the amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum. Findings to date show that both cortical and subcortical brain regions contribute to the decision-making process. The neural basis of decision-making is a complex neural network of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections which includes subareas of the PFC, limbic structures, and the cerebellum. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision-making deficits among maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Fisher, Philip A

    2013-08-01

    Although maltreated children involved with child welfare services are known to exhibit elevated levels of health-risking behaviors, little is known about their decision-making processes leading to such tendencies. Research findings suggest that maltreated children exhibit developmental delays in neurocognitive and emotional regulation systems that could adversely impact their abilities to make decisions under conditions of risk. Whereas prior researchers have examined risky decision making as a global construct, maltreated children's decision making was examined in two contexts in the present study: potential gains and potential losses. Comparing maltreated children (n = 25) and a nonmaltreated community group (n = 112), it was found that the maltreated children showed decision-making impairments for both domains: This impairment was especially prominent in the loss domain. The maltreated children took excessive risks and were insensitive to changes in expected value. Follow-up analyses revealed that these differences were primarily associated with insensitivity to changes in outcome magnitude for the risky option. Finally, response latency analyses indicated that the maltreated children were slower to make choices, reinforcing underlying differences in decision processes between groups. These results have implications for basic and translational science.

  13. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-02-25

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases.

  14. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  15. Decision making based on emotional images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eKatahira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants’ choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the reward value of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants’ choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have success- fully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making.

  16. GM ethical decision making in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Bruce

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Celia Deane-Drummond's case for wisdom as an approach to ethical decision making and her doubts about case-oriented methodology are critiqued with reference to the SRT Project's Engineering Genesis study. Its approach is explored in practical decisions on various real life examples of genetic modification in crops and animals. It involved both intrinsic and consequential approaches, and identified key value positions behind different policies and stakeholders. The paper also clarifies the relationship between reactive (cost-benefit and precautionary risk assessment, explaining their strengths and limitations, and the role of underlying values in both forms of risk decision making.

  17. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  18. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

    2001-10-01

    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  19. Understanding patient perceptions of shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, L Aubree; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of patient-defined SDM, and understand what leads patients to label a specific, decision-making process as shared. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 primary care patients following a recent appointment. Patients were asked about the meaning of SDM and about specific decisions that they labeled as shared. Interviews were coded using qualitative content analysis. Patients' conceptual definition of SDM included four components of an interactive exchange prior to making the decision: both doctor and patient share information, both are open-minded and respectful, patient self-advocacy, and a personalized physician recommendation. Additionally, a long-term trusting relationship helps foster SDM. In contrast, when asked about a specific decision labeled as shared, patients described a range of interactions with the only commonality being that the two parties came to a mutually agreed-upon decision. There is no one-size-fits all process that leads patients to label a decision as shared. Rather, the outcome of "agreement" may be more important than the actual decision-making process for patients to label a decision as shared. Studies are needed to better understand how longitudinal communication between patient and physicians and patient self-advocacy behaviors affect patient perceptions of SDM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Making objective decisions in mechanical engineering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicu, A.; Oanta, E.; Sabau, A.

    2017-08-01

    Decision making process has a great influence in the development of a given project, the goal being to select an optimal choice in a given context. Because of its great importance, the decision making was studied using various science methods, finally being conceived the game theory that is considered the background for the science of logical decision making in various fields. The paper presents some basic ideas regarding the game theory in order to offer the necessary information to understand the multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems in engineering. The solution is to transform the multiple-criteria problem in a one-criterion decision problem, using the notion of utility, together with the weighting sum model or the weighting product model. The weighted importance of the criteria is computed using the so-called Step method applied to a relation of preferences between the criteria. Two relevant examples from engineering are also presented. The future directions of research consist of the use of other types of criteria, the development of computer based instruments for decision making general problems and to conceive a software module based on expert system principles to be included in the Wiki software applications for polymeric materials that are already operational.

  1. FUZZY DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR BYZANTINE AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MURUGAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Byzantine fault tolerance is of high importance in the distributed computing environment where malicious attacks and software errors are common. A Byzantine process sends arbitrary messages to every other process. An effective fuzzy decision making approach is proposed to eliminate the Byzantine behaviour of the services in the distributed environment. It is proposed to derive a fuzzy decision set in which the alternatives are ranked with grade of membership and based on that an appropriate decision can be arrived on the messages sent by the different services. A balanced decision is to be taken from the messages received across the services. To accomplish this, Hurwicz criterion is used to balance the optimistic and pessimistic views of the decision makers on different services. Grades of membership for the services are assessed using the non-functional Quality of Service parameters and have been estimated using fuzzy entropy measure which logically ranks the participant services. This approach for decision making is tested by varying the number of processes, varying the number of faulty services, varying the message values sent to different services and considering the variation in the views of the decision makers about the services. The experimental result shows that the decision reached is an enhanced one and in case of conflict, the proposed approach provides a concrete result, whereas decision taken using the Lamport’s algorithm is an arbitrary one.

  2. How well-run boards make decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the aftermath of seismic debacles like those that toppled Enron and WorldCom, corporate boards have been shaken up and made over. More directors are independent these days, for instance, and corporations now disclose directors' salaries and committee members' names. Research shows that most of the changes are having a positive effect on companies' performance. They are primarily structural, though, and don't go to the heart of a board's work: making the choices that shape a firm's future. Which decisions boards own and how those calls are made are largely hidden from the public. As a result, boards are often unable to learn from the best governance practices of their counterparts at other companies. This article pulls back the curtain and provides an inside look. Drawing on interviews with board members and executives at 31 companies, along with a close examination of three boardroom decisions, the author identifies several formal processes that can help companies improve their decision making: creating calendars that specify when the board and the standing committees will consider key items; drafting charters that define the decisions committees are responsible for; and developing decision protocols that divvy up responsibilities between directors and executives. The author also identifies a number of informal decision-making principles: Items that are strategically significant and touch on the firm's core values should go to the board. Large decisions should be divided into small pieces, so the board can devote sufficient attention to each one. Directors must remain vigilant to ensure that their decisions are effectively implemented. The CEO and either the nonexecutive chair or the lead director should engage in ongoing dialogue regarding which decisions to take to the full board and when. And directors should challenge assumptions before making yes-or-no decisions on management proposals.

  3. Breast restoration decision making: enhancing the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaby, L L

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the breast restoration decision-making patterns used by women who opted to have their breast cancer treated by mastectomy. Sixty-four women wearing external breast prostheses and 31 women with breast reconstructions were interviewed. Modified versions of Simon's notion of "bounded rationality" and Janis and Mann's conflict model provided the conceptual scaffolding for the study. Five breast restoration decision-making patterns emerged from the analysis of the interview data: (a) Enlightened (actively seeks information, considers positive and negative aspects, and demonstrates deliberation on the alternatives), (b) Contented (passively accepts minimum information on alternatives because of a preference toward a particular type), (c) Sideliner (uncritically adopts any alternative that is easy and simple to implement), (d) Shifter (gives over the decision to others), and (e) Panic-stricken (can make no rational decision on alternatives). In the prosthesis group, the major pattern used was the Sideliner, and in the reconstruction group it was the Contented. None of the participants used the Enlightened pattern. The data indicated that there was no evidence of active information-seeking behavior or deliberation on the alternatives as part of the women's decision-making process. The findings suggest a need for a registered nurse oncology specialist to be accessible to women during the period when decisions regarding breast restoration are made. This professional has the knowledge to interact effectively with these women and serve as their advocate during the decision-making process. Implications for professional practice and a model for competent breast restoration decision making are presented.

  4. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  5. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction......, the sophisticated strategy, i.e., the strategy generated by a standard rolling back of the decision tree, is likely to be dominated w.r.t. stochastic dominance. Dynamic consistency of choices remains feasible, and the decision maker can avoid dominated choices, by adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, with his...... choices in a subtree possibly depending on what happens in the rest of the tree. We propose a procedure which: (i) although adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, involves a form of rolling back of the decision tree; (ii) selects a non-dominated strategy that realizes a compromise between the decision...

  6. Personal Decision-Making and Discussion Skills. Decision-Making in Contemporary America, Unit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Donald P.; And Others

    This unit on decision-making and discussion skills is the second of five units in a ninth grade social studies course (course described in SO 010 891). There are two major objectives: (1) given a problem, the student will make value judgments using decision-making skills; and (2) using proper discussion techniques, the student will analyze a…

  7. Making better decisions in uncertain times (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, C.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific information about climate change and other human impacts on the environment are increasingly available and sought after (often in the form of probabilistic forecasts or technical information related to engineering solutions). However, it is increasingly apparent that there are barriers to the use of this information by decision makers - either from its lack of application altogether, its usability for people without scientific backgrounds, or its ability to inform sound decisions and widespread behavior change. While the argument has been made that an information deficit is to blame, we argue that there is also a motivation deficit contributing to a lack of understanding of information about climate change impacts and solutions. Utilizing insight from over thirty years of research in social and cognitive psychology, in addition to other social sciences, the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) seeks to understand how people make environmental decisions under conditions of uncertainty, and how these decisions can be improved. This presentation will focus specifically on recent research that has come forth since the 2009 publication of CRED's popular guide 'The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public.' Utilizing case studies from real world examples, this talk will explore how decision making can be improved through a better understanding of how people perceive and process uncertainty and risk. It will explore techniques such as choice architecture and 'nudging' behavior change, how social goals and group participation affect decision making, and how framing of environmental information influences mitigative behavior.

  8. Participatory modeling and structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) provides a framework for making sound decisions even when faced with uncertainty, and is a transparent, defensible, and replicable method used to understand complex problems. A hallmark of SDM is the explicit incorporation of values and science, which often includes participation from multiple stakeholders, helping to garner trust and ultimately result in a decision that is more likely to be implemented. The core steps in the SDM process are used to structure thinking about natural resources management choices, and include: (1) properly defining the problem and the decision context, (2) determining the objectives that help describe the aspirations of the decision maker, (3) devising management actions or alternatives that can achieve those objectives, (4) evaluating the outcomes or consequences of each alternative on each of the objectives, (5) evaluating trade-offs, and (6) implementing the decision. Participatory modeling for SDM includes engaging stakeholders in some or all of the steps of the SDM process listed above. In addition, participatory modeling often is crucial for creating qualitative and quantitative models of how the system works, providing data for these models, and eliciting expert opinion when data are unavailable. In these ways, SDM provides a framework for decision making in natural resources management that includes participation from stakeholder groups throughout the process, including the modeling phase.

  9. Strategic Control in Decision Making under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vinod; Huettel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Complex economic decisions – whether investing money for retirement or purchasing some new electronic gadget – often involve uncertainty about the likely consequences of our choices. Critical for resolving that uncertainty are strategic meta-decision processes, which allow people to simplify complex decision problems, to evaluate outcomes against a variety of contexts, and to flexibly match behavior to changes in the environment. In recent years, substantial research implicates the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in the flexible control of behavior. However, nearly all such evidence comes from paradigms involving executive function or response selection, not complex decision making. Here, we review evidence that demonstrates that the dmPFC contributes to strategic control in complex decision making. This region contains a functional topography such that the posterior dmPFC supports response-related control while the anterior dmPFC supports strategic control. Activation in the anterior dmPFC signals changes in how a decision problem is represented, which in turn can shape computational processes elsewhere in the brain. Based on these findings, we argue both for generalized contributions of the dmPFC to cognitive control, and for specific computational roles for its subregions depending upon the task demands and context. We also contend that these strategic considerations are also likely to be critical for decision making in other domains, including interpersonal interactions in social settings. PMID:22487037

  10. Evidence-based decision-making in Asia-Pacific with rapidly changing health-care systems: Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirawattanapisal, Thidaporn; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2009-01-01

    To review the use of evidence in the market approval process, reimbursement, and price control mechanisms for medicines and medical devices in Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan. Documentary reviews supplemented by interviews with senior policymakers of relevant public health authorities. Drug regulatory authorities play a vital role in the market authorization process by considering evidence on safety, efficacy and quality for new medicines, and bio-equivalence for new generic products of previously patented medicines. For the formulation of the reimbursement list, all three cases applied evidence on cost-effectiveness, to various degrees, with clear institutional structure, capacity, and functions. Only Thailand has specified an explicit benchmark on cost-effectiveness for inclusion in the reimbursement list. For price control, all have established mechanisms and processes for price negotiation. These mechanisms apply evidence on cost structure and relative prices in other countries to ensure affordable prices, especially with the patented drug industry. Thailand's universal insurance schemes use a capitation payment model which proves effective in implicit price control. To increase access to essential medicines that have patents on and high price, Thailand applied Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property flexibilities; "government use of patent," for public noncommercial purposes to seven essential drugs in 2006 to 2008. Rapidly increasing health expenditure and universal health insurance systems have created greater requirement for proof of "value for money" in the approval and funding of new medical technologies. All settings have established clear mechanisms to apply appropriate evidence in the processes of market approval, reimbursement, and pricing control.

  11. [Treatment Decision-Making Process of Cancer Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiu-Yu C Katie

    2016-10-01

    The decision-making process that is used by cancer patients to determine their treatment has become more multi-foci, difficult and complicated in recent years. This has in part been attributed to the increasing incidence rate of cancer in Taiwan and the rapid development of medical technologies and treatment modalities. Oncology nurses must assist patients and family to make informed and value-based treatment decisions. Decision-making is an information process that involves appraising one's own expectation and values based on his/her knowledge on cancer and treatment options. Because cancer treatment involves risks and uncertainties, and impacts quality of life, the treatment decision-making for cancer is often stressful, or even conflicting. This paper discusses the decision-making behaviors of cancer patients and the decisional conflict, participation, and informational needs that are involved in cancer treatment. The trend toward shared decision-making and decisional support will be also explored in order to facilitate the future development of appropriate clinical interventions and research.

  12. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vrana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.

  13. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  14. Patient decision-making for clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwen

    2007-03-01

    Medicine is incorporating genetic services into all avenues of health-care, ranging from the rarest to the most common diseases. Cognitive theories of decision-making still dominate professionals' understanding of patient decision-making about how to use genetic information and whether to have testing. I discovered a conceptual model of decision-making while carrying out a phenomenological-hermeneutic descriptive study of a convenience sample of 12 couples who were interviewed while deciding whether to undergo prenatal genetic testing. Thirty-two interviews were conducted with 12 men and 12 women separately. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and all data were analyzed using three levels of coding that were sorted into 30 categories and then abstracted into three emergent meta-themes that described men's and women's attempts to make sense and find meaning in how to best use prenatal genetic technology. Their descriptions of how they thought about, communicated, and coped with their decision were so detailed it was possible to discern nine different types of thinking they engaged in while deciding to accept or decline testing. They believed that decision-making is a process of working through your own personal style of thinking. This might include only one or any combination of the following types of thinking: analytical, ethical, moral, reflective, practical, hypothetical, judgmental, scary, and second sight, as described in detail by these 12 couples.

  15. The role of behavioral economics and behavioral decision making in Americans' retirement savings decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knoll, Melissa A Z

    2010-01-01

    .... Behavioral economists and decision-making researchers, however, are interested in how people make decisions in the face of incomplete information, limited cognitive resources, and decision biases...

  16. Decision-Making under Stress and Its Implications for Managerial Decision-Making: A Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Atsan

    2016-01-01

    We examine the main theoretical models of decision making under stress and the effects of decision stress on decision making process to provide a deeper understanding of the decision making phenomenon. The literature review reveals that stress can have an impact on each stage of the decision-making process. The review also finds that decision makers could enhance their decision-making performance and prevent potential decision failures by means of adapting certain coping strategies.

  17. Dynamic scaling regimes of collective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Gronlund, Andreas; Minnhagen, Petter

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a social system of agents faced with a binary choice. We assume there is a correct, or beneficial, outcome of this choice. Furthermore, we assume agents are influenced by others in making their decision, and that the agents can obtain information that may guide them towards making a correct decision. The dynamic model we propose is of nonequilibrium type, converging to a final decision. We run it on random graphs and scale-free networks. On random graphs, we find two distinct regions in terms of the "finalizing time" -- the time until all agents have finalized their decisions. On scale-free networks on the other hand, there does not seem to be any such distinct scaling regions.

  18. Delayed perceptual awareness in rapid perceptual decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Gregori-Grgič

    Full Text Available The flourishing of studies on the neural correlates of decision-making calls for an appraisal of the relation between perceptual decisions and conscious perception. By exploiting the long integration time of noisy motion stimuli, and by forcing human observers to make difficult speeded decisions--sometimes a blind guess--about stimulus direction, we traced the temporal buildup of motion discrimination capability and perceptual awareness, as assessed trial by trial through direct rating. We found that both increased gradually with motion coherence and viewing time, but discrimination was systematically leading awareness, reaching a plateau much earlier. Sensitivity and criterion changes contributed jointly to the slow buildup of perceptual awareness. It made no difference whether motion discrimination was accomplished by saccades or verbal responses. These findings suggest that perceptual awareness emerges on the top of a developing or even mature perceptual decision. We argue that the middle temporal (MT cortical region does not confer us the full phenomenic depth of motion perception, although it may represent a precursor stage in building our subjective sense of visual motion.

  19. Decision Making in Armored Platoon Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    to address this factor explicitly is the ’ garbage can’ model of decision making (Cohen, 4 March , & Olsen , 1972). At first, the model focused largely...Learning Research and Development Center. 35 Cohen, M. D., March , J. G., & Olsen , J. P. (1972). A garbage can model of organizational choice...8217.WD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Requirement: The failure of formal models to describe decisions made in natural environments has necessitated direct field

  20. GM ethical decision making in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Celia Deane-Drummond's case for wisdom as an approach to ethical decision making and her doubts about case-oriented methodology are critiqued with reference to the SRT Project's Engineering Genesis study. Its approach is explored in practical decisions on various real life examples of genetic modification in crops and animals. It involved both intrinsic and consequential approaches, and identified key value positions behind different policies and stakeholders. The paper also clarifies the rel...

  1. Decision Making in Dynamic Information Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Oliveira; Jose Carlos Montoya; Paulo Novais; Ken Satoh

    2017-01-01

    If there is no knowledge about the state of the world, getting the appropriate response to an event becomes impossible. Situations of uncertainty are common in the most varied environments and have the potential to impair or even stop the decision-making process. Thus, reaching an outcome in such situations requires the development of decision frameworks that account for missing, contradictory or uncertain information.

  2. Decision Making for Participation in Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Betty S.; Wechsler, Malory; Fogarty, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the decision-making process used by individuals asked to participate in dementia research and their opinions on how future proxy research decisions would or should be made, including participants’ preferred ethical standards for decision-making. Design Cross-sectional qualitative methods. Setting University research institutions. Participants Informants were 39 of 46 cognitively impaired individuals (i.e., subjects) who were asked to join one of six dementia studies and 46 study partners or surrogate decision-makers. Measurements Semi-structured individual interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for content analysis. Results Within dyads, subjects and surrogates often differed in their perspectives on how decisions were made regarding whether to join a study, and no single method was identified as a predominant approach. While there was only fair agreement within dyads on who ultimately made the decision, subjects and surrogates most often said it was the subject. For future proxy research decisions, subjects and surrogates most often preferred the ethical standard of best interests and least often favored substituted judgment. However, many participants preferred a combination of best interests and substituted judgment or a more complex approach that also considers the interests of others. Conclusions Individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment can and do engage to some extent in the decision-making process for dementia research and can discuss their opinions on how they would want such decisions made for them in the future. These findings support the recommended approach for obtaining proxy consent and subject assent if the individual lacks consent capacity. PMID:23498382

  3. Family decision-making during food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    Decision-making during food buying is a joint family activity involving both parents and children. Children manage to achieve a high degree of influence on many decisions, among other things, because they participate actively and help out doing various tasks. These decisions may turn out...... to be a choice of unhealthy food. Many decisions are made at the supermarket or other food shops, and food packaging is often used in the comparison of food products. Only rarely do families use nutritional information on food labels due to several problems in the understanding of these labels; this may result...... in difficulties in distinguishing among healthy and unhealthy food. Both parents and children being active in the decision process may lead to conflicts due to gaps in preference such as between healthy and unhealthy food. Families solve these conflicts via open communication patterns and a use of various...

  4. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.

  5. Neural Basis of Strategic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeol; Seo, Hyojung

    2016-01-01

    Human choice behaviors during social interactions often deviate from the predictions of game theory. This might arise partly from the limitations in the cognitive abilities necessary for recursive reasoning about the behaviors of others. In addition, during iterative social interactions, choices might change dynamically as knowledge about the intentions of others and estimates for choice outcomes are incrementally updated via reinforcement learning. Some of the brain circuits utilized during social decision making might be general-purpose and contribute to isomorphic individual and social decision making. By contrast, regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and temporal parietal junction (TPJ) might be recruited for cognitive processes unique to social decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis entitled “Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences” is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision support in the context of transport infrastructure assessments. Despite the fact that large amounts...... identification to the possible decision making. The process makes use of a preliminary problem structuring phase, and an intervention phase featuring the concept of a decision conference where decision-makers and multiple stakeholders have the possibility of interacting with the decision support model...... depends to a high degree on subjective preferences stated by the decision-makers as the methodology deals with impacts (or criteria) that are difficult to quantify or assign with a monetary value. As a result of this an examination process is proposed that can guide the decision-makers through...

  7. [Decision making: biological bases and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portera Sánchez, A

    2000-01-01

    In the human brain, simple molecules and complex circuits are constantly making decisions which are indispensable for our survival and also to accomplish a variety of daily activities such as walking, memorizing, conversing, composing music, painting or poetry.... All are the result of the integration of many neural systems that perceive many and simultaneous visual, tactile, auditory and/or mental stimuli. Once synthetized, they are immediately transmitted to the corresponding executive systems, thus completing the fascinating functional loop of decision-making: a) perception of stimuli or information which originate in the environment, b) selection and elaboration of the decision which is considered more appropriate or attractive according to personal experience or intuition and c) execution. If these neural nets have been damaged or haven failed to develop the mechanisms of facilitation or inhibition that govern them become unbalanced. If inhibition is reduced, excessive and violent behaviour is expressed as in patients suffering from manic phases. Conversely, if inhibition is excessive, decision making mechanisms are not operative. In either case, behaviour is not "reasonable" and does not follow prototypical patterns. All these processes must be the consequence of a constant molecular activity full of micro-decisions whose effectiveness depends on the histological and biochemical integrity of the neurons. This microenvironment is responsible for all types of decisions of all forms of life and represents one of the fundamental successes of evolution.

  8. Decision making of vending machine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, L W

    1988-06-01

    This article discusses two possible solutions to decision making about controls by users of vending machines: the 'one button to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of one button only); the 'several buttons to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of several buttons). The basis for the discussion is a field evaluation of a train ticket vending machine (TVM) that can sell 800 different types of tickets and can accept all kinds of payment. For this evaluation several hundred TVM users and ticket window users were observed and interviewed. Special attention was paid to the errors which were made.

  9. Decision making in narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Abril, Beatriz; Yu, Huan; Scholz, Sabine; Carlander, Bertrand; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2011-01-01

    To investigate decision-making and addictive behaviors in narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC). NC is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins. The hypocretin system plays a crucial role in sleep, wakefulness, and energy homeostasis, and is also involved in emotion regulation, reward processing, and addiction. Academic sleep center. 23 subject with NC and 23 matched healthy controls. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision making under ambiguity condition based on emotional feedback processing and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to assess decision making under risk condition. All participants underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Patients underwent one night of polysomnography followed by an MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed between MSLT sessions. NC patients had higher depressive symptoms and showed a significant lack of perseverance. One NC patient had a past history of drug dependence. NC patients also exhibited selective reduced IGT performance and normal performance on the GDT. No clinical or polysomnographic characteristics were associated with increased sensitivity to reward and/or decreased sensitivity to punishment. However, lack of perseverance in NC patients was associated with disadvantageous decision making on the IGT. We demonstrated a lack of perseverance and a selective reduced performance on decision making under ambiguity in NC in contrast to normal decision making under explicit conditions. Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy may opt for choices with higher immediate emotional valence, regardless of higher future punishment, to compensate for their reduced reactivity to emotional stimuli.

  10. Computer modeling of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.

  11. Narrative medicine and decision-making capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The author proposes a new model for the assessment of decision-making capacity based on the principles of narrative medicine. The narrative method proposed by the author addresses the hidden power realtionships implicit in the current model of capacity assessment. Sample cases are reviewed using the traditional model in comparison with the narrative model. Narrative medicine provides an effective model for the assessment of decision-making capacity. Deficiencies in the traditional model capacity assessment can be effectively addressed using narrative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. On emotion specificity in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Zeelenberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a motivational account of the impact of emotion on decision making, termed the feeling-is-for-doing approach. We first describe the psychology of emotion and argue for a need to be specific when studying emotion's impact on decision making. Next we describe what our approach entails and how it relates emotion, via motivation to behavior. Then we offer two illustrations of our own research that provide support for two important elements in our reasoning. We end with specifying four criteria that we consider to be important when studying how feeling guides our everyday doing.

  13. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  14. How Decisions Emerge: Action Dynamics in Intertemporal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dshemuchadse, Maja; Scherbaum, Stefan; Goschke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In intertemporal decision making, individuals prefer smaller rewards delivered sooner over larger rewards delivered later, often to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. This behavior has been attributed to a lack of self-control and reflection, the nonlinearity of human time perception, and several other sources.…

  15. Influence of extroversion and introversion on decision making ability

    OpenAIRE

    Rehana Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Decision is defined as a choice that you make about something after thinking about several possibilities. Human decision making and judgment is readily observable in reality. The Personality trait that Influence Decision Making is usually missing from research of decision making. The current study is focused on the characteristics which stimulate the decision making behavior but is not concerned about what makes a decision good or bad.This study aimed to compare the differences in...

  16. Models for research into decision-making processes: On phases, streams and decision-making rounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Teisman (Geert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis article elaborates on the question how complex decision-making can be analysed. Three conceptual models are compared: the phase model, the stream model and the rounds model. Each model is based on specific assumptions about what decision-making is and how it should be analysed. The

  17. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  18. Making Decisions with Unknown Sensory Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a “chicken and egg” problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning. PMID:22679418

  19. Making decisions with unknown sensory reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a "chicken and egg" problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning.

  20. Realism and Impartiality: Making Sustainability Effective in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons, Miquel; Armengou, Jaume

    2017-08-01

    There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism (emotional altruism), insufficient impartiality (tactical altruism) or both phenomena at once (egoism). The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making (ethical sustainability), which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability.

  1. Age Effects and Heuristics in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor Besedeš; Cary Deck; Sudipta Sarangi; Mikhael Shor

    2012-01-01

    Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked, allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subje...

  2. Age Effects and Heuristics in Decision Making*

    OpenAIRE

    Besedes, Tibor; Deck, Carey; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2012-01-01

    Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjec...

  3. [Factors behind action, emotion, and decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2009-12-01

    Human actions, emotions, and decision making are products of complex interactions between explicit and implicit processes at various levels of spatial and temporal scales. Although it may not be possible to obtain to experimental data for all the complexity of human behavioral and emotional processes in our everyday life, recent studies have investigated the effects of social contexts on actions, emotions, and decision making; these studies include those in the fields of experimental psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this paper, we review several empirical studies that exemplify how our actions, social emotions, and decision making are influenced by the presence of implicit external, rather than internal factors, particularly by presence of other individuals. The following are the main principles identified. (1) Unconscious behavioral contagion: Individuals tend to mimic others' actions. This tendency occurs unconsciously even when the observed and the to-be-executed movements are unrelated at various levels and aspects of behaviors (e. g., behavioral tempo and speed). (2) Neural substrates of social emotions: Various social emotions, including admiration, compassion, envy, and schadenfreude, are represented in neuronal networks that are similar to those of basic emotional processes. (3) Evasive nature of human decision making: Individuals tend to overrate their own subjective impression of and emotional reaction in forecasting affective reaction to events in the future, even though the predictive power of information from peer group is much larger in this regard. Individuals are seldom aware of the dissociation between their intended choice and excuted actions and are willing to give elaborate explanations for the choices they, in fact, did not make. Using these empirical examples, I will illustrate the considerable influences of implicit, unconscious processes on human actions, emotions, and decision making.

  4. Decision-Making Styles in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raffaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.

  5. The cycle of intellingence production as support organizacional decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cristofer Baierle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many authors claim that to cope with rapid changes in social and productive environments, and especially for responding quickly to customer demands and / or users in an organization, information is needed and its management. Decision-making processes also take into account only the past experiences, and this model no longer meets the precepts of today's corporate world, considering the speed with which the market and competition are in search of improvement. Centered on the concepts of Competitive Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence, this article aims to show the importance of information processing, focusing on the processes of decision making and provide a model for their organization and storage. The findings point to the use of intelligent systems, contributing to improved decision-making process and seeking to obtain answers with high quality standards relating to market demand.

  6. Decision Making: Between Rationality and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Polič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost by definition decision-making is typical human activity, and therefore important psychological subject. The starting point of its classical conception within psychology could be traced back to economy and mathematic, with ideas of human as rational economic being, and conceptualising decision making as choice between two or more alternatives, and as such being a separate event in space and time. Already in fifties Herbert Simon challenged such a view with his concept of bounded rationality, emerging from the joint effect of internal limitations of the human mind, and the structure of external environments in which the mind operates. During the last decades with the shift to the real word situations where decisions are embedded in larger tasks, becoming so part of the study of action, the lost rational human appeared again as efficient creature in the complex environment. Gigerenzer showed how heuristics help in this process.

  7. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  8. Principals, Shared Decision Making, and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.; Cambone, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The attitudes of six principals serving in shared decision-making (SDM) high schools toward SDM were studied. Although three supported SDM as a vehicle for improving education, the others supported it for its own sake, to democratize schools. Problems in instituting the reforms in these schools are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Emotion, decision-making and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.J.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels

  10. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  11. SERVIR: Environmental Decision Making in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William; Irwin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system for Mesoamerica that integrates satellite and other geospatial data for improved scientific knowledge and decision making by managers, researchers, students, and the general public. SERVIR addresses the nine societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This talk will provide an overview of products and services available through SERVIR.

  12. Career Decision-Making and Corporate Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainty, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the extent of influence of corporate (or organisational) responsibility on university students' career decision-making. It reports on a pilot study conducted at the University of Sydney which aims to: explore students' ethical, professional and social understanding regarding corporate responsibility; determine the…

  13. Optimal Decision Making in Neural Inhibition Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2012-01-01

    In their influential "Psychological Review" article, Bogacz, Brown, Moehlis, Holmes, and Cohen (2006) discussed optimal decision making as accomplished by the drift diffusion model (DDM). The authors showed that neural inhibition models, such as the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA) and the feedforward inhibition model (FFI), can mimic the…

  14. Production Optimisation as a Decision Making Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Crnjac Milić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a production analysis which can help management in the decision making process. Given that certain assumptions are correct, the mathematical interpretation of the optimal resource allocation and the income maximisation of a certain economic entity can be solved.

  15. Rational decision-making in inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep eShenoy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the well-studied stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.

  16. Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Linda A.

    This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

  17. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  18. Pupil Decision Making in the Reading Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Being able to make decisions is important for all students. Students need to have opportunities to choose from among alternative situations. Reading, as one curriculum area, provides a plethora of opportunities to choose and to select. The philosopher John Locke believed the following facets of an individual's development were in the ensuing order…

  19. Recent developemts in multiple criteria decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zionts

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems involving more than one criterion abound. To help in the solution of such problems, a field of management science and operations research known as multiple criteria decision making (MCDM has emerged to help solve such problems. In this paper we discuss some recent developments in this important field.

  20. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  1. Prospect theory and political decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, B.

    2011-01-01

    Risk is a central feature of political decision making. Prospect theory, an empirically correct theory of choice under risk that deals precisely with this condition, therefore seems to have much to offer political science. Prospect theory's central finding is that individuals' attitude toward risk

  2. Hyperchaotic phenomena in dynamic decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, John David

    1992-01-01

    of this article is to show how the decision making behavior of real people in simulated corporate environments can lead to chaotic, hyperchaotic and higher-order hyperchaotic phenomena. Characteristics features of these complicated forms of behavior are analyzed with particular emphasis on an interesting form...

  3. Decision Making with Ultrasound in Rheumatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Ven (Myrthe)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe _first aim_ of this thesis was to evaluate the added value of ultrasound in clinical decision making in patients with arthralgia, patients with psoriasis and monitoring RA patients. Our _second aim_ was to increase sensitivity of power Doppler ultrasound for MCP joints.

  4. The cognitive error in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue deals with the partial data of a research in progress on focalization, pseudodiagnosticity and framing- effect in decision making, followed by the most important results of some experiments about the emotional aspects of the choice, and ends by stressing the potential contribution of the artificial neural networks to the medical diagnosis.

  5. Ultrasound technology: A decision-making tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultrasound demonstration was conducted for participants (~ 110 people) of the Arkansas Cattle Grower’s Conference, Hope, AR. Evaluation of live animals with ultrasound technology allows beef producers the ability to make selection and management decisions. Specifically, ultrasound at the conclu...

  6. Multivariate Analysis of Household Decision Making, Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of household decision making on the use of contraceptives and fertility behaviour of ever-married men in Nigeria. Men's Recode Dataset of 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) dataset was used. A sample size of 8,981 ever married men aged 15-49 were analyzed using ...

  7. Decision making performance in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, MMA; Veltman, DJ; de Jong, R; Mulder, G; den Boer, JA

    Background: Neuro-imaging studies in OCD report the orbitofrontal cortex to be functionally abnormal. As these areas are presumed to be involved in decision making, studying this behavior in OCD may provide further insight into the cognitive deficits accompanying the disorder. Methods: Performance

  8. Deferential vulnerability and patient decision-making

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... Deferential vulnerability arises when individuals subordinate themselves or submit to an authority figure when making decisions about their day-to-day lives and existence within their specific environment and relationships. This customary obedience occurs in cultures where certain hierarchical systems ...

  9. Prepare, Act, Reflect: Intentional Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Notes that teachers make intentional decisions during interaction with children and reflect on what occurs in the environment. Focuses on teacher behavior along several continua: soft-hard, simple-complex, open-closed, intrusion-seclusion, and high versus low mobility. Illustrates theory with a transcribed observation. Adapts Jones and Prescott's…

  10. Decision Making and Systems Thinking: Educational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…

  11. Nature of Science and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship of nature of science (NOS) instruction and students' decision-making (DM) related to a controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. Participants were ninth-grade students in four intact sections (two regulars and two honors) in a public high school in the Midwest. All four groups were…

  12. Ethics in economic decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, Marijke Christina

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation sheds more light on ethics in economic decision-making. Over the course of nine experiments, I studied (a) when people adhere to ethical standards like the do-no-harm principle, and (b) how people respond to situations in which ethical standards are violated by studying not only

  13. Demographic differences in adult consumers' decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual consumers are subject to different influences on how they make decisions and what decision-making style they use. Consumer decision-making styles are a mental orientation that characterises a consumer's approach to making choices. The main purpose of the study is to explore the decision-making styles of ...

  14. Using basic geographic information systems functionality to support sustainable forest management decision making and post-decision assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; R. James Barbour; Krista M. Gebert; Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable management of natural resources requires informed decision making and post-decision assessments of the results of those decisions. Increasingly, both activities rely on analyses of spatial data in the forms of maps and digital data layers. Fortunately, a variety of supporting maps and data layers rapidly are becoming available. Unfortunately, however, user-...

  15. Decision-Making Amplification under Uncertainty: An Exploratory Study of Behavioral Similarity and Intelligent Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Merle Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent decision systems have the potential to support and greatly amplify human decision-making across a number of industries and domains. However, despite the rapid improvement in the underlying capabilities of these "intelligent" systems, increasing their acceptance as decision aids in industry has remained a formidable challenge.…

  16. Errors in Aviation Decision Making: Bad Decisions or Bad Luck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Martin, Lynne; Davison, Jeannie; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support 'correct' and safe operations in aviation, errors in human judgment still occur and contribute to accidents. In this paper we examine how an NDM (naturalistic decision making) approach might help us to understand the role of decision processes in negative outcomes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second, and more difficult, task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The corpus we analyzed consisted of tactical decision errors identified by the NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) from a set of accidents in which crew behavior contributed to the accident. A common pattern emerged: about three quarters of the errors represented plan-continuation errors, that is, a decision to continue with the original plan despite cues that suggested changing the course of action. Features in the context that might contribute to these errors were identified: (a) ambiguous dynamic conditions and (b) organizational and socially-induced goal conflicts. We hypothesize that 'errors' are mediated by underestimation of risk and failure to analyze the potential consequences of continuing with the initial plan. Stressors may further contribute to these effects. Suggestions for improving performance in these error-inducing contexts are discussed.

  17. Familiarity and recollection in heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwikert, Shane R; Curran, Tim

    2014-12-01

    Heuristics involve the ability to utilize memory to make quick judgments by exploiting fundamental cognitive abilities. In the current study we investigated the memory processes that contribute to the recognition heuristic and the fluency heuristic, which are both presumed to capitalize on the byproducts of memory to make quick decisions. In Experiment 1, we used a city-size comparison task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the potential contributions of familiarity and recollection to the 2 heuristics. ERPs were markedly different for recognition heuristic-based decisions and fluency heuristic-based decisions, suggesting a role for familiarity in the recognition heuristic and recollection in the fluency heuristic. In Experiment 2, we coupled the same city-size comparison task with measures of subjective preexperimental memory for each stimulus in the task. Although previous literature suggests the fluency heuristic relies on recognition speed alone, our results suggest differential contributions of recognition speed and recollected knowledge to these decisions, whereas the recognition heuristic relies on familiarity. Based on these results, we created a new theoretical framework that explains decisions attributed to both heuristics based on the underlying memory associated with the choice options. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-03-01

    The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.

  19. History matching through dynamic decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina C B Cavalcante

    Full Text Available History matching is the process of modifying the uncertain attributes of a reservoir model to reproduce the real reservoir performance. It is a classical reservoir engineering problem and plays an important role in reservoir management since the resulting models are used to support decisions in other tasks such as economic analysis and production strategy. This work introduces a dynamic decision-making optimization framework for history matching problems in which new models are generated based on, and guided by, the dynamic analysis of the data of available solutions. The optimization framework follows a 'learning-from-data' approach, and includes two optimizer components that use machine learning techniques, such as unsupervised learning and statistical analysis, to uncover patterns of input attributes that lead to good output responses. These patterns are used to support the decision-making process while generating new, and better, history matched solutions. The proposed framework is applied to a benchmark model (UNISIM-I-H based on the Namorado field in Brazil. Results show the potential the dynamic decision-making optimization framework has for improving the quality of history matching solutions using a substantial smaller number of simulations when compared with a previous work on the same benchmark.

  20. Nicotinic alteration of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Before you make that big decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Lovallo, Dan; Sibony, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    When an executive makes a big bet, he or she typically relies on the judgment of a team that has put together a proposal for a strategic course of action. After all, the team will have delved into the pros and cons much more deeply than the executive has time to do. The problem is, biases invariably creep into any team's reasoning-and often dangerously distort its thinking. A team that has fallen in love with its recommendation, for instance, may subconsciously dismiss evidence that contradicts its theories, give far too much weight to one piece of data, or make faulty comparisons to another business case. That's why, with important decisions, executives need to conduct a careful review not only of the content of recommendations but of the recommendation process. To that end, the authors-Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economics for his work on cognitive biases; Lovallo of the University of Sydney; and Sibony of McKinsey-have put together a 12-question checklist intended to unearth and neutralize defects in teams' thinking. These questions help leaders examine whether a team has explored alternatives appropriately, gathered all the right information, and used well-grounded numbers to support its case. They also highlight considerations such as whether the team might be unduly influenced by self-interest, overconfidence, or attachment to past decisions. By using this practical tool, executives will build decision processes over time that reduce the effects of biases and upgrade the quality of decisions their organizations make. The payoffs can be significant: A recent McKinsey study of more than 1,000 business investments, for instance, showed that when companies worked to reduce the effects of bias, they raised their returns on investment by seven percentage points. Executives need to realize that the judgment of even highly experienced, superbly competent managers can be fallible. A disciplined decision-making process, not individual genius, is the key to good

  2. Water Decision-Making Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Odame, Augustina Yaa Oye

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is made up of three separate studies under the unifying theme of “Water Decision-Making under Uncertainty.” The first study analyzed a farmer’s decision to invest in a more efficient irrigation system given uncertainty about future water supplies and his post-investment efficiency. It found the price at which farmers would no longer produce to be a bigger consideration in irrigation investment than previously thought. It also found support for a careful identification and co...

  3. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  4. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  5. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the relevant...

  6. Adoption Decision Making among Women Seeking Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Ralph, Lauren; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana Greene

    Little is known about how adoption factors into pregnancy decision making, particularly when abortion is unavailable. We used data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking abortion, including 231 women denied abortions owing to gestational limits. Through semiannual quantitative interviews, we assessed the frequency with which women denied abortion consider and choose adoption, and, among adoption participants, decision satisfaction. We compared differences in the demographic profiles of parenting and adoption participants using mixed effects regression models. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 women who received or were denied wanted abortions, including 2 adoption participants, focused on understanding pregnancy decision making and feelings about their choice. Interviews were coded using inductive and deductive methods. Most women who received abortions were aware of but uninterested in adoption. A minority of women denied abortions (n = 231; 14%) were considering adoption at 1 week after denial. Of participants who gave birth (n = 161), most (91%) chose parenting. Parenting participants (n = 146) did not differ from adoption participants (n = 15) on measures of age, race, or poverty status, although adoption participants were somewhat less likely to be employed (20% vs. 43%; p = .1), and somewhat more likely to have completed high school (87% vs. 74%; p = .08). Although satisfaction with their decision was high among adoption participants, in-depth interviews revealed mixed emotions. Among women motivated to avoid parenthood, as evidenced by abortion seeking, adoption is considered or chosen infrequently. Political promotion of adoption as an alternative to abortion is likely not grounded in the reality of women's decision making. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Why good leaders make bad decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew; Whitehead, Jo; Finkelstein, Sydney

    2009-02-01

    Decision making lies at the heart of our personal and professional lives. Yet the daunting reality is that enormously important decisions made by intelligent, responsible people with the best information and intentions are nevertheless hopelessly flawed at times. In part, that's due to the way our brains work. Modern neuroscience teaches us that two hard-wired processes in the brain--pattern recognition and emotional tagging--are critical to decision making. Both are normally reliable; indeed, they provide us with an evolutionary advantage. But in certain circumstances, either one can trip us up and skew our judgment. In this article, Campbell and Whitehead, directors at the Ashridge Strategic Management Centre, together with Finkelstein, of Dartmouth's Tuck School, describe the conditions that promote errors of judgment and explore how organizations can build safeguards against them into the decision-making process. In their analysis, the authors delineate three "red-flag conditions" that are responsible either for distorting emotional tagging or for encouraging people to see false patterns: conflicts of interest; attachments to people, places, or things; and the presence of misleading memories, which seem, but really are not, relevant and comparable to the current situation. Using a global chemical company as an example, the authors describe the steps leaders can take to counteract those biases: inject fresh experience or analysis, introduce further debate and more challenges to their thinking, and impose stronger governance. Rather than rely on the wisdom of experienced chairmen, the humility of CEOs, or the standard organizational checks and balances, the authors urge, everyone involved in important decisions should explicitly consider whether red flags exist and, if they do, lobby for appropriate safeguards.

  8. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  9. Business intelligence making decisions through data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Surma, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book is about using business intelligence as a management information system for supporting managerial decision making. It concentrates primarily on practical business issues and demonstrates how to apply data warehousing and data analytics to support business decision making. This book progresses through a logical sequence, starting with data model infrastructure, then data preparation, followed by data analysis, integration, knowledge discovery, and finally the actual use of discovered knowledge. All examples are based on the most recent achievements in business intelligence. Finally this book outlines an overview of a methodology that takes into account the complexity of developing applications in an integrated business intelligence environment. This book is written for managers, business consultants, and undergraduate and postgraduates students in business administration.

  10. A neural model of decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    a range of 4-7 Hz) [Sauseng et al, 2006]. See, elaborated description at L4. Thalamo-cortico integration The characteristic resting pattern of the brain is α-waves in the 8-12 Hz/s band which indicates an autogenic cortical reset originated in Thalamus (α%) [Hanslmayr et al, 2007]. The dynamics......Background: A descriptive neuroeconomic model is aimed for relativity of the concept of economic man to empirical science. Method: A 4-level client-server-integrator model integrating the brain models of McLean and Luria is the general framework for the model of empirical findings. Results......: Decision making relies on integration across brain levels of emotional intelligence (LU) and logico-matematico intelligence (RIA), respectively. The integrated decision making formula approaching zero by bottom-up emotional and  frontoparietal-downward logico-matematico learning is: CONC := LU...

  11. Shared decision making in Australia in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal; Shepherd, Heather L; Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; Cust, Anne E; Leask, Julie; Shadbolt, Narelle; Del Mar, Chris; McCaffery, Kirsten; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2017-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is now firmly established within national clinical standards for accrediting hospitals, day procedure services, public dental services and medical education in Australia, with plans to align general practice, aged care and disability service. Implementation of these standards and training of health professionals is a key challenge for the Australian health sector at this time. Consumer involvement in health research, policy and clinical service governance has also increased, with a major focus on encouraging patients to ask questions during their clinical care. Tools to support shared decision making are increasingly used but there is a need for more systemic approaches to their development, cultural adaptation and implementation. Sustainable solutions to ensure tools are kept up-to-date with the best available evidence will be important for the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Dene; Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Wilson, David Sloan

    Team decision making dynamics are investigated from a novel perspective by shifting agency from decision makers to representations of potential solutions. We provide a new way to navigate social dynamics of collective decision making by interpreting decision makers as constituents of an evolutionary environment of an ecology of evolving solutions. We demonstrate distinct patterns of evolution with respect to three forms of variation: (1) Results with random variations in utility functions of individuals indicate that groups demonstrating minimal internal variation produce higher true utility values of group solutions and display better convergence; (2) analysis of variations in behavioral patterns within a group shows that a proper balance between selective and creative evolutionary forces is crucial to producing adaptive solutions; and (3) biased variations of the utility functions diminish the range of variation for potential solution utility, leaving only the differential of convergence performance static. We generally find that group cohesion (low random variation within a group) and composition (appropriate variation of behavioral patterns within a group) are necessary for a successful navigation of the solution space, but performance in both cases is susceptible to group level biases.

  14. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  15. Decision making in the manufacturing environment using graph theory and fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ravipudi Venkata

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing is the backbone of any industrialized nation. Recent worldwide advances in manufacturing technologies have brought about a metamorphism in the industry. Fast-changing technologies on the product front have created a need for an equally fast response from manufacturing industries. To meet these challenges, manufacturing industries have to select appropriate manufacturing strategies, product designs, manufacturing processes, work piece and tool materials, and machinery and equipment. The selection decisions are complex as decision making is more challenging today. Decision makers i

  16. Simplifying decision making: a practical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Muhammad Shirjeel Riaz; Sidek, Mohmad Safhree

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis proposes a decision-making model based on PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal) analysis, AHP (Analytical Hierarchical Process), and game theory. The case study used to demonstrate the concept is a 2013 Malaysian crisis wherein foreign intruders occupied a village in Sabah state. The Malaysian government, ultimately, launched a military operation to clear the area. The focus of our st...

  17. Design of Decision-Making Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Christensen; Thorbjørn Knudsen

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the premise that individuals within an organization are fallible, this paper advances the study of relationships between the organization's decision-making structure and its performance. We offer a general treatment that allows one to analyze the full range of organizational architectures between extreme centralized and decentralized forms (often referred to as hierarchies and polyarchies). Our approach furthermore allows designers to examine the change in the overall reliabilit...

  18. The Physics of Bacterial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Eshel eBen Jacob; Eshel eBen Jacob; Mingyang eLu; Daniel eSchultz; José N. Onuchic

    2014-01-01

    The choice that bacteria make between sporulation and competence when subjected to stress provides a prototypical example of collective cell fate determination that is stochastic on the individual cell level, yet predictable (deterministic) on the population level. This collective decision is performed by an elaborated gene network. Considerable effort has been devoted to simplify its complexity by taking physics approaches to untangle the basic functional modules that are integrated to form...

  19. The physics of bacterial decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Lu, Mingyang; Schultz, Daniel; Onuchic, Jose' N.

    2014-01-01

    The choice that bacteria make between sporulation and competence when subjected to stress provides a prototypical example of collective cell fate determination that is stochastic on the individual cell level, yet predictable (deterministic) on the population level. This collective decision is performed by an elaborated gene network. Considerable effort has been devoted to simplify its complexity by taking physics approaches to untangle the basic functional modules that are integrated to form ...

  20. Utility Systems Operation: Optimisation ?Based Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision-making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisat...

  1. Collaborative Platforms Aid Emergency Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Terra. Aqua. Cloudsat. Landsat. NASA runs and partners in many missions dedicated to monitoring the Earth, and the tools used in these missions continuously return data on everything from shifts in temperature to cloud formation to pollution levels over highways. The data are of great scientific value, but they also provide information that can play a critical role in decision making during times of crisis. Real-time developments in weather, wind, ocean currents, and numerous other conditions can have a significant impact on the way disasters, both natural and human-caused, unfold. "NASA has long recognized the need to make its data from real-time sources compatible and accessible for the purposes of decision making," says Michael Goodman, who was Disasters Program manager at NASA Headquarters from 2009-2012. "There are practical applications of NASA Earth science data, and we d like to accelerate the use of those applications." One of the main obstacles standing in the way of eminently practical data is the fact that the data from different missions are collected, formatted, and stored in different ways. Combining data sets in a way that makes them useful for decision makers has proven to be a difficult task. And while the need for a collaborative platform is widely recognized, very few have successfully made it work. Dave Jones, founder and CEO of StormCenter Communications Inc., which consults with decision makers to prepare for emergencies, says that "when I talk to public authorities, they say, If I had a nickel for every time someone told me they had a common operating platform, I d be rich. But one thing we ve seen over the years is that no one has been able to give end users the ability to ingest NASA data sets and merge them with their own."

  2. Leadership of risk decision making in a complex, technology organization: The deliberative decision making model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaming, Susan C.

    2007-12-01

    The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into

  3. Advancing in the Career Decision-Making Process: The Role of Coping Strategies and Career Decision-Making Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maya; Gati, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    We tested the associations among the career decision-making difficulties, the career decision status, and either (a) the career decision-making profiles of 575 young adults, or (b) the coping strategies of 379 young adults. As hypothesized, a more advanced decision status was negatively associated with both career decision-making difficulties…

  4. Dialogic Consensus In Clinical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul; Lovat, Terry

    2016-12-01

    This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives other than their own, and be attuned to the demands of inter-subjectivity. Applicable to clinical practice, we propose and justify a Habermasian approach as one useful means of achieving what can be described as dialogic consensus. The Habermasian approach builds around, first, his discourse theory of morality as universalizable to all and, second, communicative action as a cooperative search for truth. It is a concrete way to ground the discourse which must be held in complex medical decision-making situations, in its actual reality. Considerations about the theoretical underpinnings of the application of dialogic consensus to clinical practice, and potential difficulties, are explored.

  5. Learning decision making through serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Joseph; Davidson, Richard; Bryden, Daniele; Haselden, Stephen; Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie

    2016-08-01

    In Serious Games (SGs), educational content is integrated into a game so that learning is intrinsic to play, thereby motivating players and improving engagement. SGs enable learning by developing situated understanding in users and by enabling players to practise safe clinical decision making; however, the use of SGs in medical education is not well established. We aimed to design a game-based resource to teach clinical decision making to medical students, and to assess user perceptions of educational value, usability and the role for SGs in undergraduate training. An SG focusing on the acute management of tachyarrhythmias was developed. Third- and fourth-year medical students at the medical school were invited to use and evaluate the game using questionnaires and focus groups. We invited 479 students, and 281 accessed the game. Only 47 students completed the questionnaire and 31 students participated in the focus groups. The data suggest that SGs: (1) can allow students to rehearse taking responsibility for decision making; (2) are fun and motivational; (3) have a role in revising and consolidating knowledge; and (4) could be formative assessment tools. Serious Games enable learning by developing situated understanding in users SGs could be employed as adjuvant learning resources to develop students' skills and knowledge. Further empirical research is required to assess the added value of games in medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Decision making, risky behavior, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camchong, Jazmin; Endres, Michael; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism can be described as a disorder characterized by impulsive decision-making processes, wherein potential short-term appetitive outcomes of drinking (e.g., intoxication) are deemed more important than potential long-term aversive consequences of drinking (e.g., drunk-driving arrests). Separate but interrelated neurocognitive pathways to impulsive decision making exist - one reflected by weak "top-down" executive control over impulsive and compulsive urges to consume alcohol, the other reflected by a strong "bottom-up" appetitive drive in impulsive and compulsive urges to consume alcohol. We present behavioral evidence of poor executive control and strong appetitive drive and neural evidence describing differences in functional and organizational patterns in brain executive control and appetitive drive networks. We discuss how these behavioral and neural aspects of alcoholism are associated with impulsive decision making and risky behavior in alcoholics, and how these patterns differ at different stages of alcoholism dependence and recovery. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients.

  8. Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Alex J.; Welton, Nicky J.; Ades, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    In meta-analysis, between-study heterogeneity indicates the presence of effect-modifiers and has implications for the interpretation of results in cost-effectiveness analysis and decision making. A distinction is usually made between true variability in treatment effects due to variation in patient populations or settings and biases related to the way in which trials were conducted. Variability in relative treatment effects threatens the external validity of trial evidence and limits the ability to generalize from the results; imperfections in trial conduct represent threats to internal validity. We provide guidance on methods for meta-regression and bias-adjustment, in pairwise and network meta-analysis (including indirect comparisons), using illustrative examples. We argue that the predictive distribution of a treatment effect in a “new” trial may, in many cases, be more relevant to decision making than the distribution of the mean effect. Investigators should consider the relative contribution of true variability and random variation due to biases when considering their response to heterogeneity. In network meta-analyses, various types of meta-regression models are possible when trial-level effect-modifying covariates are present or suspected. We argue that a model with a single interaction term is the one most likely to be useful in a decision-making context. Illustrative examples of Bayesian meta-regression against a continuous covariate and meta-regression against “baseline” risk are provided. Annotated WinBUGS code is set out in an appendix. PMID:23804507

  9. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  10. Self-Esteem in Decision Making and Decision-Making Styles of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Veysel; Birol, Sefa Sahan; Nas, Kazim; Akpinar, Selahattin; Tekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles of the teachers in various branches of Çat town of Erzurum Province, Turkey in terms of some variables in 2014-2015 year. A total of 153 teachers (84 females and 69 males) (age (? = 1.6536 ± 0.72837) from different departments participated in the…

  11. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasko Marta

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III, including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect

  12. Pleasure in decision-making situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-05-29

    This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their highest hedonic

  13. Communicating evidence for participatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald M; Alper, Brian S; Quill, Timothy E

    2004-05-19

    Informed patients are more likely to actively participate in their care, make wiser decisions, come to a common understanding with their physicians, and adhere more fully to treatment; however, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for discussing clinical evidence with patients in the process of making medical decisions. To identify ways to communicate evidence that improve patient understanding, involvement in decisions, and outcomes. Systematic review of MEDLINE for the period 1966-2003 and review of reference lists of retrieved articles to identify original research dealing with communication between clinicians and patients and directly addressing methods of presenting clinical evidence to patients. Two investigators and a research assistant screened 367 abstracts and 2 investigators reviewed 51 full-text articles, yielding 8 potentially relevant articles. Methods for communicating clinical evidence to patients include nonquantitative general terms, numerical translation of clinical evidence, graphical representations, and decision aids. Focus-group data suggest presenting options and/or equipoise before asking patients about preferred decision-making roles or formats for presenting details. Relative risk reductions may be misleading; absolute risk is preferred. Order of information presented and time-frame of outcomes can bias patient understanding. Limited evidence supports use of human stick figure graphics or faces for single probabilities and vertical bar graphs for comparative information. Less-educated and older patients preferred proportions to percentages and did not appreciate confidence intervals. Studies of decision aids rarely addressed patient-physician communication directly. No studies addressed clinical outcomes of discussions of clinical evidence. There is a paucity of evidence to guide how physicians can most effectively share clinical evidence with patients facing decisions; however, basing our recommendations largely on related

  14. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  15. The overburdened manager and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P D

    1979-10-01

    This article discusses three methods managers can use to make decisions: intuition, management analysis, and Type 1 and Type 2 error analysis. Olson identifies studies that have shown that top managers work at an unrelenting pace and jump from one activity to another. He claims that managers do not have time to plan in a reflective, systematic manner. In fact, in his view, decision makers usually react intuitively to situations that can no longer be ignored. The author presents evidence that top managers prefer verbal media such as telephone calls and meeting for decision making because of their timeliness. He points out that the strategic data bank of the organization is largely in the mind of the manager. As a consequence, he states, an effective analysis requires that the manager communicate to the analyst the relevant data stored in his head. This process often makes it easier for the manager to solve the problem himself rather than delegate it to others. Olson identifies five organizational conditions that enable a top manager to effectively delegate problem solving tasks to management analysts: (1) the analyst must have the confidence of the same people who influence the manager; (2) the analyst must be able to adapt the techniques to the specific needs of the manager; (3) there must be sufficient time for the analyst to structure the problem and evaluate the alternatives; (4) the analyst must share in information gathered by the manager from verbal contacts; and (5) the manager must be part of an organization large enough to make it profitable for him to seek assistance from an analyst. When the above organizational conditions are not met, the author suggests Type 1 and Type 2 error analysis. He promotes this form of analysis as a method for using logic and intuition to consider various forms of information. This management tool is named for Type 1 error (accepting a proposal that should have been rejected) and Type 2 error (rejecting a proposal that should

  16. Decision Making Processes for Global Product Development - a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Global Product Development (GPD), outsourcing and offshoring of product development is a widespread phenomenon on today’s global economy, and consequently most engineering manufacturing companies will have to make decisions regarding how to organise their product development activities globally...... to investigate how decisions are made and which information decisions are based on. The study found that decision making is not always structured, and that prioritised decision making is more dominant than planned decision making. The findings set the stage for further analysis of decision making in GPD......, and for development of support tools decision support tools for manager, which are based on empirical evidence and experience....

  17. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  18. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  19. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  20. Shared decision making in Argentina in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Mariela; Kopitowski, Karin; Carrara, Carolina; Yanzi, María Victoria Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Argentina is a high-middle income country located in Southern South America with an estimated population of 44 million inhabitants. The epidemiological profile of the population is characterised by an increase of non-communicable diseases. The health system is heterogeneous, fragmented and loosely integrated. There are no unified research agenda or government initiatives encouraging the implementation of and research on shared decision making (SDM). Progress has been made lately to respect patient autonomy through the enactment of the 'Patients' Rights Act', which expressly enshrines the right of patients to get information as a key element of decision-making. To our knowledge, the team at the Department of Family and Community Medicine of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires is the only one working on shared decision making in Argentina. This department carries out research, medical undergraduate and graduate training, and clinical practice implementation activities through strategies aimed at professionals and patients alike. We face some challenges regarding SDM, such as: 1) the fragmentation and the heterogeneity of the local health system; 2) we are a small group of people working on this topic who, simultaneously, have care, management, teaching and research responsibilities; 3) we have no government support and project funding is scarce; 4) due to the geographic location of the country, we must make a great effort in order to attend events on the state of the art in SDM. Given the current state of our health system, we believe the government is not likely to encourage, implement or research on SDM in the short term. Our group will continue to work on the local initiative and also to instil it in other interested groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. An emerging field of research: challenges in pediatric decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Ellen A; Brinkman, William B; Fiks, Alexander G; Hendrix, Kristin S; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Miller, Victoria A; Prosser, Lisa A; Ungar, Wendy J; Fox, David

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in pediatric decision science, spurred by policies advocating for children's involvement in medical decision making. Challenges specific to pediatric decision research include the dynamic nature of child participation in decisions due to the growth and development of children, the family context of all pediatric decisions, and the measurement of preferences and outcomes that may inform decision making in the pediatric setting. The objectives of this article are to describe each of these challenges, to provide decision researchers with insight into pediatric decision making, and to establish a blueprint for future research that will contribute to high-quality pediatric medical decision making. Much work has been done to address gaps in pediatric decision science, but substantial work remains. Understanding and addressing the challenges that exist in pediatric decision making may foster medical decision-making science across the age spectrum. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Supporting Superfund community based decision making: Large group decision making models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Community involvement is a cornerstone of the Superfund Program. Forums supporting community based decision-making have been established across the country. The challenge facing the Superfund program is how to effectively support the decision-making processes necessary to accelerate site cleanup and reuse of Superfund sites. This paper examines models of large group decision making; self-organizing processes; principles from the latest management theories; and experiences in the international development community. The convergence of these experiences offer new paradigms to frame the community based decision-making process being implemented across the country. This paper illustrates the value of stakeholder participation in understanding and resolving issues within a whole system framework. Since the 1900s, management theory has moved from ``experts solving problems`` to ``everybody improving whole systems``. When everybody understands the whole, fragmentation is reduced, stakeholders share a common understanding, and decision are made within a common context. Two models of large group decision making will be detailed: ``The Future Search Model`` and the ``Appreciation, Influence and Control Model (AIC) Self Organizing Model``. This paper applies these techniques to existing community involvement activity.

  3. A Design Pattern for Decentralised Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreagiovanni Reina

    Full Text Available The engineering of large-scale decentralised systems requires sound methodologies to guarantee the attainment of the desired macroscopic system-level behaviour given the microscopic individual-level implementation. While a general-purpose methodology is currently out of reach, specific solutions can be given to broad classes of problems by means of well-conceived design patterns. We propose a design pattern for collective decision making grounded on experimental/theoretical studies of the nest-site selection behaviour observed in honeybee swarms (Apis mellifera. The way in which honeybee swarms arrive at consensus is fairly well-understood at the macroscopic level. We provide formal guidelines for the microscopic implementation of collective decisions to quantitatively match the macroscopic predictions. We discuss implementation strategies based on both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent systems, and we provide means to deal with spatial and topological factors that have a bearing on the micro-macro link. Finally, we exploit the design pattern in two case studies that showcase the viability of the approach. Besides engineering, such a design pattern can prove useful for a deeper understanding of decision making in natural systems thanks to the inclusion of individual heterogeneities and spatial factors, which are often disregarded in theoretical modelling.

  4. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  5. Shared decision-making: nurses must respect autonomy over paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2013-06-01

    Shared decision-making lies at the heart of the Government's reforms of the NHS in England. The slogan, 'No decision about me without me', underpins shared decision-making that sees patients as active participants in their treatment decisions. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah argue that for 'no decision about me, without me' to be a reality, district nurses must guard against paternalistic decision-making that excludes the views and wishes of their patients.

  6. Make up your mind - How stress and sex affect decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Koot, S.

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making refers to assessing costs and benefits of competing actions, with either a known outcome or an uncertain result. Decision-making depends on several abilities, such as behavioural flexibility and inhibiting risky responses. Several factors affect decision-making, causing differences in the outcome of decision-making processes. The overall aim was to improve our understanding of effects of stress and gender on decision-making, in rodents and in humans. First, impulsive decision-...

  7. BUSINESS DECISION MAKING ON FINANCING OPERATING ACTIVITIES IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Djokovic

    2013-01-01

    Outputs of management process related to decision making and the implementation of decisions of the business. Business decision-making, in the widest sense of the time aspect, it can be seen from the operational and strategic character. In this paper, the focus is on analyzing leverage and rate of return the operational decision-making in the hotel as a function of current financing activities. Operational decision-making, must be aligned with strategic, so that all segments of the operationa...

  8. Uncovering principles of cellular decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suel, Gurol

    2012-02-01

    Cells can cope with unpredictable environmental conditions by differentiating into appropriate states. In this talk, I will present our recent attempts to understand the role of genetic circuits in regulating the underlying process of cellular decision-making. Specifically, we are interested in how interactions within and across genetic circuits enable cells to choose among alternative fates. To address this question my laboratory is employing systems and synthetic biology approaches. Our ultimate goal is to uncover possible evolutionary pressures that may have selected for specific gene circuit architectures, dynamics and noise properties.

  9. The Dynamics of Strategic Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Bresser, Rudi K. F.; Hallin, Carina Antonia

    Effective strategy-making in turbulent industries needs current insights that can inform ongoing decisions around adaptive strategic moves. Frontline employees involved in the daily business transactions are the first to see the subtle changes not otherwise observed by top managers. Top management...... with dominant logics anchored in previous business contexts usually receive updated information from performance reports for prior periods. All the while, we discern a human inclination linked to the position of power where managers subconsciously discard updated information from frontline employees. We present...

  10. Personalized Clinical Decision Making in Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    and initial stages. This article outlines the potential use of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in clinical decision making with special regard to preoperative evaluation and response assessment in gastric cancer (including the gastroesophageal junction), pancreatic cancer (excluding neuroendocrine tumors......Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that include both common and rare diseases with very different presentations and prognoses. The mainstay of treatment is surgery in combination with preoperative and adjuvant chemotherapy depending on clinical presentation......), colorectal cancer, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors....

  11. Surrogate decision making in the internet age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The computer revolution has had an enormous effect on all aspects of the practice of medicine, yet little thought has been given to the role of social media in identifying treatment choices for incompetent patients. We are currently living in the "Internet age" and many people have integrated social media into all aspects of their lives. As use becomes more prevalent, and as users age, social media are more likely to be viewed as a source of information regarding medical care preferences. This article explores the ethical and legal issues raised by the use of social media in surrogate decision making.

  12. Integrating clinical research into clinical decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Tonelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine has placed a general priority on knowledge gained from clinical research for clinical decision making. However, knowledge derived from empiric, population-based research, while valued for its ability to limit bias, is not directly applicable to the care of individual patients. The gap between clinical research and individual patient care centers on the fact that empiric research is not generally designed to answer questions of direct relevance to individual patients. Clinicians must utilize other forms of medical knowledge, including pathophysiologic rationale and clinical experience, in order to arrive at the best medical decision for a particular patient. In addition, clinicians must also elucidate and account for the goals and values of individual patients as well as barriers and facilitators of care inherent in the system in which they practice. Evidence-based guidelines and protocols, then, can never be prescriptive. Clinicians must continue to rely on clinical judgment, negotiating potentially conflicting warrants for action, in an effort to arrive at the best decision for a particular patient.

  13. Fuzzy multiple objective decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Young-Jou

    1994-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the fuzzy set theory has been applied in many disciplines such as operations research, management science, control theory, artificial intelligence/expert system, etc. In this volume, methods and applications of crisp, fuzzy and possibilistic multiple objective decision making are first systematically and thoroughly reviewed and classified. This state-of-the-art survey provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, and their characteristics and applicability to analysis of fuzzy and possibilistic programming problems. To realize practical fuzzy modelling, it presents solutions for real-world problems including production/manufacturing, location, logistics, environment management, banking/finance, personnel, marketing, accounting, agriculture economics and data analysis. This book is a guided tour through the literature in the rapidly growing fields of operations research and decision making and includes the most up-to-date bibliographical listing of literature on the topi...

  14. A systems approach to vaccine decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Mueller, Leslie E; Tilchin, Carla G

    2017-01-20

    Vaccines reside in a complex multiscale system that includes biological, clinical, behavioral, social, operational, environmental, and economical relationships. Not accounting for these systems when making decisions about vaccines can result in changes that have little effect rather than solutions, lead to unsustainable solutions, miss indirect (e.g., secondary, tertiary, and beyond) effects, cause unintended consequences, and lead to wasted time, effort, and resources. Mathematical and computational modeling can help better understand and address complex systems by representing all or most of the components, relationships, and processes. Such models can serve as "virtual laboratories" to examine how a system operates and test the effects of different changes within the system. Here are ten lessons learned from using computational models to bring more of a systems approach to vaccine decision making: (i) traditional single measure approaches may overlook opportunities; (ii) there is complex interplay among many vaccine, population, and disease characteristics; (iii) accounting for perspective can identify synergies; (iv) the distribution system should not be overlooked; (v) target population choice can have secondary and tertiary effects; (vi) potentially overlooked characteristics can be important; (vii) characteristics of one vaccine can affect other vaccines; (viii) the broader impact of vaccines is complex; (ix) vaccine administration extends beyond the provider level; and (x) the value of vaccines is dynamic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  16. Brain and behavior in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassey, Peter; Heathcote, Andrew; Brown, Scott D

    2014-07-01

    Speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is an adaptive process balancing urgency and caution when making decisions. Computational cognitive theories, known as "evidence accumulation models", have explained SATs via a manipulation of the amount of evidence necessary to trigger response selection. New light has been shed on these processes by single-cell recordings from monkeys who were adjusting their SAT settings. Those data have been interpreted as inconsistent with existing evidence accumulation theories, prompting the addition of new mechanisms to the models. We show that this interpretation was wrong, by demonstrating that the neural spiking data, and the behavioural data are consistent with existing evidence accumulation theories, without positing additional mechanisms. Our approach succeeds by using the neural data to provide constraints on the cognitive model. Open questions remain about the locus of the link between certain elements of the cognitive models and the neurophysiology, and about the relationship between activity in cortical neurons identified with decision-making vs. activity in downstream areas more closely linked with motor effectors.

  17. Brain and behavior in decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cassey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT is an adaptive process balancing urgency and caution when making decisions. Computational cognitive theories, known as "evidence accumulation models", have explained SATs via a manipulation of the amount of evidence necessary to trigger response selection. New light has been shed on these processes by single-cell recordings from monkeys who were adjusting their SAT settings. Those data have been interpreted as inconsistent with existing evidence accumulation theories, prompting the addition of new mechanisms to the models. We show that this interpretation was wrong, by demonstrating that the neural spiking data, and the behavioural data are consistent with existing evidence accumulation theories, without positing additional mechanisms. Our approach succeeds by using the neural data to provide constraints on the cognitive model. Open questions remain about the locus of the link between certain elements of the cognitive models and the neurophysiology, and about the relationship between activity in cortical neurons identified with decision-making vs. activity in downstream areas more closely linked with motor effectors.

  18. Collaborative decision making for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsley, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    For many years, economic development has mean industrial recruitment where business-at-any-cost was preached by a small elite, where civic discord replaced civic discussion, where families made more money but had less to spend, where residents learned to lock their doors, where communities changed from the unique to commonplace and a thousand towns looked alike. But now, scores of communities are saying no to old, worn-out approaches to development and embracing a new kind of development that respects the community and the environment. Created collaboratively by people from all walks of community life, this new approach is called sustainable community economic development. Though new, sustainable development is based on traditional values of stewardship and working together. Its principles are powerful in their simplicity. Its lessons enrich community decision making. This paper describes these principles and lessons. It introduces a community decision-making process that applies them and suggests the kinds of results you can expect from such a process in your town.

  19. Decision Making in Paediatric Cardiology. Are We Prone to Heuristics, Biases and Traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aedin; Duignan, Sophie; Kenny, Damien; McMahon, Colin J

    2018-01-01

    Hidden traps in decision making have been long recognised in the behavioural economics community. Yet we spend very limited, if any time, analysing our decision-making processes in medicine and paediatric cardiology. Systems 1 and 2 thought processes differentiate between rapid emotional thoughts and slow deliberate rational thoughts. For fairly clear cut medical decisions, in-depth analysis may not be needed, but in our field of paediatric cardiology it is not uncommon for challenging cases and occasionally 'simple' cases to generate significant debate and uncertainty as to the best decision. Although morbidity and mortality meetings frequently highlight poor outcomes for our patients, they often neglect to analyse the process of thought which underlined those decisions taken. This article attempts to review commonly acknowledged traps in decision making in the behavioural economics world to ascertain whether these heuristics translate to decision making in the paediatric cardiology environment. We also discuss potential individual and collective solutions to pitfalls in decision making.

  20. Consumer Decision Making in Online Shopping Environments: The Effects of Interactive Decision Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Häubl; Valerie Trifts

    2000-01-01

    Despite the explosive growth of electronic commerce and the rapidly increasing number of consumers who use interactive media (such as the World Wide Web) for prepurchase information search and online shopping, very little is known about how consumers make purchase decisions in such settings. A unique characteristic of online shopping environments is that they allow vendors to create retail interfaces with highly interactive features. One desirable form of interactivity from a consumer perspec...

  1. Psychological model for judicial decision making in emergency or temporary child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, M; Barry, J; Billingham, K; Boorstein, B W; Butler, C; Gershberg, R; Heim, J; Lirianio, D; McGovern, S; Nicastro, S; Romaniello, J; Vazquez-Nuttall, K; White, C

    2001-10-01

    In emergencies, family court judges must often make rapid decisions, without benefit of thorough information, that have significant impact on people's lives. Action-oriented research was used to develop a model that would bring psychosocial factors to the legal system for the purpose of enhancing the judicial decision-making process in emergency and temporary child placement cases.

  2. Reasons, methods used and decision-making for pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons, methods used and decision-making for pregnancy termination among ... was influenced by socio-economic, educational and personal considerations. ... Conclusion: Relationship issues influence the decision-making process for ...

  3. Decision Making, Models of Mind, and the New Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores implications for understanding educational decision making from a cognitive science perspective. Examines three models of mind providing the methodological framework for decision-making studies. The "absent mind" embodies the behaviorist research tradition. The "functionalist mind" underwrites traditional cognitivism…

  4. Ethics and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, G

    1980-12-01

    There is a tendency for physicians to approach ethical problems in a manner similar to that in which they approach medical problems. Instead of disease categories (such as congestive heart failure or diarrhea), the physician substitutes moral quandaries (such as euthanasia or abortion). The goal is to learn what the "right" rules are for this particular problem at this particular moment. Although this method has important practical and instructive value, it can produce an empirical attitude toward ethics akin to that found in students who strive to learn medicine solely by algorithms. Using theoretical models as a center for discussion, this article has attempted to approach medical ethics as a decision-making process derived from the physician-patient relationship model in use. What is the type of physician-patient relationship that forms the soundest base for making ethical decisions? It must be realized that the contractual relationship cannot be ignored, for in our consumer-oriented society it will surely remain as a protection for the patient against the incompetent or immoral physician. It should not become the sole guide of physician behavior, however, lest we be satisfied with mediocre behavior as the maximal standard. Likewise, although technical competence is required for one to make the right and good decision, it is insufficient alone as a guide for moral behavior. Given the medically correct facts, a multitude of responses are available which necessitate a moral choice. Physicians need a guiding principle that goes beyond any aesthetic code of behavior, or protection of self-interest, and which enables them to deal with all the unexpected ethical questions faced in providing care to patients. Moral principles such as truth-telling, promise-keeping, and protecting the patient when he is vulnerable, help the physician to act in a moral manner, but lack the encompassing nature of the covenantal promise. The covenantal model includes a donative element

  5. Crisis Decision Making Through a Shared Integrative Negotiation Mental Model

    OpenAIRE

    Van Santen, W.; Jonker, C.M.; Wijngaards, N.

    2009-01-01

    Decision making during crises takes place in (multi-agency) teams, in a bureaucratic political context. As a result, the common notion that during crises decision making should be done in line with a Command & Control structure is invalid. This paper shows that the best way for crisis decision making teams in a bureaucratic political context is to follow an integrative negotiation approach as the shared mental model of decision making. This conclusion is based on an analysis of crisis decisio...

  6. Decision-Making in Nursing Practice: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbelink, Christine W; Brewer, Barbara B

    2017-11-03

    Identify and summarize factors and processes related to registered nurses' patient care decision-making in medical-surgical environments. A secondary goal of this literature review was to determine whether medical-surgical decision-making literature included factors that appeared to be similar to concepts and factors in Naturalistic Decision Making. Decision-making in acute care nursing requires an evaluation of many complex factors. While decision-making research in acute care nursing is prevalent, errors in decision-making continue leading to poor patient outcomes. Naturalistic Decision Making may provide a framework for further exploring decision-making in acute care nursing practice. A better understanding of the literature is needed to guide future research to more effectively support acute care nurse decision-making. Pubmed and CINAHL databases were searched and research meeting criteria was included. Data were identified from all included articles and themes were developed based on these data. Key findings in this review include nursing experience and associated factors; organization and unit culture influences on decision-making; education; understanding patient status; situation awareness; and autonomy. Acute care nurses employ a variety of decision-making factors and processes. informally identify experienced nurses to be important resources for decision-making. Incorporation of evidence into acute care nursing practice continues to be a struggle for acute care nurses. This review indicates that Naturalistic Decision Making may be applicable to decision-making nursing research. Experienced nurses bring a broad range of previous patient encounters to their practice influencing their intuitive, unconscious processes which facilitates decision-making. Using NDM as a conceptual framework to guide research may help with understanding how to better support less experienced nurses' decision-making for enhanced patient outcomes. This article is protected by

  7. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria eLee; Lasana eHarris

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may inf...

  8. The Physics of Bacterial Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshel eBen Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice that bacteria make between sporulation and competence when subjected to stress provides a prototypical example of collective cell fate determination that is stochastic on the individual cell level, yet predictable (deterministic on the population level. This collective decision is performed by an elaborated gene network. Considerable effort has been devoted to simplify its complexity by taking physics approaches to untangle the basic functional modules that are integrated to form the complete network: 1. A stochastic switch whose transition probability is controlled by two order parameters – population density and internal/external stress. 2. An adaptable timer whose clock rate is normalized by the same two previous order parameters. 3. Sensing units which measure population density and external stress. 4. A communication module that exchanges information about the cells’ internal stress levels. 5. An oscillating gate of the stochastic switch which is regulated by the timer. The unique circuit architecture of the gate allows special dynamics and noise management features. The gate opens a window of opportunity in time for competence transitions, during which the circuit generates oscillations that are translated into a chain of short intervals with high transition probability. In addition, the unique architecture of the gate allows filtering of external noise and robustness against variations in circuit parameters and internal noise. We illustrate that a physics approach can be very valuable in investigating the decision process and in identifying its general principles. We also show that both cell-cell variability and noise have important functional roles in the collectively controlled individual decisions.

  9. The physics of bacterial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Lu, Mingyang; Schultz, Daniel; Onuchic, Jose' N

    2014-01-01

    The choice that bacteria make between sporulation and competence when subjected to stress provides a prototypical example of collective cell fate determination that is stochastic on the individual cell level, yet predictable (deterministic) on the population level. This collective decision is performed by an elaborated gene network. Considerable effort has been devoted to simplify its complexity by taking physics approaches to untangle the basic functional modules that are integrated to form the complete network: (1) A stochastic switch whose transition probability is controlled by two order parameters-population density and internal/external stress. (2) An adaptable timer whose clock rate is normalized by the same two previous order parameters. (3) Sensing units which measure population density and external stress. (4) A communication module that exchanges information about the cells' internal stress levels. (5) An oscillating gate of the stochastic switch which is regulated by the timer. The unique circuit architecture of the gate allows special dynamics and noise management features. The gate opens a window of opportunity in time for competence transitions, during which the circuit generates oscillations that are translated into a chain of short intervals with high transition probability. In addition, the unique architecture of the gate allows filtering of external noise and robustness against variations in circuit parameters and internal noise. We illustrate that a physics approach can be very valuable in investigating the decision process and in identifying its general principles. We also show that both cell-cell variability and noise have important functional roles in the collectively controlled individual decisions.

  10. Merging paradigms: Decision Making, Management, and Cognitive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1996-01-01

    behavior, such as the SRK concept, naturalistic decision making, and dynamic decision making.In this evolution, concepts such as decision making, management, and behavioral control merge and a concurrent change in concepts underlying design of systems aiming at control of behavior is visible, from...

  11. Reflective Decision Making among University Department Heads across Academic Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of leadership and management, decision making greatly defines the role of university administrator, in particular, the university department head and his/her ability to be a reflective practitioner in the realm of decision making. Decision making is one characteristic of university department head work which warrants close…

  12. School Board Decision Making: An Analysis of the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics in the school board decision-making process and to discover whether school board members are aware of the characteristics surrounding the school board's decision-making process. Specifically, this study examines the decision-making process of a school board in Virginia, and it provides…

  13. The Role of Mental Maps in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Raphael; Schuck, Nicolas W; Doeller, Christian F

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of work is investigating the use of mental maps during decision-making. Here we discuss how decision-making organizes experiences according to an internal model of the current task, thereby structuring memory. Likewise, we consider how the structure of mental maps contributes to decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress in Decision-Making: Three Causes, Three Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Don

    This paper is a brief description of a conference presentation consisting of a 2.5-hour clinic session on decision-making. A motion picture, "The Making of a Decision," followed by a lively discussion, was used to illustrate the strenghts and weaknesses of administrators in their decision-making process. Presented in the film are three…

  15. George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

  16. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Mitchell R.; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M. S.; Coutts, Aaron J.

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30

  17. An Instructional System for Consumer Decision-Making: Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, J. Richard; DiSario, Martha R.

    An instructional system is presented for building the competencies of adult basic education students in making consumer decisions, and offers a guide to teachers who wish to design their own decision-making problems for students. The first four chapters provide a brief introduction, discuss the rational consumer decision-making process and the…

  18. Participative management in sport: Coaches views on decision making

    OpenAIRE

    E. Swanepoel; J. Surujlal

    2013-01-01

    Implementing participative decision making practices has become increasingly popular amongst organisations. Numerous benefits, including increased morale and job satisfaction, have been associated with the effective implementation of participative decision making. This qualitative study was designed to investigate sport coaches’ views on participative decision making at their respective organisations. Scheduled interviews of between 30 – 40 minutes were conducted and recorded with a sample of...

  19. Is Group Decision Making in the Classroom Constructive or Destructive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rhonda; King, John

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on Australian students' cognitive and social skills in group decision-making activities conducted in the classroom. Finds that students were motivated to participate in group decision-making and that students' decision-making strategies are destructive when students assert their own ideas at the expense of others.…

  20. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  1. What Learning Environments Help Improve Decision-Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Decision-making is a key component of performance in sport. However, there has been minimal investigation of how coaches may adapt practice sessions to specifically develop decision-making. Purpose: The aim in this exploratory study was to investigate the pedagogical approaches coaches use to develop decision-making in soccer. Method:…

  2. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  3. Incorporating ecological functions in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Emilia; Linke, Simon; Hermoso, Virgilio; Geist, Juergen

    2017-10-01

    Systematic conservation planning has become a standard approach globally, but prioritization of conservation efforts hardly considers species traits in decision making. This can be important for species persistence and thus adequacy of the conservation plan. Here, we developed and validated a novel approach of incorporating trophic information into a systematic conservation planning framework. We demonstrate the benefits of this approach using fish data from Europe's second largest river, the Danube. Our results show that adding trophic information leads to a different spatial configuration of priority areas at no additional cost. This can enhance identification of priority refugia for species in the lower position of the trophic web while simultaneously identifying areas that represent a more diverse species pool. Our methodological approach to incorporating species traits into systematic conservation planning is generally applicable, irrespective of realm, geographical area, and species composition and can potentially lead to more adequate conservation plans.

  4. Ethical decision making in intrapartum nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anne H

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are confronted daily with making ethical decisions in practice, in which the "right" or best course of action must be determined. However, for intrapartum nurses, the seemingly ordinary nature of ethical issues means that these concerns may be viewed merely as clinical or logistical problems to be solved, leaving the ethical dimensions obscured. This has consequences not only for women and the provision of safe, family-centered maternity care but also for the quality of nurses' work environments and degree of moral distress experienced. This article explores ethical aspects of intrapartum nursing by applying ethical principles and moral reasoning to an "everyday" situation encountered by intrapartum nurses in practice. Implications for practice and the development of healthy moral communities are considered.

  5. Shared Decision Making in Neonatal Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jamie B; Wiggins, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine published Crossing the Quality Chasm in 2001, healthcare systems have become more focused on improving the quality of healthcare delivery. At Oregon Health & Science University and Doernbecher Children's Hospital, we recognize the need to take an interprofessional, team-based approach to improving the care we provide to our current and future patients. We describe here an ongoing quality improvement project in the Doernbecher Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), with specific attention to the factors we believe have contributed to the implementation and early success of the project. These factors include the history of quality improvement work in our NICU and in the field of neonatology, the "dyad leadership" structure under which we operate in our NICU, and our developing understanding of the concept of "team intelligence." These elements have led to the formation of a team that can practice shared decision making and work as one to realize a shared goal.

  6. Phenomenological theory of collective decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiris, Anna; Koman, Zsombor; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2017-08-01

    An essential task of groups is to provide efficient solutions for the complex problems they face. Indeed, considerable efforts have been devoted to the question of collective decision-making related to problems involving a single dominant feature. Here we introduce a quantitative formalism for finding the optimal distribution of the group members' competences in the more typical case when the underlying problem is complex, i.e., multidimensional. Thus, we consider teams that are aiming at obtaining the best possible answer to a problem having a number of independent sub-problems. Our approach is based on a generic scheme for the process of evaluating the proposed solutions (i.e., negotiation). We demonstrate that the best performing groups have at least one specialist for each sub-problem - but a far less intuitive result is that finding the optimal solution by the interacting group members requires that the specialists also have some insight into the sub-problems beyond their unique field(s). We present empirical results obtained by using a large-scale database of citations being in good agreement with the above theory. The framework we have developed can easily be adapted to a variety of realistic situations since taking into account the weights of the sub-problems, the opinions or the relations of the group is straightforward. Consequently, our method can be used in several contexts, especially when the optimal composition of a group of decision-makers is designed.

  7. Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Barriers in Career Decision Making among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rosemary R.; Hatcher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences between career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) and career barriers of students enrolled in applied technology programs compared to those enrolled in college transfer. Participants in the ex post facto cross-sectional survey included 787 students at a community college. The following research questions were…

  8. Dashboard visualizations: Supporting real-time throughput decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Amy; Gantela, Swaroop; Shifarraw, Salsawit; Johnson, Todd R; Robinson, David J; King, Brent R; Mehta, Amit M; Maddow, Charles L; Hoot, Nathan R; Nguyen, Vickie; Rubio, Adriana; Zhang, Jiajie; Okafor, Nnaemeka G

    2017-07-01

    Providing timely and effective care in the emergency department (ED) requires the management of individual patients as well as the flow and demands of the entire department. Strategic changes to work processes, such as adding a flow coordination nurse or a physician in triage, have demonstrated improvements in throughput times. However, such global strategic changes do not address the real-time, often opportunistic workflow decisions of individual clinicians in the ED. We believe that real-time representation of the status of the entire emergency department and each patient within it through information visualizations will better support clinical decision-making in-the-moment and provide for rapid intervention to improve ED flow. This notion is based on previous work where we found that clinicians' workflow decisions were often based on an in-the-moment local perspective, rather than a global perspective. Here, we discuss the challenges of designing and implementing visualizations for ED through a discussion of the development of our prototype Throughput Dashboard and the potential it holds for supporting real-time decision-making. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  10. A mapping of design decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    . The model is based on four observations: the engineering designers do not see a neat string of distinct and explicitly made decisions, there are several decision-makers during design, a design decision is not made at a distinct moment in time, and the decision object is evolving in time and changing...

  11. The Effect of Decision-Making Skill Training Programs on Self-Esteem and Decision-Making Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Celik, D. Billur

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Decision making is a critical cognitive process in every area of human life. In this process, the individuals play an active role and obtain outputs with their functional use of decision-making skills. Therefore, the decision-making process can affect the course of life, life satisfaction, and the social relations of an…

  12. How Firms Substitute for Authority in Strategic Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus C.

    takes place in response to changes in decision characteristics, including decision complexity, decision importance, CEO proximity, and the degree to which a decision is routine. We show various manifestations of the substitution mechanism and discuss implications for strategic decision-making.......Strategic decisions are often made by multiple organizational members who form decision-making structures specialized for a given strategic decision. We study a series of strategic decisions in a business unit of a global Fortune 500 firm, identifying for each decision the hierarchical...... and departmental positions of all participating organizational members. We find that firms substitute between different structural components in decision-making structures to combine hierarchical authority with cross-departmental coordination and redundant knowledge. This substitution between structural components...

  13. SEA effectiveness and power in decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    environmental considerations into strategic decision-making processes. Greenland is presently facing the potential of rapid and significant industrial development. The development can cause unforeseen induced environmental and societal effects. Therefore important strategic decisions are to be made......Strategic Environmental Assessment is a tool developed with the aim of endorsing protection of the environment and promoting sustainable development. Strategic Environmental Assessment is contributing to environmental protection and sustainable development by providing an arena to incorporate...... in this regard. Based on the challenges for Greenland, this thesis investigates the effectiveness of a Strategic Environmental Assessment carried out for a potential aluminium production in Greenland. The thesis uses theories of effectiveness and power to answer the research question: How does SEA become...

  14. Decision-making Strategies and Performance among Seniors1

    OpenAIRE

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2012-01-01

    Using paper and pencil experiments administered in senior centers, we examine decision-making performance in multi-attribute decision problems. We differentiate the effects of declining cognitive performance and changing cognitive process on decision-making performance of seniors as they age. We find a significant decline in performance with age due to reduced reliance on common heuristics and increased decision-making randomness among our oldest subjects. However, we find that increasing the...

  15. Frequencies of decision making and monitoring in adaptive resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive management involves learning-oriented decision making in the presence of uncertainty about the responses of a resource system to management. It is implemented through an iterative sequence of decision making, monitoring and assessment of system responses, and incorporating what is learned into future decision making. Decision making at each point is informed by a value or objective function, for example total harvest anticipated over some time frame. The value function expresses the value associated with decisions, and it is influenced by system status as updated through monitoring. Often, decision making follows shortly after a monitoring event. However, it is certainly possible for the cadence of decision making to differ from that of monitoring. In this paper we consider different combinations of annual and biennial decision making, along with annual and biennial monitoring. With biennial decision making decisions are changed only every other year; with biennial monitoring field data are collected only every other year. Different cadences of decision making combine with annual and biennial monitoring to define 4 scenarios. Under each scenario we describe optimal valuations for active and passive adaptive decision making. We highlight patterns in valuation among scenarios, depending on the occurrence of monitoring and decision making events. Differences between years are tied to the fact that every other year a new decision can be made no matter what the scenario, and state information is available to inform that decision. In the subsequent year, however, in 3 of the 4 scenarios either a decision is repeated or monitoring does not occur (or both). There are substantive differences in optimal values among the scenarios, as well as the optimal policies producing those values. Especially noteworthy is the influence of monitoring cadence on valuation in some years. We highlight patterns in policy and valuation among the scenarios, and discuss management

  16. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  17. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  18. The online community based decision making support system for mitigating biased decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunghyun; Seo, Jiwan; Choi, Seungjin; Kim, Junho; Han, Sangyong

    2016-10-01

    As the Internet technology and social media advance, various information and opinions are shared and distributed through the online communities. However, the existence of implicit and explicit bias of opinions may have a potential influence on the outcomes. Compared to the importance of mitigating biased information, the study in this field is relatively young and does not address many important issues. In this paper we propose the noble approach to mitigate the biased opinions using conventional machine learning methods. The proposed method extracts the useful features such as inclination and sentiment of the community members. They are classified based on their previous behavior, and the propensity of the members is understood. This information on each community and its members is very useful and improve the ability to make an unbiased decision. The proposed method presented in this paper is shown to have the ability to assist optimal, fair and good decision making while also reducing the influence of implicit bias.

  19. Globalization, decision making and taboo in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, T

    2012-06-01

    This paper is a reflection on the representation of nurses and their practice at a global level. In considering the International Council of Nurses (ICN) conference in Malta (2011), it is clear that certain assumptions have been made about nurses and their practice which assume that globalization is under way for the whole of the profession and that the assumptions can be applied equally around the world. These assumptions appear in many ways to be implicit rather than explicit. The implicitness of the assumptions is examined against the particular decision-making processes adopted by the ICN. An attempt is then made to identify another base for the ongoing global work of the ICN. This involves the exploration of taboo (that which is forbidden because it is either holy or unclean) as a way of examining why nursing is not properly valued, despite years of international representation. The paper concludes with some thoughts on how such a new approach interfaces with the possibilities held out by new information technologies. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Decision making in right-sided diverticulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyung, Li-Rung; Lin, Shee-Chan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Kao, Chin-Roa; Chou, Sun-Yen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate systematically our nine-year experience in treating right-sided diverticulitis of the colon, and to explore its clinical and radiological relationship. METHODS: The clinical and radiological data of 40 patients with colonic diverticulitis treated in Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, from 1993 through 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: The average age of the patients with right-sided diverticulitis was 53.1 years, which was 11.6 years younger than that of the patients with left-sided diverticulitis. The preoperative diagnosis of appendicitis was made in 8 of 13 right-sided diverticulitis patients. Nine (69%) had right lower quadrant abdominal pain for more than 48 hours, and ten patients (77%) presented with fever. CT findings suggesting acute right-sided diverticulitis including thickening of the intestinal wall and pericolonic inflammation were present in five patients. CONCLUSION: Right-sided diverticulitis is easily confused with acute appendicitis because it occurs at a somewhat younger age than that in left-sided diverticulitis. Barium enema and CT are helpful for the early diagnosis of right-sided diverticulitis. While clearly not required in the majority of patients with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, barium enema and CT may be helpful in making the decision with a clinical history or physical examinations atypical of acute appendicitis. PMID:12632528

  1. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  2. Phenomenological theory of collective decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Zafeiris, Anna; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    An essential task of groups is to provide efficient solutions for the complex problems they face. Indeed, considerable efforts have been devoted to the question of collective decision-making related to problems involving a single dominant feature. Here we introduce a quantitative formalism for finding the optimal distribution of the group members' competences in the more typical case when the underlying problem is complex, i.e., multidimensional. Thus, we consider teams that are aiming at obtaining the best possible answer to a problem having a number of independent sub-problems. Our approach is based on a generic scheme for the process of evaluating the proposed solutions (i.e., negotiation). We demonstrate that the best performing groups have at least one specialist for each sub-problem -- but a far less intuitive result is that finding the optimal solution by the interacting group members requires that the specialists also have some insight into the sub-problems beyond their unique field(s). We present emp...

  3. Data for decision making in networked health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bourret

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, nowadays we live in a networked society: a society of information, knowledge and services (Castells, 1996, with strong specificities in the Health field (Bourret, 2003, Silber, 2003. The World Health Organization (WHO has outlined the importance of information for improving health for all. However, financial resources remain limited. Health costs represent 11% of GNP in France, Germany, Switzerland and Canada, 14% in the USA, and 7.5% in Spain and the United Kingdom. Governments, local powers, health or insurance organizations therefore face difficult choices in terms of opportunities and priorities, and for that they need specific and valuable data. Firstly, this paper provide a comprehensive overview of our networked society and the appointment of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies and Health (in other words e-Health in a perspective of needs and uses at the micro, meso, and macro levels. We point out the main challenges of development of Nationwide Health Information Network both in the US, UK and France. Then we analyze the main issues about data for Decision Making in Networked Health: coordination and evaluation. In the last sections, we use an Information System perspective to investigate the three interoperability layers (micro, meso and macro. We analyze the requirements and challenges to design an interoperability global architecture which supports different kinds of interactions; then we focus on the harmonization efforts provided at several levels. Finally, we identify common methodological and engineering issues.

  4. Inconsistency in decision making as a proxy to corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketrina Çabiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study targets the decision-making process and the politico-administrative relations in the Public Procurement Review System in Albania (PPRS. The inner logic of this study is composed of interrelation between decision making and accountability of actions and inactions, which pose the risk for decision making to face corruption due to the lack of legal and/or social auditing mechanisms. The study targets decision making in Public Procurement Commission (PPC in Albania by reviewing decisions to identify stable patterns of fl awed, inconsistent interpretation which allow corruptive actions and inactions to take part.

  5. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  6. Perception of Jordanian nurses regarding involvement in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Zaid M; Bawadi, Hala A; Redman, Richard W; Al-Nawafleh, Ahmad H

    2016-05-01

    Nurses in any organizational context are members of a team and cannot work independently. Teamwork requires making decisions frequently, and these decisions affect team performance on a regular basis. Ultimately, the team shapes the quality of patient care. This study examines nurse decision-making related to patient care, self-management and the work environment. Qualitative descriptive design was used to collect data. Eighteen staff nurses participated in semi-structured interviews to explore the perception of Jordanian staff nurses regarding their participation in decision-making. Variation in decision-making involvement was found to exist across unit types and from hospital to hospital. In general, the participants were not satisfied with their level of decision-making involvement and believed that they could participate more. The results have implications for nurse managers in facilitating the engagement of staff nurses in decision-making and creating an organizational culture to facilitate this engagement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards Ethical Decision-Making in Counselling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…

  8. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement: Caregiver decision making in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Yeh

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Caregivers' decisions to proceed with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy procedure were mediated by desires to relieve patients' suffering. To empower caregivers to make enteral feeding decisions, nurses must provide sufficient information about percutaneous gastrostomy tubes and their care, support decision making and help to identify an opportunity for gastrostomy tube placement.

  9. Crisis Decision Making Through a Shared Integrative Negotiation Mental Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Santen, W.; Jonker, C.M.; Wijngaards, N.

    2009-01-01

    Decision making during crises takes place in (multi-agency) teams, in a bureaucratic political context. As a result, the common notion that during crises decision making should be done in line with a Command & Control structure is invalid. This paper shows that the best way for crisis decision

  10. Defining decision making strategies in software ecosystem governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Wnuk, Krzysztof; Shollo, Arisa

    and review related literature consisted of software ecosystem governance, organizational decision making, and IT governance. Based on the identified studies, we propose a framework for defining the decision making strategies in the governance of software ecosystems. We identify five decision areas...

  11. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups

  12. Making moral decisions when resources are limited – an approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of decision making is vital to maximise consistency and the moral defensibility of these difficult decisions. This paper will describe possible approaches to making these decisions, discuss aspects of triage in patients with respiratory failure, and examine some of the consequences of ICU triage. SAJCC Vol. 21 (1) 2005: pp.

  13. Decision-making: Theory and practice | Turpin | ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant variation was found in personal decision-making styles. However, some central themes emerged, such as the importance of sensitivity to the decision-making context, attention to the presentation of information, and the use of intuition. In terms of the use of decision support technology, the use of self-help tools, ...

  14. Shared decision-making - Rhetoric and reality: Women's experiences and perceptions of adjuvant treatment decision-making for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Neda; Sargeant, Sally

    2017-01-01

    This interview-based study uses phenomenology as a theoretical framework and thematic analysis to challenge existing explanatory frameworks of shared decision-making, in an exploration of women's experiences and perceptions of shared decision-making for adjuvant treatment in breast cancer. Three themes emerged are as follows: (1) women's desire to participate in shared decision-making, (2) the degree to which shared decision-making is perceived to be shared and (3) to what extent are women empowered within shared decision-making. Studying breast cancer patients' subjective experiences of adjuvant treatment decision-making provides a broader perspective on patient participatory role preferences and doctor-patient power dynamics within shared decision-making for breast cancer.

  15. Maximizing Consensus in Portfolio Selection in Multicriteria Group Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michael, Emmerich T. M.; Deutz, A.H.; Li, L.; Asep, Maulana A.; Yevseyeva, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a scenario of decision making where a moderator selects a (sub)set (aka portfolio) of decision alternatives from a larger set. The larger the number of decision makers who agree on a solution in the portfolio the more successful the moderator is. We assume that decision makers

  16. Cautious OWA and Evidential Reasoning for Decision Making under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marc Tacnet; Jean Dezert

    2011-01-01

    To make a decision under certainty, multicriteria decision methods aims to choose, rank or sort alternatives on the basis of quantitative or qualitative criteria and preferences expressed by the decision-makers. However, decision is often done under uncertainty: choosing alternatives can have different consequences depending on the external context (or state of the word).

  17. Designing Human-Centered Systems for Reflective Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommeranz, A.

    2012-01-01

    Taking major life decisions, e.g. what career to follow, is difficult and sometimes emotional. One has to find out what exactly one wants, consider the long-term consequences of the decisions and be empathetic for loved ones affected by the decisions. Decision making also deals with establishing and

  18. Toward a general model of portfolio decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.; Griffin, A.; Hultink, E.J.; Lauche, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a general model of how new product development portfolio decisions are made based on four diverse case studies. Previous research has investigated portfolio decisions as individually discrete decisions. We find that portfolio decision-making has to be considered as an integrated system of

  19. Development of decision making: sequential versus integrative rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated

  20. Decision making for cancer clinical trial participation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycki, Barbara A

    2010-11-01

    To describe what is known about the factors that influence cancer clinical trial decision making. PubMed database and reference lists of identified articles. Variations in research design and methods, including sample characteristics, instrumentation, time between decision made and measurement of decision making, and response rates, have effects on what is known about decision making for cancer clinical trial participation. Communication, whether in the form of education about a cancer clinical trial or as a personal invitation to join, is an important factor influencing decision making. Personal and system factors influence the outcomes of decision making for cancer clinical trials. The process of decision making for cancer clinical trials is understudied. Nevertheless, the currently available cancer clinical trial decision-making literature suggests a multitude of factors that influence the outcomes of the decision to accept or decline clinical trial participation, as well as the psychosocial consequences of decisional regret, pressures, and satisfaction. The decision-making process of cancer clinical trials is a fertile area for research and, subsequently, evidence-based interventions. Oncology nurses are in a position to facilitate the process and to relieve the pressures patients perceive regarding decision making for cancer clinical trials that will benefit individuals and, ultimately, society.

  1. Using a group decision support system to make investment prioritisation decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Martin; Gear, Tony; Minkes, Leonard; Irving, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how decision making groups involved in making investment prioritisation decisions involving funding of technology and science projects may be supported by a group decision support system (GDSS). While interested in decision outcomes, the primary focus of this paper is the role of a group support system as an aid to developing shared understanding within a group. The paper develops the conceptual framework of decision-making, communication and group support, and de...

  2. Couple decision making and use of cultural scripts in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbweza, Ellen; Norr, Kathleen F; McElmurry, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    To examine the decision-making processes of husband and wife dyads in matrilineal and patrilineal marriage traditions of Malawi in the areas of money, food, pregnancy, contraception, and sexual relations. Qualitative grounded theory using simultaneous interviews of 60 husbands and wives (30 couples). Data were analyzed according to the guidelines of simultaneous data collection and analysis. The analysis resulted in development of core categories and categories of decision-making process. Data matrixes were used to identify similarities and differences within couples and across cases. Most couples reported using a mix of final decision-making approaches: husband-dominated, wife-dominated, and shared. Gender based and nongender based cultural scripts provided rationales for their approaches to decision making. Gender based cultural scripts (husband-dominant and wife-dominant) were used to justify decision-making approaches. Non-gender based cultural scripts (communicating openly, maintaining harmony, and children's welfare) supported shared decision making. Gender based cultural scripts were used in decision making more often among couples from the district with a patrilineal marriage tradition and where the husband had less than secondary school education and was not formally employed. Nongender based cultural scripts to encourage shared decision making can be used in designing culturally tailored reproductive health interventions for couples. Nurses who work with women and families should be aware of the variations that occur in actual couple decision-making approaches. Shared decision making can be used to encourage the involvement of men in reproductive health programs.

  3. Complexity science and participation in decision making among Taiwanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi

    2008-04-01

    The perspective of interconnection in complexity science is used to examine the concept of participation in decision making among Taiwanese nurses in the context of Chinese communication culture. Participation in decision making among nurses has been widely discussed and tested in the Western healthcare systems. Many studies have shown that participation in decision making relates to nurses' autonomy, job satisfaction and quality of care. However, participation in decision making has not been fully discussed in Taiwan's nursing community. In a different cultural environment, participation in decision making may have different effects. The concept of participation in decision making is analysed in three facets of Chinese communication culture: (1) hierarchical social relationship; (2) harmony maintenance; and (3) insider effects. Key issues Taiwanese nurses might establish different levels of participation and need to use different strategies to enhance participation in decision making for desired outcomes. While applying participation in decision making in a different context, it is very important to consider the social and cultural differences. Two implications are made. First, nursing leaders/managers who are working with a multicultural team should be aware of the cultural difference in the pattern of interaction in the process of participation in decision making. Second, leaders/managers should be creative and try to apply different strategies to encourage staff's participation in decision making.

  4. Agreeing on Robust Decisions : New Processes for Decision Making under Deep Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Brown, Casey; Gill, Stuart; Lempert, Robert; Kalra, Nidhi; Fozzard, Adrian; Shah, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Investment decision making is already difficult for any diverse group of actors with different priorities and views. But the presence of deep uncertainties linked to climate change and other future conditions further challenges decision making by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. While decision makers can continue to use the decision metrics they have used in the ...

  5. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  6. FINANCIAL INDICATORS IN MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenyves Veronika

    2014-07-01

    financial year, we need (monthly or quarterly data and the introduction of a proper accounting information system for the managers to continuously receive those processed data that are essential for decision making, and to receive information about the performance of their department. This study’s aim is to show the difference between the consequences of company liquidity results using only year-end data and when liquidity indicators are being adjusted on a monthly basis

  7. Manipulating decision making of typical agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

  8. Making ethical choices: a comprehensive decision-making model for Canadian psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, T; Malloy, D C

    2000-05-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical augmentation of the seven-step decision-making model outlined in the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. We propose that teleological, deontological, and existential ethical perspectives should be taken into account in the decision-making process. We also consider the influence of individual, issue-specific, significant-other, situational, and external factors on ethical decision-making. This theoretical analysis demonstrates the richness and complexity of ethical decision-making.

  9. Trouble in Paradise: Teacher Conflicts in Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with teachers at six high schools that have instituted structures for shared decision making reveal the conflicts, the confusion about the locus of final decision authority, and the need for training teachers in this unfamiliar area. (19 references) (MLF)

  10. Incorporating affective bias in models of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this model is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.

  11. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  12. Information Clustering for Better Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    2 Information Organization .............................................................................................. 3...may contain considerable uncertainty, or may change over time, Required decisions may include both what to do and when to act. INFORMATION ORGANIZATION Recent

  13. BUSINESS DECISION MAKING ON FINANCING OPERATING ACTIVITIES IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Djokovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Outputs of management process related to decision making and the implementation of decisions of the business. Business decision-making, in the widest sense of the time aspect, it can be seen from the operational and strategic character. In this paper, the focus is on analyzing leverage and rate of return the operational decision-making in the hotel as a function of current financing activities. Operational decision-making, must be aligned with strategic, so that all segments of the operational decision-making found appropriate and meaningful implementation. Decisions in practice, in most cases, can not be considered independently, because each of them implies the use of properties, human, financial, information technology and other related capabilities.

  14. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  15. Multiple Criteria Decision Making Based on Discrete Linguistic Stochastic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jian; Gao, Yang; Bian, Can

    2013-01-01

    For solving the discrete linguistic stochastic multiple criteria decision making problems with incomplete information, a new decision making method based on the differences between the superiorities and the inferiorities is proposed. According to the two basic parameters which are the possible outcome and the state probability, the superior decision matrix and the inferior decision matrix of the alternative set under each criterion are first worked out. Then, by the differences between the el...

  16. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa OĞUZ; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  17. Make up your mind - How stress and sex affect decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, S.

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making refers to assessing costs and benefits of competing actions, with either a known outcome or an uncertain result. Decision-making depends on several abilities, such as behavioural flexibility and inhibiting risky responses. Several factors affect decision-making, causing differences

  18. Digital technology and clinical decision making in depression treatment: Current findings and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Bauer, Amy M; Atkins, David C

    2017-06-01

    Clinical decision making encompasses a broad set of processes that contribute to the effectiveness of depression treatments. There is emerging interest in using digital technologies to support effective and efficient clinical decision making. In this paper, we provide "snapshots" of research and current directions on ways that digital technologies can support clinical decision making in depression treatment. Practical facets of clinical decision making are reviewed, then research, design, and implementation opportunities where technology can potentially enhance clinical decision making are outlined. Discussions of these opportunities are organized around three established movements designed to enhance clinical decision making for depression treatment, including measurement-based care, integrated care, and personalized medicine. Research, design, and implementation efforts may support clinical decision making for depression by (1) improving tools to incorporate depression symptom data into existing electronic health record systems, (2) enhancing measurement of treatment fidelity and treatment processes, (3) harnessing smartphone and biosensor data to inform clinical decision making, (4) enhancing tools that support communication and care coordination between patients and providers and within provider teams, and (5) leveraging treatment and outcome data from electronic health record systems to support personalized depression treatment. The current climate of rapid changes in both healthcare and digital technologies facilitates an urgent need for research, design, and implementation of digital technologies that explicitly support clinical decision making. Ensuring that such tools are efficient, effective, and usable in frontline treatment settings will be essential for their success and will require engagement of stakeholders from multiple domains. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Considering Risk and Resilience in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concepts of decision-making, risk analysis, uncertainty and resilience analysis. The relation between risk, vulnerability, and resilience is analyzed. The paper describes how complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity are the most critical factors in the definition of the approach and criteria for decision-making. Uncertainty in its various forms is what limits our ability to offer definitive answers to questions about the outcomes of alternatives in a decision-making process. It is shown that, although resilience-informed decision-making would seem fundamentally different from risk-informed decision-making, this is not the case as resilience-analysis can be easily incorporated within existing analytic-deliberative decision-making frameworks.

  20. A canonical theory of dynamic decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eFox

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making behaviour is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualisation of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem-solving, planning and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuro-psychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering.

  1. A Canonical Theory of Dynamic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John; Cooper, Richard P.; Glasspool, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI, and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualization of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision-maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision-making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem solving, planning, and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering. PMID:23565100

  2. Quality of decision making and group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Cihangir, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas

  3. Quality of decision making and group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas

  4. Decision-making Strategies and Performance among Seniors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2011-01-01

    Using paper and pencil experiments administered in senior centers, we examine decision-making performance in multi-attribute decision problems. We differentiate the effects of declining cognitive performance and changing cognitive process on decision-making performance of seniors as they age. We find a significant decline in performance with age due to reduced reliance on common heuristics and increased decision-making randomness among our oldest subjects. However, we find that increasing the number of options in a decision problem increases the number of heuristics brought to the task. This challenges the choice overload view that people give up when confronted with too much choice. PMID:22408282

  5. Decision-making Strategies and Performance among Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2012-02-01

    Using paper and pencil experiments administered in senior centers, we examine decision-making performance in multi-attribute decision problems. We differentiate the effects of declining cognitive performance and changing cognitive process on decision-making performance of seniors as they age. We find a significant decline in performance with age due to reduced reliance on common heuristics and increased decision-making randomness among our oldest subjects. However, we find that increasing the number of options in a decision problem increases the number of heuristics brought to the task. This challenges the choice overload view that people give up when confronted with too much choice.

  6. Modelling elderly cardiac patients decision making using Cognitive Work Analysis: identifying requirements for patient decision aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhukaram, Anandhi Vivekanandan; Baber, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Patients make various healthcare decisions on a daily basis. Such day-to-day decision making can have significant consequences on their own health, treatment, care, and costs. While decision aids (DAs) provide effective support in enhancing patient's decision making, to date there have been few studies examining patient's decision making process or exploring how the understanding of such decision processes can aid in extracting requirements for the design of DAs. This paper applies Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) to analyse patient's decision making in order to inform requirements for supporting self-care decision making. This study uses focus groups to elicit information from elderly cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients concerning a range of decision situations they face on a daily basis. Specifically, the focus groups addressed issues related to the decision making of CVD in terms of medication compliance, pain, diet and exercise. The results of these focus groups are used to develop high level views using CWA. CWA framework decomposes the complex decision making problem to inform three approaches to DA design: one design based on high level requirements; one based on a normative model of decision-making for patients; and the third based on a range of heuristics that patients seem to use. CWA helps in extracting and synthesising decision making from different perspectives: decision processes, work organisation, patient competencies and strategies used in decision making. As decision making can be influenced by human behaviour like skills, rules and knowledge, it is argued that patients require support to different types of decision making. This paper also provides insights for designers in using CWA framework for the design of effective DAs to support patients in self-management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-criteria decision making using fuzzy preference relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Borzecka

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with multi-criteria decision making problem the concept of Pareto -optimality and Pareto-dominance could be inefficient (the lack of unique solution), especially with many number of criteria. Our paper faces the fuzzy multi-criteria decision making problem based on Zadeh’s linguistic approach to P-optimality and P-dominance. The construction, analysis and application of multi-criteria decision making model using fuzzy preference relation are considered. This paper is dedicated ...

  8. Multi-criteria Decision Making Using Fuzzy Preference Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Borzęcka

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with multi-criteria decision making problems, the concept of Pareto-optimality and Pareto-dominance may be inefficient (e.g. generally multiple solutions exist), especially when there is a large number of criteria. Our paper considers the fuzzy multi-criteria decision making problem based on Zadeh's linguistic approach to P-optimality and P-dominance. The construction, analysis and application of a model of multi-criteria decision making using a fuzzy preference relation are cons...

  9. The role of stress in social decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bo Ra

    2014-01-01

    Although a substantial literature is developing regarding the effects of stress on decision-making (cf. Mather & Lighthall, 2012), the literature on stress and social decision-making is still in the beginning stage. The present research extends this new literature by examining the mediating and moderating factors of the effect of stress on social decision-making. Furthermore, a novel aspect of the research is its effort to connect the information-processing and functional perspectives, with r...

  10. Making difficult decisions how to be decisive and get the business done

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    You are faced with so many difficult decisions. Often your decision making seems random. It can be swayed by different situations and emotions. You need to be more rigorous in the way you make decisions and yet you have very little time to do so. Experience from others who have made tough decisions and a framework to help you do so would be invaluable. The courage to make decisions is sometimes a bit elusive. It is difficult to find the calmness to be able to make and live with those decisions. There is so much that can be learned from the experience of others. After working through this boo

  11. An Integrated Model for Optimization Oriented Decision Aiding and Rule Based Decision Making in Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy decision aid system is developed base on new concepts that presented in the field of fuzzy decision making in fuzzy environment (FDMFE. This framework aids decision makers to understand different circumstances of an uncertain problem that may occur in the future. Also, to keep decision maker from the optimization problem complexities, a decision support system, which can be replaced by optimization problem, is presented to make optimum or near optimum decisions without solving optimization problem directly. An application of the developed decision aid model and the decision support system is presented in the field of inventory models.

  12. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, James L

    2005-01-01

    "Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...

  13. Structured decision making: a practical guide to environmental management choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory, Robin

    2012-01-01

    .... The approach we describe is called Structured Decision Making, a distinctly pragmatic label given to ways for helping individuals and groups think through tough multidimensional choices characterized...

  14. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  15. Decision making for health care professionals: use of decision trees within the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, G

    2001-08-01

    To examine the application of the decision tree approach to collaborative clinical decision-making in mental health care in the United Kingdom (UK). While this approach to decision-making has been examined in the acute care setting, there is little published evidence of its use in clinical decision-making within the mental health setting. The complexities of dual diagnosis (schizophrenia and substance misuse in this case example) and the varied viewpoints of different professionals often hamper the decision-making process. This paper highlights how the approach was used successfully as a multiprofessional collaborative approach to decision-making in the context of British community mental health care. A selective review of the relevant literature and a case study application of the decision tree framework. The process of applying the decision tree framework to clinical decision-making in mental health practice can be time consuming and client inclusion within the process is not always appropriate. The approach offers a method of assigning numerical values to support complex multiprofessional decision-making as well as considering underpinning literature to inform the final decision. Use of the decision tree offers a common framework that can assist professionals to examine the options available to them in depth, while considering the complex variables that influence decision-making in collaborative mental health practice. Use of the decision tree warrants further consideration in mental health care in terms of practice and education.

  16. Procedural Rationality in the Decision-Making of Internationalizing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said; Narooz, Rose

    ad hoc internationalization, credit check, distribution adaptation, and decision team size) and their influence on the extent of procedural rationality in SME internationalization decision-making process. The findings from a sample of 176 export-active SMEs show that decision-makers tend to follow......This paper contributes to the growing body of empirical work on how SME decision-makers decide to internationalize in two ways: first, it responds to recent calls for incorporating strategic decision-making literature into understanding SME internationalization decisions. Second, it provides...... a more rational decision-making procedure when they perceive a high level of international risk. The evidence also suggest that internationalization performance, planned internationalization, credit check, and decision team size are positively related to procedural rationality....

  17. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from......The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation....../exploration search behavior of decision-makers. In addition, overexploitation and overexploration in new product development decision-making is investigated through mediating effects of perceived information usefulness and applied performance criteria by decision-makers at gates. To this end a conceptual model...

  18. Strategic erp selection using multicriteria decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes; Helder Gomes Costa; Gabriel Gonzaga de Souza

    2013-01-01

    ...) to build a decision model for an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) choice. The model take into account 16 criteria, which are based on the literature review adapted for the needs of the company needs...

  19. Identifying knowledge in decision-making processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    Managing knowledge reflects the innovation capability of a company. Mapping decision processes and links to knowledge is a way to learn more in structuring knowledge in innovation processes. Through an empirical study the paper aims to identify knowledge...

  20. Research on self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles in orienteering athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroğlu Başak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Melbourne Decision-making. Quastionnaire I-II and the Personal Information Form which were adapted into Turkish by Deniz (2004. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. There is a significant difference between athletes’ marital status, age groups, experiences in orienteering sports and self-esteem in decision making, decision making styles (p<0.05. According to the research results, it has been determined that married orienteering athletes prefer both self-esteem in decision making and vigilance decision-making style more often than the single athletes that mostly prefer procrastination decision-making style. Also, it has been found out that as the athletes’ age and experiences in sports increase, selfesteem and decision-making styles are affected more positively as well.

  1. A cognitive prosthesis for complex decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Gagnon, Jean-François; Lafond, Daniel; Hodgetts, Helen M; Doiron, Maxime; Jeuniaux, Patrick P J M H

    2017-01-01

    While simple heuristics can be ecologically rational and effective in naturalistic decision making contexts, complex situations require analytical decision making strategies, hypothesis-testing and learning. Sub-optimal decision strategies - using simplified as opposed to analytic decision rules - have been reported in domains such as healthcare, military operational planning, and government policy making. We investigate the potential of a computational toolkit called "IMAGE" to improve decision-making by developing structural knowledge and increasing understanding of complex situations. IMAGE is tested within the context of a complex military convoy management task through (a) interactive simulations, and (b) visualization and knowledge representation capabilities. We assess the usefulness of two versions of IMAGE (desktop and immersive) compared to a baseline. Results suggest that the prosthesis helped analysts in making better decisions, but failed to increase their structural knowledge about the situation once the cognitive prosthesis is removed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intuition in strategic decision making:implications for strategic decision effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Neil G.; Rudd, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Intuition can produce effective strategic decisions because of its speed and ability to solve less-structured problems. Despite this, there are only a very small number of empirical studies that have examined intuition in the strategic decision-making process. We examine the relationship between the use of intuition in the strategic decision-making process, and strategic decision effectiveness. We propose that the expertise of the decision-maker, environmental dynamism and the characteristics...

  3. "Making My Own Decisions Sometimes": A Pilot Study of Young Adult Cancer Survivors' Perspectives on Medical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, L Aubree; Schmidt, Susanne; Cornell, Stephanie D; Parsons, Helen M

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the medical decision-making preferences and experiences of young adult survivors of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult cancers. We conducted key informant interviews and a cross-sectional mailed survey with young adult survivors (currently aged 18-39 years) of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult cancers in South Texas. Of the responding survivors, almost all wanted to be actively involved in medical decision-making, but preferences regarding family and doctor involvement varied. In open-ended responses, the most commonly reported concerns related to medical decision-making were feelings of uncertainty and fear of receiving bad news. Survivors reported that they desired more information in order to feel better about medical decision-making. Due to the variety of preferences regarding decision-making and who to include in the process, physicians should be prepared to ask and accommodate patients regarding their decision-making preferences.

  4. Are mobile health applications useful for supporting shared decision making in diagnostic and treatment decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasgholizadeh Rahimi, Samira; Menear, Matthew; Robitaille, Hubert; Légaré, France

    2017-06-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) applications intended to support shared decision making in diagnostic and treatment decisions are increasingly available. In this paper, we discuss some recent studies on mHealth applications with relevance to shared decision making. We discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of using mHealth in shared decision making in various contexts, and suggest some directions for future research in this quickly expanding field.

  5. Autonomy and couples' joint decision-making in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2018-01-11

    Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples (couples' joint decision-making) for health care and the circumstances under which such a practice should be respected as compatible with autonomous decision-making. We discuss the concept of autonomy as it applies to persons and to actions, human interdependency and gender roles in decision-making, the dynamics and outcomes of couples' joint decision-making, and the ethics of couples' joint decision-making. We believe that the extent to which couples' joint decision-making might be deemed ethically acceptable will vary depending on the context. Given that in many traditional marriages the woman is the less dominant partner, we consider a spectrum of scenarios of couples' joint decision-making about a woman's own health care that move from those that are acceptably autonomous to those that are not consistent with respecting the woman's autonomous decision-making. To the extent that there is evidence that both members of a couple understand a decision, intend it, and that neither completely controls the other, couples' joint decision-making should be viewed as consistent with the principle of respect for the woman's autonomy. At the other end of the spectrum are decisions made by the man without the woman's input, representing domination of one partner by the other. We recommend viewing the dynamics of couples' joint decision-making as existing on a continuum of degrees of autonomy. This continuum-based perspective implies that couples' joint decision-making should not be taken at face value but should be assessed against

  6. Analyzing Decision Logs to Understand Decision Making in Serious Crime Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2017-09-01

    Objective To study decision making by detectives when investigating serious crime through the examination of decision logs to explore hypothesis generation and evidence selection. Background Decision logs are used to record and justify decisions made during serious crime investigations. The complexity of investigative decision making is well documented, as are the errors associated with miscarriages of justice and inquests. The use of decision logs has not been the subject of an empirical investigation, yet they offer an important window into the nature of investigative decision making in dynamic, time-critical environments. Method A sample of decision logs from British police forces was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to explore hypothesis generation and evidence selection by police detectives. Results Analyses revealed diversity in documentation of decisions that did not correlate with case type and identified significant limitations of the decision log approach to supporting investigative decision making. Differences emerged between experienced and less experienced officers' decision log records in exploration of alternative hypotheses, generation of hypotheses, and sources of evidential inquiry opened over phase of investigation. Conclusion The practical use of decision logs is highly constrained by their format and context of use. Despite this, decision log records suggest that experienced detectives display strategic decision making to avoid confirmation and satisficing, which affect less experienced detectives. Application Potential applications of this research include both training in case documentation and the development of new decision log media that encourage detectives, irrespective of experience, to generate multiple hypotheses and optimize the timely selection of evidence to test them.

  7. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  8. Child Migration Decision Making in Ghana: The Actors and Processes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discourse on child migration decision making tends to present children as vulnerable and without agency. This presupposes that decisions are often imposed on the individual child who only complies with decisions of adults. On the contrary, the process is complex and continuous, and can only be well understood ...

  9. Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... the best decision; thus, a powerful tool is desired for the final selection. Therefore, many researchers employ multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods to cope with water-related problems in their studies, as well as in research projects that foresee the establishment of decision support systems (DSS).

  10. An Introduction to Solar Decision-Making Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mow, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) offers a variety of models and analysis tools to help decision makers evaluate and make informed decisions about solar projects, policies, and programs. This fact sheet aims to help decision makers determine which NREL tool to use for a given solar project or policy question, depending on its scope.

  11. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...

  12. A classification of the multiple criteria decision making models

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Angel Guerras Martín

    1987-01-01

    In this work we have tried to present a classification of multiobjective techniques based in the relationship between the main subJects of decision process: analyst and decision maker. These relation, in terms of information flows, have important consequences for decision making processes in business organizations.

  13. Decision Making for Democratic Leadership in a Guided Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, JoAnn Franklin; Hoover, J. Duane; Valle, Fernando; Hardin, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Experience in problem-based learning, authentic experiences, on-the-job decision making, and critical reflection on decisions made formed the conceptual framework of an internship to develop democratic leadership as a professional ethic in interns. Interns in an on-the-job guided internship examined decisions over a 13-week period as they…

  14. Gender and Values: What Is the Impact on Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Stephen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Linkages among gender, decision making, and values related to moral development and equity/equality are studied for 54 graduate and 186 undergraduate business school students (48 percent females) attending a Southern urban university. Results illustrate gender-related differences in value systems, weights of decision issues, and decisions. Future…

  15. Dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk: a neurocognitive endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Dong, Yi; Ji, Yifu; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Xingui; Wang, Kai

    2015-03-03

    Evidence in the literature suggests that executive dysfunction is regarded as an endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Decision making is an important domain of executive function. However, few studies that have investigated whether decision making is a potential endophenotype for OCD have produced inconsistent results. Differences in the findings across these studies may be attributed to several factors: different study materials, comorbidity, medication, etc. There are at least two types of decision making that differ mainly in the degree of uncertainty and how much useful information about consequences and their probabilities are provided to the decision maker: decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk. The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine decision making under ambiguity as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and decision making under risk as measured by the Game of Dice Task (GDT) in OCD patients and their unaffected first-degree relative (UFDR) for the first time. The study analyzed 55 medication-naïve, non-depressed OCD patient probands, 55 UFDRs of the OCD patients and 55 healthy matched comparison subjects (CS) without a family history of OCD with the IGT, the GDT and a neuropsychological test battery. While the OCD patients and the UFDRs performed worse than the CS on the IGT, they were unimpaired on the GDT. Our study supports the claim that decision making under ambiguity differs from decision making under risk and suggests that dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may qualify to be a neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The participation of the German Länder in the EU decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Panara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches out the main features of the German system of regional participation in the EU decision-making process with the aim of identifying the key strengths and weaknesses of that system. The author will be examining whether the model currently in place allows for a sufficiently rapid and effective response to the EU decision-making process, and whether there is a sufficiently balanced representation of regional and federal interests at the EU level. The article will also contain a proposal as to how the German model of regional participation in the EU decision-making process could be further improved.

  17. A Conceptual Model for Nurses' Decision-making with the Aggressive Psychiatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Lois Biggin

    2015-08-01

    Violence in the acute care psychiatric setting is an ongoing serious problem. Maintenance of a safe therapeutic environment is a paramount responsibility of nurses practicing in this area. Ethical and legal standards demand that the nurse intervenes in aggressive situations in a manner that employs the least intrusive and restrictive measures necessary to provide safety. Therefore, accurate and effective decision-making in aggressive situations, which can escalate rapidly, is of great importance. This paper discusses a theoretical model for decision-making in selecting interventions with aggressive psychiatric patients. This model may provide a basis for the development of training and education programs for effective decision-making in this area.

  18. How contextual issues can distort shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlehner, Gerald; Matyas, Nina

    2016-12-01

    Shared decision making in medicine has become a widely promoted approach. The goal is for patients and physicians to reach a mutual, informed decision by taking into consideration scientific evidence, clinical experience, and the patient's personal values or preferences. Shared decision making, however, is not a straightforward process. In practice, it might fall short of what it promises and might even be misused to whitewash monetary motives. In this article, which summarizes a presentation given at the 17(th) Annual Conference of the German Network Evidence-based Medicine on March 4(th), 2016 in Cologne, Germany, we discuss three contextual factors that in our opinion can have a tremendous impact on any informed decision making: 1) opinions and convictions of physicians or other clinicians; 2) uncertainty of the evidence regarding benefits and harms; 3) uncertainty of patients about their own values and preferences. But despite barriers and shortcomings, modern medicine currently does not have an alternative to shared decision making. Shared decision making has become a central theme in good quality health care because it has a strong ethical component. Advocates of shared decision making, however, must realize that not all patients prefer to participate in decision making. For those who do, however, we must ensure that shared decisions can be made in a neutral environment as free of biases and conflicts of interest as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Bridging the gap between science and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-08-20

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker's beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers' information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a personal health decision. It shows how a formal representation of the beliefs and values can reflect scientific inputs by a physician to combine with the values held by the decision maker to inform a medical choice. The second example is a public policy decision about managing a potential environmental hazard. It illustrates how controversial beliefs can be reflected as uncertainties and informed by science to make better decisions. Both examples use decision analysis to bridge science and decisions. The conclusions suggest that this can be a helpful process that requires skills in both science and decision making.

  20. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals.

  1. Toward a Theory of Intuitive Decision-Making in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lesle Karns

    2015-07-01

    The author in this article presents a theory of decision-making in nursing, specifically a middle-range theory of intuitive decision-making in nursing created through the synthesis of Patricia Benner's model of skill acquisition in nursing and Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis. The author proposes that Damasio's somatic state is equivalent to what Benner has identified as intuition. When a nurse is faced with a decision, intuition, if developed, is a somatic state that creates a measurable physiological biasing signal (skin conductive response) that helps in making an advantageous decision. Research, educational, clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Decision Making in Service Industries A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Faulin, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Providing insight and understanding of practical and methodological issues related to decision-making processes under uncertainty conditions in the service industries, this book integrates decision-making tools with real-world examples to present world-wide best practices as well as theoretical and applied strategies such as the use of hybrid and stochastic algorithms. It discusses emerging tendencies regarding decision-support systems and information systems to support decision-making in real scenarios and includes up-to-date research on how probabilistic algorithms and simulation-based appro

  3. Basic thinking patterns of decision-making in engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2000-01-01

    stakeholders have to be reflected in the product design specifications, and decision-making during the design process becomes both a search for the best design solution and a navigation towards a feasible and efficient process. Thus, the decisions made during the design process have a critical impact both...... on the design solution obtained, but also on the design process in itself. In this paper we will propose a model of these interrelated decision activities, we will outline a mindset for decision-making, and we will discuss decision-making methodologies found in literature and current approaches seen in practice......In the situation where an industrial company launches a new product to the consumer market, based upon more or less new invented solutions, the evaluation and decision-making activities during design become rather complex. The engineering designer or design team has: · to target the customer’s need...

  4. INTERIM REPORT IMPROVED METHODS FOR INCORPORATING RISK IN DECISION MAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, M. J.; Fraley, D. W.; Denning, R. S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports observations and preliminary investigations in the first phase of a research program covering methodologies for making safety-related decisions. The objective has been to gain insight into NRC perceptions of the value of formal decision methods, their possible applications, and how risk is, or may be, incorporated in decision making. The perception of formal decision making techniques, held by various decision makers, and what may be done to improve them, were explored through interviews with NRC staff. An initial survey of decision making methods, an assessment of the applicability of formal methods vis-a-vis the available information, and a review of methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty have also been conducted.

  5. Consumer decision-making models within the discipline of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    price or —trusted“ brand name) (Solomon, 1996:287). The so-called —rational“ consumer became the subject .... though brand decision-making represents a fair amount of deliberation during consumer decision- making ..... consumption that relate to the multisensory images, fantasies and emotive aspects of product usage.

  6. Time Perspective and Career Decision-Making Difficulties in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision making is not only contingent upon what takes place in the present but also on how one feels about the past and one's hopes for the future. However, when it comes to time perspective and career decision making, vocational psychology has focused exclusively on future time perspective. The present study examines the relations among past,…

  7. Passionate Rationalism: The Role of Emotion in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele; Evers, Colin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that emotion has a central role to play in rational decision making based on recent research in the neuroanatomy of emotion. As a result, traditional rational decision-making theories, including Herbert Simon's modified model of satisficing that sharply demarcates emotions and values from rationality…

  8. Teaching Empathy and Ethical Decision Making in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Diane F.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in behavioral ethics seek to understand how individuals respond to the ethical dilemmas in their lives. In any given situation, multiple social and psychological variables interact to influence ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to explore how one such variable, empathy, affects the ethical decision-making process…

  9. Reducing ongoing product design decision-making bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antioco, M.; Moenaert, R.K.; Lindgreen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study is to add to our understanding of ongoing product design decision-making to reduce eventual decision-making bias. Six research questions are formulated with the aim to establish if and how functional membership and informal patterns of communication within an

  10. Agreement and disagreement in family decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years changes have taken place which have altered the decision-making process in families—family democracy is clearly in the ascendant. The family has evolved into what business research calls a decision-making unit. This general trend probably also has consequences for holiday

  11. Use of multidimensional analysis for farm decision making following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of other variables to crop yields are often ignored as use of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in farm decision making is often based on the treatment that gives the highest significant yield. The contribution of other crop growth parameters collected in the field were combined and factor in to make decision in a ...

  12. The Effect of Sport on Decision Making Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The decisions people make in the face of circumstances they encounter influence their life in favourable or unfavourable ways. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sporting habits and decision making strategies among university students. The research involved 1298 students (526 women and 772 men) studying during 2011-2012…

  13. the Effect of Egyptian Married Women's Decision-Making Autonomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Women's decision-making autonomy score was obtained from 5 questions on who has the final say .... Most women (63.3%) had high levels of household decision-making index (score >3) while the minority (12.2%) had low autonomy level. (score <2) (Figure1). It was found ..... women living in rural areas in credit programs.

  14. How the brain integrates costs and benefits during decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, U.; Biele, G.; Heekeren, H.R.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    When we make decisions, the benefits of an option often need to be weighed against accompanying costs. Little is known, however, about the neural systems underlying such cost-benefit computations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and choice modeling, we show that decision making based on

  15. Collective Decision Making in the Social Context of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the meaning of decision making on societal issues related to science/technology and explores practical implications for secondary science teaching. Cases on marijuana, abortion, and public inquiries are included together with discussion of collective decision making at the global, strategic, personal, and scientific community levels. A…

  16. Implications of decision making process on agricultural employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hierarchical decision making process (59.7%) was the major type identified. Furthermore, work life imbalance ( = 3.32), cost of training and recruitment ( = 3.18) and lack of growth opportunity ( = 3.10) are causes of employee turnover. Conflict ( = 2.38), unfavourable decision making process ( = 2.13) and job ...

  17. Impaired decision-making and brain shrinkage in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, A-P; Rauchs, G; La Joie, R; Mézenge, F; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Segobin, S; Viader, F; Allain, P; Eustache, F; Pitel, A-L; Beaunieux, H

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol-dependent individuals usually favor instant gratification of alcohol use and ignore its long-term negative consequences, reflecting impaired decision-making. According to the somatic marker hypothesis, decision-making abilities are subtended by an extended brain network. As chronic alcohol consumption is known to be associated with brain shrinkage in this network, the present study investigated relationships between brain shrinkage and decision-making impairments in alcohol-dependent individuals early in abstinence using voxel-based morphometry. Thirty patients performed the Iowa Gambling Task and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging investigation (1.5T). Decision-making performances and brain data were compared with those of age-matched healthy controls. In the alcoholic group, a multiple regression analysis was conducted with two predictors (gray matter [GM] volume and decision-making measure) and two covariates (number of withdrawals and duration of alcoholism). Compared with controls, alcoholics had impaired decision-making and widespread reduced gray matter volume, especially in regions involved in decision-making. The regression analysis revealed links between high GM volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and right hippocampal formation, and high decision-making scores (Palcoholism may result from impairment of both emotional and cognitive networks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-criteria weighted order based maintenance decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanisetty, V.S.V.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Decision making in daily maintenance requires consideration of multiple factors. The importance of each of the factors fluctuates depending on the repair scenario and the needs of the maintainer. In order to include the prioritisation of multiple criteria, a weighted decision making model is

  19. Demographic differences in adult consumers' decision-making styles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    student samples. Radder et al. (2006) investigated the decision-making styles of students when purchasing clothing in the South. African context; and these authors suggested that further South African .... decision-making style of local and international students studying at .... no adjustments were carried out. No incentives.

  20. Decision making and binge drinking: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Grekin, Emily R.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is found to be diminished in individuals with substance dependence and other types of disinhibitory psychopathology. However, little is known regarding the relation between heavy alcohol use and decision-making skills in young

  1. Personal Variables and Bias in Educational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, E. Scott; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Findings regarding the influence of four potential sources of bias (sex, socioeconimic status, race, physical attractiveness) upon decision-making stages of the assessment process are selectively reviewed. It is concluded that, though further research is needed, convincing evidence of bias in later stages of decision making has yet to be…

  2. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  3. Clinical decision-making: physicians' preferences and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision-making has been advocated; however there are relatively few studies on physician preferences for, and experiences of, different styles of clinical decision-making as most research has focused on patient preferences and experiences. The objectives of this study were to determine 1 physician preferences for different styles of clinical decision-making; 2 styles of clinical decision-making physicians perceive themselves as practicing; and 3 the congruence between preferred and perceived style. In addition we sought to determine physician perceptions of the availability of time in visits, and their role in encouraging patients to look for health information. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. physicians. Results 1,050 (53% response rate physicians responded to the survey. Of these, 780 (75% preferred to share decision-making with their patients, 142 (14% preferred paternalism, and 118 (11% preferred consumerism. 87% of physicians perceived themselves as practicing their preferred style. Physicians who preferred their patients to play an active role in decision-making were more likely to report encouraging patients to look for information, and to report having enough time in visits. Conclusion Physicians tend to perceive themselves as practicing their preferred role in clinical decision-making. The direction of the association cannot be inferred from these data; however, we suggest that interventions aimed at promoting shared decision-making need to target physicians as well as patients.

  4. Influence of Small Scale Businesses on Decision Making Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financially independence of women's doesn't always lead in decision making on issues related income utilization and choices of life. This research aimed to assess the influence of small scale business on women's decision making capacity. For the assessment the case of a credit and saving association in Muketure was ...

  5. Agreement and disagreement in family vacation decision making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years changes have taken place which have altered the decision-making process in families—family democracy is clearly in the ascendant. The family has evolved into what business research calls a decision-making unit. This general trend probably also has consequences for holiday

  6. Discretion in Student Discipline: Insight into Elementary Principals' Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists that examines the exercise of discretion by principals in their disciplinary decision making. This study sought to understand the application of values by principals as they engage in student disciplinary decision making within legally fixed parameters of their administrative discretion. This qualitative methodology used…

  7. A Grounded Theory Study of Teachers' Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Walter C.; Gehrke, Nathalie

    Interactive decision making (IDM) refers to teachers' selection and rejection of alternative courses of action during instruction. Previous research indicates that teachers report making interactive decisions when their plans are disrupted. A study generated hypotheses about teachers' IDM using the grounded theory approach--an inductive system for…

  8. Social Equity Decision Making: Narrative Explorations with Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxa, Robin Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In this critical postmodern narrative study, I explore with my participants their decision making process/es around social equity issues (race, class, gender, social class, sexual identity, religion, etc.) in their teaching. The purpose of this study is to facilitate a closer examination of this important decision making process--when and how to…

  9. Gender and Decision Making Pertaining to the Control over Ones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated gender and decision making pertaining to the control over ones body within established union in Nigeria. The study is a survey design with a sample of 500 married people who were randomly selected. A questionnaire titled Gender and Decision-Making Questionnaire (GDMG) was administered to ...

  10. Organisational decision-making experiences of Nigerian polytechnics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of participatory decision-making has received world wide acclamation by management scholars. This study, therefore, focused on the nature of participation, pattern of participation and the appropriateness or otherwise of rational participatory decision--making processes in polytechnics in northern Nigeria.

  11. Epistemic risks: challenges in assessment and decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    . There are calls to revisions ranging from the definition of risk and stretching to the use of risk analysis results in decision making. The talk will centre in answering the following questions: Why conventional approach to risk analysis is challenged? What are alternatives? How to operationalise the inclusion...... of epistemic uncertainty in risk analysis? How to make decisions based on risk analysis results?...

  12. Perfectionism and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Kathryn H.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perfectionism and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (R. B. Slaney, K. G. Rice, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, & J. S. Ashby, 2001) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Short Form (N. E. Betz, K. L. Klein, & K. M. Taylor, 1996). Adaptive…

  13. Participation in decision-making process, incentives and training as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the relationships among participation in decision-making process, incentives, training and organizational commitment among some industrial workers. Measures on participation in decision-making, incentives, training and organizational commitment were employed to collect data from the workers in ...

  14. Affective state and decision-making in the Ultimatum Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Kahn, R.S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Aleman, A.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging field of neuroeconomics has provided evidence that emotional as well as cognitive processes may contribute to economic decision-making. Indeed, activation of the anterior insula, a brain area involved in emotional processing, has been shown to predict decision-making in the Ultimatum

  15. Affective state and decision-making in the Ultimatum Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Wout, M; Kahn, RS; Sanfey, AG; Aleman, A

    The emerging field of neuroeconomics has provided evidence that emotional as well as cognitive processes may contribute to economic decision-making. Indeed, activation of the anterior insula, a brain area involved in emotional processing, has been shown to predict decision-making in the Ultimatum

  16. Exploring Career Decision-Making Styles across Three European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimrose, Jenny; Mulvey, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Career decisions are amongst the most important we make. Unsurprisingly, much published research exists on this particular aspect of career behaviour. However, the overwhelming majority of studies have been carried out on young people making initial career decisions. This paper extends our understanding by examining how mid-career adults in three…

  17. Conceptualising a system for quality clinical decision-making in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality clinical decision-making in nursing is the essence of quality nursing care delivery. The purpose of this article is to conceptualise a system for quality clinical decision-making in nursing. A system for quality clinical decisionmaking in nursing was conceptualised based on a review of the literature pertaining to clinical ...

  18. Enhancing the Decision-Making of Extraverted College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Crystal M.; Dansereau, Donald F.; Barth, Timothy M.; Ito, Sachiyo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that many college students, specifically those high on extraversion are prone to risky and sometimes unethical decision-making. The present study examined the impact of a decision-making "tool" that incorporated the use of standard ethical perspectives on students' attitudes and intentions. This "fill in the…

  19. Careership: A Sociological Theory of Career Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Phil; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    1997-01-01

    Observes that the current discourse on the school-to-work transition pivots on career decision-making; two views of decision-making exist: one focusing on socially-structured pathways and one focusing on individual freedom to choose. Presents a new model that avoids the pitfalls of social determinism and views young people as completely free…

  20. Combat Identification Decision Making: Effect of a Secondary Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Combat Identification Decision Making: Effect of a Secondary Task David J. Bryant Defence...R&D Canada Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2010-159 October 2010 Combat Identification Decision Making: Effect of a...Head, Human Systems Integration Section Approved for release by Original signed by Dr. Stergios Stergiopoulos Dr. Stergios Stergiopoulos Acting

  1. Phineas gauged: decision-making and the human prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.; Hastie, R.; Colvin, M.K.; Grafman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Poor social judgment and decision-making abilities have often been attributed to people who have suffered injury to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, few laboratory tests of decision-making have been conducted on these patients. The exception to this is the Iowa Gambling Task

  2. A decision-making model for engineering designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, S.; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes research that combines the generic decision-making model of Hansen, together with design strategies employed by experienced engineering designers. The relationship between the six decision-making sub-activities and the eight design strategies are examined. By combining...

  3. Decision Making And Reasoning of Rural and Urban Illiterate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their age range was 20 to 35 years. Standardized performance test of intelligence, Decision Making Questionnaire (DMQ) and Reasoning Questionnaire (RQ) were administered to them. The DMQ denoted their criteria of decision making in day – to - day situations and RQ measured serial thinking. The outcomes of the ...

  4. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also shows that level of decision making process with coefficient value of (0.476), age (−0.079), sex (−0.014), rank (−0.228), income (0.145) and challenges (−0.021) were variable influencing employee's turnover. This study concluded that employees' participation in decision making process will reduce.

  5. Implications of decision making process on agricultural employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also shows that level of decision making process with coefficient value of (0.476), age (−0.079), sex (−0.014), rank (−0.228), income (0.145) and challenges (−0.021) were variable influencing employee's turnover. This study concluded that employees' participation in decision making process will reduce ...

  6. On Incentive Compatibility and Budget Balancedness in Public Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Holstroem (1979) showed that Groves' schemes are the unique incentive compatible transfer schemes for public decision making problems if the domain of preferences is smoothly connected. In this paper we will show that this result can be extended to public decision making problems with a connected

  7. Pedagogical Decision Making through the Lens of Teacher Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Subramaniam, Ganakumaran; Dostal, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical decision making is very important for professional teachers, it concerns belief, self-efficacy, and actions that teachers expose to classroom. This paper employed theoretical lens and education policy in Thailand to examine the preservice teachers' views about pedagogical decision making. Discussion helps school mentors understand…

  8. Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

  9. Accounting Information Systems for Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, D.; Vaassen, E.H.J.; Dameri, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    ​This book contains a collection of research papers on accounting information systems including their strategic role in decision processes, within and between companies. An accounting system is a complex system composed of a mix of strictly interrelated elements such as data, information, human

  10. Computer-supported collaborative decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Filip, Florin Gheorghe; Ciurea, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    This is a book about how management and control decisions are made by persons who collaborate and possibly use the support of an information system. The decision is the result of human conscious activities aiming at choosing a course of action for attaining a certain objective (or a set of objectives). The act of collaboration implies that several entities who work together and share responsibilities to jointly plan, implement and evaluate a program of activities to achieve the common goals. The book is intended to present a balanced view of the domain to include both well-established concepts and a selection of new results in the domains of methods and key technologies. It is meant to answer several questions, such as: a) “How are evolving the business models towards the ever more collaborative schemes?”; b) “What is the role of the decision-maker in the new context?” c) “What are the basic attributes and trends in the domain of decision-supporting information systems?”; d) “Which are the basic...

  11. Decision making across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.C.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to choose adaptively between different behavioral options in order to reach goals is a pervasive task in life for people of all ages. Individuals are often confronted with complex, uncertain situations that nonetheless require decisive actions that would facilitate the pursuit of short-term

  12. Better science does not make decisions easier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ale, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years of development in the science and technology of estimating and quantifying risk, of understanding of human behaviour and human rationale has made decision makers more informed. We are in a much better position now, than forty years ago in estimating probabilities, consequences, and

  13. Agency Problems in Political Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T. Wrasai (Phongthorn)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDue to a lack of time and expertise, policy makers often rely on others, such as bureaucrats, experts, or advisers, when policy decisions have to be made. A nontrivial problem is that those who possess information have a vested interest in the policy outcome; this gives them an

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR STOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Nenortaite, Jovita; Simutis, Rimvydas

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on the development of intelligent decision making model which is based on the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) and swarm intelligence technologies. The proposed model is used to generate one-step forward investment decisions. The ANN are used to make the analysis of historical stock returns and to calculate one day forward possible profit, which could be get while following the model proposed decisions, concerning the purchase of the stocks. Subsequently t...

  15. Instructional decision making of high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Jeffrey S.

    The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step

  16. Introduction to the Special Issue on Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Staelin

    1999-01-01

    This issue is all about managerial decision making, i.e., how managers go about making decisions and how these decisions can be improved via good marketing analyses. As such it differs somewhat from the regular issues of in that it contains no analytic models or papers that focus only on methodology. Yet it still is true to the overall mission of the journal: it addresses areas of inquiry relevant to marketing practitioners and academics.

  17. Looking for a more participative healthcare: sharing medical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Paulina; Escuela de Enfermería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile. School of Medicine, Cardiff University. Reino Unido. Enfermera, doctora en Salud Pública.; Contreras, Aixa; Escuela de Enfermería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile. enfermera matrona, magister en Psicología Social Comunitaria.; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Servicio de Evaluación del Servicio Canario de la Salud, Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC). España. psicóloga, doctora en Psicología Clínica y de la Salud.; Pérez-Ramos, Jeanette; Fundación Canaria de Investigación y Salud (FUNCIS). España. psicóloga.; Málaga, Germán; Conocimiento y Evidencia (CONEVID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas (CRONICAS), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Internista, Magíster en Medicina.

    2014-01-01

    The healthcare model is shifting from a paternalistic towards a more inclusive and participative approach, such as shared decision making (SDM). SDM considers patients as autonomous and responsible agents. SDM is a therapeutic approach where healthcare providers and patients share the best evidence available to make a decision according to the values and preferences of the patient. Decision aids are tools that can facilitate this information exchange. These tools help patients to increase...

  18. Culture Matters: Individualism vs. Collectivism in Conflict Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca LeFebvre; Volker Franke

    2013-01-01

    Does culture matter in decision-making? Existing literature largely assumes that the cognitive processes that inform decision-making are universally applicable, while only very few studies indicate that cultural norms and values shape cognitive processes. Using survey based quasi-experimental design, this research shows that subjects with higher levels of individualism tend to be more rational in their decision processing, while those with higher levels of collectivism tend to be more depende...

  19. Respiratory therapists' attitudes about participative decision making: relationship between managerial decision-making style and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Shane S; Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2004-08-01

    Studies of non-health-care work environments indicate that non-managerial employee job satisfaction is higher in companies that use participative (as opposed to autocratic) decision making. It has not been determined whether managerial decision-making style influences job satisfaction among respiratory therapists (RTs) and which managerial decision-making style RTs prefer. We surveyed Nebraska RTs' attitudes regarding their job satisfaction, their perceptions of their managers' decision-making styles (autocratic, consultative, and/or delegative), and which decision-making style they would prefer their managers to use. We sought to determine whether there is a significant correlation between RTs' perceptions of their managers' decision-making styles and the RTs' job satisfaction. The study population was 792 licensed and practicing non-managerial RTs in Nebraska, from which we randomly selected 565 RTs to survey. The self-administered, descriptive survey used 2 Likert scales (one for decision-making style and one for job satisfaction) and inquired about 57 items. The survey was mailed on October 1, 1999. On October 28, 1999, we sent a second mailing to RTs who had not responded. We received 271 responses (response rate 47.9%). The respondents were generally satisfied with their jobs (mean +/- SD Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire score 73.46 +/- 11.63). The sub-scale scores ranged from 20 ("very dissatisfied") to 100 ("very satisfied"). The respondents did not want autocratic managerial decision making (mean +/- SD autocratic sub-scale score 4.29 +/- 0.60). Autocratic decision making was associated with lower job satisfaction (r = 0.49), whereas consultative and delegative decision making were associated with higher job satisfaction (r = -0.31 and -0.48, respectively). RTs who worked in departments that had manager practiced participative decision making. These findings offer guidance for organizing optimal work environments for RTs.

  20. Decision making in a human population living sustainably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John S; Burgman, Mark A; Marewski, Julian N; Fidler, Fiona; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-10-01

    The Tiwi people of northern Australia have managed natural resources continuously for 6000-8000 years. Tiwi management objectives and outcomes may reflect how they gather information about the environment. We qualitatively analyzed Tiwi documents and management techniques to examine the relation between the social and physical environment of decision makers and their decision-making strategies. We hypothesized that principles of bounded rationality, namely, the use of efficient rules to navigate complex decision problems, explain how Tiwi managers use simple decision strategies (i.e., heuristics) to make robust decisions. Tiwi natural resource managers reduced complexity in decision making through a process that gathers incomplete and uncertain information to quickly guide decisions toward effective outcomes. They used management feedback to validate decisions through an information loop that resulted in long-term sustainability of environmental use. We examined the Tiwi decision-making processes relative to management of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fisheries and contrasted their management with the state government's management of barramundi. Decisions that enhanced the status of individual people and their attainment of aspiration levels resulted in reliable resource availability for Tiwi consumers. Different decision processes adopted by the state for management of barramundi may not secure similarly sustainable outcomes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.