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Sample records for rapid cycling conditions

  1. Applications and control of air conditioning systems using rapid cycling to modulate capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poort, M.J.; Bullard, C.W. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center, University of Illinois, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor of an air conditioning or refrigeration system can be used to modulate capacity, thus offering an alternative to a variable speed compressor. This paper explores design tradeoffs to optimize rapid cycling performance based on experimental results using two different evaporators and changing other components of an air conditioning system. Rapid cycling has inherent compressor lift penalties associated with larger mass flow rates, which need to be minimized. Preventing dryout (superheating) in the evaporator during the off cycle, a major penalty as cycles are lengthened, is also important. Evaporator dryout is minimized by increasing the refrigerant side area and reducing off cycle drainage. Combining a flash gas bypass with a suction line heat exchanger was found to maximize performance during the off cycle while allowing increased cycle lengths without incurring major penalties. (author)

  2. Rapid changes in the light/dark cycle disrupt memory of conditioned fear in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn H Loh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of physiology and behavior including cognitive processes. Components of neural circuits involved in learning and memory, e.g., the amygdala and the hippocampus, exhibit circadian rhythms in gene expression and signaling pathways. The functional significance of these rhythms is still not understood. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of transiently disrupting the circadian system by shifting the light/dark (LD cycle. Such "jet lag" treatments alter daily rhythms of gene expression that underlie circadian oscillations as well as disrupt the synchrony between the multiple oscillators found within the body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected adult male C57Bl/6 mice to a contextual fear conditioning protocol either before or after acute phase shifts of the LD cycle. As part of this study, we examined the impact of phase advances and phase delays, and the effects of different magnitudes of phase shifts. Under all conditions tested, we found that recall of fear conditioned behavior was specifically affected by the jet lag. We found that phase shifts potentiated the stress-evoked corticosterone response without altering baseline levels of this hormone. The jet lag treatment did not result in overall sleep deprivation, but altered the temporal distribution of sleep. Finally, we found that prior experience of jet lag helps to compensate for the reduced recall due to acute phase shifts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute changes to the LD cycle affect the recall of fear-conditioned behavior. This suggests that a synchronized circadian system may be broadly important for normal cognition and that the consolidation of memories may be particularly sensitive to disruptions of circadian timing.

  3. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  4. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  5. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  6. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  7. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2018-04-10

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  8. Comparison of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder based on prospective mood ratings in 539 outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, RW; Luckenbaugh, DA; Post, RM; Suppes, T; Altshuler, LL; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Denicoff, KD; Grunze, H; Leverich, GS; McElroy, SL; Walden, J; Nolen, WA

    Objective: To detect risk factors for rapid cycling in bipolar disorder, the authors compared characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling patients both from a categorical and a dimensional perspective. Method: Outpatients with bipolar I disorder (N = 419), bipolar II disorder (N = 104),

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  10. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  11. Tune-control improvements on the rapid-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Faber, M.; Gunderson, G.; Knott, M.; Voss, D.

    1981-01-01

    The as-built lattice of the Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) had two sets of correction sextupoles and two sets of quadrupoles energized by dc power supplies to control the tune and the tune tilt. With this method of powering these magnets, adjustment of tune conditions during the accelerating cycle as needed was not possible. A set of dynamically programmable power supplies has been built and operated to provide the required chromaticity adjustment. The short accelerating time (16.7 ms) of the RCS and the inductance of the magnets dictated large transistor amplifier power supplies. The required time resolution and waveform flexibility indicated the desirability of computer control. Both the amplifiers and controls are described, along with resulting improvements in the beam performance. A set of octupole magnets and programmable power supplies with similar dynamic qualities have been constructed and installed to control the anticipated high-intensity transverse instability. This system will be operational in the spring of 1981

  12. Design principles of a conditional futile cycle exploited for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolla, Dean A; Kiley, Patricia J; Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we characterize the design principles of futile cycling in providing rapid adaptation by regulatory proteins that act as environmental sensors. In contrast to the energetically wasteful futile cycles that are avoided in metabolic pathways, here we describe a conditional futile cycle exploited for a regulatory benefit. The FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction) cycle in Escherichia coli operates under two regimes - a strictly futile cycle in the presence of O2 and as a pathway under anoxic conditions. The computational results presented here use FNR as a model system and provide evidence that cycling of this transcription factor and its labile sensory cofactor between active and inactive states affords rapid signaling and adaptation. We modify a previously developed mechanistic model to examine a family of FNR models each with different cycling speeds but mathematically constrained to be otherwise equivalent, and we identify a trade-off between energy expenditure and response time that can be tuned by evolution to optimize cycling rate of the FNR system for a particular ecological context. Simulations mimicking experiments with proposed double mutant strains offer suggestions for experimentally testing our predictions and identifying potential fitness effects. Our approach provides a computational framework for analyzing other conditional futile cycles, which when placed in their larger biological context may be found to confer advantages to the organism.

  13. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Rapid Cycle Amine Swing Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed has been identified as a technology with high potential to meet the stringent requirements for the next generation spacesuit's...

  14. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  15. Transient burnout under rapid flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1987-01-01

    Burnout characteristics were experimentally studied using uniformly heated tube and annular test sections under rapid flow reduction conditions. Observations indicated that the onset of burnout under a flow reduction transient is caused by the dryout of a liquid film on the heated surface. The decrease in burnout mass velocity at the channel inlet with increasing flow reduction rate is attributed to the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase and sustain the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. This is because the movement of the boiling boundary cannot keep up with the rapid reduction of inlet flow rate. A burnout model for the local condition could be applied to the burnout phenomena with the flow reduction under pressures of 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates of 0.6 ∼ 35 %/s. Based on this model, a method to predict the burnout time under a flow reduction condition was presented. The calculated burnout times agreed well with experimental results obtained by some investigators. (author)

  16. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  17. Rapid Cycling Genomic Selection in a Multiparental Tropical Maize Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuecai; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Burgueño, Juan; Olsen, Michael; Buckler, Edward; Atlin, Gary; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Vargas, Mateo; San Vicente, Félix; Crossa, José

    2017-07-05

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS) for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C 0 ) training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C 0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C 1 ). Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C 1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C 2 ; this was repeated for more cycles (C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 ), thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C 0, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 , together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C 1 to C 4 reached 0.225 ton ha -1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha -1  yr -1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C 0 ), genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C 3 and C 4 ). Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  18. Reliability and validity of four alternative definitions of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M; Pirozzi, R; Formicola, A M; Tortorella, A

    1999-09-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of four definitions of rapid cycling. Two trained psychiatrists, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, independently assessed 210 patients with bipolar disorder. They checked whether each patient met four definitions of rapid cycling: one consistent with DSM-IV criteria, one waiving criteria for duration of affective episodes, one waiving such criteria and requiring at least one switch from mania to depression or vice versa during the reference year, and one waiving duration criteria and requiring at least 8 weeks of fully symptomatic affective illness during the reference year. The interrater reliability was calculated by Cohen's kappa statistic. Patients who met each definition according to both psychiatrists were compared to those who did not meet any definition (nonrapid-cycling group) on demographic and clinical variables. All patients were followed up for 1 year. Kappa values were 0.93, 0.73, 0.75, and 0.80, respectively, for the four definitions of rapid cycling. The groups meeting the second and third definitions included significantly more female and bipolar II patients than did the nonrapid-cycling group. Those two groups also had the lowest proportion of patients with a favorable lithium prophylaxis outcome and the highest stability of the rapid-cycling pattern on follow-up. The four groups of rapid-cycling patients did not differ significantly among themselves on any of the assessed variables. The expression "rapid cycling" encompasses a spectrum of conditions. The DSM-IV definition, although quite reliable, covers only part of this spectrum, and the conditions that are excluded are very typical in terms of key validators and are relatively stable over time.

  19. Rapid-cycle testing cuts bed turnaround by 85%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    You can use rapid-cycle testing to try out new approaches to overcrowding much more frequently than with more traditional process improvement strategies. Improving bed turnaround notification can yield dramatic improvements. Telling staff they have to try a new process only for three days makes it easier to gain buy-in. Look for old policies that are no longer needed, yet continue to keep your staff bogged down.

  20. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  1. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Zhang Chunlu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  2. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-Jiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed. (author)

  3. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weijiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Chunlu, E-mail: chunlu.zhang@carrier.utc.co [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  4. Rapid nitrous oxide cycling in the suboxic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R.; Bianchi, Daniele; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a major cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, yet its sources and sinks remain poorly quantified in the oceans. We used isotope tracers to directly measure N2O reduction rates in the eastern tropical North Pacific. Because of incomplete denitrification, N2O cycling rates are an order of magnitude higher than predicted by current models in suboxic regions, and the spatial distribution suggests strong dependence on both organic carbon and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Furthermore, N2O turnover is 20 times higher than the net atmospheric efflux. The rapid rate of this cycling coupled to an expected expansion of suboxic ocean waters implies future increases in N2O emissions.

  5. Space-Charge Simulation of Integrable Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that enables strong nonlinear focusing without generating parametric resonances. We use a Synergia space-charge simulation to investigate the application of integrable optics to a high-intensity hadron ring that could replace the Fermilab Booster. We find that incorporating integrability into the design suppresses the beam halo generated by a mismatched KV beam. Our integrable rapid cycling synchrotron (iRCS) design includes other features of modern ring design such as low momentum compaction factor and harmonically canceling sextupoles. Experimental tests of high-intensity beams in integrable lattices will take place over the next several years at the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) and the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER).

  6. Biological aspects and candidate biomarkers for rapid-cycling in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-12-01

    Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder represents a frequent severe subtype of illness which has been associated with poor response to pharmacological treatment. Aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of biological markers associated with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to identify relevant papers about the topic. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients seem to have a more frequent family history for bipolar spectrum disorders (d range: 0.44-0.74) as well as an increased susceptibility to DNA damage or mRNA hypo-transcription (d range: 0.78-1.67) than non rapid-cycling ones. A susceptibility to hypothyroidism, which is exacerbated by treatment with lithium, is possible in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, but further studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. Rapid-cycling bipolar patients might have more insuline resistance as well as more severe brain changes in frontal areas (d range: 0.82-0.94) than non rapid-cycling ones. Many questions are still open about this topic. The first is whether the rapid-cycling is inheritable or is more generally the manifestation of a severe form of bipolar disorder. The second is whether some endocrine dysfunctions (diabetes and hypothyroidism) predispose to rapid-cycling or rapid-cycling is the consequence of drug treatment or medical comorbidities (e.g. obesity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimum heat power cycles for specified boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper optimization of the power output of Carnot and closed Brayton cycles is considered for both finite and infinite thermal capacitance rates of the external fluid streams. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to solve for working fluid temperatures that yield maximum power. Analytical expressions for the maximum power and the cycle efficiency at maximum power are obtained. A comparison of the maximum power from the two cycles for the same boundary conditions, i.e., the same heat source/sink inlet temperatures, thermal capacitance rates, and heat exchanger conductances, shows that the Brayton cycle can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. This comparison illustrates that cycles exist that can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. The optimum heat power cycle, which will provide the upper limit of power obtained from any thermodynamic cycle for specified boundary conditions and heat exchanger conductances is considered. The optimum heat power cycle is identified by optimizing the sum of the power output from a sequence of Carnot cycles. The shape of the optimum heat power cycle, the power output, and corresponding efficiency are presented. The efficiency at maximum power of all cycles investigated in this study is found to be equal to (or well approximated by) η = 1 - sq. root T L.in /φT H.in where φ is a factor relating the entropy changes during heat rejection and heat addition

  8. DETERMINANTS OF ENTERPRISES LIFE CYCLE IN MODERN CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Polianska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical basis of organization life cycle research as well as the particularly of the organization life cycle concept implementation for solving of modern targets of enterprises and organizations development are highlighted. The determinants of one life cycle stage transformation to the other at the enterprises, that allows to better understand the conditions of its functioning and to identify factors that affect the viability of the company and its duration, are considered. Management technologies at different stages of organizations life cycle are proposed. Keywords: enterprise, development, organizations life cycle, determinants, Oil and Gas company JEL: M 20

  9. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  10. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  11. Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunxiang; Zhou, Xianliang; Pu, Dennis; Stutz, Jochen; Festa, James; Spolaor, Max; Tsai, Catalina; Cantrell, Christopher; Mauldin, Roy L; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew; Hornbrook, Rebecca S; Apel, Eric C; Guenther, Alex; Kaser, Lisa; Yuan, Bin; Karl, Thomas; Haggerty, Julie; Hall, Samuel; Ullmann, Kirk; Smith, James N; Ortega, John; Knote, Christoph

    2016-04-28

    Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A 'renoxification' process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth's surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.

  12. Conditional political budget cycles: a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of

  13. Conditional political budget cycles : a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of

  14. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-06-17

    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  15. CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K Sjöholm

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder patients often display abnormalities in circadian rhythm, and they are sensitive to irregular diurnal rhythms. CRY2 participates in the core clock that generates circadian rhythms. CRY2 mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells was recently shown to display a marked diurnal variation and to respond to total sleep deprivation in healthy human volunteers. It was also shown that bipolar patients in a depressive state had lower CRY2 mRNA levels, nonresponsive to total sleep deprivation, compared to healthy controls, and that CRY2 gene variation was associated with winter depression in both Swedish and Finnish cohorts.Four CRY2 SNPs spanning from intron 2 to downstream 3'UTR were analyzed for association to bipolar disorder type 1 (n = 497, bipolar disorder type 2 (n = 60 and bipolar disorder with the feature rapid cycling (n = 155 versus blood donors (n = 1044 in Sweden. Also, the rapid cycling cases were compared with bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (n = 422. The haplotype GGAC was underrepresented among rapid cycling cases versus controls and versus bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (OR = 0.7, P = 0.006-0.02, whereas overrepresentation among rapid cycling cases was seen for AAAC (OR = 1.3-1.4, P = 0.03-0.04 and AGGA (OR = 1.5, P = 0.05. The risk and protective CRY2 haplotypes and their effect sizes were similar to those recently suggested to be associated with winter depression in Swedes.We propose that the circadian gene CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. This is the first time a clock gene is implicated in rapid cycling, and one of few findings showing a molecular discrimination between rapid cycling and other forms of bipolar disorder.

  16. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business.

  17. Comparison of treatment outcome using two definitions of rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We examined differences in treatment outcome between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined rapid cycling and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that, compared with the DSM-IV definition, the average lifetime definition of rapid cycling may better identify subjects with a history of more mood lability and a greater likelihood of hypomanic symptom induction during long-term treatment. Subjects ≥18 years old with a bipolar II major depressive episode (n=129) were categorized into DSM-IV- and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling and prospectively treated with either venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. These exploratory analyses found moderate agreement between the two rapid-cycling definitions (κ=0.56). The lifetime definition captured subjects with more chronic courses of bipolar II depression, whereas the DSM-IV definition captured subjects with more acute symptoms of hypomania. There was no difference between rapid-cycling definitions with respect to the response to acute venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy. However, the lifetime definition was slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying subjects who went on to experience hypomanic symptoms during continuation therapy. Although sample sizes were limited, the findings suggest that the lifetime definition of rapid cycling may identify individuals with a chronic rapid-cycling course and may also be slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying individuals with hypomania during relapse-prevention therapy. These findings are preliminary in nature and need replication in larger, prospective, bipolar II studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Reconsidering Tree Fruit as Candidate Crops Through the Use of Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Gary Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tree fruit, although desirable from a crew nutrition and menu diversity perspective, have long been dismissed as candidate crops based on their long juvenile phase, large architecture, low short-term harvest index, and dormancy requirements. Recent developments in Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding (RCCB) have overcome these historical limitations, opening the door to a new era in candidate crop research. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have developed FT-construct (Flowering Locus T) dwarf plum lines that have a very short juvenile phase, vine-like architecture, and no obligate dormancy period. In a collaborative research effort, NASA and the USDA are evaluating the performance of these FT-lines under controlled environment conditions relevant to spaceflight.

  19. Nucleation of superconductivity under rapid cycling of an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay

    2008-01-01

    The effect of an externally applied high-frequency oscillating electric field on the critical nucleation field of superconductivity in the bulk as well as at the surface of a superconductor is investigated in detail in this work. Starting from the linearized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDLG) theory, and using the variational principle, I have shown the analogy between a quantum harmonic oscillator with that of the nucleation of superconductivity in the bulk and a quantum double oscillator with that of the nucleation at the surface of a finite sample. The effective Hamiltonian approach of Cook et al (1985 Phys. Rev. A 31 564) is employed to incorporate the effect of an externally applied highly oscillating electric field. The critical nucleation field ratio is also calculated from the ground state energy method. The results obtained from these two approximate theories agree very well with the exact results for the case of an undriven system, which establishes the validity of these two approximate theories. It is observed that the highly oscillating electric field actually increases the bulk critical nucleation field (H c 2 ) as well as the surface critical nucleation field (H c 3 ) of superconductivity as compared to the case of absent electric field (ε 0 = 0). But the externally applied rapidly oscillating electric field accentuates the surface critical nucleation field more than the bulk critical nucleation field, i.e. the increase of H c 3 is 1.6592 times larger than that of H c 2

  20. Laboratory versus outdoor cycling conditions: differences in pedaling biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William; Grappe, Frederic; Groslambert, Alain

    2007-05-01

    The aim of our study was to compare crank torque profile and perceived exertion between the Monark ergometer (818 E) and two outdoor cycling conditions: level ground and uphill road cycling. Seven male cyclists performed seven tests in seated position at different pedaling cadences: (a) in the laboratory at 60, 80, and 100 rpm; (b) on level terrain at 80 and 100 rpm; and (c) on uphill terrain (9.25% grade) at 60 and 80 rpm. The cyclists exercised for 1 min at their maximal aerobic power. The Monark ergometer and the bicycle were equipped with the SRM Training System (Schoberer, Germany) for the measurement of power output (W), torque (Nxm), pedaling cadence (rpm), and cycling velocity (kmxh-1). The most important findings of this study indicate that at maximal aerobic power the crank torque profiles in the Monark ergometer (818 E) were significantly different (especially on dead points of the crank cycle) and generate a higher perceived exertion compared with road cycling conditions.

  1. Cell-cycle distributions and radiation responses of Chinese hamster cells cultured continuously under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, N.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Cell-cycle distributions were measured by flow cytometry for Chinese hamster (CHO) cells cultured continuously under hypoxic conditions. DNA histograms showed an accumulation of cells in the early S phase followed by a traverse delay through the S phase, and a G 2 block. During hypoxic culturing, cell viability decreased rapidly to less than 0.1% at 120 h. Radiation responses for cells cultured under these conditions showed an extreme radioresistance at 72 h. Results suggest that hypoxia induces a condition similar to cell synchrony which itself changes the radioresistance of hypoxic cells. (author)

  2. Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Cycles: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abu-Zour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most conventional cooling/refrigeration systems are driven by fossil fuel combustion, and therefore give rise to emission of environmentally damaging pollutants. In addition, many cooling systems employ refrigerants, which are also harmful to the environment in terms of their Global Warming Potential (GWP and Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP. Development of a passive or hybrid solar-driven air-conditioning system is therefore of interest as exploitation of such systems would reduce the demand for grid electricity particularly at times of peak load. This paper presents a review of various cooling cycles and summarises work carried out on solar-driven air-conditioning systems.

  3. An Implicit Weighted Degree Condition For Heavy Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Junqing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a vertex v in a weighted graph G, idw(v denotes the implicit weighted degree of v. In this paper, we obtain the following result: Let G be a 2-connected weighted graph which satisfies the following conditions: (a The implicit weighted degree sum of any three independent vertices is at least t; (b w(xz = w(yz for every vertex z ∈ N(x ∩ N(y with xy /∈ E(G; (c In every triangle T of G, either all edges of T have different weights or all edges of T have the same weight. Then G contains either a hamiltonian cycle or a cycle of weight at least 2t/3. This generalizes the result of Zhang et al. [9].

  4. Rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder and recurrent strokes secondary to high blood homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Mahmoud A; Zahid, Shazia; Elnenaei, Manal O

    2014-10-01

    The interface between psychiatric disorders and organicity has been a matter for contentious debate. To report an interesting clinical case of moderate homocystinuria presenting with significant psychiatric and neurological deficits. A case report highlighting the impact of homocystinuria on producing intractable rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder. Homocystinuria is a frequently missed cause for treatment-resistant bipolar affective disorder.

  5. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  6. Unusual Polar Conditions in Solar Cycle 24 and Their Implications for Cycle 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Akiyama, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    We report on the prolonged solar-maximum conditions until late 2015 at the north-polar region of the Sun indicated by the occurrence of high-latitude prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness temperature close to the quiet-Sun level. These two aspects of solar activity indicate that the polarity reversal was completed by mid-2014 in the south and late 2015 in the north. The microwave brightness in the south-polar region has increased to a level exceeding the level of the Cycle 23/24 minimum, but just started to increase in the north. The northsouth asymmetry in the polarity reversal has switched from that in Cycle 23. These observations lead us to the hypothesis that the onset of Cycle 25 in the northern hemisphere is likely to be delayed with respect to that in the southern hemisphere. We find that the unusual condition in the north is a direct consequence of the arrival of poleward surges of opposite polarity from the active region belt. We also find that multiple rush-to-the-pole episodes were indicated by the PE locations that lined up at the boundary between opposite-polarity surges. The high-latitude PEs occurred in the boundary between the incumbent polar flux and the insurgent flux of opposite polarity.

  7. SUN-LIKE MAGNETIC CYCLES IN THE RAPIDLY ROTATING YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG HD 30495

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial (∼2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, a ∼1 Gyr old G1.5 V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at ∼1.7 years and a long cycle of ∼12 years. We measure three individual long-period cycles and find durations ranging from 9.6 to 15.5 years. We find the short-term variability to be intermittent, but present throughout the majority of the time series, though its occurrence and amplitude are uncorrelated with the longer cycle. These essentially solar-like variations occur in a Sun-like star with more rapid rotation, though surface differential rotation measurements leave open the possibility of a solar equivalence

  8. Organic matter cycling in a neotropical reservoir: effects of temperature and experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:This study reports a comparison between decomposition kinetics of detritus derived from two macrophyte species (Polygonum lapathifolium L.: Polygonaceae; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.: Pontederiaceae growing in a neotropical reservoir (Brazil, under laboratory and field conditions, in order to assess hypotheses on the main differences in factors affecting organic matter cycling, including the effect of temperature. METHODS: Plant and water samples were collected from the reservoir in August 2009. In field incubation mass loss was assessed using a litter bag technique and in the laboratory the decay was followed using a decomposition chamber maintained under controlled conditions (i.e. in the dark, at 15 ºC and 25 ºC. A kinetic model was adopted to explain and compare the organic matter decay, ANOVA (Repeated Measures testing was used to describe the differences between the treatments and a linear correlation was used to compare in situ and in vitro experiments. RESULTS: The mass decay was faster in natural conditions with rapid release of the labile-soluble portion. The simulated values of mineralization rates of dissolved organic matter and refractory organic matter were rapid in high temperatures (25 ºC. The high Q10 results (mainly for E. azurea, and experimental conditions, and outcomes of ANOVA testing indicate the temperature variation (10 ºC influence the rates of mass decay. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested rapid organic matter cycling in warm months (from October to December supporting the microbial loop. Although the particulate organic matter losses are high in field conditions the results are of the same magnitude in both conditions suggesting an equivalence of the mass decay kinetic.

  9. Life cycle management. Condition monitoring of wind power plants; Life-cycle-management. Zustandsueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R. [cmc GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on maintenance strategies and condition monitoring in the field of wind energy. Beside the components in the drive train of wind turbines under consideration, the condition monitoring of the hardware systems and their software is explained. A brief overview of the field of machinery diagnosis and an explanation of the transmission of the measured data follow. Additional sensors such as sensors for the rotor blade monitoring, oil particles counter or oil quality sensors are described. In the field of diagnostic certainty, special follow-up studies such as video endoscopy, analysis of oil or grease, filter testing and material testing are discussed. The information from these thematic fields is used in the life-cycle management database for operationally relevant evaluations and considerations of economy of condition monitoring systems.

  10. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3......, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (pdifference in BDNF levels...

  11. A novel method for rapid comparative quantitative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Coates, David J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metric framework determined to compare nuclear fuel cycles. ► Fast and thermal reactors simulated using MATLAB models, including thorium. ► Modelling uses deterministic methods instead of Monte–Carlo for speed. ► Method rapidly identifies relative cycle strengths and weaknesses. ► Significant scope for use in project planning and cycle optimisation. - Abstract: One of the greatest obstacles facing the nuclear industry is that of sustainability, both in terms of the finite reserves of uranium ore and the production of highly radiotoxic spent fuel which presents proliferation and environmental hazards. Alternative nuclear technologies have been suggested as a means of delivering enhanced sustainability with proposals including fast reactors, the use of thorium fuel and tiered fuel cycles. The debate as to which is the most appropriate technology continues, with each fuel system and reactor type delivering specific advantages and disadvantages which can be difficult to compare fairly. This paper demonstrates a framework of performance metrics which, coupled with a first-order lumped reactor model to determine nuclide population balances, can be used to quantify the aforementioned pros and cons for a range of different fuel and reactor combinations. The framework includes metrics such as fuel efficiency, spent fuel toxicity and proliferation resistance, and relative cycle performance is analysed through parallel coordinate plots, yielding a quantitative comparison of disparate cycles.

  12. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Bessho, Naoki; Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  13. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  14. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi eMochida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer designed crops to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  15. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Hirayama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer "designed crops" to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  16. Cure Cycle Optimization of Rapidly Cured Out-Of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anqi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Yu, Qiyong

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-autoclave prepreg typically needs a long cure cycle to guarantee good properties as the result of low processing pressure applied. It is essential to reduce the manufacturing time, achieve real cost reduction, and take full advantage of out-of-autoclave process. The focus of this paper is to reduce the cure cycle time and production cost while maintaining high laminate quality. A rapidly cured out-of-autoclave resin and relative prepreg were independently developed. To determine a suitable rapid cure procedure for the developed prepreg, the effect of heating rate, initial cure temperature, dwelling time, and post-cure time on the final laminate quality were evaluated and the factors were then optimized. As a result, a rapid cure procedure was determined. The results showed that the resin infiltration could be completed at the end of the initial cure stage and no obvious void could be seen in the laminate at this time. The laminate could achieve good internal quality using the optimized cure procedure. The mechanical test results showed that the laminates had a fiber volume fraction of 59–60% with a final glass transition temperature of 205 °C and excellent mechanical strength especially the flexural properties. PMID:29534048

  17. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ePamir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  18. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Evren; Szyszka, Paul; Scheiner, Ricarda; Nawrot, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24 h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  19. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  20. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  1. Correlates of historical suicide attempt in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Tolliver, Bryan K; Kemp, David E; Ganocy, Stephen J; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen L; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2009-07-01

    A rapid-cycling course in bipolar disorder has previously been identified as a risk factor for attempted suicide. This study investigated factors associated with suicide attempts in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I or II disorder. Cross-sectional data at the initial assessment of patients who were enrolled into 4 clinical trials were used to study the factors associated with suicide attempt. An extensive clinical interview and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, psychosis, and other clinical variables. Chi-square, t test, and logistic regression or Poisson regression were used to analyze the data where appropriate, with odds ratios (ORs) for relative risk estimate. The data were collected from September 1995 to June 2005. In a univariate analysis, 41% of 561 patients had at least 1 lifetime suicide attempt. Earlier age of depression onset, bipolar I subtype, female sex, unmarried status, and a history of drug use disorder, panic disorder, sexual abuse, and psychosis were associated with significantly higher rates of attempted suicide (all p drug abuse (OR = 1.62, p = .0317) were independent predictors for increased risk of attempted suicide. However, white race was associated with a lower risk for suicide attempt (OR = 0.47, p = .0160). Psychosis during depression (p = .0003), bipolar I subtype (p = .0302), and physical abuse (p = .0195) were associated with increased numbers of suicide attempts by 248%, 166%, and 162%, respectively; white race was associated with a 60% decrease in the number of suicide attempts (p = .0320). In this highly comorbid group of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, 41% had at least 1 suicide attempt. Among the demographics, female sex was positively associated, but white race was negatively associated, with the risk for suicide attempt. Independent clinical variables for increased risk and

  2. Multi-function ring magnet power supply for rapid-cycling synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Ring magnet power supply (RMPS) circuits that produce a wide range of magnet current waveshapes for rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) are described. The shapes range from long flat-tops separated by a biased dual frequency cosine wave to those having a flat-bottom (injection), followed by a lower frequency cosine half wave (acceleration), a flat-top (extraction), and a higher frequency cosine half wave (magnet reset). Applications of these circuits for proposed synchrotrons are outlined. Solid-state switching circuits and the results of proof-of-concept tests are shown. 8 refs., 12 figs

  3. DECISION-MAKING ALIGNED WITH RAPID-CYCLE EVALUATION IN HEALTH CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Shrank, William H; Ruhl, Michael; Maclure, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Availability of real-time electronic healthcare data provides new opportunities for rapid-cycle evaluation (RCE) of health technologies, including healthcare delivery and payment programs. We aim to align decision-making processes with stages of RCE to optimize the usefulness and impact of rapid results. Rational decisions about program adoption depend on program effect size in relation to externalities, including implementation cost, sustainability, and likelihood of broad adoption. Drawing on case studies and experience from drug safety monitoring, we examine how decision makers have used scientific evidence on complex interventions in the past. We clarify how RCE alters the nature of policy decisions; develop the RAPID framework for synchronizing decision-maker activities with stages of RCE; and provide guidelines on evidence thresholds for incremental decision-making. In contrast to traditional evaluations, RCE provides early evidence on effectiveness and facilitates a stepped approach to decision making in expectation of future regularly updated evidence. RCE allows for identification of trends in adjusted effect size. It supports adapting a program in midstream in response to interim findings, or adapting the evaluation strategy to identify true improvements earlier. The 5-step RAPID approach that utilizes the cumulating evidence of program effectiveness over time could increase policy-makers' confidence in expediting decisions. RCE enables a step-wise approach to HTA decision-making, based on gradually emerging evidence, reducing delays in decision-making processes after traditional one-time evaluations.

  4. Psychiatric and clinical correlates of rapid cycling bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre D. Gigante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rapid cycling (RC is a feature of bipolar disorder (BD that has been associated with worse outcome and more severe disability. Our goal was to investigate the association of demographic and clinical factors with RC. Methods: We compared RC and non-rapid cycling (NRC BD patients from the Brazilian Research Network in Bipolar Disorder (BRN-BD regarding age at onset of BD; total number of episodes; previous number of manic, depressive, mixed, and hypomanic episodes; polarity of the first episode; gender; number of suicide attempts; number of lifetime hospitalizations and lifetime history of at least one hospitalization; family history of mood disorder; clinical comorbidities such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, seizures; and current use of medications such as lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Results: We studied 577 patients and found that 100 (17.3% met the criteria for RC in the year before the investigation. RC patients had earlier age at onset, longer duration of disease, more lifetime depressive and manic episodes, higher number of suicide attempts, and higher rate antidepressant use. Conclusion: The presence of RC in the previous year was associated with specific clinical characteristics closely related to worse outcome in the course of BD.

  5. Rapid ammonia gas transport accounts for futile transmembrane cycling under NH3/NH4+ toxicity in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-12-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4(+) cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4(+) toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4(+)) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope (13)N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4(+) ion. Influx of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+), which exceeded 200 µmol g(-1) h(-1), was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4(+)), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g(-1) h(-1)). Efflux of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+) responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions.

  6. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically a...

  7. Fracture strength of aluminium alloys under rapid loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, K.D.; Rav, Amit S.; Sur, Amit; Kaushik, T.C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-04-01

    fracture and failure due to yielding as compared to that under quasi-static loading condition. (author)

  8. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Quaranta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment.

  9. Life cycle of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium under laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Erhart, Jan; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Kamler, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2011), 277-284 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Hyalomma aegyptium * Testudo * Life-cycle * Laboratory rearing Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  10. Proposed second harmonic acceleration system for the intense pulsed neutron source rapid cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Brandeberry, F.; Rauchas, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) operating at Argonne National Laboratory is presently producing intensities of 2 to 2.5 x 10 12 protons per pulse (ppp) with the addition of a new ion source. This intensity is close to the space charge limit of the machine, estimated at approx.3 x 10 12 ppp, depending somewhat on the available aperture. With the present good performance in mind, accelerator improvements are being directed at: (1) increasing beam intensities for neutron science; (2) lowering acceleration losses to minimize activation; and (3) gaining better control of the beam so that losses can be made to occur when and where they can be most easily controlled. On the basis of preliminary measurements, we are now proposing a third cavity for the RF systems which would provide control of the longitudinal bunch shape during the cycle which would permit raising the effective space charge limit of the accelerator and reducing losses

  11. Rapidly assessing the activation conditions and porosity of metal-organic frameworks using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M; Bloch, Eric D; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-25

    A methodology utilizing a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor propane uptake following incremental increases of the temperature is demonstrated as a means of rapidly identifying porous materials and determining the optimum activation conditions of metal-organic frameworks.

  12. Center conditions and limit cycles for BiLienard systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the center problem for polynomial BiLienard systems of degree n. Computing the focal values and using Grobner bases we find the center conditions for such systems for n=6. We also establish a conjecture about the center conditions for polynomial BiLienard systems of arbitrary degree.

  13. Some conditions and prospects of going to a closed fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lependin, A.V.; Oussanov, V.; Lependina, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear policy in Russia is based on the necessity of closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the same time, the schedule of such a move is not yet defined. In this study, some conditions and possible time frames of taking the nuclear fuel cycle of Russia to closure are discussed. Naturally, the main condition is the revival of the Russian economy wherein nuclear power will turn out to be necessary in a number of Russian regions. The question is whether the closure of nuclear cycle strategy will be implemented in the near future or nuclear power will develop based on the open fuel cycle over a long period of time? (authors)

  14. Biogeochemical cycling of iron and phosphorus under low oxygen conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lomnitz, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Benthic release of the key nutrients iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) is enhanced from sediments that are impinged by oxygen-deficient bottom waters due to its diminished retention capacity for such redox sensitive elements. Suboxic to anoxic and sometimes even euxinic conditions are recently found in open ocean oxygen minimum zones (OMZs, e.g. Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems) and marginal seas (e.g. the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea). Recent studies showed that OMZs expanded in the last decade...

  15. Time-conditioning in different phases of daily cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodolazhskaya, MG; Arushanyan, EB

    2000-01-01

    Outbred rats (n = 60) were trained to count 20-s intervals (by the technique developed by J, Bures) with drinking reinforcement. The animals were divided in three groups, which were subjected to conditioning from 7.00 to 9.00 a.m. from 1.00 to 3.00 p.m., and from 8.00 to 10.00 p.m, respectively,

  16. The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the EURISOL Beta-Beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, A

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times.General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 (http://beta-beam.web.cern.ch/beta-beam/). More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS.Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitat...

  17. Remission of classic rapid cycling bipolar disorder with levothyroxine augmentation therapy in a male patient having clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen PH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The literature suggests that patients with bipolar disorder, particularly females, have greater vulnerability to rapid cycling features. Levothyroxine therapy might be potentially useful to attenuate mood instability in this patient group. In contrast, reports on male patients remain limited and controversial. Herein, we report a 32-year-old male patient who had bipolar 1 disorder for 12 years who developed a breakthrough rapid cycling course and first-onset clinical hypothyroidism at the age of 31 years during lithium therapy. After levothyroxine augmentation therapy was introduced, the patient had remission from the rapid cycling illness course along with normalization of serum levels of free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone in the subsequent year. This observation suggested that investigation of both levothyroxine pharmacology and thyroid pathology in male patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder might be of much value. Keywords: mood disorder, therapy, thyroid hormone

  18. Application of Remote Condition Monitoring in Different Rolling Stock Life Cycle Phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren Ceng, F.P.J.H.; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria

    2013-01-01

    NedTrain is the Netherlands Railway's subsidiary responsible for rolling stock maintenance. The life cycle is 30-40 years where the asset condition is maintained to meet it's performance requirements and is enhanced to meet the customer expectations through it's life. The life cycle costs are

  19. Geographic heterogeneity in cycling under various weather conditions: Evidence from Greater Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M.; Böcker, L.; Dijst, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    With its sustainability, health and accessibility benefits, cycling has nowadays been established on research and policy agendas. Notwithstanding the decision to cycle is closely related to local weather conditions and interwoven with the geographical context, research dealing with both aspects is

  20. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    individual gas cleaning stages, and the probable operating conditions of the gas cleaning stages to conceptually satisfy the gas cleaning requirements; (2) Estimate process material & energy balances for the major plant sections and for each gas cleaning stage; (3) Conceptually size and specify the major gas cleaning process equipment; (4) Determine the resulting overall performance of the application; and (5) Estimate the investment cost and operating cost for each application. Analogous evaluation steps were applied for each application using conventional gas cleaning technology, and comparison was made to extract the potential benefits, issues, and development needs of the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology. The gas cleaning process and related gas conditioning steps were also required to meet specifications that address plant environmental emissions, the protection of the gas turbine and other Power Island components, and the protection of the methanol synthesis reactor. Detailed material & energy balances for the gas cleaning applications, coupled with preliminary thermodynamic modeling and laboratory testing of candidate sorbents, identified the probable sorbent types that should be used, their needed operating conditions in each stage, and their required levels of performance. The study showed that Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology can be configured to address and conceptually meet all of the gas cleaning requirements for IGCC, and that it can potentially overcome several of the conventional IGCC power plant availability issues, resulting in improved power plant thermal efficiency and cost. For IGCC application, Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning yields 6% greater generating capacity and 2.3 percentage-points greater efficiency under the Current Standards case, and more than 9% generating capacity increase and 3.6 percentage-points higher efficiency in the Future Standards case. While the conceptual equipment costs are estimated to be only slightly

  1. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-18 in manic and hypomanic states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Weikop, Pia; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    obtained in affective states of varying polarity during 6-12 months in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and compared with repeated measurements in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects, using rigorous laboratory-, clinical- and statistical methodology. Adjusting for demographical...... were to assess alterations of peripheral cytokine levels between affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and to compare these with levels in healthy control subjects. In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of plasma levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IL-1β and TNF-α were......, clinical- and lifestyle factors, levels of IL-6 (prapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in a manic/hypomanic state, compared with a depressed and a euthymic state. Compared with healthy control subjects, unadjusted levels of IL-6 (p

  2. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  3. Rapid Titration of Measles and Other Viruses: Optimization with Determination of Replication Cycle Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Rabilloud, Jessica; Lawrence, Philip; Gerlier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Background Measles virus (MV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen causing strong immunosuppression in affected individuals and a considerable number of deaths worldwide. Currently, measles is a re-emerging disease in developed countries. MV is usually quantified in infectious units as determined by limiting dilution and counting of plaque forming unit either directly (PFU method) or indirectly from random distribution in microwells (TCID50 method). Both methods are time-consuming (up to several days), cumbersome and, in the case of the PFU assay, possibly operator dependent. Methods/Findings A rapid, optimized, accurate, and reliable technique for titration of measles virus was developed based on the detection of virus infected cells by flow cytometry, single round of infection and titer calculation according to the Poisson's law. The kinetics follow up of the number of infected cells after infection with serial dilutions of a virus allowed estimation of the duration of the replication cycle, and consequently, the optimal infection time. The assay was set up to quantify measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using antibody labeling of viral glycoprotein, virus encoded fluorescent reporter protein and an inducible fluorescent-reporter cell line, respectively. Conclusion Overall, performing the assay takes only 24–30 hours for MV strains, 12 hours for VSV, and 52 hours for HIV-1. The step-by-step procedure we have set up can be, in principle, applicable to accurately quantify any virus including lentiviral vectors, provided that a virus encoded gene product can be detected by flow cytometry. PMID:21915289

  4. Real-time patient survey data during routine clinical activities for rapid-cycle quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, James Lucius; Campos, Claudia L; Jones, Robert E; Stevens, Sheila F

    2015-03-12

    Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (30 words)-8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health care system.

  5. Rapid emergence of subaerial landmasses and onset of a modern hydrologic cycle 2.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I N; Zakharov, D O; Palandri, J; Greber, N D; Dauphas, N; Retallack, G J; Hofmann, A; Lackey, J S; Bekker, A

    2018-05-01

    The history of the growth of continental crust is uncertain, and several different models that involve a gradual, decelerating, or stepwise process have been proposed 1-4 . Even more uncertain is the timing and the secular trend of the emergence of most landmasses above the sea (subaerial landmasses), with estimates ranging from about one billion to three billion years ago 5-7 . The area of emerged crust influences global climate feedbacks and the supply of nutrients to the oceans 8 , and therefore connects Earth's crustal evolution to surface environmental conditions 9-11 . Here we use the triple-oxygen-isotope composition of shales from all continents, spanning 3.7 billion years, to provide constraints on the emergence of continents over time. Our measurements show a stepwise total decrease of 0.08 per mille in the average triple-oxygen-isotope value of shales across the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary. We suggest that our data are best explained by a shift in the nature of water-rock interactions, from near-coastal in the Archaean era to predominantly continental in the Proterozoic, accompanied by a decrease in average surface temperatures. We propose that this shift may have coincided with the onset of a modern hydrological cycle owing to the rapid emergence of continental crust with near-modern average elevation and aerial extent roughly 2.5 billion years ago.

  6. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...... operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal...... rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot...

  7. Design, Manufacture and Test of a 1.3 T / 10 Hz dipole model for Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Newborough, A

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a compact rapid cycling synchrotron has recently been studied at CERN to replace the first stage of its accelerator complex, the proton synchrotron booster. Although currently there are no plans to build this machine, fast cycled accelerator magnets are of general interest for numerous reasons. This has led to the design, manufacture and testing of a scaled model dipole as detailed in this paper to show the capability of producing and characterising a magnet design based on high-silicon content grain-oriented steel able to operate up to 1.3 T at 10 Hz.

  8. The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Innovation's blueprint for rapid-cycle evaluation of new care and payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William

    2013-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act established the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to test innovative payment and service delivery models. The goal is to reduce program expenditures while preserving or improving the quality of care provided to beneficiaries of Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Central to the success of the Innovation Center is a new, rapid-cycle approach to evaluation. This article describes that approach--setting forth how the Rapid Cycle Evaluation Group aims to deliver frequent feedback to providers in support of continuous quality improvement, while rigorously evaluating the outcomes of each model tested. This article also describes the relationship between the group's work and that of the Office of the Actuary at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which plays a central role in the assessment of new models.

  9. Dietary Deficiency of Essential Amino Acids Rapidly Induces Cessation of the Rat Estrous Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to

  10. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent rapid protein kinase signaling actions of estrogen in distal colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly inhibits Cl(-) secretion in rat and human distal colonic epithelium. The inhibition has been shown to occur via targeting of a basolateral K(+) channel identified as the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) channel. E2 indirectly modulates the channel activity via a cascade of second messengers which are rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2. The anti-secretory mechanism may be the manner by which E2 induces fluid retention in the intestine during periods of high circulating plasma E2. Here we review the sex-dependent and estrous cycle regulation of this novel rapid response to E2. The inhibition of KCNQ1 channel activity and Cl(-) secretion will be of interest in the future in the investigation of the retentive effects of estrogen in female tissue and also in the study of secretory disorders and drugable targets of the intestine.

  11. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, I.; Rojas, J.; Landauro, C. V.; Torres, J.

    2008-01-01

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag${}_{2896}$ (4.4 nm in diameter) during rapid cooling conditions has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modeled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique is applied to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidifica...

  12. Ultimate refrigerating conditions, behavior turning and a thermodynamic analysis for absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Danxing; Meng Xuelin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two novel fundamental concepts of the absorption refrigeration cycle were proposed. ► The interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters was investigated. ► A set of optimal operating condition of hybrid refrigeration cycle was found. ► A simulation and investigation for R134a-DMF hybrid refrigeration cycle was performed. - Abstract: The absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle has been considered as an effective approach to reduce the mechanical work consumption by using low-grade heat, such as solar energy. This work aims at studying the thermodynamic mechanism of the hybrid refrigeration cycle. Two fundamental concepts have been proposed, which are the ultimate refrigerating temperature (or the ultimate temperature lift) and the behavior turning. On the basis of that, the interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters and the impact of compressor pressure increasing on the cycle performance have been investigated. The key-parameters include the concentration difference, the circulation ratio of working fluid, etc. The work points out that the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance varies with the change of compressor outlet pressure and depends on which one achieves dominance in the hybrid refrigeration cycle, the absorption sub-system or the compression sub-system. The behavior turning point during parameters changing corresponds to a maximum value of the heat powered coefficient of performance. In this case, the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance is optimal because the low-grade heat utilization is the most effective. In addition, to validate the theoretical analysis, a solar hybrid refrigeration cycle with R134a–DMF as working pair was simulated. The Peng–Robinson equation of state was adopted to calculate thermophysical properties when the reliability assessment of the prediction models on the available literature data of R134a–DMF system had been

  13. Influence of Rapid Freeze-Thaw Cycling on the Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Strain-Hardening Cement Composite (2SHCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Joon Jang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental results to investigate the mechanical properties of sustainable strain-hardening cement composite (2SHCC for infrastructures after freeze-thaw actions. To improve the sustainability of SHCC materials in this study, high energy-consumptive components—silica sand, cement, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers—in the conventional SHCC materials are partially replaced with recycled materials such as recycled sand, fly ash, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers, respectively. To investigate the mechanical properties of green SHCC that contains recycled materials, the cement, PVA fiber and silica sand were replaced with 10% fly ash, 25% PET fiber, and 10% recycled aggregate based on preliminary experimental results for the development of 2SHCC material, respectively. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight for 2SHCC material were measured at every 30 cycles of freeze-thaw. The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of sustainable SHCC are evaluated by conducting compressive tests, four-point flexural tests, direct tensile tests and prism splitting tests after 90, 180, and 300 cycles of rapid freeze-thaw. Freeze-thaw testing was conducted according to ASTM C 666 Procedure A. Test results show that after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing actions, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of damaged 2SHCC were similar to those of virgin 2SHCC, while the freeze-thaw cycles influence mechanical properties of the 2SHCC material except for compressive behavior.

  14. Some conditions and prospects of transition to closed fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lependin, A.V.; Oussanov, V.I.; Lependina, E.V.; Ioughai, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear policy of Russia is based on the necessity of closure of nuclear fuel cycle. But at the same time schedule of such a going is not defined. In this study some conditions and possible time-frames of going the nuclear fuel cycle of Russia to closure are discussed. Naturally, the main condition is revival of Russian economy wherein nuclear power will turn to be necessary in a number of Russian regions. But the question is whether closure of nuclear cycle strategy will be implemented in the near future or nuclear power will develop based on open fuel cycle over a long period of time? at present economic circumstances in Russia has formed in such a way that economics of current projects is not favourable to going to closure of cycle due to high capital investment cost and low fuel component of costs, due to low cost of natural uranium. Ecological analysis performed within the framework of external cost model also does not suggest that closed cycle has essential advantages at present, but also in sight. The authors have considered a model including not only external costs but also total resources expenditures with long-term power development. In the framework of such a method it can be demonstrated that closed fuel cycle has some important advantages taking into account not only tasks of immediate future, but power development strategy for the period of 30-50 years. Under conditions of nuclear capacities increase (to 30-50 GW) limitation of cheap uranium resources available in Russia will assume a new significance. Approach of prices at the back-end stages of nuclear fuel cycle to West Europe level also will favour to going to a closed fuel cycle. More severe ecological requirements answering to a sustainable development concept also will make a contribution. Closure of fuel cycle can be significantly accelerated in the case of implementation of weapon plutonium utilization program. The factors mentioned above facilitate evenly to going to a closed nuclear fuel

  15. Optimum operating conditions for a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrameli, S.M.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The combined production of thermal power and cooling with an ammonia-water based cycle proposed by Goswami is under intensive investigation. In the cycle under consideration, simultaneous cooling output is produced by expanding an ammonia-rich vapor in an expander to sub-ambient temperatures and subsequently heating the cool exhaust. When this mechanism for cooling production is considered in detail, it is apparent that the cooling comes at some expense to work production. To optimize this trade-off, a very specific coefficient-of-performance has been defined. In this paper, the simulation of the cycle was carried out in the process simulator ASPEN Plus. The optimum operating conditions have been found by using the Equation Oriented mode of the simulator and some of the results have been compared with the experimental data obtained from the cycle. The agreement between the two sets proves the accuracy of the optimization results

  16. Criticality control during conditioning of spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Khalil, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel may be unacceptable for direct repository storage because of composition, enrichment, form, physical condition, or the presence of undesirable materials such as sodium. Fuel types which are not acceptable for direct storage must be processed or conditioned to produce physical forms which can safely be stored in a repository. One possible approach to conditioning is the pyroprocess implemented in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Conditioning of binary (U-Zr) and ternary (U-Pu-Zr) metallic fuels from the EBR-2 reactor is used to demonstrate the process. Criticality safety considerations limit batch sizes during the conditioning steps and provide one constraint on the final form of conditioned material. Criticality safety during conditioning is assured by the integration of criticality safety analysis, equipment design, process development, a measurement program, accountability procedures, and a computerized Mass Tracking System. Criticality issues related to storage and shipment of conditioned material have been examined

  17. A Phase II Trial of Docetaxel with Rapid Androgen Cycling as a Treatment for Patients with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana; Carducci, Michael A.; Morris, Michael J.; Slovin, Susan F.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Kelsen, Moshe; Curley, Tracy; Priet, Regina; Collins, Connie; Fleisher, Martin; Heller, Glenn; Baker, Sharyn D.; Scher, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated rapid androgen cycling in combination with docetaxel for men with progressive non-castrate prostate cancers. Methods Non-castrate patients with ≤ 6 months of hormones were eligible. Cohort 1 (63 patients ) received 6 28-day cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m2), leuprolide and 7 days of topical testosterone. Cohort 2 (39 patients) received 9 21-day cycles of docetaxel (70 mg/m2), leuprolide and 3 days of testosterone. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients at 18 months who achieved non -castrate testosterone levels (>150 ng/dl) and an undetectable PSA (≤ 0.05, ≤0.5, or ≤2.0 ng/ml with prior prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or no definitive therapy, respectively). Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity and docetaxel pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Results A higher proportion of patients achieved the undetectable PSA outcome at 18 months in cohort 2 relative to cohort 1 (13% vs. 0%). The 16% incidence of febrile neutropenia was higher than observed in patients was castration-resistant disease, which may have been related to a 50% reduction in overall docetaxel clearance in the non-castrate group. There was no alteration in CYP3A4 activity (P=0.87) or docetaxel clearance (P=0.88) between cycles. Conclusions The undetectable PSA endpoint allows for a rapid screening of interventions for further study. Increasing the number of docetaxel cycles following a shorter period of testosterone repletion, and a longer duration of testosterone depletion, increased the proportion of men who achieved an undetectable PSA. The higher-than-expected incidence of febrile neutropenia may have been related to the reduced overall docetaxel clearance in patients with non-castrate vs castrate testosterone levels. PMID:18565882

  18. Behavioural and hormonal aspects of the oestrous cycle in swamp buffaloes reared under temperate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Shimizu, H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out using a small herd of swamp buffaloes raised in Japan under temperate conditions at 36 deg. N latitude, with a view to determining whether they exhibit peculiar characteristics in their oestrous cycles. The studies on the oestrous behaviour revealed that under adequate feeding and management conditions, buffaloes regularly display oestrous throughout the year, with the cycle length, duration of oestrous and time of ovulation all falling within ranges similar to those reported in cattle. External signs of oestrus were generally less evident, as previously reported. Hormonal analysis showed that there were no remarkable differences between swamp buffaloes and cattle in terms of the secretory patterns of pituitary gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids during the oestrous cycle. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  19. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Hildur Margrét, Jóhannsdóttir

    2017-01-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to an...

  20. Modelling the carbon cycle of grassland in the Netherlands under various management strategies and environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-van Dasselaar, van den A.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model of the grassland carbon cycle (CCGRASS) was developed to evaluate the long-term effects of different management strategies and various environmental conditions on carbon sequestration in a loam soil under permanent grassland in the Netherlands. The model predicted that the rate of

  1. Beam commissioning of the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC was commissioned in October 2007, and successfully accomplished 3 GeV acceleration on October 31. Six run cycles through February 2008 were dedicated to commissioning the RCS, for which the initial machine parameter tuning and various underlying beam studies were completed. Then since May 2008 the RCS beam has been delivered to the downstream facilities for their beam commissioning. In this paper we describe beam tuning and study results following our beam commissioning scenario and a beam performance and operational experience obtained in the first commissioning phase through June 2008.

  2. Degradation of materials under conditions of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production - part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, S.J.; Searle, H.; Guerout, F.

    2011-01-01

    A capsule method was employed to screen a number of materials for degradation under selected conditions of the sulphur-iodine (SI) and the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycles. A summary of the results of an experimental investigation is given. The recommendations for the selection of the materials required for the construction of the electrolyser subsystem of the copper chlorine hybrid cycle are presented and discussed with the associated rationale. Some remaining uncertainties are illustrated on the basis of the experimental evidence gathered. (author)

  3. Rapid, Labile, and Protein Synthesis– Independent Short-Term Memory in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Berlin, RoseAnn

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with int...

  4. Fast "Feast/Famine" Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions: A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A; Sousa, Andre; Heijnen, Joseph J; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2014-05-15

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that leads to repetitive cycles with moderate changes in substrate availability in an aerobic glucose cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a few cycles, the feast/famine produced a stable and repetitive pattern with a reproducible metabolic response in time, thus providing a robust platform for studying the microorganism's physiology under dynamic conditions. We found that the biomass yield was slightly reduced (-5%) under the feast/famine regime, while the averaged substrate and oxygen consumption as well as the carbon dioxide production rates were comparable. The dynamic response of the intracellular metabolites showed specific differences in comparison to other dynamic experiments (especially stimulus-response experiments, SRE). Remarkably, the frequently reported ATP paradox observed in single pulse experiments was not present during the repetitive perturbations applied here. We found that intracellular dynamic accumulations led to an uncoupling of the substrate uptake rate (up to 9-fold change at 20 s.) Moreover, the dynamic profiles of the intracellular metabolites obtained with the feast/famine suggest the presence of regulatory mechanisms that resulted in a delayed response. With the feast famine setup many cellular states can be measured at high frequency given the feature of reproducible cycles. The feast/famine regime is thus a versatile platform for systems biology approaches, which can help us to identify and investigate metabolite regulations under realistic conditions (e.g., large-scale bioreactors or natural environments).

  5. Fast “Feast/Famine” Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions: A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A.; Sousa, Andre; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that leads to repetitive cycles with moderate changes in substrate availability in an aerobic glucose cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a few cycles, the feast/famine produced a stable and repetitive pattern with a reproducible metabolic response in time, thus providing a robust platform for studying the microorganism’s physiology under dynamic conditions. We found that the biomass yield was slightly reduced (−5%) under the feast/famine regime, while the averaged substrate and oxygen consumption as well as the carbon dioxide production rates were comparable. The dynamic response of the intracellular metabolites showed specific differences in comparison to other dynamic experiments (especially stimulus-response experiments, SRE). Remarkably, the frequently reported ATP paradox observed in single pulse experiments was not present during the repetitive perturbations applied here. We found that intracellular dynamic accumulations led to an uncoupling of the substrate uptake rate (up to 9-fold change at 20 s.) Moreover, the dynamic profiles of the intracellular metabolites obtained with the feast/famine suggest the presence of regulatory mechanisms that resulted in a delayed response. With the feast famine setup many cellular states can be measured at high frequency given the feature of reproducible cycles. The feast/famine regime is thus a versatile platform for systems biology approaches, which can help us to identify and investigate metabolite regulations under realistic conditions (e.g., large-scale bioreactors or natural environments). PMID:24957030

  6. Thermomechanical and hygroelastic properties of an epoxy system under humid and cold-warm cycling conditions

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal; Lubineau, Gilles; Saghir, Shahid; Verdu, Jacques; Askari, Abe H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the hygrothermal aging of an anhydride-cured epoxy under temperature and hygrometry conditions simulating those experienced by an aircraft in wet tropical or subtropical regions. Gravimetric and dimensional measurements were performed and they indicate that there are three stages in this aging process: the first one, corresponding to the early cycles can be called the "induction stage". The second stage of about 1000 cycles duration, could be named the "swelling stage", during which the volume increase is almost equal to the volume of the (liquid) water absorbed. Both the first and second stages are accompanied by modifications of the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature. During the third ("equilibrium") stage, up to 3000 cycles, there is no significant change in the physical properties despite the continuous increase of water uptake. This can be explained by the fact that only physically sorbed water can influence physical properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Life cycle of the potato golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis grown under climatic conditions in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačić Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of a population of the quarantine nematode Globodera rostochiensis on the root of susceptible potato variety, Desiree, originating from an infected field (CC Ljubovija no. 413 on the mountain of Jagodnja in the district of Mačva, was studied under experimental conditions in Belgrade in 2002-2003. The golden cyst nematode completed one generation per year in the temperate climate of this region. In 2002, the life cycle lasted 29 days after the penetration of the second stage juveniles into the roots. An adverse effect of high soil temperatures above 25 °C was observed in 2003, influencing the development of the nematode and making the life cycle last two months longer.

  8. Characterization of reaction conditions providing rapid and specific cysteine alkylation for peptide-based mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulech, Jana; Solis, Nestor; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2013-01-01

    Alkylation converts Cys thiols to thioethers and prevents unwanted side reactions, thus facilitating mass spectrometric identification of Cys-containing peptides. Alkylation occurs preferentially at Cys due to its high nucleophilicity, however reactions at other such sites are possible. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) shows rapid reaction kinetics with Cys and careful definition of reaction conditions results in little reactivity at other sites. Analysis of a protein standard alkylated under differing reaction conditions (pH, NEM concentrations and reaction times) was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) of NEM-modified and unmodified peptide pairs. Mis-alkylation sites at primary and secondary amines were identified and limited to one equivalent of NEM. No evidence for hydroxyl or thioether alkylation was observed. Improved specificity was achieved by restricting the pH below neutral, NEM concentration below 10mM and/or reaction time to below 5min. Maximal removal of Cys activity was observed in tissue homogenates at 40mM NEM within 1min, dependent upon efficient protein denaturation. SRM assays identified peptide-specific levels of mis-alkylation, indicating that NEM-modified to unmodified ratios did not exceed 10%, with the exception of Cys alkylation that proceeded to 100%, and some Lys residues that resulted in tryptic missed cleavages. High reactivity was observed for His residues considering their relatively low abundance. These data indicate that rapid and specific Cys alkylation is possible with NEM under relatively mild conditions, with more abrasive conditions leading to increased non-specific alkylation without appreciable benefit for MS-based proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal operating conditions of a transcritical endoreversible cycle using a low enthalpy heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachedi, Malika; Feidt, Michel; Amirat, Madjid; Merzouk, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamics analysis of a finite size heat engine driven by a finite heat source. • Mathematical modelling of a transcritical endoreversible organic Rankine cycle. • Parametric study of the optimum operating conditions of transcritical cycle. • Choice of appropriate parameters could lead to very promising efficiencies. - Abstract: In the context of thermodynamic analysis of finite dimensions systems, we studied the optimum operating conditions of an endoreversible thermal machine. In this study, we considered a transcritical cycle, considering external irreversibilities. The hot reservoir is a low enthalpy geothermal heat source; therefore, it is assumed to be finite, whereas the cold reservoir is assumed to be infinite. The power optimisation is investigated by searching the optimum effectiveness of the heat-exchanger at the hot side of the engine. The sum of the total effectiveness and the second law of thermodynamics are used as constraints for optimisation. The optimal temperatures of the working fluid and optimum performances are evaluated based on the most significant parameters of the system: (1) the ratio of heat capacity rate of the working fluid to the heat capacity rate of the coolant and (2) the ratio of the sink temperature to the temperature of the hot source. The parametric study of the cycle and its approximation by a trilateral cycle enabled us to determine the optimum value of the effectiveness of the heat exchangers and the optimal operating temperatures of the cycle considered. The efficiencies obtained are in the range of 15–25% and was found to exceed the efficiency expected by the Curzon and Ahlborn prevision; meanwhile, the Carnot efficiency remains at a high limit.

  10. Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko

    2018-01-01

    A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the early Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.

  11. Rapid Ammonia Gas Transport Accounts for Futile Transmembrane Cycling under NH3/NH4+ Toxicity in Plant Roots1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4+ cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4+ toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4+) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope 13N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4+ ion. Influx of 13NH3/13NH4+, which exceeded 200 µmol g–1 h–1, was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4+), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g–1 h–1). Efflux of 13NH3/13NH4+ responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions. PMID:24134887

  12. RAPID PROCESSING OF ARCHIVAL TISSUE SAMPLES FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS USING PRESSURE-CYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuth N. Puttamallesh1,2

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advent of mass spectrometry based proteomics has revolutionized our ability to study proteins from biological specimen in a high-throughput manner. Unlike cell line based studies, biomedical research involving tissue specimen is often challenging due to limited sample availability. In addition, investigation of clinically relevant research questions often requires enormous amount of time for sample collection prospectively. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissue samples are a rich source of tissue specimen for biomedical research. However, there are several challenges associated with analysing FFPE samples. Protein cross-linking and degradation of proteins particularly affects proteomic analysis. We demonstrate that barocycler that uses pressure-cycling technology enables efficient protein extraction and processing of small amounts of FFPE tissue samples for proteomic analysis. We identified 3,525 proteins from six 10µm esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissue sections. Barocycler allows efficient protein extraction and proteolytic digestion of proteins from FFPE tissue sections at par with conventional methods.

  13. Rapid Determination of Protein Solubility and Stability Conditions for NMR Studies Using Incomplete Factorial Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducat, Thierry; Declerck, Nathalie; Gostan, Thierry; Kochoyan, Michel; Demene, Helene

    2006-01-01

    Sample preparation constitutes a crucial and limiting step in structural studies of proteins by NMR. The determination of the solubility and stability (SAS) conditions of biomolecules at millimolar concentrations stays today empirical and hence time- and material-consuming. Only few studies have been recently done in this field and they have highlighted the interest of using crystallogenesis tools to optimise sample conditions. In this study, we have adapted a method based on incomplete factorial design and making use of crystallisation plates to quantify the influence of physico-chemical parameters such as buffer pH and salts on protein SAS. A description of the experimental set up and an evaluation of the method are given by case studies on two functional domains from the bacterial regulatory protein LicT as well as two other proteins. Using this method, we could rapidly determine optimised conditions for extracting soluble proteins from bacterial cells and for preparing purified protein samples sufficiently concentrated and stable for NMR characterisation. The drastic reduction in the time and number of experiments required for searching protein SAS conditions makes this method particularly well-adapted for a systematic investigation on a large range of physico-chemical parameters

  14. A high-performance gradient insert for rapid and short-T2 imaging at full duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiger, Markus; Overweg, Johan; Rösler, Manuela Barbara; Froidevaux, Romain; Hennel, Franciszek; Wilm, Bertram Jakob; Penn, Alexander; Sturzenegger, Urs; Schuth, Wout; Mathlener, Menno; Borgo, Martino; Börnert, Peter; Leussler, Christoph; Luechinger, Roger; Dietrich, Benjamin Emanuel; Reber, Jonas; Brunner, David Otto; Schmid, Thomas; Vionnet, Laetitia; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to devise a gradient system for MRI in humans that reconciles cutting-edge gradient strength with rapid switching and brings up the duty cycle to 100% at full continuous amplitude. Aiming to advance neuroimaging and short-T 2 techniques, the hardware design focused on the head and the extremities as target anatomies. A boundary element method with minimization of power dissipation and stored magnetic energy was used to design anatomy-targeted gradient coils with maximally relaxed geometry constraints. The design relies on hollow conductors for high-performance cooling and split coils to enable dual-mode gradient amplifier operation. With this approach, strength and slew rate specifications of either 100 mT/m with 1200 mT/m/ms or 200 mT/m with 600 mT/m/ms were reached at 100% duty cycle, assuming a standard gradient amplifier and cooling unit. After manufacturing, the specified values for maximum gradient strength, maximum switching rate, and field geometry were verified experimentally. In temperature measurements, maximum local values of 63°C were observed, confirming that the device can be operated continuously at full amplitude. Testing for peripheral nerve stimulation showed nearly unrestricted applicability in humans at full gradient performance. In measurements of acoustic noise, a maximum average sound pressure level of 132 dB(A) was determined. In vivo capability was demonstrated by head and knee imaging. Full gradient performance was employed with echo planar and zero echo time readouts. Combining extreme gradient strength and switching speed without duty cycle limitations, the described system offers unprecedented options for rapid and short-T 2 imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:3256-3266, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Evaluation of Rankine cycle air conditioning system hardware by computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, H. M.; Clark, D.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for simulating the performance of a variety of solar powered Rankine cycle air conditioning system components (RCACS) has been developed. The computer program models actual equipment by developing performance maps from manufacturers data and is capable of simulating off-design operation of the RCACS components. The program designed to be a subroutine of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Energy System Analysis Computer Program 'SOLRAD', is a complete package suitable for use by an occasional computer user in developing performance maps of heating, ventilation and air conditioning components.

  16. Observations of electrons in the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooling, J.C.; Brumwell, F.R.; Czyz, W.S.; Harkay, K.C.; Lien, M.K.; McMichael, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the process of accelerating protons from 50 to 450 MeV at 30 Hz, low-energy electrons are generated within the IPNS RCS vacuum chamber. Electrons from background gas stripping are detected using an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM) to generate integrated, horizontal charge distributions of the single-harmonic bunch during acceleration. Recently, a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) was installed in the RCS to look for evidence of beam-induced multipacting by measuring the electrons ejected by the space charge of the beam. A wide-band, high-gain transimpedance amplifier has been built to observe time structure in the electron signal detected with the RFA. Though a noisy power supply prevented full I-V characteristics from being obtained, interesting features are observed; especially, after the period of phase modulation between the rf cavities that is deliberately introduced during the cycle. The phase modulation generates a longitudinal quadrupole oscillation in the bunch, which is believed to enhance beam stability. Preliminary results indicate that electron multipacting is not significant in the RCS. The effects of background gas neutralization are considered and details of the RFA measurements are presented.

  17. Analysis of changes in water cycle across Northern Eurasia with Rapid Integrated Mapping and Analysis System (RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A.; Prusevich, A.

    2012-04-01

    Historical and contemporary changes in various components of the hydrological cycle across the Northern Eurasia have been investigated using multiple observational and modeled data compiled in Rapid Integrated Mapping and Analysis System (RIMS) for North Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). To evaluate potential future patterns of change in the Northern Eurasian water cycle we have used climate change projections simulated by several coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AO GCMs). Future changes in hydrological regime were assessed using the UNH Water Balance and Water Transport Models (WBM/WTM) which take into account water management including irrigation and reservoir regulation. We found significant shifts in the regional hydrology and quantified potential natural and anthropogenic causes of these changes. The results of our historical and future analysis have demonstrated an intensification of hydrological cycle in many regions of the Northern Eurasia observed over 50-60 year period with accelerated rate during the last decade. Based on climate projections we can expect that the current rate of changes to continue over the course of XXI century. A significant part of the analysis and quantitative estimates of water cycle trends in Northern Eurasia has been done using RIMS online and offline data analysis tools. RIMS has been developed by the Water Systems Analysis Group at the University of New Hampshire, USA for the NEESPI program. Presently, the RIMS data pool is composed of a variety of themes including climate, hydrology, land cover, human dimension, and others. It comprises over five thousand single layer (e.g. soil type) and time series (e.g. daily runoff) raster GIS coverages, and a number of climate and hydrology station/point network datasets. The system streamlines data mining, management and model feeds in the computational environment of large and diverse data holdings. In this presentation we want to demonstrate

  18. Premix fuels study applicable to duct burner conditions for a variable cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Emission levels and performance of a premixing Jet-A/air duct burner were measured at reference conditions representative of take-off and cruise for a variable cycle engine. In a parametric variation sequence of tests, data were obtained at inlet temperatures of 400, 500 and 600K at equivalence ratios varying from 0.9 to the lean stability limit. Ignition was achieved at all the reference conditions although the CO levels were very high. Significant nonuniformity across the combustor was observed for the emissions at the take-off condition. At a reference Mach number of 0.117 and an inlet temperature of 600K, corresponding to a simulated cruise condition, the NOx emission level was approximately 1 gm/kg-fuel.

  19. Rapid Integration of Artificial Sensory Feedback during Operant Conditioning of Motor Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Mario; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex. This artificial signal was necessary to rapidly learn to increase the conditioned activity, detect correct performance, and maintain the learned behavior. Population imaging in M1 revealed that learning-related activity changes are observed in the conditioned cell only, which highlights the functional potential of individual neurons in the neocortex. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of animals to use an artificially induced cortical channel in a behaviorally relevant way and reveal the remarkable speed and specificity at which this can occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships of working conditions, health problems and vehicle accidents in bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fusarium oxysporum by Optimizing Physicocultural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S. Birla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs by fungi is emerging as an important branch of nanotechnology due to its ecofriendly, safe, and cost-effective nature. In order to increase the yield of biosynthesized SNPs of desired shape and size, it is necessary to control the cultural and physical parameters during the synthesis. We report optimum synthesis of SNPs on malt extract glucose yeast extract peptone (MGYP medium at pH 9–11, 40–60°C, and 190.7 Lux and in sun light. The salt concentrations, volume of filtrate and biomass quantity were found to be directly proportional to the yield. The optimized conditions for the stable and rapid synthesis will help in large scale synthesis of monodispersed SNPs. The main aim of the present study was to optimize different media, temperature, pH, light intensity, salt concentration, volume of filtrate, and biomass quantity for the synthesis of SNPs by Fusarium oxysporum.

  2. A Rapid Assessment of Instructional Strategies to Teach Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Clements, Andrea; LeBlanc, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate a rapid assessment procedure to identify effective instructional strategies to teach auditory-visual conditional discriminations to children diagnosed with autism. We replicated and extended previous rapid skills assessments (Lerman, Vorndran, Addison, & Kuhn, 2004) by evaluating the effects…

  3. Rapid, labile, and protein synthesis-independent short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T A; Berlin, R

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with intraoral catheters to allow presentation of taste solutions at arbitrary times. Intraoral intake was measured under conditions of long-delay, single-trial learning typical of CTA. Rats decreased intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min after contingent pairing of sucrose and LiCl, but not after noncontingent LiCl or sucrose. Thus CTA learning can be expressed rapidly. To determine if short-term CTA memory is labile and decays in the absence of long-term memory, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose after pairing sucrose with low doses of LiCl. Rats received an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6 ml/6 min); 30 min later LiCl was injected at three different doses (19, 38, or 76 mg/kg). A second intraoral infusion of sucrose was administered 15 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4.5 hr, 6 hr, or 48 hr later. The formation of long-term CTA memory was dependent on the dose of LiCl paired with sucrose during acquisition. Low doses of LiCl induced a CTA that decayed within 6 hr after pairing. Central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prior to LiCl injection blocked long-term CTA expression at 6 and 48 hr, but not short-term CTA expression at 1 hr. Thus, short-term memory for CTA learning exists that is acquired rapidly and independent of protein synthesis, but labile in the absence of long-term memory formation.

  4. Degradation of materials under conditions of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, S.J.; Searle, H.; Stolberg, L.

    2010-01-01

    A capsule method has been developed and employed to measure the degradation rates of selected materials under some of the most challenging conditions relevant to the sulphur-iodine (SI) and the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production. The materials tested so far include metals and engineering alloys, structural and functional polymers, elastomers, carbon-based materials, ceramics and glasses, and composites. A number of characterization methods have been used to detect and quantify the degradation of the diverse materials and, when feasible, establish the mode of attack. The paper details the results of this ongoing experimental investigation. The investigation currently focuses on the copper-chlorine hybrid cycle. The environment representative of the conditions in the electrolyser subsystem was approximated with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (13.6 mol/kg), copper(II) chloride (1.36 mol/kg) and copper(I) chloride (1.36 mol/kg) at 160°C and 2.5 MPa (absolute). The current (tentative) recommendations for the selection of the materials required for the construction of the electrolyser subsystem of the copper-chlorine hybrid cycle, and the associated rationale, are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysko, Robert; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Ihnatowicz, Eugeniusz

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  6. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysko Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  7. High-power UV-LED degradation: Continuous and cycled working condition influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, F. J.; Nuñez, N.; Vazquez, M.; Segura-Antunez, C.; González-Posadas, V.

    2015-09-01

    High-power (HP) UV-LEDs can replace UV lamps for real-time fluoro-sensing applications by allowing portable and autonomous systems. However, HP UV-LEDs are not a mature technology, and there are still open issues regarding their performance evolution over time. This paper presents a reliability study of 3 W UV-LEDs, with special focus on LED degradation for two working conditions: continuous and cycled (30 s ON and 30 s OFF). Accelerated life tests are developed to evaluate the influence of temperature and electrical working conditions in high-power LEDs degradation, being the predominant failure mechanism the degradation of the package. An analysis that includes dynamic thermal and optical HP UV-LED measurements has been performed. Static thermal and stress simulation analysis with the finite element method (FEM) identifies the causes of package degradation. Accelerated life test results prove that HP UV-LEDs working in cycled condition have a better performance than those working in continuous condition.

  8. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  9. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  10. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  11. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  12. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  13. Bus Rapid Transit and Socioeconomic Condition of Bus Commuters in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi L. Kuye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is one of the most common means of transportation across the world. Bus transportation in Nigeria had witnessed many problems for the past decades considering the growing population with the attendant loss of lives and properties in most cities like Lagos in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the adequacy of services provided by Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in Lagos State with respect to the extent to which it influences the socioeconomic conditions of bus commuters. It examines the effect of services rendered by BRT on cost reduction potential, income and safety. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 20 samples each from all respondents in all local government area in Lagos State to reach a total of three hundred and thirty (330 samples. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire which was validated. Data collected were analysed with the use of descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and standard deviation and inferential statistics such as regression and analysis of variance techniques. Findings showed that BRT services has reduced the cost of bus commuters and also increased safety and security thereby increasing the socioeconomic condition of Lagosians. The study recommends improvements in BRT services through the deployment of technology as it had been used in developed countries.

  14. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  15. Condition Help: A Patient- and Family-Initiated Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Elizabeth L; Rack, Laurie L; Chen, Ling-Wan; Bump, Gregory M

    2017-03-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) help in delivering safe, timely care. Typically they are activated by clinicians using specific parameters. Allowing patients and families to activate RRTs is a novel intervention. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center developed and implemented a patient- and family-initiated rapid response system called Condition Help (CH). When the CH system is activated, a patient care liaison or an on-duty administrator meets bedside with the unit charge nurse to address the patient's concerns. In this study, we collected demographic data, call reasons, call designations (safety or nonsafety), and outcome information for all CH calls made during the period January 2012 through June 2015. Two hundred forty patients/family members made 367 CH calls during the study period. Most calls were made by patients (76.8%) rather than family members (21.8%). Of the 240 patients, 43 (18%) made multiple calls; their calls accounted for 46.3% of all calls (170/367). Inadequate pain control was the reason for the call in most cases (48.2%), followed by dissatisfaction with staff (12.5%). The majority of calls involved nonsafety issues (83.4%) rather than safety issues (11.4%). In 41.4% of cases, a change in care was made. Patient- and family-initiated RRTs are designed to engage patients and families in providing safer care. In the CH system, safety issues are identified, but the majority of calls involve nonsafety issues. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:157-161. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  16. Ultrasonic imaging algorithms with limited transmission cycles for rapid nondestructive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Ludovic; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Wilcox, Paul D

    2009-09-01

    Imaging algorithms recently developed in ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) have shown good potential for defect characterization. Many of them are based on the concept of collecting the full matrix of data, obtained by firing each element of an ultrasonic phased array independently, while collecting the data with all elements. Because of the finite sound velocity in the test structure, 2 consecutive firings must be separated by a minimum time interval. Depending on the number of elements in a given array, this may become problematic if data must be collected within a short time, as it is often the case, for example, in an industrial context. An obvious way to decrease the duration of data capture is to use a sparse transmit aperture, in which only a restricted number of elements are used to transmit ultrasonic waves. This paper compares 2 approaches aimed at producing an image on the basis of restricted data: the common source method and the effective aperture technique. The effective aperture technique is based on the far-field approximation, and no similar approach exists for the near-field. This paper investigates the performance of this technique in near-field conditions, where most NDT applications are made. First, these methods are described and their point spread functions are compared with that of the Total Focusing Method (TFM), which consists of focusing the array at every point in the image. Then, a map of efficiency is given for the different algorithms in the near-field. The map can be used to select the most appropriate algorithm. Finally, this map is validated by testing the different algorithms on experimental data.

  17. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.

    1994-01-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  19. Accounting of media conditions in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Metals on Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Payet, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    Impact from metals play a major role in all Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) studies. Nevertheless, LCIA methods are typically not adapted for such compounds ignoring problems of speciation and bioavailability. Current uncertainty on metal toxicity estimates are on average twice as high...... of the influence of media condition on the toxicity : Partial Least Square projection to latent Structure Regression (PLSR) was carried out to estimate the relative variable importance and linear regression was used to, identify the relation between media parameters the response of Daphnia magna....

  20. Pilot study: rapidly cycling hypobaric pressure improves pain after 5 days in adiposis dolorosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Herbst

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Herbst1, Thomas Rutledge21Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: Adiposis dolorosa (AD is a rare disorder of painful nodular subcutaneous fat ­accompanied by fatigue, difficulty with weight loss, inflammation, increased fluid in ­adipose ­tissue (lipedema and lymphedema, and hyperalgesia. Sequential compression relieves ­lymphedema pain; we therefore hypothesized that whole body cyclic pneumatic hypobaric compression may relieve pain in AD. To avoid exacerbating hyperalgesia, we utilized a touch-free method, which is delivered via a high-performance altitude simulator, the Cyclic Variations in Altitude ConditioningTM (CVACTM process. As a pilot study, 10 participants with AD completed pain and quality of life questionnaires before and after 20–40 minutes of CVAC process daily for 5 days. Participants lost weight (195.5 ± 17.6–193.8 ± 17.3 lb; P = 0.03, and bioimpedance significantly decreased (510 ± 36–490 ± 38 ohm; P = 0.01. There was a significant decrease in scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (P = 0.039, in average (P = 0.002, highest (P = 0.029, lowest (P = 0.04, and current pain severity (P = 0.02 on the Visual Analogue Scale, but there was no change in pain quality by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. There were no significant changes in total and physical SF-36 scores, but the mental score improved significantly (P = 0.049. There were no changes in the Pain Disability Index or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. These data present a potential, new, noninvasive means of treating pain in AD by whole body pneumatic compression as part of the CVAC process. Although randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these data, the CVAC process could potentially help in treating AD pain and other chronic pain disorders.Keywords: bioimpedance, chronic pain, lipedema

  1. Conditional inactivation of PDCD2 induces p53 activation and cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine J. Granier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PDCD2 (programmed cell death domain 2 is a highly conserved, zinc finger MYND domain-containing protein essential for normal development in the fly, zebrafish and mouse. The molecular functions and cellular activities of PDCD2 remain unclear. In order to better understand the functions of PDCD2 in mammalian development, we have examined PDCD2 activity in mouse blastocyst embryos, as well as in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We have studied mice bearing a targeted PDCD2 locus functioning as a null allele through a splicing gene trap, or as a conditional knockout, by deletion of exon2 containing the MYND domain. Tamoxifen-induced knockout of PDCD2 in MEFs, as well as in ESCs, leads to defects in progression from the G1 to the S phase of cell cycle, associated with increased levels of p53 protein and p53 target genes. G1 prolongation in ESCs was not associated with induction of differentiation. Loss of entry into S phase of the cell cycle and marked induction of nuclear p53 were also observed in PDCD2 knockout blastocysts. These results demonstrate a unique role for PDCD2 in regulating the cell cycle and p53 activation during early embryonic development of the mouse.

  2. Effect of the combined stress on the life of components under thermal cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowski, R.; Zietkowski, L.

    1987-01-01

    The life of structural components subjected to temperature changes is affected, among other factors, by the nature of the stress field. If life prediction for axially stressed components can be accomplished with a number of well established techniques, the behaviour under a complex state of stress and varying temperature conditions still is the object of intensive research. The present study was aimed at assessing the influence of the stress field upon the life of specimens made of chromium-nickel H23N18 steel under thermal cycling conditions. The designation of steel is in accordance with Polish Standards. The experiments were made on thin-walled tubular specimens loaded with various combinations of a static axial force and a static torque. (orig./GL)

  3. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I; Rojas, J; Landauro, C V; Torres, J

    2009-02-04

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag(2869) (4.4 nm in diameter) under rapid cooling conditions have been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modelled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique are used to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidification. It is shown that Ag nanoparticles evolve into different nanostructures under different cooling processes. At a cooling rate of 1.5625 × 10(13) K s(-1) the nanoparticles preserve an amorphous-like structure containing a large amount of 1551 and 1541 pairs which correspond to icosahedral symmetry. For a lower cooling rate (1.5625 × 10(12) K s(-1)), the nanoparticles transform into a crystal-like structure consisting mainly of 1421 and 1422 pairs which correspond to the face centred cubic and hexagonal close packed structures, respectively. The variations of the electronic density of states for the differently cooled nanoparticles are small, but in correspondence with the structural changes.

  4. Low cycle fatigue behavior of ITER-like divertor target under DEMO-relevant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; Werner, Ewald [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • LCF behavior of the cooling tube and the interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is studied. • For the cooling tube, LCF failure will not be an issue under an HHF load of up to 18 MW/m{sup 2}. • Plastic strain in the interlayer is concentrated at the free surface edge of the bond interface. • The predicted LCF lifetime of the interlayer may not meet the design requirement. - Abstract: In this work the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of the copper alloy cooling tube and the copper interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is reported for nine different combinations of loading and cooling conditions relevant to DEMO divertor operation. The LCF lifetime is presented as a function of loading and cooling conditions considered here by means of cyclic plasticity simulation and using LCF data of materials relevant for ITER. The numerical predictions indicate, that fatigue failure will not be an issue for the copper alloy tube under a high heat flux (HHF) load of up to 18 MW/m{sup 2} as long as it preserves its initial strength. In contrast, the copper interlayer exhibits significant plastic dissipation at the free surface edge of the bond interface adjacent to the cooling tube, where the LCF lifetime is predicted to be below 3000 load cycles for HHF loads higher than 15 MW/m{sup 2}. Most of the bulk region of the copper interlayer away from the free surface edge does not experience severe plastic fatigue and hence does not pose any critical concern as the LCF lifetime is predicted to be at least 7000 load cycles. LCF lifetime decreases as HHF load is increased or coolant temperature is decreased.

  5. Estrus cycle monitoring of captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu in semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilla M. Maia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.

  6. The study of operating an air conditioning system using Maisotsenko-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Tahan, Sami; Toufic El-Achkar, Mohamad; Abou Jamus, Saleh

    2018-03-01

    The project aims to design and build an air conditioning system that runs on the Maisotsenko cycle. The system is required to condition and cool down ambient air for a small residential space with the reduction in the use of electricity and eliminating the use of commercial refrigerants. This project can operate at its optimum performance in remote areas like oil diggers and other projects that run in the desert or any site that would not have a very high relative humidity level. The Maisotsenko cycle is known as the thermodynamic concept that captures energy from the air by using the psychometric renewable energy available in the latent heat in water evaporating in air. The heat and mass exchanger design was based on choosing a material that would-be water resistant and breathable, which was found to be layers of cardboard placed on top of each other and thus creating channels for air to pass through. Aiming for this design eliminates any high power electrical equipment such as compressors, condensers and evaporators that would be used in an AC system with the exception of a 600 W blower and a 10 W fan, thus making it a more environmentally friendly project. Moreover, the project is limited by the ambient temperature and humidity, as the model operates at an optimum when the relative humidity is lower.

  7. Life cycle management, design review, and condition assessment of feedwater heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, D.; Idvorian, N. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    OPEX from both the Nuclear and Fossil Power Generation Industries shows that Feedwater Heaters (FWHs) are subject to several degradation mechanisms and that this degradation commonly leads to replacement of these vessels in order to ensure reliable, efficient operation of the plants. Loss of feedwater heating will impact plant thermal performance. In response to inspection results showing on-going degradation as well as other factors, B&W Canada completed a project in conjunction with a US PWR utility to review the design, condition, and Life Cycle Management of their FWHs. This project involved a multi-disciplinary approach in order to consider all aspects of the FWHs in order to provide insight into the Life Cycle Management Plan (LCMP) so that the FWHs can be operated reliably into the future and so that adequate inspections can be conducted in order to produce a detailed condition assessment. The utility was interested in evaluating their FWH LCMP to determine if it was adequate in its requirements to enable reliable, leak-free operation of their FWH equipment. As inputs to this evaluation, it was required that B&W Canada evaluate both confirmed and plausible degradation mechanisms. They also required that the thermal hydraulic and functional design be evaluated for their particular FWHs. It was important to also incorporate industry OPEX in order to provide proper trending information for tube plugging. Out of this evaluation there were several findings and recommendations that could be used to update the utilities’ LCMP as it was apparent that the current version may not be truly reflective of the current condition of the equipment or of current industry OPEX of such FWHs. Several recommendations came from this evaluation, the most significant were: • Performing thermal/hydraulic, FIV (flow-induced vibration), and tube/shell interaction calculations to determine how the FWHs operate and how their performance can change over time as a function of tube

  8. Life cycle management, design review, and condition assessment of feedwater heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, D.; Idvorian, N.

    2012-01-01

    OPEX from both the Nuclear and Fossil Power Generation Industries shows that Feedwater Heaters (FWHs) are subject to several degradation mechanisms and that this degradation commonly leads to replacement of these vessels in order to ensure reliable, efficient operation of the plants. Loss of feedwater heating will impact plant thermal performance. In response to inspection results showing on-going degradation as well as other factors, B&W Canada completed a project in conjunction with a US PWR utility to review the design, condition, and Life Cycle Management of their FWHs. This project involved a multi-disciplinary approach in order to consider all aspects of the FWHs in order to provide insight into the Life Cycle Management Plan (LCMP) so that the FWHs can be operated reliably into the future and so that adequate inspections can be conducted in order to produce a detailed condition assessment. The utility was interested in evaluating their FWH LCMP to determine if it was adequate in its requirements to enable reliable, leak-free operation of their FWH equipment. As inputs to this evaluation, it was required that B&W Canada evaluate both confirmed and plausible degradation mechanisms. They also required that the thermal hydraulic and functional design be evaluated for their particular FWHs. It was important to also incorporate industry OPEX in order to provide proper trending information for tube plugging. Out of this evaluation there were several findings and recommendations that could be used to update the utilities’ LCMP as it was apparent that the current version may not be truly reflective of the current condition of the equipment or of current industry OPEX of such FWHs. Several recommendations came from this evaluation, the most significant were: • Performing thermal/hydraulic, FIV (flow-induced vibration), and tube/shell interaction calculations to determine how the FWHs operate and how their performance can change over time as a function of tube

  9. Evaluating the performance of ENVI-met model in diurnal cycles for different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan A.; Arrizabalaga, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas are known to modify meteorological variables producing important differences in small spatial scales (i.e. microscale). These affect human thermal comfort conditions and the dispersion of pollutants, especially those emitted inside the urban area, which finally influence quality of life and the use of public open spaces. In this study, the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables measured in four urban spaces is compared with the results provided by ENVI-met (v 4.0). Measurements were carried out during 3 days with different meteorological conditions in Bilbao in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The evaluation of the model accuracy (i.e. the degree to which modelled values approach measured values) was carried out with several quantitative difference metrics. The results for air temperature and humidity show a good agreement of measured and modelled values independently of the regional meteorological conditions. However, in the case of mean radiant temperature and wind speed, relevant differences are encountered highlighting the limitation of the model to estimate these meteorological variables precisely during diurnal cycles, in the considered evaluation conditions (sites and weather).

  10. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...... and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Adjusted for age and gender, PTGDS mRNA expression was down-regulated in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients in a euthymic, depressive, and manic/hypomanic state compared with healthy control subjects. No difference in PTGDS m...

  11. Rapid freeze-drying cycle optimization using computer programs developed based on heat and mass transfer models and facilitated by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model formulation. After obtaining the optimal sets of T(f) and P(c), each cycle was assigned with a cycle rank number in terms of the length of drying time. Further optimization was achieved by dividing the drying time into a series of ramping steps for T(f), in a cascading manner (termed the cascading T(f) cycle), to further shorten the cycle time. For the purpose of demonstrating the validity of the optimized T(f) and P(c), four cycles with different predicted lengths of drying time, along with the cascading T(f) cycle, were chosen for experimental cycle runs. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to continuously measure the sublimation rate. As predicted, maximum product temperatures were controlled slightly below the target temperature of -25 degrees C, and the cascading T(f)-ramping cycle is the most efficient cycle design. In addition, the experimental cycle rank order closely matches with that determined by modeling.

  12. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  13. Performance evaluation of free piston compressor coupling organic Rankine cycle under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongqiang; Kang, Jianjian; Zhang, Guangpan; Liu, Zhongchang; Tian, Jing; Chai, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC-FPC is proposed to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas. • The simulation model has been established in GT-Suite ver. 7.0. • Performances of ORC-FPC under different operating conditions have been evaluated. • Performances prediction of the ORC-FPC for real application has been made in the paper. - Abstract: An organic Rankine cycle coupling free piston compressor (ORC-FPC) system has been proposed, which is used in recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from the stationary compressed nature gas (CNG) fueled internal combustion compressor. The free piston compressor functions as an expander in ORC and operates reciprocally to compress natural gas in compression cylinders to demanded pressure. After capturing the waste heat available and turning into vapor in evaporator, the working fluid R245ca can provide power to drive the free piston moving reciprocally in expander. The model of ORC-FPC built up in the GT-suite ver. 7.0 assists evaluating performances of this system under different operating conditions. In this paper, the operating condition includes two aspects: thermodynamic state of working fluid and input power. The purpose of simulation based on the model is to specify appropriate thermodynamic states of working fluid which yield high value of η (the ratio of work produced by the power piston to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) and k (the ratio of output CNG’s mass to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) value. Performances of the ORC-FPC under different input power, which determined by the operating frequency and injection quantity of the heated working fluid, have also been evaluated. Results show that when the heated working fluid is at 11.5 bar and 383 K, the system achieves better performances than other thermodynamic states, of which k is 601.1 mg/kJ and η is 44.3%. Based on the optimum thermodynamic state and the principle of obtaining the maximum k, the specific input

  14. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  15. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  16. Modifications of cell cycle according to conditions of photodynamic therapy induced by hypericin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikes, J.; Kleban, J.; Szilardiova, B.; Sackova, V; Fedorocko, P.; Horvath, V.; Brezani, P.

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is becoming a rapidly developing method in cancer therapy, recently. PDT is based on administration of nontoxic/weakly toxic photosensitive compound and its activation with light of appropriate wave length. Although PDT is of use in clinical practise, new promising photosensitive compounds with advantageous attributes are discovered continuously. Hypericin, one of these compounds, is known to induce cell cycle arrest in G 2 /M phase at low doses. This arrest is caused by microtubules destruction linked to Bcl-2 phosphorylation as a consequence of CDK-1/cyclin B1 complex activation, but data about combinations of different hypericin concentrations and light doses are missing. PDT effect is effected by multiple factors. In our experiment, we have been shown, by cytokinetical and flow-cytometric analysis, the way how the cells response to photo-cytotoxic effect of hypericin. By combination of two factors, light doses and concentrations of hypericin, we eliminated inappropriate combinations and chose for another analysis narrow ranges of both factors. We discovered a breakpoint between a controlled cell death - apoptosis and cell signalling disaster followed by necrosis. (authors)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of combined cycle under design/off-design conditions for its efficient design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiongzhi; Xie, Angjun; Yang, Yongping; Liu, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on the PG9351FA gas turbine, two gas-steam combined cycles are redesigned. • Analysis of detailed off-design characteristics of the combined cycle main parts. • Suggestions for improving design and operation performance of the combined cycle. • Higher design efficiency has higher off-design efficiency in general PR range. • High pressure ratio combined cycles possess good off-design performance. - Abstract: To achieve a highly efficient design and operation of combined cycles, this study analyzed in detail the off-design characteristics of the main components of three combined cycles with different compressor pressure ratios (PRs) based on real units. The off-design model of combined cycle was built consisting of a compressor, a combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The PG9351FA unit is selected as the benchmark unit, on the basis of which the compressor is redesigned with two different PRs. Then, the design/off-design characteristics of the three units with different design PRs and the interactive relations between topping and bottoming cycles are analyzed with the same turbine inlet temperature (TIT). The results show that the off-design characteristics of the topping cycle affect dramatically the combined cycle performance. The variation range of the exergy efficiency of the topping cycle for the three units is between 11.9% and 12.4% under the design/off-design conditions. This range is larger than that of the bottoming cycle (between 9.2% and 9.5%). The HRSG can effectively recycle the heat/heat exergy of the gas turbine exhaust. Comparison among the three units shows that for a traditional gas-steam combined cycle, a high design efficiency results in a high off-design efficiency in the usual PR range. The combined cycle design efficiency of higher pressure ratio is almost equal to that of the PG9351FA, but its off-design efficiency is higher (maximum 0.42%) and the specific power decreases. As for

  18. Life cycle cost analysis of HPVT air collector under different Indian climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Vivek; Tiwari, G.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this communication, a study is carried out to evaluate an annual thermal and exergy efficiency of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal (HPVT) air collector for different Indian climate conditions, of Srinagar, Mumbai, Jodhpur, New Delhi and Banglore. The study has been based on electrical, thermal and exergy output of the HPVT air collector. Further, the life cycle analysis in terms of cost/kWh has been carried out. The main focus of the study is to see the effect of interest rate, life of the HPVT air collector, subsidy, etc. on the cost/kWh HPVT air collector. A comparison is made keeping in view the energy matrices. The study reveals that (i) annual thermal and electrical efficiency decreases with increase in solar radiation and (ii) the cost/kWh is higher in case of exergy when compared with cost/kWh on the basis of thermal energy for all climate conditions. The cost/kWh for climate conditions of Jodhpur is most economical

  19. Life cycle assessment of a conventional and plastic solar collector in alternative air-conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarbi, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative solar systems include a large number of heat-and mass exchange apparatus (HMTA) with considerable size surfaces. Prequired for realization of the work processes. This result in the increase in the overall dimentions. and cost of the system. The possibility of using the principle of combining the working and auxiliary processes within the (HMTA) has been considred, and the calculation proving the working ability of the alternative system for solving the task of air-condition, obtaining comfort parameters by employing evaporative air-cooling methods only, and a solar system with flat solar collectors to provide for the absorbent regeneration, have been performed. The study shows the importance in using Live Cycle Assessment, study for renewable energy, technologies, where environmental performance is especially important.(Author)

  20. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Ge, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but that under non-isothermal conditions has been much less extensively investigated. When the heat exchange between subsystems is slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system breaks down, as is true for many types of living organisms. Here, starting with a four-state model of molecular transporter across the cell membrane, we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics to the circumstances with non-uniform temperatures of subsystems in terms of general master equation models. We obtain a new thermodynamic relationship between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials in non-isothermal circumstances, based on the overdamped dynamics along the continuous reaction coordinate. We show that the entropy production can vary up to 3% in real cells, even when the temperature difference across the cell membrane is only approximately 1 K. We then decompose the total thermodynamic driving force into its thermal and chemical components and predict that the net flux of molecules transported by the molecular transporter can potentially go against the temperature gradient in the absence of a chemical driving force. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simple application of the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactant’ temperature is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction rate formulas that are not only consistent with the new thermodynamic relationship but also approximate the exact reaction rate better than Kramers’ rate formula under isothermal conditions.

  1. Intubation conditions after rocuronium or succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction with alfentanil and propofol in the emergency patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P B; Hansen, E G; Jacobsen, L S

    2005-01-01

    Background and objective: Previous studies mainly conducted on elective patients recommend doses of 0.9-1.2 mg kg[-1] rocuronium to obtain comparable intubation conditions with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg[-1] after 60 s during a rapid-sequence induction. We decided to compare the overall intubating...... conditions of standard doses of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg[-1] and succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg[-1] during a strict rapid-sequence induction regimen including propofol and alfentanil. Methods: Male and female patients (ASA I-III) older than 17 yr scheduled for emergency abdominal or gynaecological surgery...... and with increased risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric content were randomized to a rapid-sequence induction with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg[-1] or rocuronium 0.6 mg kg[-1]. Patients with a predicted difficult airway were excluded. A senior anaesthesiologist 'blinded' for the randomization performed...

  2. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF EDITIONS OF BOOKS KEPT IN ARCHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Onici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized foruse and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is acollection of books.This paper presents studies about the importance of environmental conditions on the life cycle of editions of books keptin archives and libraries. Under which it was established that environmental conditions do not meet current standards,which led to the development of microorganisms on the surface both editions of books and libraries as reviewed.Manuscripts and printed books are the part of national and universal cultural heritage, along with other spiritualvalues that define spirituality of a nation.Library policy scope has evolved and continues to develop within the meaning of complication because of a range offactors: social, economic, political, etc.. Governmental strategies and decisions of public authorities are deeplydetermined by convergence, globalization and cooperation undoubtedly lead to regrouping library institutions invarious areas: computerization, trade, digitization, etc.

  3. Life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M V; Pinto, Z T; Lima, M M

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata were studied along with laboratory conditions for the establishment of a prolific colony. The insects were divided into four groups: two of them were maintained at room temperature (20.5 degrees C to 33 degrees C and 85% +/- 5% of relative humidity), the other two in a climatic chamber (CC) (temperature: 29 degrees C, humidity: 80% +/- 5%). The groups were fed weekly or fortnightly on Swiss mice. The females from the group kept in the CC and fed weekly had longer life span, as well as a higher number of eggs, fertile eggs and hatchings; the group kept in the CC and fed fortnightly had a shorter life span for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars and a lower mortality rate for all instars. It was concluded that a constant high temperature (CC at 29 degrees C) is the most suitable condition for the maintenance of a colony of T. rubrofasciata regardless of the interval between repasts.

  4. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Jóhannsdóttir, Hildur Margrét

    2017-12-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to analyze how income-related health inequality changed across time periods that can be described as a boom, crisis and recovery. The concentration curve and the concentration index are calculated for each disease, both overall and by gender. In all cases, we find a considerable income-related health inequality favoring higher income individuals, with a slight increase over the study period. Between 2007 and 2009, our results indicate increased inequality for women but decreased inequality for men. Between 2009 and 2012 on the contrary, men's inequality increases but women's decreases. The overarching result is thus that the economic hardship of the crisis temporarily increased female income-related health inequality, but decreased that of men.

  5. Resistance to radiation and concretes thermal cycles for conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, M.; Monroy G, F.; Gonzalez D, R. C.; Corona P, I. J.; Ortiz A, G.

    2014-10-01

    In order to know the concrete type most suitable for use as a matrix of conditioning of spent radioactive sources, concrete test tubes using 4 different types of cement were prepared: CPC 30-Rs Extra, CPC 30-R Impercem, CPC 30-R Rs and CPC 30-R with two gravel sizes >30 mm and <10 mm. The concrete test tubes were subjected to testing compressive strength after 28 days of hardening and after being irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles. Subsequently they were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, in order to evaluate whether these concretes accredited the tests set by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the compressive strength of the hardened concretes to 28 days presents values between 36 and 25 MPa; applying irradiation the resistance may decrease to 30% of its original strength; and if subjected to high and low temperatures the ettringite formation also causes a decrease in resistance. The results show that concretes made from cement Impercem, Cruz Azul with gravel <10 mm comply with the provisions of standard and they can be used for conditioning of spent radioactive sources. (Author)

  6. Parallel Multi-cycle LES of an Optical Pent-roof DISI Engine Under Motored Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, Noah; Sjöberg, Magnus; Zeng, Wei; Som, Sibendu

    2017-10-15

    The use of Large-eddy Simulations (LES) has increased due to their ability to resolve the turbulent fluctuations of engine flows and capture the resulting cycle-to-cycle variability. One drawback of LES, however, is the requirement to run multiple engine cycles to obtain the necessary cycle statistics for full validation. The standard method to obtain the cycles by running a single simulation through many engine cycles sequentially can take a long time to complete. Recently, a new strategy has been proposed by our research group to reduce the amount of time necessary to simulate the many engine cycles by running individual engine cycle simulations in parallel. With modern large computing systems this has the potential to reduce the amount of time necessary for a full set of simulated engine cycles to finish by up to an order of magnitude. In this paper, the Parallel Perturbation Methodology (PPM) is used to simulate up to 35 engine cycles of an optically accessible, pent-roof Directinjection Spark-ignition (DISI) engine at two different motored engine operating conditions, one throttled and one un-throttled. Comparisons are made against corresponding sequential-cycle simulations to verify the similarity of results using either methodology. Mean results from the PPM approach are very similar to sequential-cycle results with less than 0.5% difference in pressure and a magnitude structure index (MSI) of 0.95. Differences in cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) predictions are larger, but close to the statistical uncertainty in the measurement for the number of cycles simulated. PPM LES results were also compared against experimental data. Mean quantities such as pressure or mean velocities were typically matched to within 5- 10%. Pressure CCVs were under-predicted, mostly due to the lack of any perturbations in the pressure boundary conditions between cycles. Velocity CCVs for the simulations had the same average magnitude as experiments, but the experimental data showed

  7. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  8. Numerical simulation of divergent rocket-based-combined-cycle performances under the flight condition of Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.

  9. Conceptual design of a rapid-cycling synchrotron for the KFA-Juelich spallation neutron source: working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator group was established at ANL by the request of KFA-Juelich to carry out a conceptual design study and cost estimate for a rapid-cycling synchrotron as a possible first stage program on spallation neutron sources at KFA-Juelich. This set of notes is the individual notes which form the basis of the final report under this proposal prepared in January 1983. The topics covered include: SNQ Synchrotron Lattice-I; injection and extraction orbit; extraction from SNQ-SRA; SRA injection; capture and acceleration considerations in the SNQ-SRA; longitudinal coupling impedance; power supplies for SNQ synchrotron proposals; space charge limits in the SNQ-SRA; error analysis; SNQ-SRA ring magnets preliminary designs and cost; summary of CERN booster 4-ring arrangement; V-lattices for SNQ-SRA and extraction from the V-lattices; rf parameters for capture, acceleration and extraction; some parameters of the SNQ-SRA injector system; Keil-Schnell criterion; risetime of longitudinal resistive wall instability; beam scrapers; a design of the vacuum system; some aspects of vacuum consideration for SNQ-SRA; choice working points; ring magnet power supplies for shaped extaction of 1.1 GeV SNQ; ring magnet design and costs; tune shift due to the fringing field of the quadrupoles; coherent instability due to ions in the residual gas; transverse stabilization of bunched beams; rf acceleration system; injection into the SRA; Landau damping to get transverse stability; chromaticity and amplitude dependent tune controls in the SNQ-SRA; conversion of the SNQ-SRA to a compressor ring; comments on beam loss; summary of longitudinal stability study and transverse stability study for the SNQ-SRA; and the beam stay clear regions of the SNQ-SRA

  10. The effect of steam cycle conditions upon the economics and design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, E.F.; Pounder, F.; Willby, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper studies the effect of variation of steam and feedwater conditions upon the economics, design and layout of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The parameters investigated are steam temperature and pressure, feedwater temperature, and boiler recirculation ratio. The paper also includes an assessment of the effects of associating the fast reactor with saturated steam cycle conditions. (author)

  11. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weiyao; Moreland, J. Scott; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and pseudorapidity-dependent measurements of the medium's charged particle density and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is first used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is then compared to p +Pb and Pb + Pb charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle pseudorapidity correlations and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including the pseudorapidity-dependent anisotropic flows, event-plane decorrelations, and flow correlations. We find that the form of the initial local longitudinal entropy profile is well constrained by these experimental measurements.

  12. Parametrized overview of CO_2 power cycles for different operation conditions and configurations – An absolute and relative performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardemil, José M.; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of CO_2-based power cycles. • A multi-parameter analysis for different cycle configurations. • Performance comparison between CO_2 and four other fluids. • Detailed discussion considering optimized operational parameters (i.e., pressure, HX size). • Overview of the technical applicability of the CO_2. - Abstract: This thermodynamically based study focuses on the thermal performance of power cycles using CO_2 as the working fluid. The work considers numerous aspects that can influence the cycle's performance, such as the type of cycle (i.e., Rankine or Brayton), its configuration (i.e., with and without a recuperator), and different operational conditions (i.e., heat source temperature and the upper and lower operating pressures of the CO_2). To account for all possible scenarios, a thermodynamic routine was especially implemented and linked to a library that contained all the thermodynamics properties of CO_2. The results are mostly presented in terms of the absolute and relative 1st and 2nd Law efficiencies of CO_2 as well as the cycle's scale, here represented by the global conductance (UA) of the heat exchangers used within the cycle. For the relative performance assessment, four other working fluids, commonly used in energy conversion cycles, were considered (i.e., ethane, toluene, D4 siloxane and water). As expected, the absolute performance results indicate a strong dependence of the cycle's efficiencies on the operational conditions. As for the relative performance, the results suggest that while the CO_2's 1st Law efficiency might be lower than other fluids, its exergetic efficiency can be significantly higher. Furthermore, the calculations also indicate that the CO_2's needed global conductance is potentially lower than competing fluids (e.g., toluene) for certain operational conditions, which suggests that CO_2-based power plants can be more compact, since they might require smaller heat exchangers to produce

  13. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Peifang Wang; Lingxiao Ren; Chao Wang; Jin Qian; Jun Hou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River). Va...

  14. Reconstructing paleoceanographic conditions in the westernmost Mediterranean during the last 4.000 yr: tracking rapid climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Jiménez-Espejo, F. J.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Böttcher, M.; García-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.

    2009-04-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean (Alboran Sea basin) is a key location for paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic reconstructions since high sedimentation rates provide ultra high-resolution records at centennial and millennial scales. Here, we present a paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the last 4000 yr, which is based on a multi-proxy approach that includes major and trace element-content fluctuations and mineral composition of marine sediments. The investigated materials correspond to several gravity and box cores recovered in the Alboran Sea basin during different oceanographic cruises (TTR-14 and TTR-17), which have been sampled at very high resolution. Comparative analysis of these cores allows establishing climate oscillations at centennial to millennial scales. Although relatively more attention have been devoted to major climate changes during the last glacial cycle, such as the Last Glacial Maximun, deglaciation and abrupt cooling events (Heinrich and Younger Dryas), the late Holocene has also been punctuated by significant rapid climate variability including polar cooling, aridity and changes in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation. These climate oscillations coincide with significant fluctuations in chemical and mineral composition of marine sediments. Thus, bulk and clay mineralogy, REE composition and Rb/Al, Zr/Al, La/Lu ratios provide information on the sedimentary regime (eolian-fluvial input and source areas), Ba-based proxies on fluctuations in marine productivity and redox sensitive elements on oxygen conditions at time of deposition. A decrease in fluvial-derived elements/minerals (e.g., Rb, detrital mica) takes places during the so-called Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, Dark Age, and Little Ice Age Period. Meanwhile an increase is evidenced during the Medieval Warm Period and the Roman Humid Period. This last trend runs parallel to a decline of element/minerals of typical eolian source (Zr, kaolinite) with the exception of the Roman Humid

  15. The Considere condition and rapid stretching of linear and branched polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, Gareth H; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    to larger Hencky strains as the number of branches is increased. Numerical computations at finite Deborah numbers also show that there is an optimal range of deformation rates over which homogeneous extensions can be maintained to large strain. We also consider other rapid homogeneous stretching...... deformations, such as biaxial and planar stretching, and show that the degree of stabilization afforded by inclusion of material with long-chain branching is a sensitive function of the imposed mode of deformation....

  16. A Portable Kit for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-14

    INFECTIONS SHIGELLA TYPHOID FEVER STREPTOCOCCUS An example of a public health application for rapid diagnosis using the COAG test is provided by studies...than in infections in Fig. Principles of gel diffusion (GD) and of counter- monkeys with human parasites (BID%%IAL et al. 1973, immunoelectrophoresis...the cerebrospinal fluid and immunofluorescence tests for detection of malaria te ai preient ith croup inal fuidan antibodies in Aotus monkeys

  17. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  18. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  19. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  20. Rapid Induction of Aldosterone Synthesis in Cultured Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Fujisaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to classical adrenal cortical biosynthetic pathway, there is increasing evidence that aldosterone is produced in extra-adrenal tissues. Although we previously reported aldosterone production in the heart, the concept of cardiac aldosterone synthesis remains controversial. This is partly due to lack of established experimental models representing aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 expression in robustly reproducible fashion. We herein investigated suitable conditions in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs culture system producing CYP11B2 with considerable efficacy. NRCMs were cultured with various glucose doses for 2–24 hours. CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone concentrations secreted from NRCMs were determined using real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. We found that suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction included four-hour incubation with high glucose conditions. Under these particular conditions, CYP11B2 expression, in accordance with aldosterone secretion, was significantly increased compared to those observed in the cells cultured under standard-glucose condition. Angiotensin II receptor blocker partially inhibited this CYP11B2 induction, suggesting that there is local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation under high glucose conditions. The suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction in NRCMs culture system are now clarified: high-glucose conditions with relatively brief period of culture promote CYP11B2 expression in cardiomyocytes. The current system will help to accelerate further progress in research on cardiac tissue aldosterone synthesis.

  1. Extinction, Reacquisition, and Rapid Forgetting of Eyeblink Conditioning in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L.; Freeman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory. However, age differences in extinction and subsequent reacquisition have yet to be studied using this model. The present study examined extinction and reacquisition of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats. In…

  2. Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...

  3. Characterization of metal powder based rapid prototyping components under aluminium high pressure die casting process conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available periodic inspections, monitoring crack formation and evidence of surface washout. At the end of the thermal tests, mechanical strength and hardness tests were performed to assess toughness and core resistance variations in relation to the initial conditions...

  4. The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba shows diurnal cycles of transcription under natural conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano De Pittà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polar environments are characterized by extreme seasonal changes in day length, light intensity and spectrum, the extent of sea ice during the winter, and food availability. A key species of the Southern Ocean ecosystem, the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral mechanisms to adapt to daily and seasonal changes. The molecular organization of the clockwork underlying these biological rhythms is, nevertheless, still only partially understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome sequence of the Antarctic krill is not yet available. A normalized cDNA library was produced and pyrosequenced in the attempt to identify large numbers of transcripts. All available E. superba sequences were then assembled to create the most complete existing oligonucleotide microarray platform with a total of 32,217 probes. Gene expression signatures of specimens collected in the Ross Sea at five different time points over a 24-hour cycle were defined, and 1,308 genes differentially expressed were identified. Of the corresponding transcripts, 609 showed a significant sinusoidal expression pattern; about 40% of these exibithed a 24-hour periodicity while the other 60% was characterized by a shorter (about 12-hour rhythm. We assigned the differentially expressed genes to functional categories and noticed that those concerning translation, proteolysis, energy and metabolic process, redox regulation, visual transduction and stress response, which are most likely related to daily environmental changes, were significantly enriched. Two transcripts of peroxiredoxin, thought to represent the ancestral timekeeping system that evolved about 2.5 billion years ago, were also identified as were two isoforms of the EsRh1 opsin and two novel arrestin1 sequences involved in the visual transduction cascade. CONCLUSIONS: Our work represents the first characterization of the krill diurnal transcriptome under natural conditions

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Solar-Powered Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to evaluate the performance of a solar powered regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (R-ORC using five dry organic fluids: RC318, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and R218, is presented in this paper. The system is evaluated in two locations in the U.S.: Jackson, MS and Tucson, AZ. The weather data for each location is used to determine the heat available from the solar collector that could be used by the R-ORC to generate power. Results from the R-ORC performance are compared with a basic ORC using first and second law criteria as well as primary energy consumption (PEC and carbon dioxide emission (CDE savings for both locations. An economic analysis to determine the maximum capital cost for a desired payback period is presented in this paper. A parametric analysis is also performed to study the effect of the turbine efficiency as well as the open feed organic fluid heater intermediate pressure on the system performance. Results indicate that the R-ORC is able to generate more power than the basic ORC for some of the selected working fluids. For the R-ORC, R236ea is the working fluid that show the best performance among the evaluated fluids under the modeled conditions. On the other hand, the basic ORC with R236ea as the working fluid outperformed three of the fluids in the R-ORC. Also, the R-ORC evaluated in Tucson, AZ is able to generate more power, to provide more PEC and CDE savings, and had a higher available capital cost than the R-ORC evaluated in in Jackson, MS.

  6. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature dependent fluorescence......We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  7. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    2013-01-01

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence......We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  8. Modified LMI condition for the realization of limit cycle-free digital filters using saturation arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    A criterion in the form of linear matrix inequality for the elimination of limit cycles in a class of state-space digital filters using saturation arithmetic is presented. The criterion is a modified form of a previously reported criterion

  9. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.

    2016-01-01

    of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated...

  10. Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.

  11. Evaluation of the rapid plasma reagin "teardrop" card test for screening of syphilis in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, E; Van de Velden, L; Ndoye, I; Piot, P; Meheus, A

    1993-01-01

    The availability of simple diagnostic methods may contribute to more efficient control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries. For the detection of syphilis, a simple rapid plasma reagin (RPR) "teardrop" assay for finger-prick blood samples was developed in 1962. The reliability of this test is compared with RPR, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) assays performed on venous blood samples. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the finger-stick RPR teardrop assay for diagnosis of syphilis in settings with poor medical resources. Pregnant women evaluated at two health centers in Pikine, Senegal were tested for STDs. The RPR teardrop assay was performed on plasma from blood samples obtained by finger prick, and standard RPR, TPHA, and FTA-Abs procedures were performed on serum obtained by vein puncture. The sensitivity and specificity of the finger-prick RPR teardrop assay were 69.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and its reactivity was correlated with RPR serum antibody titer. The finger-prick RPR teardrop assay is not a reliable alternative to the classic serum RPR test.

  12. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  13. Selected road condition, vehicle and freight considerations in pavement life cycle assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJ vdM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available road condition data from two corridors were collected and analyzed to determine the effect of the current road condition and potential changes in these road conditions on the economic and environmental impacts of the situation. Existing Vehicle...

  14. Fast “Feast/Famine” Cycles for Studying Microbial Physiology Under Dynamic Conditions : A Case Study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.; Sousa, A.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to rapidly changing conditions, under natural as well as industrial production scale environments, especially due to large-scale substrate mixing limitations. In this work, we present an experimental approach based on a dynamic feast/famine regime (400 s) that

  15. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  16. Rapid cell cycle analysis by measurement of the radioactivity per cell in a narrow window in S phase (RCSsub(i))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.W.; Carver, J.H.; George, Y.S.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A new rapid method for the cell cycle analysis of asynchronously growing cells is presented. The new method is an alternative to the more time consuming and subjective fraction of labeled mitoses (FLM) method. Like the FLM method, all cells in the S phase of the cell cycle are marked by pulse labeling with a radioactive DNA precursor. The subsequent progress of the cohort of cells thus labeled is monitored through a narrow window in the cell cycle. The window is defined by a narrow range of DNA contents corresponding to cells in mid-S phase and is designated Ssub(i). The cellular DNA content is measured by flow cytometry and the cells in the window Ssub(i) are selected by electronic cell sorting. The radioactivity per cell in Ssub(i) (RCSsub(i)) is determined by liquid scintillation counting. The duration of S phase and of the total cycle and the dispersions therein are determined from the oscillation of the RCSsub(i) values with time. The complete cell cycle analysis can be accomplished in as little as 1 day following the collection of samples. Exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were analyzed according to the RCSsub(i) method and the FLM method. It is demonstrated that the two techniques give essentially the same results. (author)

  17. Whole-body pre-cooling and heat storage during self-paced cycling performance in warm humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Taaffe, D R; Marino, F E

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that pre-cooling the skin without a concomitant reduction in core temperature has on subsequent self-paced cycling performance under warm humid (31 degrees C and 60% relative humidity) conditions. Seven moderately trained males performed a 30 min self-paced cycling trial on two separate occasions. The conditions were counterbalanced as control or whole-body pre-cooling by water immersion so that resting skin temperature was reduced by approximately 5-6 degrees C. After pre-cooling, mean skin temperature was lower throughout exercise and rectal temperature was lower (P body sweat fell from 1.7+/-0.1 l x h(-1) to 1.2+/-0.1 l h(-1) (P < 0.05). The distance cycled increased from 14.9+/-0.8 to 15.8+/-0.7 km (P < 0.05) after pre-cooling. The results indicate that skin pre-cooling in the absence of a reduced rectal temperature is effective in reducing thermal strain and increasing the distance cycled in 30 min under warm humid conditions.

  18. Individual Pressure Vessel (PV) and Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Performance Under LEO Cycling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Lewis, Harlan L.

    2004-01-01

    LEO life cycle testing of Individual Pressure Vessel (PV) and Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen cell packs have been sponsored by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program. The cell packs have cycled under both 35% and 60% depth-of- discharge and temperature conditions of -5 C and +lO C. The packs have been on test since as early as 1992 and have generated a substantial database. This report will provide insight into performance trends as a function of the specific cell configuration and manufacturer for eight separate nickel-hydrogen battery cell packs.

  19. Rapid production of Candida albicans chlamydospores in liquid media under various incubation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia, Zavalza-Stiker; Blanca, Ortiz-Saldivar; Mariana, García-Hernández; Magdalena, Castillo-Casanova; Alexandro, Bonifaz

    2006-01-01

    The production of chlamydospores is a diagnostic tool used to identify Candida albicans; these structures also represent a model for morphogenetic research. The time required to produce them with standard methods is 48-72 hours in rice meal agar and tensoactive agents. This time can be shorted using liquid media such as cornmeal broth (CMB) and dairy supplements. Five media were tested: CMB plus 1% Tween-80, CMB plus 5% milk, CMB plus 5% milk serum, milk serum, and milk serum plus 1% Tween-80, under different incubation conditions: at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C in a metabolic bath stirring at 150 rpm, and at 28 degrees C in a culture stove. The reading time points were established at 8 and 16 hours. The best results were obtained at 16 hours with CMB plus 5% milk under incubation at 28 degrees C and stirring at 150 rpm. The next most efficient methods were CMB plus 5% milk serum and CMB plus 1% Tween-80, under the same incubation conditions. The other media were ineffective in producing chlamydospores. The absence of stirring at 28 degrees C prevented the formation of chlamydospores within the set time points, and incubation at 37 degrees C decreased their production. This paper reports that the time to form C. albicans chlamydospores can be reduced.

  20. The National Library of Kosovo "PJETER Bogdani" Rapid Condition Assessment and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Ramku, B.; Binakaj, N.

    2017-08-01

    The National Library of Kosovo "Pjetër Bogdani" is a symbol of Prishtina, Kosovo and the quest for knowledge. It is simultaneously an icon of modernity and symbol of the past. Unfortunately, it suffered through the Kosovo war and neglect in times of economic difficulty. It was also unfortunately featured in the British newspaper The Telegraph in their travel section: "One of the world's 30 ugliest buildings?" In late 2015 the Kosovo Architectural Foundation, a non-profit dedicated to spirit of creating and preserving unique architecture, became concerned with the reputation and condition of the Library and contacted the Kosovo Ministry of Culture, visited the site and initiated a project to raise awareness and document this modern masterpiece. The Getty Foundation and their Keeping it Modern grant program awarded funding for initial condition assessment, documentation, capacity building and investigations. This paper discusses the project to document and improve the image and awareness of this important structure and set priorities for its future.

  1. Visual investigation of transient fuel behavior under a rapid heating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    1981-10-01

    An in-reactor experimental research on fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions is being conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The optical system in which a non-browning lens periscope is directly installed in the test section was successfully developed for photographing transient fuel behavior. Several phenomena which had never been revealed before were observed in the slow motion pictures taken in the NSRR experiments which were performed in the water and air environments. As for incipient failure mechanism for an unirradiated fuel rod under RIA conditions, brittle fracture of the cladding during quenching is dominant. However, a split cracking possibly occurs during even red hot state of the cladding. It is considered that the crack is generated by the local internal pressure increase at the specified region blocked up due to the melting of the cladding inner surface. The film boiling is unexpectablly violent specially in the early stage of the transient, and film thickness becomes 5 -- 6 mm at maximum. The observed thick vapor film can not be explained by the conventional theory, but the effect of hydrogen which is produced by Zircaloy-water reaction is reasonably explained to form thick film in the report. The molten fuel was expelled from the cladding in the experiment which was performed in an air environment. The expelled fuel fragmented due to possibly initial motion effect, not mechanical collision effect, because Weber number is smaller than the critical value. (author)

  2. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaur, C.; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Granatelli, Fernado; Russo Analia; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Gauna, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  3. The brain dynamics of rapid perceptual adaptation to adverse listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Julia; Henry, Molly J; Eisner, Frank; Obleser, Jonas

    2013-06-26

    Listeners show a remarkable ability to quickly adjust to degraded speech input. Here, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of such short-term perceptual adaptation. In a sparse-sampling, cardiac-gated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition, human listeners heard and repeated back 4-band-vocoded sentences (in which the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while spectral information is highly degraded). Clear-speech trials were included as baseline. An additional fMRI experiment on amplitude modulation rate discrimination quantified the convergence of neural mechanisms that subserve coping with challenging listening conditions for speech and non-speech. First, the degraded speech task revealed an "executive" network (comprising the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex), parts of which were also activated in the non-speech discrimination task. Second, trial-by-trial fluctuations in successful comprehension of degraded speech drove hemodynamic signal change in classic "language" areas (bilateral temporal cortices). Third, as listeners perceptually adapted to degraded speech, downregulation in a cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit was observable. The present data highlight differential upregulation and downregulation in auditory-language and executive networks, respectively, with important subcortical contributions when successfully adapting to a challenging listening situation.

  4. Mechanism of the rapid dissolution of Pu02 under oxidizing conditions and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.; Koehly, G.

    1991-01-01

    Until the recent years, plutonium dioxide was known to be among the metallic oxides the most difficult to dissolve. From thermodynamic calculations it can be predicted that PuO 2 will dissolve under oxidizing conditions. This can be achieved using Ag(II) species possibly regenerated by electrochemical means. The mechanism of such a process has been elucidated using carbon paste electrochemistry and 18 O labelling. These studies demonstrate that the chemical reaction limiting the overall proces is located on the surface of the solid PuO 2 , and that the first step consists in the oxidation of the plutonium into Pu(V) species. Applications of the dissolution process of PuO 2 by electrogenerated Ag(II) were growing in the recent years in FRANCE. These applications developed often in collaboration with SGN and COGEMA, concern the treatment of: out of specifications PuO 2 , incineration ashes, wastes produced during MOX fuel fabrication, and during the dismantling of old nuclear facilities. A general overview of these different applications is given

  5. Study of an ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle with an adaptable ejector nozzle for different working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereda, C.; Ventas, R.; Lecuona, A.; Venegas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An absorption refrigeration cycle with an ejector device at the absorber inlet is presented. ► This cycle is able to reduce up to 9 °C the temperature of onset of refrigerant generation without extra energy consumption. ► At very low driving temperatures it allows increasing the cooling capacity. ► The ejector device proposed has a partially variable geometry and we study its influence on the cycle performances. -- Abstract: This paper presents a numerical model of an ejector-absorption (single-effect) refrigeration cycle with ammonia–lithium nitrate solution as working fluid, operating under steady-state conditions. In this cycle, the ejector is located at the absorber inlet replacing the solution expansion valve. The liquid–gas ejector entrains refrigerant vapor from the evaporator; this way the absorber pressure becomes higher than the evaporator pressure without any additional energy consumption. The objective of this numerical model is to evaluate the influence of the ejector geometry on the cycle performances and to determine the range of the heat source temperature in which it is convenient to use a practical ejector in the absorption cycle. The simulation is based on UA-ΔT lm models for separate heat transfer regions in a novel implementation using plate-type heat exchangers and this way the results are offered as a function of the external temperatures. This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility of an ejector whose nozzle area is adjustable while the rest of the ejector dimensions are fixed, thus being more feasible than complete variable geometry ejectors. The cycle performance is reported for different mixing tube constant diameters. Results of the simulation show that the use of an ejector allows, among others, to decrease the activation temperature approximately 9 °C in respect to the conventional single-effect absorption cycle and increasing the COP for moderate temperatures. The variable ejector nozzle geometry is

  6. The optimum intermediate pressure of two-stages vapor compression refrigeration cycle for Air-Conditioning unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Sihombing, H. V.

    2018-03-01

    Vapor compression cycle is mainly employed as a refrigeration cycle in the Air-Conditioning (AC) unit. In order to save energy, the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the need to be improved. One of the potential solutions is to modify the system into multi-stages vapor compression cycle. The suitable intermediate pressure between the high and low pressures is one of the design issues. The present work deals with the investigation of an optimum intermediate pressure of two-stages vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Typical vapor compression cycle that is used in AC unit is taken into consideration. The used refrigerants are R134a. The governing equations have been developed for the systems. An inhouse program has been developed to solve the problem. COP, mass flow rate of the refrigerant and compressor power as a function of intermediate pressure are plotted. It was shown that there exists an optimum intermediate pressure for maximum COP. For refrigerant R134a, the proposed correlations need to be revised.

  7. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively.

  8. Experimental study of the mechanisms of CO2 capture by calcium cycle under circulating fluidized bed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoteit, A.

    2006-06-01

    The work undertaken in this Thesis in partnership with department R and D of ALSTOM Power Boilers, CEMEX and the ADEME, relates to the experimental study of various phenomena associated to CO 2 capture under circulating fluidized bed conditions. The size of particles, temperature and the CO 2 concentration have an influence on the limestone calcination reaction. The reaction of carbonation of lime is not total. During successive cycles of calcination/carbonation, the rate of carbonation obtained with hydrated lime is increasingly higher than that obtained with the lime. Under continuously reducing conditions, the decomposition of sulphates present in the bed ashes is not total. This decomposition is total under reduction/oxidation cycles. A modeling of calcination allowed to determine the intrinsic kinetic constants of calcination and carbonation. (author)

  9. A study on the complexity of a business cycle model with great excitements in non-resonant condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Junhai; Cui Yaqiang; Liulixia

    2009-01-01

    Based on the researches of Szydlowski and Krawiec, we studied the inherent complexity of a chaotic business cycle with great excitements in non-resonant condition. First, we got the first-order and second-order approximate solutions of the system by using multiple scale method. Then deduced the formulation reflecting the complex relations between vibration, phase, bifurcation parameter μ and excite frequency Ω of first-order solution. As the great excitement F varied, the global changes of the system solutions were analyzed. We also explored the different paths leading the systems with different parameter combinations into catastrophe region, fuzzy region or chaos region. Finally, we discussed the evolution trends of business cycle models under the above-mentioned conditions. Hence, this paper has some theoretical and practical significance.

  10. Establishment of minimal positive-control conditions to ensure brain safety during rapid development of emergency vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyekyung; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Min Young; Kim, Kyeongryun; Ko, Bokyeong; Seo, Hyung Seok; Kim, Byoung Soo; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yi, Sun Shin

    2017-08-31

    With the increase in international human and material exchanges, contagious and infectious epidemics are occurring. One of the effective methods of epidemic inhibition is the rapid development and supply of vaccines. Considering the safety of the brain during vaccine development is very important. However, manuals for brain safety assays for new vaccines are not uniform or effective globally. Therefore, the aim of this study is to establish a positive-control protocol for an effective brain safety test to enhance rapid vaccine development. The blood-brain barrier's tight junctions provide selective defense of the brain; however, it is possible to destroy these important microstructures by administering lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), thereby artificially increasing the permeability of brain parenchyma. In this study, test conditions are established so that the degree of brain penetration or brain destruction of newly developed vaccines can be quantitatively identified. The most effective conditions were suggested by measuring time-dependent expressions of tight junction biomarkers (zonula occludens-1 [ZO-1] and occludin) in two types of mice (C57BL/6 and ICR) following exposure to two types of LPS ( Salmonella and Escherichia ). In the future, we hope that use of the developed positive-control protocol will help speed up the determination of brain safety of novel vaccines.

  11. Alleviation of rapid, futile ammonium cycling at the plasma membrane by potassium reveals K+-sensitive and -insensitive components of NH4+ transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Mark W; Britto, Dev T; Balkos, Konstantine D; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2008-01-01

    Futile plasma membrane cycling of ammonium (NH4+) is characteristic of low-affinity NH4+ transport, and has been proposed to be a critical factor in NH4+ toxicity. Using unidirectional flux analysis with the positron-emitting tracer 13N in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), it is shown that rapid, futile NH4+ cycling is alleviated by elevated K+ supply, and that low-affinity NH4+ transport is mediated by a K+-sensitive component, and by a second component that is independent of K+. At low external [K+] (0.1 mM), NH4+ influx (at an external [NH4+] of 10 mM) of 92 micromol g(-1) h(-1) was observed, with an efflux:influx ratio of 0.75, indicative of rapid, futile NH4+ cycling. Elevating K+ supply into the low-affinity K+ transport range (1.5-40 mM) reduced both influx and efflux of NH4+ by as much as 75%, and substantially reduced the efflux:influx ratio. The reduction of NH4+ fluxes was achieved rapidly upon exposure to elevated K+, within 1 min for influx and within 5 min for efflux. The channel inhibitor La3+ decreased high-capacity NH4+ influx only at low K+ concentrations, suggesting that the K+-sensitive component of NH4+ influx may be mediated by non-selective cation channels. Using respiratory measurements and current models of ion flux energetics, the energy cost of concomitant NH4+ and K+ transport at the root plasma membrane, and its consequences for plant growth are discussed. The study presents the first demonstration of the parallel operation of K+-sensitive and -insensitive NH4+ flux mechanisms in plants.

  12. Mathematical model of the competition life cycle under limited resources conditions: Problem statement for business community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Medvedev, M. A.; Berg, D. B.; Lapshina, S. N.; Taubayev, A. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Savina, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Present study is devoted to the development of competition life cycle mathematical model in the closed business community with limited resources. Growth of each agent is determined by the balance of input and output resource flows: input (cash) flow W is covering the variable V and constant C costs and growth dA/dt of the agent's assets A. Value of V is proportional to assets A that allows us to write down a first order non-stationary differential equation of the agent growth. Model includes the number of such equations due to the number of agents. The amount of resources that is available for agents vary in time. The balances of their input and output flows are changing correspondingly to the different stages of the competition life cycle. According to the theory of systems, the most complete description of any object or process is the model of its life cycle. Such a model describes all stages of its development: from the appearance ("birth") through development ("growth") to extinction ("death"). The model of the evolution of an individual firm, not contradicting the economic meaning of events actually observed in the market, is the desired result from modern AVMs for applied use. With a correct description of the market, rules for participants' actions, restrictions, forecasts can be obtained, which modern mathematics and the economy can not give.

  13. Parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition: a rapid structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Cheater, Francine; Bekker, Hilary

    2015-08-01

    Living with a child with a long-term condition can result in challenges above usual parenting because of illness-specific demands. A critical evaluation of research exploring parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition is timely because international health policy advocates that patients with long-term conditions become active collaborators in care decisions. A rapid structured review was undertaken (January 1999-December 2009) in accordance with the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Three data bases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO) were searched and also hand searching of the Journal of Advanced Nursing and Child: Care, Health and Development. Primary research studies written in English language describing parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition were included. Thematic analysis underpinned data synthesis. Quality appraisal involved assessing each study against predetermined criteria. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. The impact of living with a child with a long-term condition related to dealing with immediate concerns following the child's diagnosis and responding to the challenges of integrating the child's needs into family life. Parents' perceived they are not always supported in their quest for information and forming effective relationships with health-care professionals can be stressful. Although having ultimate responsibility for their child's health can be overwhelming, parents developed considerable expertise in managing their child's condition. Parents' accounts suggest they not always supported in their role as manager for their child's long-term condition and their expertise, and contribution to care is not always valued. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The reactivity of Fe(II) associated with goethite formed during short redox cycles toward Cr(VI) reduction under oxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Seungyeol; Rudolph, Jared; Xu, Huifang; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew (UW)

    2017-08-01

    localizes on the (100) face of goethite, independent of the number of redox cycles goethite undergoes. This work demonstrates that under oxic conditions, solid Fe(II) associated with goethite resulting from rapid redox cycling is reactive and available for electron transfer to Cr(VI), suggesting Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may act as reservoirs of reactive electron density, even in oxygen saturated environments.

  15. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  16. Inhibition of exportin-1 function results in rapid cell cycle-associated DNA damage in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Russell T; Marcus, Joshua M; Orth, James D

    2017-06-13

    Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) are small molecules in development as anti-cancer agents. The first-in-class SINE, selinexor, is in clinical trials for blood and solid cancers. Selinexor forms a covalent bond with exportin-1 at cysteine-528, and blocks its ability to export cargos. Previous work has shown strong cell cycle effects and drug-induced cell death across many different cancer-derived cell lines. Here, we report strong cell cycle-associated DNA double-stranded break formation upon the treatment of cancer cells with SINE. In multiple cell models, selinexor treatment results in the formation of clustered DNA damage foci in 30-40% of cells within 8 hours that is dependent upon cysteine-528. DNA damage strongly correlates with G1/S-phase and decreased DNA replication. Live cell microscopy reveals an association between DNA damage and cell fate. Cells that form damage in G1-phase more often die or arrest, while those damaged in S/G2-phase frequently progress to cell division. Up to half of all treated cells form damage foci, and most cells that die after being damaged, were damaged in G1-phase. By comparison, non-transformed cell lines show strong cell cycle effects but little DNA damage and less death than cancer cells. Significant drug combination effects occur when selinexor is paired with different classes of agents that either cause DNA damage or that diminish DNA damage repair. These data present a novel effect of exportin-1 inhibition and provide a strong rationale for multiple combination treatments of selinexor with agents that are currently in use for the treatment of different solid cancers.

  17. The influence of dairy cows` body condition during various stages of the reproductive cycle upon their fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Fritze, Hans - Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The feeding of dairy cows and its influence upon their fertility is gaining increasing weight in the literature. Of particular importance is the energy supply during the early period of lactation. Due to the rapid increase of milk production and the relatively slower increase of food processing capacity, the degree and duration of this period of negative energy balance has particular consequences upon the fertility. For the period of one year the body condition of 284 cows was evaluated on...

  18. Life cycle management for equipments in nuclear plants based on reliability and actual conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalin, Wang; Jingquan, Liu; Peng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle management model based on reliability includes two parts: obtaining failure rate function and founding cost-oriented model to solve. It is actually a single objective programming whose optimal solution is the most economical replacement period. Parameters of failure rate function are estimated by Weibull process fitting with the method of maximum likelihood. The objective function of the model is life-cost function where the dependent variable is replacement period T, with the constraints of failure rate or availability. After foundation of LCM model, we solve it to find the optimal replacement period for the equipments. (authors)

  19. Results of VVER fuel rods tests in the MIR.M1 reactor under power cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burukin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Kalygin, V.; Markov, D.; Pimenov, Y.; Novikov, V.; Medvedev, A.; Nesterov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main results of the 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER fuel rods tests performed in the MIR.M1 reactor loop facilities under power cycling. The non-destructive PIE results are presented as well. A series of experiments was performed, including overall measurement of fuel rod parameters test, in one of which 300 cycles were done. Irradiation under power cycling conditions and PIE of high-burnup VVER fuel rods showed the following: 1) all fuel rods claddings preserved their integrity under irradiation at linear heat rate (LHR) higher than the NPP operating one; 2) experimental data were obtained on the axial and radial cladding strain and fission gas release (FGR) from 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER-440 and VVER-1000 fuel rods as well as on the kinetics of the change in these parameters and fuel temperature under the power cycling; 3) non-destructive PIE results are in a satisfactory correlation with the data obtained by means of in-pile measurement gages during irradiation. (authors)

  20. Tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the friction and wear behaviour of a hard coating were studied by using ball-on-disc tests to simulate the wear process of the coated tools for sheet metal forming process. The evolution of the friction coefficient followed a typical dual-plateau pattern, i.e. at the initial stage of sliding, the friction coefficient was relatively low, followed by a sharp increase due to the breakdown of the coatings after a certain number of cyclic dynamic loadings. This phenomenon was caused by the interactive response between the friction and wear from a coating tribo-system, which has not been addressed so far by metal forming researchers, and constant friction coefficient values are normally used in the FE simulations to represent the complex tribological nature at the contact interfaces. Meanwhile, most of the current FE simulations are single cycle, whereas most sheet metal forming operations are conducted as multi-cycle. Therefore, a novel friction/wear interactive friction model was developed to, simultaneously, characterise the evolutions of friction coefficient and the remaining thickness of the coating layer, to enable the wear life of coated tooling to be predicted. The friction model was then implemented into the FE simulation of a sheet metal forming process for feasibility study.

  1. Life Cycle, Feeding, and Defecation Patterns of Panstrongylus chinai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Katherine D; Villacís, Anita G; Grijalva, Mario J

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi Panstrongylus chinai (Del Ponte) is highly domiciliated in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Andes and has been found naturally infected with T. cruzi The objective of this study was to describe the life cycle, feeding, and defecation patterns of P. chinai in the Loja province within southern Ecuador. To characterize its life cycle, a cohort of 70 individuals was followed from egg to adult. At each stage of development, prefeeding time, feeding time, weight of ingested meal, proportional weight increase, and the time to the first defecation were recorded. Panstrongylus chinai completed its development in 371.4 ± 22.3 d, (95% CI 355.4-387.4), which means that it is likely a univoltine species. Prefeeding time, feeding time, and weight of ingested meal increased as individuals developed through nymphal stages. Moreover, time to first defecation was shortest in the early nymphal stages, suggesting higher vector potential in the early developmental stages. Data obtained in this study represent an important advance in our knowledge of the biology of P. chinai, which should be considered as a secondary Chagas disease vector species in the Andean valleys of Loja (Ecuador) and in the north of Peru, and included in entomological surveillance programs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Experimental studies of an optimal operating condition for the Bunsen process in the I-S thermochemical cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon; No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Young Soo; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Byung Jin

    2009-01-01

    Conventional I-S cycles have critical limitations in material integrity and thermal efficiency. The HIx and sulfuric acids in high temperature and pressure cause serious material corrosions. They also carry too much water and iodine over the entire processes. To try to find a solution to these problems, KAIST proposed an optimal operating condition of Bunsen section through a parametric study of existing experimental data, and, based on it, devised a new flowsheet. When the contents of water and I 2 in the feed are controlled within the optimal band, HI concentration in HIx phase becomes strongly over-azeotropic. By simple flashing of the over-azeotropic HI solution, highly enriched HI vapor can be obtained, which leads to improved energy efficiency of the cycle. Since the cycle is operable under low pressures, the corrosivity of the operating condition can also be alleviated. In order to validate the previous experimental data and enhance the feasibility of the newly proposed flowsheet, KAIST is performing experiments. Procedure and results of early stage of experiments are introduced in this paper. (author)

  3. Self-management programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with chronic conditions: A rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ellie; Lawn, Sharon; Oster, Candice; Morello, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Review the evidence for the effectiveness of chronic condition self-management programs applied to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Methods A rapid review methodology was followed to develop an evidence summary from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Results Only seven peer-reviewed studies were identified. The evidence indicated that group programs, particularly the Stanford Program, and structured individual chronic condition self-management programs were of good quality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, although these need to be integrated into practice in order to see the greatest benefits. The Flinders Program showed promise as a standardised program with content designed specifically with and for these populations. Numerous grey literature sources were identified, many using strong participatory approaches developed locally within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. However, few of these programs have been subject to rigorous evaluation. Discussion Despite the significant focus on chronic condition self-management programs to help address the burden of disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, few studies exist that have been properly evaluated. The Closing the Gap Principles developed by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare offer important guidance for how to proceed to maximise engagement, cultural appropriateness and ownership of program initiatives.

  4. Quantitative inhibition of soil C and N cycling by ectomycorrhizal fungi under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) ecosystems store more carbon than non-ectomycorrhizal ecosystems at global scale. Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests the presence of ECM fungi allows plants to compete directly with decomposers for soil nitrogen (N) via exo-enzyme synthesis. Experimental ECM exclusion often results in a release from competition of saprotrophic decomposers, allowing for increased C-degrading enzyme production, increased microbial biomass, and eventually declines in soil C stocks. Our knowledge of this phenomenon is limited, however, to the presence or absence of ECM fungi. It remains unknown if competitive repression of saprotrophic microbes and soil C cycling by ECM fungi varies with ECM abundance. This is particularly relevant to global change experiments when manipulations alter plant C allocation to ECM symbionts. To test if variation in ECM abundance alters the competitive inhibition of saprotrophic soil microbes (quantitative inhibition) we established experimental ECM exclusion treatments along an ECM abundance gradient. We dug trenches to experimentally exclude ECM fungi, allowing us to test for competitive release of soil saprotrophs from competition. To control for disturbance we placed in-growth bags both inside and outside of trenches. Consistent with the quantitative inhibition hypothesis, sites with more ECM fungi had significantly less microbial biomass per unit soil C and lower rates of N mineralization. Consistent with a release from competition, C-degrading enzyme activities were higher and gross proteolytic rates were lower per unit microbial biomass inside compared to outside trenches. We interpret this to reflect increased microbial investment in C-acquisition and decreased investment in N-acquisition in the absence of ECM fungi. Furthermore, the increase in C-degrading enzymes per unit microbial biomass was significantly greater in sites with the most abundant ECM fungi. Based on these results, ECM-saprotroph competition does

  5. Assessing the Performance of GPS Precise Point Positioning Under Different Geomagnetic Storm Conditions during Solar Cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic storm, which is an abnormal space weather phenomenon, can sometimes severely affect GPS signal propagation, thereby impacting the performance of GPS precise point positioning (PPP. However, the investigation of GPS PPP accuracy over the global scale under different geomagnetic storm conditions is very limited. This paper for the first time presents the performance of GPS dual-frequency (DF and single-frequency (SF PPP under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions during solar cycle 24 using a large data set collected from about 500 international GNSS services (IGS stations. The global root mean square (RMS maps of GPS PPP results show that stations with degraded performance are mainly distributed at high-latitude, and the degradation level generally depends on the storm intensity. The three-dimensional (3D RMS of GPS DF PPP for high-latitude during moderate, intense, and super storms are 0.393 m, 0.680 m and 1.051 m, respectively, with respect to only 0.163 m on quiet day. RMS errors of mid- and low-latitudes show less dependence on the storm intensities, with values less than 0.320 m, compared to 0.153 m on quiet day. Compared with DF PPP, the performance of GPS SF PPP is inferior regardless of quiet or disturbed conditions. The degraded performance of GPS positioning during geomagnetic storms is attributed to the increased ionospheric disturbances, which have been confirmed by our global rate of TEC index (ROTI maps. Ionospheric disturbances not only lead to the deteriorated ionospheric correction but also to the frequent cycle-slip occurrence. Statistical results show that, compared with that on quiet day, the increased cycle-slip occurrence are 13.04%, 56.52%, and 69.57% under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions, respectively.

  6. Novel Design Integrating a Microwave Applicator into a Crystallizer for Rapid Temperature Cycling. A Direct Nucleation Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kacker, R.; Radoiu, Marilena; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The control of nucleation in crystallization processes is a challenging task due to the often lacking knowledge on the process kinetics. Inflexible (predetermined) control strategies fail to grow the nucleated crystals to the desired quality because of the variability in the process conditions,

  7. The influence of cycling intensity upon cognitive response during inferred practice and competition conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Clarke, Neil D; Cox, Martin; Smith, Mike

    2017-10-01

    In many sport and exercise situations, cognitive performance is required under conditions of high physiological load and high cognitive anxiety. However, few studies have assessed all these components in situ. The current study sought to address this issue. Fourteen adults (9 males, 5 females) completed 2 incremental exercise trials (perceived competition or perceived practice) in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive performance, via a test of visual discrimination, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (Bla), and anxiety scores, was recorded at rest, 70% [Formula: see text] and 90% [Formula: see text]. Visual discrimination response times were faster at rest compared to 70% (P = 0.001) and 90% [Formula: see text] (P = 0.002) and at 70% compared to 90% [Formula: see text] (P = 0.04) in the competitive condition. HR post-instructions (P = 0.0001), at 70% (P = 0.001) and 90% [Formula: see text] (P = 0.0001), was significantly higher in competition compared to practice. RPE was higher in the competitive condition compared to the practice condition (P = 0.023). Cognitive anxiety intensity was significantly higher in the competitive condition, at 70% and 90% [Formula: see text] (P = 0.001). This study suggests that cognitive performance is more negatively affected when physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety are at their highest. Coaches and athletes should be mindful of such effects and seek to develop skills to offset such responses or to structure training to better represent competition.

  8. Operating conditions of an open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with optimised cavity receiver and recuperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The small-scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with recuperator has several advantages, including low cost, low operation and maintenance costs and it is highly recommended. The main disadvantages of this cycle are the pressure losses in the recuperator and receiver, turbomachine efficiencies and recuperator effectiveness, which limit the net power output of such a system. The irreversibilities of the solar thermal Brayton cycle are mainly due to heat transfer across a finite temperature difference and fluid friction. In this paper, thermodynamic optimisation is applied to concentrate on these disadvantages in order to optimise the receiver and recuperator and to maximise the net power output of the system at various steady-state conditions, limited to various constraints. The effects of wind, receiver inclination, rim angle, atmospheric temperature and pressure, recuperator height, solar irradiance and concentration ratio on the optimum geometries and performance were investigated. The dynamic trajectory optimisation method was applied. Operating points of a standard micro-turbine operating at its highest compressor efficiency and a parabolic dish concentrator diameter of 16 m were considered. The optimum geometries, minimum irreversibility rates and maximum receiver surface temperatures of the optimised systems are shown. For an environment with specific conditions and constraints, there exists an optimum receiver and recuperator geometry so that the system produces maximum net power output. -- Highlights: → Optimum geometries exist such that the system produces maximum net power output. → Optimum operating conditions are shown. → Minimum irreversibility rates and minimum entropy generation rates are shown. → Net power output was described in terms of total entropy generation rate. → Effects such as wind, recuperator height and irradiance were investigated.

  9. Phenological cycle and physicochemical characteristics of avocado cultivars in subtropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Cristina Zaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Avocado has a great potential as a commercial crop in southern Brazil, for its high productivity, rusticity, and multiple uses. Its high oil content can be explored for biodiesel production with advantages over other crops. This study comprised six avocado cultivars-Geada, Fortuna, Fuerte, Margarida, Primavera and Quintal-belonging to the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR collection, from Londrina, Brazil (23° 23′ S, 50° 11′ W. Analysis of fruit growth (length and diameter allowed the classification of the cultivars into groups showing early, midseason, and late maturation, which were harvested in March/April, May/June, and July/August, respectively. The fruits were analyzed to assess their pulp, peel, and seed proportions, and their levels of oil (pulp and starch (seed. Results showed these six cultivars are good alternatives for oil extraction. Fuerte stands out as the most adequate for biodiesel production from pulp and seed due to its higher yield of oil and starch. The fruit cycle diversity of these cultivars might allow combining them for prolonged fruit production, both for fresh fruit marketing and biodiesel supply, as well as possibly using fruit pulp for oil extraction and seed starch for alcohol production.

  10. Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Sloss, Clayton

    2014-10-01

    Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on ductile cast iron (DCI) at strain rates of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002/s in the temperature range from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). A constitutive-damage model was developed within the integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) framework on the premise of strain decomposition into rate-independent plasticity and time-dependent creep. Four major damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement (IE), (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation were considered in a nonlinear creep-fatigue interaction model which represents the overall damage accumulation process consisting of oxidation-assisted fatigue crack nucleation and propagation in coalescence with internally distributed damage ( e.g., IE and creep), leading to final fracture. The model was found to agree with the experimental observations of the complex DCI-LCF phenomena, for which the linear damage summation rule would fail.

  11. Economic Effect on the Plutonium Cycle of Employing {sup 235}U in Fast Reactor Start-Up; Incidence Economique du Demarrage des Reacteurs Rapides a l'Aide d'Uranium-235 sur le Cycle du Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dievoet, J.; Egleme, M.; Hermans, L. [BELGONUCLEAIRE, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    factors, inventory factors) from one cycle to another, with a comparative study of the use of {sup 235}U in thermal and fast reactors, variations in the discounted fuel cycle costs from one cycle to another, and weight and characteristics of the recycled fuel, of the additional fuel required and of excess fuel. (author) [French] Le memoire presente les premiers resultats d'une etude entreprise dans le cadre d'un contrat d'association Euratom-Belgique et destinee a evaluer l'interet de l'alimentation de reacteurs rapides en uranium-235. Plusieurs possibilites se presentent pour le demarrage d'un reacteur rapide a l'aide d'uranium-235. 1. Le reacteur peut etre alimente en permanence avec de l'uranium enrichi, le plutonium produit servant a demarrer et a alimenter d'autres reacteurs; dans ce cas, l'uranium est recycle dans le reacteur en y ajoutant de l'uranium enrichi. 2. Le plutonium produit dans le reacteur peut etre partiellement recycle dans celui-ci, ainsi que l'uranium; dans ce cas, le reacteur se transforme progressivement en un reacteur au plutonium. Ces deux cas peuvent etre combines pour un reacteur a plusieurs zones d'enrichissement, ou l'on peut appliquer simultanement les deux politiques a des zones differentes, c'est-a-dire: alimenter, par exemple, la zone interne en uranium enrichi et recycler le plutonium dans la zone externe. Le mode de traitement du combustible irradie rend egalement le probleme complexe, selon que l'on traite ensemble ou separement le coeur et les couvertures axiales; de meme, pour un reacteur a plusieurs zones d'enrichissement, celles-ci peuvent etre traitees ensemble ou separement. Les calculs sont effectues a l'aide d'un code de calcul utilisant, pour lavpartie relative aux caracteristiques des reacteurs successifs, les coefficients d'equivalence definis par Baker and Ross et, pour la partie economique, la methode du cout actualise du cycle du combustible. Dans la premiere phase des travaux, une analyse approcheedu phenomene a ete

  12. Modeling of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde with the PEPSE code to conditions of thermal power licensed at present (2027 MWt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda G, M. A.; Maya G, F.; Medel C, J. E.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J.

    2011-11-01

    By means of the use of the performance evaluation of power system efficiencies (PEPSE) code was modeled the vapor cycle of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde to reproduce the nuclear plant behavior to conditions of thermal power, licensed at present (2027 MWt); with the purpose of having a base line before the implementation of the project of extended power increase. The model of the gauged vapor cycle to reproduce the nuclear plant conditions makes use of the PEPSE model, design case of the vapor cycle of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde, which has as main components of the model the great equipment of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. The design case model makes use of information about the design requirements of each equipment for theoretically calculating the electric power of exit, besides thermodynamic conditions of the vapor cycle in different points. Starting from the design model and making use of data of the vapor cycle measured in the nuclear plant; the adjustment factors were calculated for the different equipment s of the vapor cycle, to reproduce with the PEPSE model the real vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. Once characterized the model of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde, we can realize different sensibility studies to determine the effects macros to the vapor cycle by the variation of certain key parameters. (Author)

  13. A life cycle analysis of polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Urbina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis was performed on a full roll-to-roll coating procedure used for the manufacture of flexible polymer solar cell modules. The process known as ProcessOne employs a polyester substrate with a sputtered layer of the transparent conductor indium-tin-oxide (ITO). The ITO film was ...... photovoltaic technologies. The results showed that an Energy Pay-Back Time (EPBT) of 2.02 years can be achieved for an organic solar module of 2% efficiency, which could be reduced to 1.35 years, if the efficiency was 3%.......A life cycle analysis was performed on a full roll-to-roll coating procedure used for the manufacture of flexible polymer solar cell modules. The process known as ProcessOne employs a polyester substrate with a sputtered layer of the transparent conductor indium-tin-oxide (ITO). The ITO film...... printed. Finally the polymer solar modules were encapsulated, using a polyester barrier material. All operations except the application of ITO were carried out under ambient conditions. The life cycle analysis delivered a material inventory of the full process for a module production...

  14. Earth system model simulations show different feedback strengths of the terrestrial carbon cycle under glacial and interglacial conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adloff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In simulations with the MPI Earth System Model, we study the feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 concentrations under ice age and interglacial conditions. We find different sensitivities of terrestrial carbon storage to rising CO2 concentrations in the two settings. This result is obtained by comparing the transient response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to a fast and strong atmospheric CO2 concentration increase (roughly 900 ppm in Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP-type simulations starting from climates representing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and pre-industrial times (PI. In this set-up we disentangle terrestrial contributions to the feedback from the carbon-concentration effect, acting biogeochemically via enhanced photosynthetic productivity when CO2 concentrations increase, and the carbon–climate effect, which affects the carbon cycle via greenhouse warming. We find that the carbon-concentration effect is larger under LGM than PI conditions because photosynthetic productivity is more sensitive when starting from the lower, glacial CO2 concentration and CO2 fertilization saturates later. This leads to a larger productivity increase in the LGM experiment. Concerning the carbon–climate effect, it is the PI experiment in which land carbon responds more sensitively to the warming under rising CO2 because at the already initially higher temperatures, tropical plant productivity deteriorates more strongly and extratropical carbon is respired more effectively. Consequently, land carbon losses increase faster in the PI than in the LGM case. Separating the carbon–climate and carbon-concentration effects, we find that they are almost additive for our model set-up; i.e. their synergy is small in the global sum of carbon changes. Together, the two effects result in an overall strength of the terrestrial carbon cycle feedback that is almost twice as large in the LGM experiment

  15. Earth system model simulations show different feedback strengths of the terrestrial carbon cycle under glacial and interglacial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adloff, Markus; Reick, Christian H.; Claussen, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In simulations with the MPI Earth System Model, we study the feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 concentrations under ice age and interglacial conditions. We find different sensitivities of terrestrial carbon storage to rising CO2 concentrations in the two settings. This result is obtained by comparing the transient response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to a fast and strong atmospheric CO2 concentration increase (roughly 900 ppm) in Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP)-type simulations starting from climates representing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and pre-industrial times (PI). In this set-up we disentangle terrestrial contributions to the feedback from the carbon-concentration effect, acting biogeochemically via enhanced photosynthetic productivity when CO2 concentrations increase, and the carbon-climate effect, which affects the carbon cycle via greenhouse warming. We find that the carbon-concentration effect is larger under LGM than PI conditions because photosynthetic productivity is more sensitive when starting from the lower, glacial CO2 concentration and CO2 fertilization saturates later. This leads to a larger productivity increase in the LGM experiment. Concerning the carbon-climate effect, it is the PI experiment in which land carbon responds more sensitively to the warming under rising CO2 because at the already initially higher temperatures, tropical plant productivity deteriorates more strongly and extratropical carbon is respired more effectively. Consequently, land carbon losses increase faster in the PI than in the LGM case. Separating the carbon-climate and carbon-concentration effects, we find that they are almost additive for our model set-up; i.e. their synergy is small in the global sum of carbon changes. Together, the two effects result in an overall strength of the terrestrial carbon cycle feedback that is almost twice as large in the LGM experiment as in the PI experiment

  16. Application of unscented Kalman filter for condition monitoring of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Schlanbusch, Rune; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    for this project. Considering the plant dynamics, it is of paramount importance to monitor the peak temperatures within the once-through boiler serving the bottoming unit to prevent the decomposition of the working fluid. This paper accordingly aims at applying the unscented Kalman filter to estimate...... the temperature distribution inside the primary heat exchanger by engaging a detailed and distributed model of the system and available measurements. Simulation results prove the robustness of the unscented Kalman filter with respect to process noise, measurement disturbances and initial conditions....

  17. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to produce actionable findings: a rapid-cycle evaluation approach to improving implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rosalind E; Crosson, Jesse C; O'Malley, Ann S; Cromp, DeAnn; Taylor, Erin Fries

    2017-02-10

    Much research does not address the practical needs of stakeholders responsible for introducing health care delivery interventions into organizations working to achieve better outcomes. In this article, we present an approach to using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide systematic research that supports rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of health care delivery interventions and produces actionable evaluation findings intended to improve implementation in a timely manner. To present our approach, we describe a formative cross-case qualitative investigation of 21 primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a multi-payer supported primary care practice transformation intervention led by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Qualitative data include observational field notes and semi-structured interviews with primary care practice leadership, clinicians, and administrative and medical support staff. We use intervention-specific codes, and CFIR constructs to reduce and organize the data to support cross-case analysis of patterns of barriers and facilitators relating to different CPC components. Using the CFIR to guide data collection, coding, analysis, and reporting of findings supported a systematic, comprehensive, and timely understanding of barriers and facilitators to practice transformation. Our approach to using the CFIR produced actionable findings for improving implementation effectiveness during this initiative and for identifying improvements to implementation strategies for future practice transformation efforts. The CFIR is a useful tool for guiding rapid-cycle evaluation of the implementation of practice transformation initiatives. Using the approach described here, we systematically identified where adjustments and refinements to the intervention could be made in the second year of the 4-year intervention. We think the approach we describe has broad

  18. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilong; Zhao, Guoqun; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, T cs , in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different T cs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of T cs on mechanical properties

  19. Comparison of materials resistance to rupture for low-cycle fatigue under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, N.D.; Egorov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed is the following conception of damage at cyclic change of deformation and temperature allowing for two effects: 1) material damage occurs mainly in the stretching semicycle and the higher the temperature and the greater the ageing time, the greater the material damage; 2) the healing effect may take place in the compression semicycle and the higher the temperature and the greater the ageing time, the greater the effect. Comparison in durability of some loading conditions is carried out for the 304 stainless steel to confirm the above conception. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account separately damages is stretching and compression semicycles with allowance for temperature and durability of active loading and holdings

  20. Low-δD hydration rinds in Yellowstone perlites record rapid syneruptive hydration during glacial and interglacial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydration of silicic volcanic glass forms perlite, a dusky, porous form of altered glass characterized by abundant “onion-skin” fractures. The timing and temperature of perlite formation are enigmatic and could plausibly occur during eruption, during post-eruptive cooling, or much later at ambient temperatures. To learn more about the origin of natural perlite, and to fingerprint the hydration waters, we investigated perlitic glass from several synglacial and interglacial rhyolitic lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone volcanic system. Perlitic cores are surrounded by a series of conchoidal cracks that separate 30- to 100-µm-thick slivers, likely formed in response to hydration-induced stress. H2O and D/H profiles confirm that most D/H exchange happens together with rapid H2O addition but some smoother D/H variations may suggest separate minor exchange by deuterium atom interdiffusion following hydration. The hydrated rinds (2–3 wt% H2O) transition rapidly (within 30 µm, or by 1 wt% H2O per 10 µm) to unhydrated glass cores. This is consistent with quenched “hydration fronts” where H2O diffusion coefficients are strongly dependent on H2O concentrations. The chemical, δ18O, and δD systematics of bulk glass records last equilibrium between ~110 and 60 °C without chemical exchange but with some δ18O exchange. Similarly, the δ18O of water extracted from glass by rapid heating suggests that water was added to the glass during cooling at higher rates of diffusion at 60–110 °C temperatures, compared with values expected from extrapolation of high-temperature (>400 °C) experimental data. The thick hydration rinds in perlites, measuring hundreds of microns, preserve the original D/H values of hydrating water as a recorder of paleoclimate conditions. Measured δD values in perlitic lavas are −150 to −191 or 20–40 ‰ lower than glass hydrated by modern Yellowstone waters. This suggests that Yellowstone perlites record the low-δD signature

  1. Neuronal injury external to the retina rapidly activates retinal glia, followed by elevation of markers for cell cycle re-entry and death in retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Galan

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are neurons that relay visual signals from the retina to the brain. The RGC cell bodies reside in the retina and their fibers form the optic nerve. Full transection (axotomy of the optic nerve is an extra-retinal injury model of RGC degeneration. Optic nerve transection permits time-kinetic studies of neurodegenerative mechanisms in neurons and resident glia of the retina, the early events of which are reported here. One day after injury, and before atrophy of RGC cell bodies was apparent, glia had increased levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6, and phospho-ERK1/2; however, these signals were not detected in injured RGCs. Three days after injury there were increased levels of phospho-Rb and cyclin A proteins detected in RGCs, whereas these signals were not detected in glia. DNA hyperploidy was also detected in RGCs, indicative of cell cycle re-entry by these post-mitotic neurons. These events culminated in RGC death, which is delayed by pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Our data show that a remote injury to RGC axons rapidly conveys a signal that activates retinal glia, followed by RGC cell cycle re-entry, DNA hyperploidy, and neuronal death that is delayed by preventing glial MAPK/ERK activation. These results demonstrate that complex and variable neuro-glia interactions regulate healthy and injured states in the adult mammalian retina.

  2. FORMATION OF ESTIMATED CONDITIONS FOR LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of this research is to substantiate the technical limits of the railway track (under reliability status for the formation the regulatory framework for reliability and functional safety of the railway track in Ukraine. Methodology.In order to achieve the goal of research analysis methods of the technical states of elements and trackforms that are typical of operation conditions of the railways in Ukraine were used. Findings.Technical states accordance of elements and trackforms to reliability status under existing regulations was defined. These conditions are based on the track assessments in accordance with the dimensional tape results. The status of each element of the track design affects its deformation work, but the rules are still absent that would connect state of track elements with the state of the track by estimation of the dimensional tape. The reasons on which the limits are not set were established. It was found out which researches are necessary to conduct for their installation. Originality. The classification of the reliability state of a railway track for permitted deviation at the track laying and maintenance was developed. The regulation importance the technical states of ballast section and subgrade for the developed classification was established. Practical value. Ukrzaliznytsia (UZ is a founding member of the Council for Railway Transport of the Commonwealth. This body issued interstate standard State Standard 32192-2013 «Reliability of railway equipment. Basic concepts, terms and definitions». On this basis developed a new interstate standard «Security functional of railway equipment. Terms and definitions». At the same time UZ is a member of the cooperation of railways in International Union of Railway Transport where rules with reliable and safe operation of railways are established in all transport branches. This study will help implement these standards on the railways of Ukraine, improve the

  3. The Structure of the Heliosphere with Solar Cycle and Its Effect on the Conditions in the Local ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Toth, G.; Swisdak, M.; Michael, A.; Kornbleuth, M. Z.; Zieger, B.

    2017-12-01

    We argued (Opher et al. 2015, Drake et al. 2015) that the magnetic tension of the solar magnetic field plays a crucial role in organizing the solar wind in the heliosheath into two jet-like structures. The heliosphere then has a "croissant"-like shape where the distance to the heliopause downtail is almost the same as towards the nose. Regardless of whether the heliospheric tail is split in two or has a long comet shape there is consensus that the magnetic field in the heliosheath behaves differently than previously expected - it has a "slinky" structure and is turbulent. In this presentation, we will discuss several aspects related with this new model. We will show that this structure persists when the solar magnetic field is treated as a dipole. We show how the heliosphere, with its "Croissant" shape, evolves when the solar wind with solar cycle conditions are included and when the neutrals are treated kinetically (with our new MHD-Kinetic code). Due to reconnection (and turbulence of the jets) there is a substantial amount of heliosheath material sitting on open field lines. We will discuss the impact of artificial dissipation of the magnetic field in driving mixing and how it evolves with the solar cycle. We will discuss as well the development of turbulence in the jets and its role in mixing the plasma in the heliosheath and LISM and controlling the global structure of the heliosphere. We will discuss how the conditions upstream of the heliosphere, in the local interstellar medium are affected by reconnection in the tail and how it evolves with solar cycle. Recently we established (Opher et al. 2017) that reconnection in the eastern flank of the heliosphere is responsible for the twist of the interstellar magnetic field (BISM) acquiring a strong east-west component as it approaches the Heliopause. Reconnection drives a rotational discontinuity (RD) that twists the BISM into the -T direction and propagates upstream in the interstellar medium toward the nose

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Working under Supercritical Conditions in a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in low grade heat valorization using organic Rankine cycle (ORC technologies has increased significantly. A new small-scale ORC with a net capacity of 3 kW was efficiently integrated with a concentrated solar power technology for electricity generation. The excess heat source from Photovoltaic (PV collectors with a maximum temperature of 100 °C was utilized through a supercritical heat exchanger that uses R-404A as working medium. By ensuring supercritical heat transfer leads to a better thermal match in the heat exchanger and improved overall cycle efficiency. A helical coil heat exchanger was designed by using heat transfer correlations from the literature. These heat transfer correlations were derived for different conditions than ORCs and their estimated uncertainty is ~20%. In order to account for the heat transfer correlation uncertainties this component was oversized by 20%. Next, a prototype was built and installed in an integrated concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T/Rankine system. The results from the measurements show that for better estimation of the sizing of the heat exchanger a more accurate correlation is required in order to design an optimal configuration and thus employ cheaper components.

  5. Cell cycle analysis of brain cells as a growth index in larval cod at different feeding conditions and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González-Quirós

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of cells dividing in a specific tissue of individual larvae can be estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. An experimental test was carried out with cod (Gadus morhua larvae, with brain as the target tissue, to validate this technique as an appropriate growth index for larval fish. Standard length (SL, myotome height, and %S-phase (% of cells in the S-phase of the cell-division cycle variability were analyzed, with temperature (6 and 10°C, food level (high- and no-food and larval developmental stage (first feeding, pre-metamorphosis and post-metamorphosis as independent factors. Cod larvae grew faster (in SL and presented a higher %S-phase under high-food conditions. Larval SL increased with temperature in rearing and experimental tanks. However, there was a significant interaction between temperature and food in the %S-phase. There were no significant differences in the %S-phase between 6 and 10°C at high-food levels. We suggest that this result is a consequence of temperature-dependency of the duration of the cell cycle. In the absence of food, larvae at 10ºC had a lower %S-phase than larvae at 6°C, which may be related to increased metabolic costs with increasing temperature. Considering the effect of temperature, the mean % S-phase explained 74% of the variability in the estimated standard growth rate.

  6. Optimum performance of the small scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle at various environmental conditions and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, (South Africa)

    2011-07-01

    The energy of the sun can be transformed into mechanical power through the use of concentrated solar power systems. The use of the Brayton cycle with recuperator has significant advantages but also raises issues such as pressure loss and low net power output which are mainly due to irreversibilities of heat transfer and fluid friction. The aim of this study is to optimize the system to generate maximum net power output. Thermodynamic and dynamic trajectory optimizations were performed on a dish concentrator and an off-the-shelf micro-turbine and the effects of wind, solar irradiance and other environmental conditions and constraints on the power output were analyzed. Results showed that the maximum power output is increased when wind decreases and irradiance increases; solar irradiance was found to have a more significant impact than wind. This study highlighted the factors which impact the power generation of concentrated solar power systems so that designers can take them into account.

  7. Superparamagnetic iron oxide coated on the surface of cellulose nanospheres for the rapid removal of textile dye under mild condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yunfeng [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qin, Zongyi, E-mail: phqin@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Liu, Yannan; Cheng, Miao; Qian, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Qian, E-mail: drwangqian23@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 100 Haining Road, Hongkou District, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zhu, Meifang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anchoring superparamagnetic iron oxide on the surface of cellulose nanospheres as magnetically recyclable nanocatalys. • Achieving highly efficient Fenton-like reaction on the surface of composite nanospheres for rapid removal of textile dye. • Reaching nearly 98.0% degradation of Navy blue within 5 min under mild condition. - Abstract: Magnetic composite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by anchoring iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) on the surface of carboxyl cellulose nanospheres through a facile chemical co-precipitation method. The as-prepared MNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurement, thermal gravity analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. These MNPs were of a generally spherical shape with a narrow size distribution, and exhibited superparamagnetic behaviors with high saturation magnetization. High efficient removal of Navy blue in aqueous solution was demonstrated at room temperature in a Fenton-like system containing the MNPs and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which benefited from small particle size, large surface area, high chemical activity, and good dispersibility of the MNPs. The removal efficiency of Navy blue induced by the MNPs prepared at a weight ratio of cellulose to iron of 1:2 were 90.6% at the first minute of the degradation reaction, and 98.0% for 5 min. Furthermore, these MNPs could be efficiently recycled and reused by using an external magnetic field. The approach presented in this paper promotes the use of renewable natural resources as templates for the preparation and stabilization of various inorganic nanomaterials for the purpose of catalysis, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical and other potential applications.

  8. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  9. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their career goals. These struggles may contribute to self-esteem problems. That’s why it’s helpful for people with ... more discoveries are expected in the years ahead. Education Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center ...

  10. Rapid cycling superconducting booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.; Agapov, N.; Butenko, A.

    2001-01-01

    The existing set of Nuclotron heavy ion sources, such as duoplasmatron, polarized deuteron, laser and electron beam ion sources permits to have ion beams over a wide range of masses. The main problem for us now is to gain high intensity of accelerator particles. It can be solved by means of multiturn injection of the low current beams into the booster, acceleration up to the intermediate energies, stripping and transferring into the main ring. A design study of this accelerator - the 250 MeV/Amu Nuclotron booster synchrotron at 1 Hz repetition rate and circumference of 84 m, has been completed. The lattice dipole and quadrupole magnets have an iron yoke coils, made of hollow superconductor, are cooled by two-phase Helium flow, as well as the Nuclotron magnets. (authors)

  11. Simulation, measurement, and mitigation of beam instability caused by the kicker impedance in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Harada, H.; Hayashi, N.; Kinsho, M.; Tamura, F.; Tani, N.; Yamamoto, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Chin, Yong Ho; Holmes, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    The transverse impedance of eight extraction pulsed kicker magnets is a strong beam instability source in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Significant beam instability occurs even at half of the designed 1 MW beam power when the chromaticity (ξ ) is fully corrected for the entire acceleration cycle by using ac sextupole (SX) fields. However, if ξ is fully corrected only at the injection energy by using dc SX fields, the beam is stable. In order to study realistic beam instability scenarios, including the effect of space charge and to determine practical measures to accomplish 1 MW beam power, we enhance the orbit particle tracking code to incorporate all realistic time-dependent machine parameters, including the time dependence of the impedance itself. The beam stability properties beyond 0.5 MW beam power are found to be very sensitive to a number of parameters in both simulations and measurements. In order to stabilize a beam at 1 MW beam power, two practical measures based on detailed and systematic simulation studies are determined, namely, (i) proper manipulation of the betatron tunes during acceleration and (ii) reduction of the dc SX field to reduce the ξ correction even at injection. The simulation results are well reproduced by measurements, and, as a consequence, an acceleration to 1 MW beam power is successfully demonstrated. In this paper, details of the orbit simulation and the corresponding experimental results up to 1 MW of beam power are presented. To further increase the RCS beam power, beam stability issues and possible measures beyond 1 MW beam power are also considered.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature organic Rankine cycle power plant operating at off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhonglu; Zhang, Yufeng; Dong, Shengming; Ma, Hongting; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Xuelian; Deng, Na; Sheng, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC power plant driven by low grade heat source is set up. • Energy and exergy analysis at off-design conditions is conducted. • The twin screw expander performance is characterized. • An empirical model to predict the net power output and thermal efficiency. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental study on a 50-kW Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power generation plant driven by low-grade heat source. Hot water boiler and solar-thermal system were used as the low-grade heat source providing hot water at temperature ranging from 65 to 95 °C. A twin screw compressor has been modified as the expansion machine in the ORC module and its expansion efficiency under variable operating conditions was tested in the experiments. This work was purposed to assess the ORC system and get the performance map at off-design operating conditions in a typical year from the view of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. The maximum electricity production and thermal efficiency were 46.5 kW and 6.52% respectively at the optimal operating condition. The highest exergetic efficiency reached 36.3% and the exergy analysis showed that evaporation pressure and condensation pressure were the key parameters to influence the exergy flow and exergetic efficiency. Furthermore, by fitting the actual plant data obtained in different months, an empirical model has been developed to predict the net power output and thermal efficiency with acceptable accuracy. Lastly, as an illustration, the empirical model is used to analyze the performance of the solar-driven ORC system.

  13. A new and selective cycle for dehydrogenation of linear and cyclic alkanes under mild conditions using a base metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowey, Douglas P.; Mane, Manoj V.; Kurogi, Takashi; Carroll, Patrick J.; Manor, Brian C.; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Selectively converting linear alkanes to α-olefins under mild conditions is a highly desirable transformation given the abundance of alkanes as well as the use of olefins as building blocks in the chemical community. Until now, this reaction has been primarily the remit of noble-metal catalysts, despite extensive work showing that base-metal alkylidenes can mediate the reaction in a stoichiometric fashion. Here, we show how the presence of a hydrogen acceptor, such as the phosphorus ylide, when combined with the alkylidene complex (PNP)Ti=CHtBu(CH3) (PNP=N[2-P(CHMe2)2-4-methylphenyl]2-), catalyses the dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to cyclic alkenes, and linear alkanes with chain lengths of C4 to C8 to terminal olefins under mild conditions. This Article represents the first example of a homogeneous and selective alkane dehydrogenation reaction using a base-metal titanium catalyst. We also propose a unique mechanism for the transfer dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons to olefins and discuss a complete cycle based on a combined experimental and computational study.

  14. Performance of a 250 kW Organic Rankine Cycle System for Off-Design Heat Source Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ran Fu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An organic Rankine cycle system comprised of a preheater, evaporator, condenser, turbine, generator, and pump was used to study its off-design performance and the operational control strategy. R245fa was used as the working fluid. Under the design conditions, the net power output is 243 kW and the system thermal efficiency is 9.5%. For an off-design heat source flow rate (mW, the operating pressure was controlled to meet the condition that the R245fa reached the liquid and vapor saturation states at the outlet of the preheater and the evaporator, respectively. The analytical results demonstrated that the operating pressure increased with increasing mW; a higher mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the preheater and required a smaller evaporator heat capacity, and the net power output and system thermal efficiency increased with increasing mW. For the range of mW studied here, the net power output increased by 64.0% while the total heat transfer rate increased by only 9.2%. In summary, off-design operation of the system was examined for a heat source flow rate which varied by –39.0% to +78.0% from the designed rate, resulting in –29.2% to +16.0% and –25.3% to +12.6% variations in the net power output and system thermal efficiency, respectively.

  15. Differential response of carbon cycling to long-term nutrient input and altered hydrological conditions in a continental Canadian peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sina; Praetzel, Leandra S. E.; Goebel, Marie; Blodau, Christian; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2018-02-01

    Peatlands play an important role in global carbon cycling, but their responses to long-term anthropogenically changed hydrologic conditions and nutrient infiltration are not well known. While experimental manipulation studies, e.g., fertilization or water table manipulations, exist on the plot scale, only few studies have addressed such factors under in situ conditions. Therefore, an ecological gradient from the center to the periphery of a continental Canadian peatland bordering a eutrophic water reservoir, as reflected by increasing nutrient input, enhanced water level fluctuations, and increasing coverage of vascular plants, was used for a case study of carbon cycling along a sequence of four differently altered sites. We monitored carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface fluxes and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CH4 concentrations in peat profiles from April 2014 through September 2015. Moreover, we studied bulk peat and pore-water quality and we applied δ13C-CH4 and δ13C-CO2 stable isotope abundance analyses to examine dominant CH4 production and emission pathways during the growing season of 2015. We observed differential responses of carbon cycling at the four sites, presumably driven by abundances of plant functional types and vicinity to the reservoir. A shrub-dominated site in close vicinity to the reservoir was a comparably weak sink for CO2 (in 1.5 years: -1093 ± 794, in 1 year: +135 ± 281 g CO2 m-2; a net release) as compared to two graminoid-moss-dominated sites and a moss-dominated site (in 1.5 years: -1552 to -2260 g CO2 m-2, in 1 year: -896 to -1282 g CO2 m-2). Also, the shrub-dominated site featured notably low DIC pore-water concentrations and comparably 13C-enriched CH4 (δ13C- CH4: -57.81 ± 7.03 ‰) and depleted CO2 (δ13C-CO2: -15.85 ± 3.61 ‰) in a more decomposed peat, suggesting a higher share of CH4 oxidation and differences in predominant methanogenic pathways. In comparison to all other sites, the graminoid

  16. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  17. Direct observation of the phase space footprint of a painting injection in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex is nearly at the operational stage with regard to the beam commissioning aspects. Recently, the design painting injection study has been commenced with the aim of high output beam power at the extraction. In order to observe the phase space footprint of the painting injection, a method was developed utilizing a beam position monitor (BPM in the so-called single pass mode. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates of the circulating beam directly measured using a pair of BPMs entirely positioned in drift space, and the calculated transfer matrices from the injection point to the pair of BPMs with several successive turns were used together in order to obtain the phase space footprint of the painting injection. There are two such pairs of BPMs placed in two different locations in the RCS, the results from which both agreed and were quite consistent with what was expected.

  18. Direct observation of the phase space footprint of a painting injection in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Hayashi, N.; Takayanagi, T.; Harada, H.; Irie, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex is nearly at the operational stage with regard to the beam commissioning aspects. Recently, the design painting injection study has been commenced with the aim of high output beam power at the extraction. In order to observe the phase space footprint of the painting injection, a method was developed utilizing a beam position monitor (BPM) in the so-called single pass mode. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates of the circulating beam directly measured using a pair of BPMs entirely positioned in drift space, and the calculated transfer matrices from the injection point to the pair of BPMs with several successive turns were used together in order to obtain the phase space footprint of the painting injection. There are two such pairs of BPMs placed in two different locations in the RCS, the results from which both agreed and were quite consistent with what was expected.

  19. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  20. Rapid one-pot propargylamine synthesis by plasmon mediated catalysis with gold nanoparticles on ZnO under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Béjar, María; Peters, Kate; Hallett-Tapley, Geniece L; Grenier, Michel; Scaiano, Juan C

    2013-02-28

    Surface plasmon excitation of gold nanoparticles on ZnO in the presence of an aldehyde, an amine and phenylacetylene led to rapid and selective formation of propargylamines with good yields (50-95%) at room temperature. Plasmon mediated catalysis is the best available route for this ternary coupling.

  1. Cycle performance of alternative refrigerants for domestic air-conditioning system based on a small finned tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Song; Wang, Shuangfeng; Liu, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    In order to find alternative refrigerants which exhibit both favorable cycle performance and environmental friendliness, R32 and R290 were utilized to contrast to R22 and R410A as substitutes in the present study. The experiments were conducted with a 5 mm finned tube heat exchanger based on the enthalpy method in a small split household air conditioner. The results showed that in nominal cooling conditions, the COP R of R32 and R290 were 26.8% and 20.4% higher than R22, 7.3% and 2.1% higher than R410A. And in nominal heating conditions, the COP HR of R32 and R290 were both 11.0% higher than R22, 5.3% higher than R410A. The systems with R290 and R32 have similar capacities to that with R22 and R410A in heating mode, but a relatively huge difference of capacities in cooling mode. In consideration of charge amount, R290 could be considered as the most superior alternative refrigerant in air conditioners with the small finned tube heat exchanger. - Highlights: •Comparisons are made in the air conditioner system based on 5 mm tube fin heat exchanger. •The R22 system has a similar performance to others in heating mode while a huge difference in cooling mode. •The optimal charge of R290 is reduced with nearly no decline in the capacity and COP. •SLHX is attached to the system of R290 and successfully promote safety and capacity. •Heat loads are taken into account to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of R290 and R32

  2. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  3. Informing Environmental Water Management Decisions: Using Conditional Probability Networks to Address the Information Needs of Planning and Implementation Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Avril C.; Szemis, Joanna M.; Webb, J. Angus; Kaur, Simranjit; Stewardson, Michael J.; Bond, Nick; Nathan, Rory

    2018-03-01

    One important aspect of adaptive management is the clear and transparent documentation of hypotheses, together with the use of predictive models (complete with any assumptions) to test those hypotheses. Documentation of such models can improve the ability to learn from management decisions and supports dialog between stakeholders. A key challenge is how best to represent the existing scientific knowledge to support decision-making. Such challenges are currently emerging in the field of environmental water management in Australia, where managers are required to prioritize the delivery of environmental water on an annual basis, using a transparent and evidence-based decision framework. We argue that the development of models of ecological responses to environmental water use needs to support both the planning and implementation cycles of adaptive management. Here we demonstrate an approach based on the use of Conditional Probability Networks to translate existing ecological knowledge into quantitative models that include temporal dynamics to support adaptive environmental flow management. It equally extends to other applications where knowledge is incomplete, but decisions must still be made.

  4. Mediterranean water cycle changes: transition to drier 21st century conditions in observations and CMIP3 simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, Annarita; Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Artale, Vincenzo; Navarra, Antonio; Alpert, Pinhas; Li, Laurent Z X

    2008-01-01

    We use CMIP3 multi-model simulations to show how individual hydroclimatic changes will concur to determine even greater alterations of 21st century Mediterranean water cycle characteristics, with contrasting behavior over land and sea. By 2070-2099, the average of the models predicts a 20% decrease in land surface water availability and a 24% increase in the loss of fresh water over the Mediterranean Sea due to precipitation reduction and warming-enhanced evaporation, with a remarkably high consensus among analyzed models. The projected decrease in river runoff from the surrounding land will further exacerbate the increase in Mediterranean Sea fresh water deficit. 20th century simulations indicate that the 'transition' toward drier conditions has already started to occur and has accelerated around the turn of the century towards the larger rates projected for the 21st century. These tendencies are supported by observational evidence of century-long negative trends in regionally averaged precipitation, PDSI and discharge from numerous rivers; and are consistent with reported increases in Mediterranean sea water salinity.

  5. Informing Environmental Water Management Decisions: Using Conditional Probability Networks to Address the Information Needs of Planning and Implementation Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Avril C; Szemis, Joanna M; Webb, J Angus; Kaur, Simranjit; Stewardson, Michael J; Bond, Nick; Nathan, Rory

    2018-03-01

    One important aspect of adaptive management is the clear and transparent documentation of hypotheses, together with the use of predictive models (complete with any assumptions) to test those hypotheses. Documentation of such models can improve the ability to learn from management decisions and supports dialog between stakeholders. A key challenge is how best to represent the existing scientific knowledge to support decision-making. Such challenges are currently emerging in the field of environmental water management in Australia, where managers are required to prioritize the delivery of environmental water on an annual basis, using a transparent and evidence-based decision framework. We argue that the development of models of ecological responses to environmental water use needs to support both the planning and implementation cycles of adaptive management. Here we demonstrate an approach based on the use of Conditional Probability Networks to translate existing ecological knowledge into quantitative models that include temporal dynamics to support adaptive environmental flow management. It equally extends to other applications where knowledge is incomplete, but decisions must still be made.

  6. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  7. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FOLLY-RAMOS

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  8. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  9. A study on variations of the low cycle fatigue life of a high pressure turbine nozzle caused by inlet temperature profiles and installation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kang, Young Seok; Rhee, Dong Ho [Aero-propulsion Research Office, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Do Young [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    High pressure components of a gas turbine engine must operate for a long life under severe conditions in order to maximize the performance and minimize the maintenance cost. Enhanced cooling design, thermal barrier coating techniques, and nickel-base superalloys have been applied for overcoming them and furthermore, material modeling, finite element analysis, statistical techniques, and etc. in design stage have been utilized widely. This article aims to evaluate the effects on the low cycle fatigue life of the high pressure turbine nozzle caused by different turbine inlet temperature profiles and installation conditions and to investigate the most favorable operating condition to the turbine nozzle. To achieve it, the structural analysis, which utilized the results of conjugate heat transfer analysis as loading boundary conditions, was performed and its results were the input for the assessment of low cycle fatigue life at several critical zones.

  10. A Study on Variations of the Low Cycle Fatigue Life of a High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Caused by Inlet Temperature Profiles and Installation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jae Sung; Kang, Young Seok; Rhee, Dong Ho [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Do Young [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    High pressure components of a gas turbine engine must operate for a long life under severe conditions in order to maximize the performance and minimize the maintenance cost. Enhanced cooling design, thermal barrier coating techniques, and nickel-base superalloys have been applied for overcoming them and furthermore, material modeling, finite element analysis, statistical techniques, and etc. in design stage have been utilized widely. This article aims to evaluate the effects on the low cycle fatigue life of the high pressure turbine nozzle caused by different turbine inlet temperature profiles and installation conditions and to investigate the most favorable operating condition to the turbine nozzle. To achieve it, the structural analysis, which utilized the results of conjugate heat transfer analysis as loading boundary conditions, was performed and its results were the input for the assessment of low cycle fatigue life at several critical zones.

  11. A fibre optic oxygen sensor that detects rapid PO2 changes under simulated conditions of cyclical atelectasis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Chen, Rongsheng; McPeak, Hanne; Matejovic, Martin; Farmery, Andrew D; Hahn, Clive E W

    2014-01-15

    Two challenges in the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome are the difficulty in diagnosing cyclical atelectasis, and in individualising mechanical ventilation therapy in real-time. Commercial optical oxygen sensors can detect [Formula: see text] oscillations associated with cyclical atelectasis, but are not accurate at saturation levels below 90%, and contain a toxic fluorophore. We present a computer-controlled test rig, together with an in-house constructed ultra-rapid sensor to test the limitations of these sensors when exposed to rapidly changing [Formula: see text] in blood in vitro. We tested the sensors' responses to simulated respiratory rates between 10 and 60 breaths per minute. Our sensor was able to detect the whole amplitude of the imposed [Formula: see text] oscillations, even at the highest respiratory rate. We also examined our sensor's resistance to clot formation by continuous in vivo deployment in non-heparinised flowing animal blood for 24h, after which no adsorption of organic material on the sensor's surface was detectable by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance analysis and comparison of an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs under maximum power and maximum power density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions

  13. The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, SC; Barrows, TT; Telfer, MW; Fifield, LK

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa journaltitle: Geomorphology articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.11.011 content_type: article copyright: Crown Copyright © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Present condition of survey research on actualization strategy of fast breeding reactor (FBR) cycling. General outlines on the research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideaki

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) started the survey research on actualization strategy of FBR cycling under cooperation of related organizations such as electric business company and so on, on July, 1999. The research aims at preparation of technical system to establish the FBR cycling for a future main energy supply source by extracting an actualization picture maximum activated advantages originally haven by the FBR cycling and by proposing a developmental strategy flexibly responsible to diverse needs in future society. Here was reported on effort state of its phase 1 (two years between 1999 and 2000 fiscal years). In the phase 1, it was planned to perform research and development shown as follows: 1) Extraction of actualization candidate concept on the FBR cycling under a premise of safety security and a viewpoint of evaluation on economics, resource effective usage, environmental loading reduction, and nuclear dispersion resistance by conducting investigation and evaluation of wide technical choices adopting innovative techniques, and 2) Embodiment of a research and development program of phase 2 (from 2001 to 2005 fiscal years) by investigating some technical subjects important for selection of research and development program aiming at actualization and its candidate concept on the FBR cycling. (G.K.)

  15. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  16. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  17. Rapid and tunable method to temporally control gene editing based on conditional Cas9 stabilization. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Here, we describe a method that allows temporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 activity based on conditional Cas9 destabilization. We demonstrate that fusing an FKBP12-derived destabilizing domain to Cas9 (DD-Cas9) enables conditional Cas9 expression and temporal control of gene editing in the presence of an FKBP12 synthetic ligand. This system can be easily adapted to co-express, from the same promoter, DD-Cas9 with any other gene of interest without co-modulation of the latter.

  18. Recruitment of cells in the small intestine into rapid cell cycle by small doses of external γ or internal β-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Potten, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Epithelial cell recruitment was examined in mouse ileum after external γ-irradiation (50 cGy) or internal β-irradiation (0.148 MBq/g of [ 3 H]thymidine), using the per cent-labelled-mitoses method and by analysing the distribution of mitotic cells in the crypts. In the presumptive stem cell zone at the lower cell positions of the crypt, the slowly cycling cells decreased their cell cycle 6 or 12 hours after a dose of 50 cGy. In the higher cell positions, a slight shortening of the cell cycle was also observed. After administration of a high dose of [ 3 H]thymidine, dormant (G 0 ) cells also entered the cell cycle in the lower cell positions. The results suggest that stem cells in the crypt may react to irradiation in two ways: first, by shortening the cell cycle in cycling cells; secondly, by an entry into the cell cycle by other dormant cells. There was destruction of some cycling stem cells before any recruitment. The data support the idea that the stem cell population in the crypt is heterogeneous. (author)

  19. Experimental study of the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} capture by calcium cycle under circulating fluidized bed conditions; Etude experimentale des mecanismes de capture du CO{sub 2} par cycle calcium en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoteit, A

    2006-06-15

    The work undertaken in this Thesis in partnership with department R and D of ALSTOM Power Boilers, CEMEX and the ADEME, relates to the experimental study of various phenomena associated to CO{sub 2} capture under circulating fluidized bed conditions. The size of particles, temperature and the CO{sub 2} concentration have an influence on the limestone calcination reaction. The reaction of carbonation of lime is not total. During successive cycles of calcination/carbonation, the rate of carbonation obtained with hydrated lime is increasingly higher than that obtained with the lime. Under continuously reducing conditions, the decomposition of sulphates present in the bed ashes is not total. This decomposition is total under reduction/oxidation cycles. A modeling of calcination allowed to determine the intrinsic kinetic constants of calcination and carbonation. (author)

  20. Study of thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures for Loretz-cycled niew generation air-conditioning equipment; Lorentz cycle ka shinsedai kucho kikiyo HFC kei kongo reibai no netsu rikigaku seishitsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K; Sato, H [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures for Lorentz-cycled new generation air-conditioning equipment. Equipment has been completed for simultaneous measurement of density and vapor-liquid equilibrium property, accurate measurement of latent heat of vaporization, and accurate measurement of specific heat at constant pressure in liquid phase. Final adjustment and preliminary measurements are currently conducted. Through analytical investigation using actually measured data of thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures, five state equations were obtained, i.e., modified Peng-Robinson state equation which can reproduce the vapor-liquid equilibrium property of refrigerant mixtures, modified Patel-Teja state equation, Helmholtz function type state equation which is applicable in the whole fluid region of refrigerant mixtures, and so on. An evaluation test equipment has been fabricated as a trial for Lorentz-cycled air-conditioning equipments using HFC refrigerant mixtures, and demonstration test is conducted to confirm the validity. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Thermodynamic performance simulation and concise formulas for triple-pressure reheat HRSG of gas–steam combined cycle under off-design condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiongzhi; Yang, Yongping; Liu, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An off-design performance simulation of triple-pressure reheat HRSG is executed. • The bottoming cycle characteristics of energy transfer/conversion are analyzed. • Concise formulas for the off-design performance of bottoming cycle are proposed. • The accuracy of the formulas is verified under different load control strategies. • The errors of the formulas are generally within 1% at a load of 100–50%. - Abstract: Concise semi-theoretical, semi-empirical formulas are developed in this study to predict the off-design performance of the bottoming cycle of the gas–steam turbine combined cycle. The formulas merely refer to the key thermodynamic design parameters (full load parameters) of the bottoming cycle and off-design gas turbine exhaust temperature and flow, which are convenient in determining the overall performance of the bottoming cycle. First, a triple-pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled, and thermodynamic analysis is performed. Second, concise semi-theoretical, semi-empirical performance prediction formulas for the bottoming cycle are proposed through a comprehensive analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the HRSG and the energy conversion characteristics of the steam turbine under the off-design condition. The concise formulas are found to be effective, i.e., fast, simple, and precise in obtaining the thermodynamic parameters for bottoming cycle efficiency, HRSG heat transfer capacity, HRSG efficiency, steam turbine power output, and steam turbine efficiency under the off-design condition. Accuracy is verified by comparing the concise formulas’ calculation results with the simulation results and practical operation data under different load control strategies. The calculation errors are within 1.5% (mainly less than 1% for both simulation and actual operation data) under combined cycle load (gas turbine load) ranging from 50% to 100%. However, accuracy declines sharply when the turbine

  2. Effect of Curing Conditions and Freeze-Thaw Cycles on the Strength of an Expansive Soil Stabilized with a Combination of Lime, Jaggery, and Gallnut Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation involved the utilization of the combination of lime, jaggery, and gallnut powder, adopted in South India traditionally. This combination of materials, used for the manufacture of lime-based mortars, was adopted in stabilization of an expansive soil. Three combinations of lime, jaggery, and gallnut powder (LJG in the ratios of 8 : 2 : 2, 8 : 2 : 1, and 8 : 1 : 2 were put into use. The effect of subjecting the combinations to alternate cycles of freeze-thaw (up to 3 cycles and three different curing conditions of air, moisture, and heat was also investigated. In addition, a mineralogical investigation for studying the reaction products was also carried out. The investigation proceeded with the determination of the unconfined compression strength (UCS of stabilized specimens of dimensions 38 mm × 76 mm, cured for periods of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The results of the investigation revealed that the addition of LJG resulted in an increase in the strength of the stabilized soil. Freeze-thaw cycles resulted in a reduction in strength with LJG821 proving to be the most optimal combination developing the maximum strength and least strength loss due to freeze-thaw cycles. Thermal curing proved to be the most optimal curing condition out of all curing conditions evaluated.

  3. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO2 nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO 2 catalyst was prepared. • The catalyst degraded Congo red rapidly in dark at ambient conditions. • Degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis. • The catalyst can be easily recycled by a magnet. - Abstract: A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO 2 nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, “green” and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater

  4. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang, E-mail: chiyanghe@hotmail.com

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared. • The catalyst degraded Congo red rapidly in dark at ambient conditions. • Degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis. • The catalyst can be easily recycled by a magnet. - Abstract: A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, “green” and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater.

  5. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kozos Karolina; Ochmian Ireneusz; Chełpiński Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours) and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage) on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight l...

  6. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  7. Flux response of glycolysis and storage metabolism during rapid feast/famine conditions in Penicillium chrysogenum using dynamic (13)C labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Lodewijk; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2014-03-01

    The scale-up of fermentation processes frequently leads to a reduced productivity compared to small-scale screening experiments. Large-scale mixing limitations that lead to gradients in substrate and oxygen availability could influence the microorganism performance. Here, the impact of substrate gradients on a penicillin G producing Penicillium chrysogenum cultivation was analyzed using an intermittent glucose feeding regime. The intermittent feeding led to fluctuations in the extracellular glucose concentration between 400 μM down to 6.5 μM at the end of the cycle. The intracellular metabolite concentrations responded strongly and showed up to 100-fold changes. The intracellular flux changes were estimated on the basis of dynamic (13) C mass isotopomer measurements during three cycles of feast and famine using a novel hybrid modeling approach. The flux estimations indicated a high turnover of internal and external storage metabolites in P. chrysogenum under feast/famine conditions. The synthesis and degradation of storage requires cellular energy (ATP and UTP) in competition with other cellular functions including product formation. Especially, 38% of the incoming glucose was recycled once in storage metabolism. This result indicated that storage turnover is increased under dynamic cultivation conditions and contributes to the observed decrease in productivity compared to reference steady-state conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Design and implementation of a radiation hardened silicon on sapphire (SOS) embedded signal conditioning unit controller (SCUC) for the RAPID instrument on the Cluster satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersland, L.

    1992-07-01

    The Cluster mission consistens of four spacecrafts equipped with instruments capable of making comprehensive measurements of plasma particles and electromagnetic fields. The RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) spectrometer is one of many instruments on board the Cluster satellites. It is designed for fast analysis of energetic electrons and ions with a complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. This thesis describes the development and testing of an embedded controller for the Spectroscopic Camera for Electrons, Neutral and Ion Compositions (SCENIC), which is a part of the RAPID instrument. The design is implemented in two different CMOS circuit technologies, namely Actel's Field Programmable Gate Arrays and GEC Plessey's CMOS Silicon On Sapphire (SOS) gate array. The prototypes of the SOS gate array have been verified and characterized. This includes measurements of DC and AC parameters under different conditions, including total dose of gamma irradiation. 42 refs., 92 figs., 44 tabs

  9. Rapid survey protocol that provides dynamic information on reef condition to managers of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeden, R J; Turner, M A; Dryden, J; Merida, F; Goudkamp, K; Malone, C; Marshall, P A; Birtles, A; Maynard, J A

    2014-12-01

    Managing to support coral reef resilience as the climate changes requires strategic and responsive actions that reduce anthropogenic stress. Managers can only target and tailor these actions if they regularly receive information on system condition and impact severity. In large coral reef areas like the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), acquiring condition and impact data with good spatial and temporal coverage requires using a large network of observers. Here, we describe the result of ~10 years of evolving and refining participatory monitoring programs used in the GBR that have rangers, tourism operators and members of the public as observers. Participants complete Reef Health and Impact Surveys (RHIS) using a protocol that meets coral reef managers' needs for up-to-date information on the following: benthic community composition, reef condition and impacts including coral diseases, damage, predation and the presence of rubbish. Training programs ensure that the information gathered is sufficiently precise to inform management decisions. Participants regularly report because the demands of the survey methodology have been matched to their time availability. Undertaking the RHIS protocol we describe involves three ~20 min surveys at each site. Participants enter data into an online data management system that can create reports for managers and participants within minutes of data being submitted. Since 2009, 211 participants have completed a total of more than 10,415 surveys at more than 625 different reefs. The two-way exchange of information between managers and participants increases the capacity to manage reefs adaptively, meets education and outreach objectives and can increase stewardship. The general approach used and the survey methodology are both sufficiently adaptable to be used in all reef regions.

  10. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozos Karolina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight loss.

  11. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  12. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  13. Development and Verification of a Mobile Shelter Assessment System "Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition Featuring Gonryo and Miyagi (RASECC-GM)" for Major Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Nakayama, Masaharu; Abe, Michiaki; Takayama, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamadera, Jun; Amito, Koichiro; Morino, Kazuma

    2016-10-01

    Introduction There were 5,385 deceased and 710 missing in the Ishinomaki medical zone following the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team (IZJRT) was formed to unify the relief teams of all organizations joining in support of the Ishinomaki area. The IZJRT expanded relief activity as they continued to manually collect and analyze assessments of essential information for maintaining health in all 328 shelters using a paper-type survey. However, the IZJRT spent an enormous amount of time and effort entering and analyzing these data because the work was vastly complex. Therefore, an assessment system must be developed that can tabulate shelter assessment data correctly and efficiently. The objective of this report was to describe the development and verification of a system to rapidly assess evacuation centers in preparation for the next major disaster. Report Based on experiences with the complex work during the disaster, software called the "Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition featuring Gonryo and Miyagi" (RASECC-GM) was developed to enter, tabulate, and manage the shelter assessment data. Further, a verification test was conducted during a large-scale Self-Defense Force (SDF) training exercise to confirm its feasibility, usability, and accuracy. The RASECC-GM comprises three screens: (1) the "Data Entry screen," allowing for quick entry on tablet devices of 19 assessment items, including shelter administrator, living and sanitary conditions, and a tally of the injured and sick; (2) the "Relief Team/Shelter Management screen," for registering information on relief teams and shelters; and (3) the "Data Tabulation screen," which allows tabulation of the data entered for each shelter, as well as viewing and sorting from a disaster headquarters' computer. During the verification test, data of mock shelters entered online were tabulated quickly and accurately on a mock disaster

  14. Life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under constant and fluctuating conditions of temperature and humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damborsky Miryam P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature and relative humidity influence in the life cycle, mortality and fecundity patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria. Four cohorts with 60 recently laid eggs each were conformed. The cohorts were divided into two groups. In the controlled conditions group insects were maintained in a dark climatic chamber under constant temperature and humidity, whereas triatomines of the ambiental temperature group were maintained at room temperature. Average incubation time was 15.6 days in the controlled conditions group and 19.1 days in the ambiental temperature. In group controlled conditions the time from egg to adult development lasted 10 months while group ambiental temperature took four months longer. Egg eclosion rate was 99.1% and 98.3% in controlled conditions and ambiental temperature, respectively. Total nymphal mortality in controlled conditions was 52.6% whereas in ambiental temperature was 51.8%. Mean number of eggs/female was 817.6 controlled conditions and 837.1 ambiental temperature. Fluctuating temperature and humidity promoted changes in the life cycle duration and in the reproductive performance of this species, although not in the species mortality.

  15. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  16. [Effects of a short-term diet of precooked corn flour on the vaginal cycle, in rats placed in various conditions of environmental illumination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Onate, R; Giammanco, S; Carollo, F; Ernandes, M; Paderni, M A

    1989-03-01

    The aim of this research is to study the effects of a diet almost devoid of tryptophan, which is given by a feeding with precooked yellow corn meal (corn mush), on the alterations of the estrous cycle of animals in several conditions of environmental lighting. Indeed, it is known that cerebral serotonin influences the releasing of LH and consequently the ovulation. The different types of environmental lighting are: 1) Natural (alternating Day-Night = L/D). 2) Continuous dark (D/D). 3) Continuous light by sodium steams (L/L sodium). 4) Continuous light by fluorescent neon tubes (L/L neon). The muricide behaviour is studied by comparison rat-mouse. The feeding with precooked yellow corn meal (diet lacking of tryptophan) unchains in the 100% of the observations the CEA (Constant Estrous Anovulatory), and significantly shrinks the estral cycle in the female Wistar Rat in several conditions of environmental lighting.

  17. Humidity Build-Up in a Typical Electronic Enclosure Exposed to Cycling Conditions and Effect on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The design of electronic device enclosures plays a major role in determining the humidity build-up inside the device as a response to the varying external humidity. Therefore, the corrosion reliability of electronic devices has direct connection to the enclosure design. This paper describes......, thermal mass, and port/opening size. The effect of the internal humidity build-up on corrosion reliability has been evaluated by measuring the leakage current (LC) on interdigitated test comb patterns, which are precontaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure. The results showed...... that the exposure to cycling temperature causes significant change of internal water vapor concentration. The maximum value of humidity reached was a function of the opening size and the presence of thermal mass inside the enclosure. A pumping effect was observed due to cycling temperature, and the increase...

  18. A rapid three-dimensional vortex micromixer utilizing self-rotation effects under low Reynolds number conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Che Hsin, Lin; Lung Ming, Fu; 10.1088/0960-1317/15/5/006

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) vortex micromixer for micro-total-analysis-systems ( mu TAS) applications which utilizes self-rotation effects to mix fluids in a circular chamber at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The microfluidic mixer is fabricated in a three-layer glass structure for delivering fluid samples in parallel. The fluids are driven into the circular mixing chamber by means of hydrodynamic pumps from two fluid inlet ports. The two inlet channels divide into eight individual channels tangent to a 3D circular chamber for the purpose of mixing. Numerical simulation of the microfluidic dynamics is employed to predict the self-rotation phenomenon and to estimate the mixing performance under various Reynolds number conditions. Experimental flow visualization by mixing dye samples is performed in order to verify the numerical simulation results. A good agreement is found to exist between the two sets of results. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 9...

  19. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis for Bio-Liquid Jet Fuel from Open Pond-Based Micro-Algae under China Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xunmin Ou; Xiaoyu Yan; Xu Zhang; Xiliang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF) production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM). Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH 4 ) emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) ...

  20. LMTD Design Methodology Assessment of Spiral Tube Heat Exchanger under the S-CO2 cycle operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hwa Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoon Han

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of PCHE are compact high pressure difference endurance high temperature operation. However, PCHE is quite expensive and the resistance to the fast thermal cycling is questionable. In order to overcome this problem, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) research team is considering an alternative for the PCHE. Currently KAIST research team is using a Spiral Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) of Sentry Equipment Corp. as a pre cooler in the SCO 2 PE facility. A STHE is relatively cheap but the operating pressure and temperature are acceptable for utilizing it as a pre cooler. A STHE is consisted of spiral shaped tubes (hot side i.e. S-CO 2 ) immersed in a shell (cold side i.e. water). This study is aimed at whether the logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) heat exchanger design methodology is acceptable for designing the S-CO 2 cycle pre cooler. This is because the LMTD method usually assumes a constant specific heat, but the pre cooler in the S-CO 2 cycle operates at the nearest point to the critical point where a dramatic change in properties is expected. Experimentally obtained data are compared to the vendor provided technical specification based on the LMTD method. The detailed specifications provided by the vendor are listed in Table 1

  1. LMTD Design Methodology Assessment of Spiral Tube Heat Exchanger under the S-CO{sub 2} cycle operating condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hwa Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoon Han [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The advantages of PCHE are compact high pressure difference endurance high temperature operation. However, PCHE is quite expensive and the resistance to the fast thermal cycling is questionable. In order to overcome this problem, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) research team is considering an alternative for the PCHE. Currently KAIST research team is using a Spiral Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) of Sentry Equipment Corp. as a pre cooler in the SCO{sub 2}PE facility. A STHE is relatively cheap but the operating pressure and temperature are acceptable for utilizing it as a pre cooler. A STHE is consisted of spiral shaped tubes (hot side i.e. S-CO{sub 2}) immersed in a shell (cold side i.e. water). This study is aimed at whether the logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) heat exchanger design methodology is acceptable for designing the S-CO{sub 2} cycle pre cooler. This is because the LMTD method usually assumes a constant specific heat, but the pre cooler in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle operates at the nearest point to the critical point where a dramatic change in properties is expected. Experimentally obtained data are compared to the vendor provided technical specification based on the LMTD method. The detailed specifications provided by the vendor are listed in Table 1.

  2. The effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses during prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive hormones are likely to be involved in thermoregulation through body fluid dynamics. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses to prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions. Eight healthy young women with regular menstrual cycles performed cycling exercise for 90 minutes at 50% V̇O2peak intensity during the low progesterone (LP) level phase and high progesterone (HP) level phase, with or without water consumption, under hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity). For the water consumption trials, subjects ingested water equivalent to the loss in body weight that occurred in the earlier non-consumption trial. For all four trials, rectal temperature, cardiorespiratory responses, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Throughout the 90-minute exercise period, rectal temperatures during HP were higher than during LP by an average of 0.4 °C in the non-consumption trial (Pwater consumption trial (Pwater consumption affected the changes in rectal temperature and heat rate (HR) during HP, but it did not exert these effects during LP. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between estradiol levels and rectal temperature during LP. During prolonged exercise at moderate intensity under hot conditions, water consumption is likely to be useful for suppressing the associated increase in body temperature and HR, particularly during HP, whereas estradiol appears to be useful for suppressing the increase in rectal temperature during LP.

  3. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae) II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.; ALMEIDA C. E.; CARMO-SILVA M.; COSTA J.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the im...

  4. Aging precursors and degradation effects of SiC-MOSFET modules under highly accelerated power cycling conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A highly accelerated power cycling test platform using current source converter for SiC-MOSFET power modules is proposed. The control principles of delta and average junction temperatures are introduced. By using isolated thermal fibers, the junction temperature (Tj) variations can be monitored...... and compared. As a result, the effects of degradation on the static and dynamic characteristics during conventional operation are discussed. Finally, the research results can help examine the failure precursors and then estimate the remaining useful lifetime of SiC MOSFET modules....

  5. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (ptorque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  6. The effects of nicardipine or esmolol on the onset time of rocuronium and intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction: a randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Heui; Kim, Yunkwang; Lee, Kye Hyeok; Rim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong

    2015-06-01

    The main aims of rapid sequence induction (RSI) are prompt and adequate muscle relaxation for tracheal intubation and hemodynamic stability during and after intubation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of nicardipine and esmolol on the action of rocuronium and intubation conditions during RSI. Adult patients (n = 82) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. One minute prior to the induction of sevoflurane-based general anesthesia, patients received 20 μg/kg of nicardipine (N group; n = 27) or 0.5 mg/kg of esmolol (E group; n = 27), or 5 ml of saline (C group; n = 28). Patients were assessed according to intubation conditions, the onset time of rocuronium, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) during RSI. The intubation conditions and score were significantly better in the C and N groups than in the E group (P rocuronium was shortened in the N group and prolonged in the E group when compared to the C group (P rocuronium and attenuated changes in MAP after intubation. Esmolol may disturb intubation conditions and the onset of action of rocuronium, despite being effective in alleviating responses of HR after RSI.

  7. Present condition of survey research on actualization strategy of fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycling. Design research on fuel production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenya

    2001-01-01

    The fuel production system design investigation was performed for construction of fuel production process concept and plant image searching for the targets such as economics, environmental loading reduction, and so on required for practical use of FBR fuel recycling at a premise of safety security. By expectation of economics as a fuel cycling system, enhancement of nuclear proliferation resistance, and so on, it becomes more important to investigate on a fuel cycling system suitable for raw materials with low decontamination and high radiation intensity. In addition, it is also necessary to carry out investigation on fuel production system concept accompanies with MA recycling system for reduction of environmental loading. Therefore, investigation objects on the system were laid their fundamental processes on denitrification conversion/pelletizing process and gelation/vibration filling process for raw material solution from advancing wet reprocessing and on vibration filling process for oxide granules obtained from dry reprocessing system and casting method for metal fuels. As a result, for the pollution removal fuel production system suitable for either of wet/dry reprocessing, a mass-production scale production plant image was elucidated at a premise of production yield, realizability of remote automation system, and so on. On candidate concepts of every fuel production system, no fatal defect was found on results of outline evaluation on features of system such as production facility scale and so on before present stage. (G.K.)

  8. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Carbon steel corrosion under anaerobic-aerobic cycling conditions in near-neutral pH saline solutions - Part 1: Long term corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, B.W.A.; Keech, P.G.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anaerobic-aerobic cycling on pipeline steel forms two distinct surface morphologies. → Seventy-five percentage of the surface was covered by a black, compact layer ∼4.5 μm thick. → A tubercle, ∼3 to 4 mm in cross section, covered the remaining 25% of surface. → The tubercle cross section showed a single large pit ∼275 μm deep. - Abstract: The influence of anaerobic-aerobic cycling on pipeline steel corrosion was investigated in near-neutral carbonate/sulphate/chloride solution (pH 9) over 238 days. The corrosion rate increased and decreased as exposure conditions were switched between redox conditions. Two distinct corrosion morphologies were observed. The majority of the surface corroded uniformly to produce a black magnetite/maghemite layer approximately 4.5 μm thick. The remaining surface was covered with an orange tubercle, approximately 3-4 mm in cross section. Analysis of the tubercle cross section revealed a single large pit approximately 275 μm deep. Repeated anaerobic-aerobic cycling localized the corrosion process within this tubercle-covered pit.

  11. Development of a Performance Analysis Code for the Off-design conditions of a S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong-Hwan; Cha, Jae-Eun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-O

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled to KALIMER-600, a thermal balance has been established on 100% power operating conditions including all the reactor system models such as a primary heat transport system (PHTS), an intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), and an energy conversion system. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system consists of a sodium-CO2 heat exchanger (Hx), turbine, high temperature recuperate (HTR), low temperature recuperate (LTR), precooler, compressor no.1, and compressor no.2. Two compressors were employed to avoid a sharp change of the physical properties near their critical point with a corresponding pressure. The component locations and their operating conditions are illustrated. Energy balance of the power conversion system in KALIMER-600 was designed with the full power condition of each component. Therefore, to predict the off-design conditions and to evaluate each component, an off-design performance analysis code should be accomplished. An off-design performance analysis could be classified into overall system control logic and local system control logic. The former means that mass flow rate and power are controlled by valves, and the latter implies that a bypass or inventory control is an admitted system balance. The ultimate goal of this study is development of the overall system control logic

  12. Research on influence of gear parameters on noise, vibrations and harshness conditions for automatic transmissions run-off cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascalau Nelu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise vibration harshness (NVH defines, as a whole, that specific field within automotive industry, that studies mostly the noise and vibrations for different assemblies (such as chassis or drivetrain – gearbox or complete vehicles, particularly cars and trucks. Gear quality parameters have been studied and it has been experienced that these parameters have an important relevance for NVH topic. Therefore, this paper introduces a case-study, as to highlight the influence of two of these parameters, profile angle deviation (fHα and tooth trace angle deviation (fHβ, on run-off cycle on test benches, for high-performance automatic transmission, designed for passenger vehicles. The demand for high accuracy is mandatory, so fine adjustments are required, as could be further observed, in order to accomplish the requirements for a lower NVH run-off rate, while the whole life-time.

  13. FY1995 study of thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures for Lorentz-cycled new generation air-conditioning equipments; 1995 nendo Lorentz cycle ka shinsedai kucho kikiyo HFC kei kongo reibai no netsurikigaku seishitsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerant, R-22, is currently being used almost exclusively as a refrigerant for conventional air-conditioning equipments. Since HCFCs are expected to be banned shortly, it is considered a crucial issue to support R and D of the air-conditioning system Lorentz-cycled with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants mixtures. In the present research project, therefore, it is aimed to reveal some of the essential thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures systematically. On the basis of a series of achievements for the last several years by the present research coordinator and his group regarding thermodynamic properties of single-component and blended HFC refrigerants, we have conducted following three major research programs rather systematically on which no challenges have ever been reported worldwide. Throughout a series of experimental as well as analytical researches performed so as to meet the objectives mentioned above, some novel knowledge and valuable outcomes could be obtained in the present study. (1) Precise measurements of vapor-liquid equilibrium properties with simultaneous determination of densities, latent heats of vaporization, and isobaric specific heat capacities in liquid phase. (2) Analytical studies to establish thermodynamic property modeling. (3) Feasibility study of evaluating the Lorentz-cycled performance. (NEDO)

  14. Cultured bovine granulosa cells rapidly lose important features of their identity and functionality but partially recover under long-term culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4. FOXL2, a marker for granulosa cell identity, was also rapidly down-regulated after plating but completely recovered towards the end of culture. In contrast, expression of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 and the lesion/inflammation marker PTGS2 increased during the first 2 days after plating but gradually decreased later on. We conclude that only long-term culture conditions (>4 days) allow the cells to recover from plating stress and to re-acquire characteristic granulosa cell features.

  15. Rapid monitoring of the spoilage of minced beef stored under conventionally and active packaging conditions using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in tandem with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammor, Mohammed Salim; Argyri, Anthoula; Nychas, George-John E

    2009-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was exploited to measure biochemical changes within fresh minced beef in an attempt to rapidly monitor beef spoilage. Minced beef packaged either aerobically, under modified atmosphere and using an active packaging were held from freshness to spoilage at 0, 5, 10, and 15°C. Frequent FTIR measurements were collected directly from the sample surface using attenuated total reflectance, in parallel the total viable counts of bacteria, the sensory quality and the pH were also determined. Principal components analysis allowed illuminating the wavenumbers potentially correlated with the spoilage process. Qualitative interpretation of spectral data was carried out using discriminant factorial analysis and used to corroborate sensory data and to accurately determine samples freshness and packaging. Partial least-squares regressions permitted estimates of bacterial loads and pH values from the spectral data with a fit of R(2)=0.80 for total viable counts and fit of R(2)=0.92 for the pH. Obtained results demonstrated that a FTIR spectrum may be considered as a metabolic fingerprint and that the method in tandem with chemometrics represents a powerful, rapid, economical and non-invasive method for monitoring minced beef freshness regardless the storage conditions (e.g. packaging and temperature).

  16. Effect of operating conditions on the performance of the bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhmidene Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model will be able to predict the operated condition (required tube diameters, heat input and submergence ratio….. That will result in a successful bubble pump design and hence a refrigeration unit. In the present work a one-dimensional two-fluid model of boiling mixing ammonia-water under constant heat flux is developed. The present model is used to predict the outlet liquid and vapor velocities and pumping ratio for different heat flux input to pump. The influence of operated conditions such as: ammonia fraction in inlet solution and tube diameter on the functioning of the bubble pump is presented and discussed. It was found that, the liquid velocity and pumping ratio increase with increasing heat flux, and then it decreases. Optimal heat flux depends namely on tube diameter variations. Vapour velocity increases linearly with increasing heat flux under designed conditions.

  17. The link between migration, the reproductive cycle and condition of Sardinella aurita off Mauritania, north-west Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Mantingh, I.T.; Wague, A.

    2007-01-01

    The annual migration pattern of round sardinella Sardinella aurita up and down the north-western African coast between 12° N (Senegal) and 22° N (western Sahara) was shown to be associated with spawning activity and a distinct seasonality in fish condition, based on monthly sampling from commercial

  18. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  19. Preliminary Study on Occupation and Lifestyle as Conditioning Factors in Women Menstrual Cycle in a Region of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rojas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of menstrual cycle (MC of Venezuelan women of childbearing age, according to socio-demographic (with emphasis on occupation and medical variables, obstetric history, chemical agents exposure and lifestyles. Material and Methods: An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study in 180 childbearing women was conducted, using a previous validated questionnaire. Results: MC duration had a median of 28.0 days, 25th percentile was at 28.0 days and the 75th percentile was 30.0 days, with a percentage of short (<24 days and long cycles (≥ 33 days of 3.9 and 2.2%, respectively. Menstrual bleeding duration had a median of 5.0 days, 25th percentile was 4.0 days and 75th percentile was 5 days. 151 women (83.9%, experienced irregularity of the MC and 146 (81.1% had irregular bleeding duration. Both irregularities were significantly greater among 20 to 34 years old and single women. A negative and significant correlation between age and duration of menstrual bleeding was detected (p = 0.035. When comparing bleeding duration with profession/occupation, a significant difference was established (Kruskal-Wallis: p < 0.05. This is consistent with some publications that show that menstrual alterations are more frequent in working women in some specific occupations and also in the ones working in shifts. According to chemical use, women that use pesticides show a significant difference between pesticides exposure and MC duration, which is consistent with previously reported studies. In the same way, there was a significant association between coffee consumption and menstrual disturbances, in both cases, bleeding and MC duration. However, there was no significance when that association was calculated based on the amount of estimated caffeine intake. Conclusions: Within the limitations concerning a descriptive study, both MC duration and bleeding, theoretically were within normal limits. However, the variability

  20. Analysis of the repeatability of the exhaust pollutants emission research results for cold and hot starts under controlled driving cycle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Artur; Kuszewski, Hubert; Ustrzycki, Adam; Balawender, Krzysztof; Lejda, Kazimierz; Woś, Paweł

    2018-04-20

    Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , NO X , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis. The aim of the research is to draw attention to the accuracy of the pollutant emission research results in driving cycles, and the comparison of pollutant emission results and their repeatability obtained in successive NEDC cycles under cold and hot start conditions. The results of the analysis show that, in the case of a small number of measurements, the results repeatability analysis is necessary for a proper interpretation of the pollutant emission results on the basis of the mean value. According to the authors' judgment, it is beneficial to determine the coefficient of variation for a more complete assessment of exhaust emission result repeatability obtained from a small number of measurements. This parameter is rarely presented by the authors of papers on exhaust components emission research.

  1. Effectiveness of psychological interventions to improve quality of life in people with long-term conditions: rapid systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Niall; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2018-03-27

    Long-term conditions may negatively impact multiple aspects of quality of life including physical functioning and mental wellbeing. The rapid systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of psychological interventions to improve quality of life in people with long-term conditions to inform future healthcare provision and research. EBSCOhost and OVID were used to search four databases (PsychInfo, PBSC, Medline and Embase). Relevant papers were systematically extracted by one researcher using the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria based on titles, abstracts, and full texts. Randomized controlled trial psychological interventions conducted between 2006 and February 2016 to directly target and assess people with long-term conditions in order to improve quality of life were included. Interventions without long-term condition populations, psychological intervention and/or patient-assessed quality of life were excluded. From 2223 citations identified, 6 satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. All 6 studies significantly improved at least one quality of life outcome immediately post-intervention. Significant quality of life improvements were maintained at 12-months follow-up in one out of two studies for each of the short- (0-3 months), medium- (3-12 months), and long-term (≥ 12 months) study duration categories. All 6 psychological intervention studies significantly improved at least one quality of life outcome immediately post-intervention, with three out of six studies maintaining effects up to 12-months post-intervention. Future studies should seek to assess the efficacy of tailored psychological interventions using different formats, durations and facilitators to supplement healthcare provision and practice.

  2. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  3. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis of organic Rankine cycle for low grade heat utilization coupling with operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxiang; Ling, Xiang; Peng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the influence of working fluids selection and operation conditions on the cost-effectiveness performance and net power output of an ORC for low grade heat utilization. A net power output model has been proposed theoretically and compared with the theoretical data calculated from thermodynamic analysis, exhibiting excellent agreements with the theoretical data. The proposed net power output model theoretically indicates that Jacob number and the ratio of evaporating temperature and heat rejected temperature play essential roles in discriminating the net power output among various working fluids at the same operation condition. For a given condensing and evaporating temperature, it can be concluded theoretically that fluid with low Jacob number will show attractive performance in an ORC. The maximum net power output is determined by the heat source rather than working fluids with a low inlet temperature of heat source. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis reveals that the maximum net power output and the best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time and compromise must be made when choosing the most suitable organic working fluids in different ORC designs. -- Highlights: • A net power output model is proposed and compared with theoretical data. • For fixed operation condition, low Ja fluid shows attractive performance in ORC. • The heat source rather than working fluid determines ORC performance at low T hs,in • The peak W net and best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time, compromise must be made

  4. Ultra-high resolution pollen record from the northern Andes reveals rapid shifts in montane climates within the last two glacial cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. M. Groot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we developed a composite pollen-based record of altitudinal vegetation changes from Lake Fúquene (5° N in Colombia at 2540 m elevation. We quantitatively calibrated Arboreal Pollen percentages (AP% into mean annual temperature (MAT changes with an unprecedented ~60-year resolution over the past 284 000 years. An age model for the AP% record was constructed using frequency analysis in the depth domain and tuning of the distinct obliquity-related variations to the latest marine oxygen isotope stacked record. The reconstructed MAT record largely concurs with the ~100 and 41-kyr (obliquity paced glacial cycles and is superimposed by extreme changes of up to 7 to 10° Celsius within a few hundred years at the major glacial terminations and during marine isotope stage 3, suggesting an unprecedented North Atlantic – equatorial link. Using intermediate complexity transient climate modelling experiments, we demonstrate that ice volume and greenhouse gasses are the major forcing agents causing the orbital-related MAT changes, while direct precession-induced insolation changes had no significant impact on the high mountain vegetation during the last two glacial cycles.

  5. Life cycle and production of Baetis rhodani in a regulated river in Western Norway: comparison of pre- and post-regulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddum, G.G.; Fjellheim, A.

    1993-01-01

    The benthic invertebrate fauna of the lowland part of the Aurland River was investigated in 1966-7 over a full year cycle. The watershed was built out for hydropower production during 1979-83. In this study the life cycle and production of Baetis rhodani from pre-regulated conditions (1966-7) was compared with two types of post-regulation streams(1988-9). Before regulation the water flow was high during May-June and in autumn, combined with heavy rainfall. The lowest flow was in winter and early spring. The pre-regulated temperature was low in winter, increasing from April to a maximum in August (10-14 o C). After regulation one part of the river received reduced flow and increased summer temperatures (upper part) and one received hypolimnion release and reduced summer temperatures (lower part). In the upper part the density of B.rhodani increased between 10 and 20 times. The reason for this seems to be increased temperature, reduced accidental drift of larvae and increased amount of stored organic material on the bottom. In the lower part the density increase was two to five times and the production two times higher after regulation. The lower increase in production than density was due to a much higher proportion of small larvae. B.rhodani had mainly an univoltine life cycle before regulation, but a small part of the population was bivoltine. After regulation the species was univoltine in the lower part. In the upper part the life cycle was about one month faster, but no clear indication of bivoltinism was seen. The absence of the second generation is due to low temperatures and probably a lack of signals connected with temperature. (Author)

  6. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  7. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS-) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS- responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine.

  8. Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Jalili Ghazizade, M; Abduli, M A; Gatmiri, B

    2014-08-01

    Performance of compacted clay liners commonly used as landfill barrier systems can be subject to decline in terms of hydraulic conductivity if left exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time prior to placement of overlaying layers. The resulting desiccation cracking can lead to increased hydraulic conductivity. Desiccation crack intensity was studied for three clayey soils commonly used for construction of landfill barrier system in a relatively large scale test setup exposed to real time atmospheric conditions over a complete annual cycle. A white separator geotextile cover was presumed to be capable of reducing the intensity of desiccation cracking through absorbing and maintaining higher amounts of moisture and reducing the temperature of the soil surface in comparison to a directly exposed soil surface. Desiccation cracking was monitored using a digital imaging technique for three compacted clay liners in two sets, one open to air and the second covered with the white geotextile. Crack intensity factor approached a relatively stable phase after certain cycles corresponding to atmospheric dry wet cycles. The results indicated that the white separator geotextile was capable of reducing the crack intensity factor by 37.4-45.9% throughout the experiment including the cyclic phase of desiccation cracking. During the stable phase, the maximum reduction in crack intensity factor of 90.4% as a result of applying geotextile cover was observed for the soil with the lowest plastic index and clay content and therefore the lowest magnitude of crack intensity factor. The other two soils with similar clay content but different plastic index showed 23.6% and 52.2% reductions in crack intensity factor after cyclic phase when covered with geotextile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Different Driving Cycles and Operating Conditions on CO2 Emissions and Energy Management Strategies of a Euro-6 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cubito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs represent one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions, their effective potential in real world driving conditions strongly depends on the performance of their Energy Management System (EMS and on its capability to maximize the efficiency of the powertrain in real life as well as during Type Approval (TA tests. Attempting to close the gap between TA and real world CO2 emissions, the European Commission has decided to introduce from September 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP, replacing the previous procedure based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The aim of this work is the analysis of the impact of different driving cycles and operating conditions on CO2 emissions and on energy management strategies of a Euro-6 HEV through the limited number of information available from the chassis dyno tests. The vehicle was tested considering different initial battery State of Charge (SOC, ranging from 40% to 65%, and engine coolant temperatures, from −7 °C to 70 °C. The change of test conditions from NEDC to WLTP was shown to lead to a significant reduction of the electric drive and to about a 30% increase of CO2 emissions. However, since the specific energy demand of WLTP is about 50% higher than that of NEDC, these results demonstrate that the EMS strategies of the tested vehicle can achieve, in test conditions closer to real life, even higher efficiency levels than those that are currently evaluated on the NEDC, and prove the effectiveness of HEV technology to reduce CO2 emissions.

  10. Epilepsy, comorbid conditions in Canadian children: analysis of cross-sectional data from cycle 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Asuri N; Burneo, Jorge G; Corbett, Bradley

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze national survey data to provide estimates of prevalence of epilepsy and associated developmental disabilities and comorbid conditions. We analyzed data from Cycle 3 of Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The NLSCY captured, socio-demographic information, as well as age, sex, education, ethnicity, household income, chronic health related conditions from birth to 15 years old. The main survey question intended to identify "epilepsy", "cerebral palsy", "intellectual disability", "learning disability", and "emotional and nervous difficulties" in the population of children surveyed. Prevalence was based on the national cross-sectional sample and used 1000 bootstrap weights to account for survey design factors. Cycle 3 of the NLSCY had the largest number of patients with diagnosed epilepsy. Prevalence figures (n/1000) for epilepsy and cerebral palsy (EPI_CP), epilepsy and intellectual disability (EPI_ID), epilepsy and learning disability (EPI_LD), and epilepsy and emotional nervous difficulties (EPI_EMO_NERV) were 1.1, 1.17, 2.58 and 1.34 respectively. Amongst children with epilepsy, 43.17% reported the presence of one or more of the above comorbid conditions. These results provide an initial prevalence estimate of comorbid conditions with epilepsy in Canadian children. In a high proportion of children with epilepsy, the PMK had reported at least one comorbid disorder. These findings carry implications for health care utilization and long-term outcomes. We discuss methodological aspects related to the ascertainment of epilepsy in both surveys, and to the validity and implications of our findings. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calibration of SMA material model for the prediction of the ‘evolutionary’ load-bias behavior under conditions of extended thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleeb, A F; Dhakal, B; Padula II, S A; Gaydosh, D J

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of the cyclic response of the 55NiTi polycrystalline material system using a recently formulated, multimechanism-based, modeling framework. It has a number of significant contributions. First, it presents a comprehensive characterization of such a complex material system under broad thermo-mechanical loading conditions in isobaric experiments that cover: (a) the entire relevant stress range from 10 to 300 MPa, and (b) sufficient number of thermal cycles to enable the investigation of the details of the evolution of the cyclic strain-versus-temperature hysteresis loops. Second, the detailed comparisons presented for the model results and the experimental measurements provide the necessary validation of the modeling capabilities of the multimechanism framework. Third, specific plots are given detailing the variations with thermal cycling of the internal variables associated with each of the individual inelastic mechanisms. Fourth, an anatomical discussion details the interplay between the internal mechanisms to describe the material behavior within all the important response characteristic regions, thus providing a convenient means to complement the theoretical concepts in the mathematical approach. Given the comprehensive nature of this model, and its successful experimental validation under a wide range of conditions, it is believed that the model is capable of analyzing 55NiTi actuators. It is also emphasized that the insights provided in this work will carry forth to characterization of other SMA material systems. (paper)

  12. Estuarine circulation reversals and related rapid changes in winter near-bottom oxygen conditions in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liblik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The reversal of estuarine circulation caused by southwesterly wind forcing may lead to vanishing of stratification and subsequently to oxygenation of deep layers during the winter in the Gulf of Finland. Six conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD+oxygen transects (130 km long, 10 stations were conducted along the thalweg from the western boundary to the central gulf (21 December 2011–8 May 2012. Two bottom-mounted ADCP were installed, one near the western border and the second in the central gulf. A CTD with a dissolved oxygen sensor was deployed close to the western ADCP. Periods of typical estuarine circulation were characterized by strong stratification, high salinity, hypoxic conditions and inflow to the gulf in the near-bottom layer. Two circulation reversals were observed: one in December–January and one in February. The first reversal event was well developed; it caused the disappearance of the stratification and an increase in the oxygen concentration from hypoxic values to 270 μmol L−1 (to 6 mL L−1 throughout the water column along the thalweg and lasted approximately 1.5 months. Shifts from estuarine circulation to reversed circulation and vice versa were both associated with strong longitudinal (east–west gulf currents (up to 40 cm s−1 in the deep layer. The change from oxygenated to hypoxic conditions in the western near-entrance area of the gulf occurred very rapidly, within less than a day, due to the intrusion of the hypoxic salt wedge from the NE Baltic Proper. In the eastern part of the gulf, good oxygen conditions caused by reversals remained for a few months.

  13. Rapid reservoir erosion, hyperconcentrated flow, and downstream deposition triggered by breaching of 38 m tall Condit Dam, White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Andrew C.; O'Connor, James E.; Major, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Condit Dam on the White Salmon River, Washington, a 38 m high dam impounding a large volume (1.8 million m3) of fine-grained sediment (60% sand, 35% silt and clay, and 5% gravel), was rapidly breached in October 2011. This unique dam decommissioning produced dramatic upstream and downstream geomorphic responses in the hours and weeks following breaching. Blasting a 5 m wide hole into the base of the dam resulted in rapid reservoir drawdown, abruptly releasing ~1.6 million m3 of reservoir water, exposing reservoir sediment to erosion, and triggering mass failures of the thickly accumulated reservoir sediment. Within 90 min of breaching, the reservoir's water and ~10% of its sediment had evacuated. At a gauging station 2.3 km downstream, flow increased briefly by 400 m3 s−1during passage of the initial pulse of released reservoir water, followed by a highly concentrated flow phase—up to 32% sediment by volume—as landslide-generated slurries from the reservoir moved downstream. This hyperconcentrated flow, analogous to those following volcanic eruptions or large landslides, draped the downstream river with predominantly fine sand. During the ensuing weeks, suspended-sediment concentration declined and sand and gravel bed load derived from continued reservoir erosion aggraded the channel by >1 m at the gauging station, after which the river incised back to near its initial elevation at this site. Within 15 weeks after breaching, over 1 million m3 of suspended load is estimated to have passed the gauging station, consistent with estimates that >60% of the reservoir's sediment had eroded. This dam removal highlights the influence of interactions among reservoir erosion processes, sediment composition, and style of decommissioning on rate of reservoir erosion and consequent downstream behavior of released sediment.

  14. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  15. Early diagnosis of congenital vascular malformation as a condition to rapid prevention of complications – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Jaguś

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterised by a triad of symptoms: capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations, varicose veins and venous malformations as well as soft tissue and skeletal hypertrophy of the affected limb. In this article, we present a case of a 5-year-old boy with extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs and the buttock region. In this case, manifestation of all three symptoms was gradual. At the age of 4 years, the patient was admitted to the Department of Imaging Diagnostics for further diagnosis, where the triad characteristic for Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome and popliteal vein agenesis were diagnosed. Currently, a multidisciplinary team takes care of the boy in the Children’s Memorial Health Institute. Early and accurate diagnosis allows for rapid prevention of complications associated with Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome and enables patient-tailored treatment.

  16. Kinetic characterization for hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn stover in a dilute acid cycle spray flow-through reactor at moderate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qiang; Zhang, Hongman; Yan, Lishi; Qu, Liang; Huang, He

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic characterization of hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn stover was investigated using a new reactor of dilute acid cycle spray flow-through (DCF) pretreatment. The primary purpose was to obtain kinetic data for hemicellulose hydrolysis with sulfuric acid concentrations (10-30 kg m -3 ) at relatively low temperatures (90-100 o C). A simplified kinetic model was used to describe its performance at moderate conditions. The results indicate that the rates of xylose formation and degradation are sensitive to flow rate, temperature and acid concentration. Moreover, the kinetic data of hemicellulose hydrolysis fit a first-order reaction model and the experimental data with actual acid concentration after accounting for the neutralization effect of the substrates at different temperatures. Over 90% of the xylose monomer yield and below 5.5% of degradation product (furfural) yield were observed in this reactor. Kinetic constants for hemicellulose hydrolysis models were analyzed by an Arrhenius-type equation, and the activation energy of xylose formation were 111.6 kJ mol -1 , and 95.7 kJ mol -1 for xylose degradation, respectively. -- Highlights: → Investigating a novel pretreatment reactor of dilute acid cycle spray flow-through. → Xylose yield is sensitive to flow rate, temperature and acid concentration. → Obtaining relatively higher xylose monomer yield and lower fermentation inhibitor. → Lumping hemicellulose and xylan oligmers together in the model is a valid way. → The kinetic model as a guide for reactor design, and operation strategy optimization.

  17. Digital Clinical Communication for Families and Caregivers of Children or Young People With Short- or Long-Term Conditions: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Sturt, Jackie; Phelps, Emma Elizabeth; Walker, Clare-Louise; Court, Rachel; Taggart, Frances; Sutcliffe, Paul; Griffiths, Frances; Atherton, Helen

    2018-01-05

    The communication relationship between parents of children or young people with health conditions and health professionals is an important part of treatment, but it is unclear how far the use of digital clinical communication tools may affect this relationship. The objective of our study was to describe, assess the feasibility of, and explore the impact of digital clinical communication between families or caregivers and health professionals. We searched the literature using 5 electronic databases. We considered all types of study design published in the English language from January 2009 to August 2015. The population of interest included families and caregivers of children and young people aged less than 26 years with any type of health condition. The intervention was any technology permitting 2-way communication. We included 31 articles. The main designs were randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n=10), cross-sectional studies (n=9), pre- and postintervention uncontrolled (pre/post) studies (n=7), and qualitative interview studies (n=2); 6 had mixed-methods designs. In the majority of cases, we considered the quality rating to be fair. Many different types of health condition were represented. A breadth of digital communication tools were included: videoconferencing or videoconsultation (n=14), and Web messaging or emails (n=12). Health care professionals were mainly therapists or cognitive behavioral therapists (n=10), physicians (n=8), and nurses (n=6). Studies were very heterogeneous in terms of outcomes. Interventions were mainly evaluated using satisfaction or acceptance, or outcomes relating to feasibility. Clinical outcomes were rarely used. The RCTs showed that digital clinical communication had no impact in comparison with standard care. Uncontrolled pre/post studies showed good rates of satisfaction or acceptance. Some economic studies suggested that digital clinical communication may save costs. This rapid review showed an emerging body of literature on

  18. Performance analysis of waste heat recovery with a dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for diesel engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Dong, Xiaorui; Zhang, Hongguang; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Guangyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual loop ORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a diesel engine. • R245fa is used as working fluid for the dual loop ORC system. • Waste heat characteristic under engine various operating conditions is analyzed. • Performance of the combined system under various operating conditions is studied. • The waste heat from coolant and intake air has considerable potential for recovery. - Abstract: To take full advantage of the waste heat from a diesel engine, a set of dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is designed to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and released heat from turbocharged air in the intercooler of a six-cylinder diesel engine. The dual loop ORC system consists of a high temperature loop ORC system and a low temperature loop ORC system. R245fa is selected as the working fluid for both loops. Through the engine test, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the performance of the dual loop ORC system for waste heat recovery is discussed based on the analysis of its waste heat characteristics under engine various operating conditions. Subsequently, the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system is presented, and the effective thermal efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are chosen to evaluate the operating performances of the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system. The results show that, the maximum waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE) of the dual loop ORC system can reach 5.4% under engine various operating conditions. At the engine rated condition, the dual loop ORC system achieves the largest net power output at 27.85 kW. Compared with the diesel engine, the thermal efficiency of the combined system can be increased by 13%. When the diesel engine is operating at the high load region, the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 4%

  19. A Mathematical Model of Hourly Solar Radiation in Varying Weather Conditions for a Dynamic Simulation of the Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehong Sung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of hourly solar radiation with weather variability is proposed based on the simple sky model. The model uses a superposition of trigonometric functions with short and long periods. We investigate the effects of the model variables on the clearness (kD and the probability of persistence (POPD indices and also evaluate the proposed model for all of the kD-POPD weather classes. A simple solar organic Rankine cycle (SORC system with thermal storage is simulated using the actual weather conditions, and then, the results are compared with the simulation results using the proposed model and the simple sky model. The simulation results show that the proposed model provides more accurate system operation characteristics than the simple sky model.

  20. The reproductive cycle, condition index, and glycogen reserves of the cockles Cerastoderma glaucum from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Sahar; Smaoui-Damak, Wafa; Rebai, Tarek; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-11-01

    The gametogenic cycle of the Cerastoderma glaucum was analyzed using both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. The condition index and glycogen concentrations were determined in order to provide information on energy storage. The cockles were collected monthly from a Bayyadha site located 15 km south of Sfax City (Gulf of Gabès) between January 2007 and January 2008. From histological point of view, we applied two approaches: (i) the qualitative method describing the various stages of gamete development for males and females during a cycle of 13 months, and (ii) the semi-quantitative method concerning the estimation of different tissue surfaces. The results showed that there is evidence of three periods of reproduction in this population. A comparison between the surfaces occupied by the three organs showed that the foot and the gonad surfaces are higher than the surface of the adductor muscle. This could suggest that these two organs are more involved in the process of glycogen reserve storage. The results of the glycogen concentrations in the different tissues (gonad, adductor muscle, and "remainders") show that during the second and third periods of reproduction, glycogen was stored in the adductor muscle and in the remainder during sexual rest, and in the gonad during the gametogenesis phases in order to supply the reproductive effort. On the contrary, in the first period of reproduction, the low concentrations of glycogen recorded in the gonad coincided with its high degree of development. This fact could be related to environmental conditions (low temperature and food) recorded during this period.

  1. Hydrodynamic conditions on the slope apron of a rapid hydraulic structure (RHS) and within the influence of it - an example from the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesiński, Karol; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper focuses on understanding some basic hydrodynamic conditions along a regulated river engineered with rapid hydraulic structures (RHS) - the modern hydraulic structure used in river engineering works, to reduce slope of the river bed, stabilize it and reducing river channel bed erosion, at the same time structures being friendly to river environment, allowing fish and invertebrate to migrate and built according the expectations of River Framework Directive EU. The measurements were performed upstream and downstream of RHS within the influence of the structure as well as on the slope apron of the structure where the artificial roughness is created by fixing along all the apron very coarse gravel and small boulders to make the RHS similar to natural rapids in a gravel river. It the field, we measured water depth h, average velocity Va, maximum velocity Vm for different discharges, near bed velocities and all geometry of the RHS. The value of these parameters were used to calculate the shear velocity V*, shear stresses ?, Reynolds number and Froude number. Using our results, we observed that there is a greater range of the values of hydrodynamic parameters downstream of the RHS, where braids and small channels are formed, although this section of a river was engineered. The values of velocities were varied here as follows: Va = 0.194 - 2.210 m s-1 for a high water level and Va = 0.104 - 1.720 m s-1 for a low water level. Consequently, the values of shear stresses were varied here between ? = 0.106 - 4.720 N m-2and ? = 0.013 - 6.084 N m-2 respectively for a high and a low water level. Then, upstream of the RHS, the values of these parameters were comparable. The values of velocities were here as follows: Va = 0.264 - 0.590 m s-1 for a high water level and Va = 0.066 - 0.346 m s-1 for a low water level. And, the values of shear stresses were noticed here as: ? = 0.067 - 0.660 N m-2 and ? = 0.009 - 0.269 N m-2 respectively for high and low water level. Downstream

  2. Lactating performance, water and feed consumption of rabbit does reared under a Mediterranean summer circadian cycle of temperature v. comfort temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, M H; Tusell, L; Rafel, O; Terré, M; Sánchez, J P; Piles, M

    2015-07-01

    The general aim of this research was to study the effect of high ambient temperature on the performance of does during lactation, specifically the following factors: average daily feed (ADFI) and water (ADWI) intakes, daily milk yield (DMY); milk composition: dry matter (DM), CP and gross energy (GE); doe BW (DW); individual kit weaning weight (IWW) and litter survival rate during lactation (SR). The study was undertaken comparing the performance of two groups of contemporary does reared under the same management, feeding regime and environmental conditions, except the environmental temperature and humidity. A total of 80 females were randomly allocated, at 60 days of age, into two identical and continuous rooms. In one room, the temperature was maintained permanently within the thermo-neutral zone (between 18°C to 22°C); thus, environmental conditions in this room were considered as comfort conditions. In the second room, the environmental temperature pattern simulated the daily temperature cycles that were characteristic of the summer in Mediterranean countries (24°C at 0800 h, increasing up to 29°C until 1100 h; maintenance at 29°C to 31°C for 4 h and decreasing to about 24°C to 26°C around 1700 h until 0800 h of the following day), which were considered as thermal stress conditions. Females followed a semi-intensive reproductive rhythm, first artificial insemination at 4.5 months of age, with subsequent 42-day reproductive cycles. Traits were recorded from a total of 138 lactations. Does were controlled up to the 5th lactation. Data were analyzed using linear and linear mixed models. High ambient temperature led to a lower ADFI (-9.4%), DW (-6.2%) and IWW (-8%), but it did not affect ADWI. No significant difference was found either for DMY, milk composition (DM, CP and GE) and SR during the lactation period. Heat stress was moderate, and does were able to adapt to it behaviorally by decreasing feed intake (to reduce heat production), but also live

  3. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  4. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2018-04-01

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.

  5. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-07-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  6. M-type thioredoxins are involved in the xanthophyll cycle and proton motive force to alter NPQ under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Qingen; Sun, Ting; Wang, Menglong; Jin, Honglei; Li, Mengshu; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hong-Bin; Liu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    M-type thioredoxins are required to regulate zeaxanthin epoxidase activity and to maintain the steady-state level of the proton motive force, thereby influencing NPQ properties under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) helps protect photosynthetic organisms from photooxidative damage via the non-radiative dissipation of energy as heat. Energy-dependent quenching (qE) is a major constituent of NPQ. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of qE is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the m-type thioredoxins TRX-m1, TRX-m2, and TRX-m4 (TRX-ms) interact with the xanthophyll cycle enzyme zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZE) and are required for maintaining the redox-dependent stabilization of ZE by regulating its intermolecular disulfide bridges. Reduced ZE activity and accumulated zeaxanthin levels were observed under TRX-ms deficiency. Furthermore, concurrent deficiency of TRX-ms resulted in a significant increase in proton motive force (pmf) and acidification of the thylakoid lumen under low irradiance, perhaps due to the significantly reduced ATP synthase activity under TRX-ms deficiency. The increased pmf, combined with acidification of the thylakoid lumen and the accumulation of zeaxanthin, ultimately contribute to the elevated stable qE in VIGS-TRX-m2m4/m1 plants under low-light conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that TRX-ms are involved in regulating NPQ-dependent photoprotection in Arabidopsis.

  7. Effects of Degree of Superheat on the Running Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Waste Heat Recovery System for Diesel Engines under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the variation law of engine exhaust energy under various operating conditions to improve the thermal efficiency and fuel economy of diesel engines. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system with internal heat exchanger (IHE was designed to recover waste heat from the diesel engine exhaust. The zeotropic mixture R416A was used as the working fluid for the ORC. Three evaluation indexes were presented as follows: waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, and output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF. In terms of various operating conditions of the diesel engine, this study investigated the variation tendencies of the running performances of the ORC waste heat recovery system and the effects of the degree of superheat on the running performance of the ORC waste heat recovery system through theoretical calculations. The research findings showed that the net power output, WHRE, and ETEIR of the ORC waste heat recovery system reach their maxima when the degree of superheat is 40 K, engine speed is 2200 r/min, and engine torque is 1200 N·m. OEDWF gradually increases with the increase in the degree of superheat, which indicates that the required mass flow rate of R416A decreases for a certain net power output, thereby significantly decreasing the risk of environmental pollution.

  8. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-01-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  9. Resistance to radiation and concretes thermal cycles for conditioning of spent radioactive sources; Resistencia a la irradiacion y ciclos termicos de concretos para acondicionamiento de fuentes radiactivas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez N, M.; Monroy G, F.; Gonzalez D, R. C.; Corona P, I. J.; Ortiz A, G., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In order to know the concrete type most suitable for use as a matrix of conditioning of spent radioactive sources, concrete test tubes using 4 different types of cement were prepared: CPC 30-Rs Extra, CPC 30-R Impercem, CPC 30-R Rs and CPC 30-R with two gravel sizes >30 mm and <10 mm. The concrete test tubes were subjected to testing compressive strength after 28 days of hardening and after being irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles. Subsequently they were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, in order to evaluate whether these concretes accredited the tests set by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the compressive strength of the hardened concretes to 28 days presents values between 36 and 25 MPa; applying irradiation the resistance may decrease to 30% of its original strength; and if subjected to high and low temperatures the ettringite formation also causes a decrease in resistance. The results show that concretes made from cement Impercem, Cruz Azul with gravel <10 mm comply with the provisions of standard and they can be used for conditioning of spent radioactive sources. (Author)

  10. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis for Bio-Liquid Jet Fuel from Open Pond-Based Micro-Algae under China Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A life-cycle analysis (LCA of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM. Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH4 emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions during the use of digestate (solid residue from anaerobic digestion as agricultural fertilizer. Analyses were performed based on examination of process parameters, mass balance conditions, material requirement, energy consumptions and the realities of energy supply and transport in China (i.e., electricity generation and heat supply primarily based on coal, multiple transport modes. Our LCA result of the BJF pathway showed that, compared with the traditional petrochemical pathway, this new pathway will increase the overall fossil energy use and carbon emission by 39% and 70%, respectively, while decrease petroleum consumption by about 84%, based on the same units of energy service. Moreover, the energy conservation and emission reduction benefit of this new pathway may be accomplished by two sets of approaches: wider adoption of low-carbon process fuels and optimization of algae cultivation and harvest, and oil extraction processes.

  11. Experimental investigation of a low-temperature organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine under variable heat input operating at both subcritical and supercritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmadakis, George; Manolakos, Dimitris; Papadakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Small-scale ORC engine with converted scroll expander is installed at laboratory. • Design suitable for supercritical operation. • ORC engine tested at temperature equal to 95 °C. • Focus is given on expansion and thermal efficiency. • Supercritical operation showed some promising performance. - Abstract: The detailed experimental investigation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is presented, which is designed to operate at supercritical conditions. The net capacity of this engine is almost 3 kW and the laboratory testing of the engine includes the variation of the heat input and of the hot water temperature. The maximum heat input is 48 kW_t_h, while the hot water temperature ranges from 65 up to 100°C. The tests are conducted at the laboratory and the heat source is a controllable electric heater, which can keep the hot water temperature constant, by switching on/off its electrical resistances. The expansion machine is a modified scroll compressor with major conversions, in order to be able to operate with safety at high pressure (or even supercritical at some conditions). The ORC engine is equipped with a dedicated heat exchanger of helical coil design, suitable for such applications. The speeds of the expander and ORC pump are regulated with frequency inverters, in order to control the cycle top pressure and heat input. The performance of all components is evaluated, while special attention is given on the supercritical heat exchanger and the scroll expander. The performance tests examined here concern the variation of the heat input, while the hot water temperature is equal to 95 °C. The aim is to examine the engine performance at the design conditions, as well as at off-design ones. Especially the latter ones are very important, since this engine will be coupled with solar collectors at the final configuration, where the available heat is varied to a great extent. The engine has been measured at the laboratory, where a thermal

  12. Alcohol Intake Increases in Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice during Intermittent Cycles of Phase-Delayed, Long-Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gamsby

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to “social jetlag”, a state of circadian desynchrony (CD, in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod. In Experiment 1, CD produced a small but significant increase in the total alcohol intake per day as well as in intake in bouts, with the greatest increase over controls in the hours following the 6HR dark period. Additionally, the pattern of alcohol intake in bouts shifted to increase alcohol intake during the shorter dark period. In Experiment 2, the opposite effect occurred—the longer dark cycle led to lower alcohol drinking in the second half of the dark period. However, in Experiment 2, CD produced no significant changes in either total alcohol intake or alcohol intake in bouts. Conclusion: shifts in the light cycle that disrupt the regular pattern of day and night, and increase the length of the night phase, are sufficient to increase both drinking in bouts and restricted drinking in adolescent mice, modeling increased alcohol intake in adolescents during CD.

  13. Contrasting seasonal and aseasonal environments across stages of the annual cycle in the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis: differences in endocrine function, proteome, and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Echeverria, Valentina; Estades, Cristian F; Perez, Jonathan H; Krause, Jesse S; Sabat, Pablo; Li, Jonathon; Kültz, Dietmar; Wingfield, John C

    2018-05-09

    1.The timing and duration of life history stages (LHS) within the annual cycle can be affected by local environmental cues which are integrated through endocrine signaling mechanisms and changes in protein function. Most animals express a single LHS within a given period of the year because synchronous expression of LHSs is thought to be too costly energetically. However, in very rare and extremely stable conditions, breeding and molt have been observed to overlap extensively in Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) living in valleys of the Atacama Desert - one of the most stable and aseasonal environments on Earth. 2.To examine how LHS traits at different levels of organization are affected by environmental variability we compared the temporal organization and duration of LHSs in populations in the Atacama Desert with those in the semiarid Fray Jorge National Park in the north of Chile - an extremely seasonal climate but with unpredictable droughts and heavy rainy seasons. 3.We studied the effects of environmental variability on morphological variables related to body condition, endocrine traits, and proteome. Birds living in the seasonal environment had a strict temporal division LHSs while birds living in the aseasonal environment failed to maintain a temporal division of LHSs resulting in direct overlap of breeding and molt. Further, higher circulating glucocorticoids and androgen concentrations were found in birds from seasonal compared to aseasonal populations. Despite these differences, body condition variables and protein expression were not related to the degree of seasonality but rather showed a strong relationship with hormone levels. 4.These results suggest that animals adjust to their environment through changes in behavioral and endocrine traits and may be limited by less labile traits such as morphological variables or expression of specific proteins under certain circumstances. These data on free-living birds shed light on how different

  14. A dynamic organic Rankine cycle using a zeotropic mixture as the working fluid with composition tuning to match changing ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, Peter; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic ORC using a zeotropic mixture with composition tuning is proposed. • The working principle is verified theoretically, based on a thermodynamic model. • Improvements in the resultant power plant’s annual power production are analysed. • The economic benefits have been demonstrated by an economic analysis. - Abstract: Air-cooled condensers are widely used for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plants where cooling water is unavailable or too costly, but they are then vulnerable to changing ambient air temperatures especially in continental climates, where the air temperature difference between winter and summer can be over 40 °C. A conventional ORC system using a single component working fluid has to be designed according to the maximum air temperature in summer and thus operates far from optimal design conditions for most of the year, leading to low annual average efficiencies. This research proposes a novel dynamic ORC that uses a binary zeotropic mixture as the working fluid, with mechanisms in place to adjust the mixture composition dynamically during operation in response to changing heat sink conditions, significantly improving the overall efficiency of the plant. The working principle of the dynamic ORC concept is analysed. The case study results show that the annual average thermal efficiency can be improved by up to 23% over a conventional ORC when the heat source is 100 °C, while the evaluated increase of the capital cost is less than 7%. The dynamic ORC power plants are particularly attractive for low temperature applications, delivering shorter payback periods compared to conventional ORC systems.

  15. Experimental Assessment of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Operating at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions in a Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a helical coil heat exchanger operating at subcritical and supercritical conditions is analysed. The counter-current heat exchanger was specially designed to operate at a maximal pressure and temperature of 42 bar and 200 °C, respectively. The small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC installation has a net power output of 3 kWe. The first tests were done in a laboratory where an electrical heater was used instead of the concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T collectors. The inlet heating fluid temperature of the water was 95 °C. The effects of different parameters on the heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger were investigated. Particularly, the performance analysis was elaborated considering the changes of the mass flow rate of the working fluid (R-404A in the range of 0.20–0.33 kg/s and the inlet pressure varying from 18 bar up to 41 bar. Hence, the variation of the heat flux was in the range of 5–9 kW/m2. The results show that the working fluid’s mass flow rate has significant influence on the heat transfer rate rather than the operational pressure. Furthermore, from the comparison between the experimental results with the heat transfer correlations from the literature, the experimental results fall within the uncertainty range for the supercritical analysis but there is a deviation of the investigated subcritical correlations.

  16. Life cycle, feeding and defecation patterns of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León 1958) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacís, Anita G; Arcos-Terán, Laura; Grijalva, Mario J

    2008-11-01

    Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD) in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare) the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region) and Loja (Andean region)]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57) development took an average of 189.9 +/- 20 (Manabí) and 181.3 +/- 6.4 days (Loja). Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation) ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI)] to 8 min 30 s (male); feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI)-28 min 25 s (male) (Manabí) and from 15 min 25 s (NI)-28 min 57 s (nymph V) (Loja). The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  17. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  18. Diagnostic performance of a rapid in-clinic test for the detection of Canine Parvovirus under different storage conditions and vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantere, Maria C; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Kontos, Vassilios; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios C; Tsokana, Constantina N; Billinis, Charalambos

    2015-04-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common causes of acute haemorrhagic enteritis in young dogs, while clinical diagnosis is often indecisive. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an in-clinic rapid test in the detection of CPV infection in dogs. To this end, we compared the Rapid Diagnostic Kit of Canine Parvovirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus antigen (Quicking(®)) to PCR, which is considered as the most reliable diagnostic method. A total of 78 duplicated faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic dogs. Vaccination history within a month prior to the onset of diarrhoea was reported for 12 of the sampled dogs. The rapid diagnostic test was performed in 23 of the faecal samples directly, while the rest were placed into a sterile cotton tipped swab suitable for collection and transportation of viruses (Sigma Σ-VCM(®)) and stored at -20 °C. The sensitivity of the Quicking rapid diagnostic test compared to PCR in the total number of samples, in samples from non-vaccinated dogs and in samples tested directly after collection were 22.22% (95% CI: 13.27-33.57%), 26.67% (95% CI: 16.08-39.66%) and 76.47% (95% CI: 50.10-93.04%) respectively, while the specificity of the test was 100% in any case. In conclusion, negative results do not exclude parvoenteritis from the differential diagnosis, especially in dogs with early vaccination history, but a positive result almost certainly indicates CPV infection. An improved sensitivity may be expected when the test is performed immediately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Life cycle, feeding and defecation patterns of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León 1958 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita G Villacís

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region and Loja (Andean region]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57 development took an average of 189.9 ± 20 (Manabí and 181.3 ± 6.4 days (Loja. Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI] to 8 min 30 s (male; feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI-28 min 25 s (male (Manabí and from 15 min 25 s (NI-28 min 57 s (nymph V (Loja. The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p < 0.001. Defecation while feeding was observed in Manabí specimens from stage nymph III and in Lojan bugs from stage nymph IV. There was a gradual, age-related increase in the frequency of this behaviour in both populations. Our results suggest that R. ecuadoriensis has the bionomic traits of an efficient vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Together with previous data on the capacity of this species to infest rural households, these results indicate that control of synanthropic R. ecuadoriensis populations in the coastal and Andean regions may have a significant impact for CD control in Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  20. Comprehensive performance analyses and optimization of the irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) under maximum power (MP) and maximum power density (MPD) conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers

  1. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  2. Relating dynamic conditions to the performance of biological rapid sand filters used to remove ammonium, iron, and manganese from drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.

    consistently meeting regulatory guidelines for compounds like ammonium and reduced forms of iron and manganese. These compounds can cause biological instability in the distribution system and can lead to many problems including the growth of pathogens and aesthetic problems (taste, odor, and color...... and media samples were collected throughout the depth of the column and over the operational cycle of the columns. Substrate analysis included ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, iron, and manganese. Qpcr analysis were also performed to quantify ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOBs), ammonium oxidizing archea ( AOAs...

  3. Effect of two-step and one-step surface conditioning of glass ceramic on adhesion strength of orthodontic bracket and effect of thermo-cycling on adhesion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Alaqeel, Samer M; Durgesh, Bangalore H; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2018-08-01

    The adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to dental glass ceramics was evaluated after ceramic surface was treated with two-step and one-step surface conditioning systems, and subjecting to thermo-cycling. A total of forty specimens were fabricated from silica based glass ceramic (lithium disilicate) by duplicating the buccal surface of maxillary first premolar. The specimens were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n = 20), group one specimens were treated with two-step surface conditioning system (IPS ceramic etching gel™ and Monobond plus™) and group two specimens were treated with one-step surface conditioning system (Monobond etch and prime™). The surface roughness of the specimens after treatment with two-step and one-step surface conditioning system was measured using non-contact surface profilometer. Ten randomly selected specimens from each group were subjected to thermo-cycling and the remaining ten served as baseline. The shear bond strength of the specimens was measured using universal material testing machine. The adhesive remnant index score was calculated, and the results of surface roughness and bond strength were tabulated and subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc tukey's test at a significance level of p step conditioning system had higher surface roughness and bond strength than one-step conditioning system. The majority of the specimens treated with both two-step and one-step conditioned specimens showed adhesive failure after subjecting thermo-cycling. Traditional two-step conditioning provides better bond strength. The clinical importance of the study is that, the silane promoted adhesion significantly reduces on exposure to thermo-cycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Simple, Rapid and Mild One Pot Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated and Demethylated Analogues of Harmine under Solvent-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina S. Siddiqui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.

  5. Investigation of the role of the calvin cycle and C1 metabolism during HCHO metabolism in gaseous HCHO-treated petunia under light and dark conditions using 13C-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huiqun; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that formaldehyde (HCHO) absorbed by plants can be assimilated through the Calvin cycle or C1 metabolism. Our previous study indicated that Petunia hybrida could effectively eliminate HCHO from HCHO-polluted air. To understand the roles of C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia plants treated with gaseous H(13)CHO under light and dark conditions. Aseptically grown petunia plants were treated with gaseous H(13)CHO under dark and light conditions. The metabolites generated from HCHO detoxification in petunia were investigated using (13)C-NMR. [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) was generated via C1 metabolism and [U-(13)C]glucose (Gluc) was produced through the Calvin cycle simultaneously in petunia treated with low-level gaseous H(13)CHO under light conditions. Generation of [2-(13)C]Gly decreased whereas [U-(13) C]Gluc and [U-(13)C]fructose (Fruc) production increased greatly under high-level gaseous H(13)CHO stress in the light. In contrast, [U-(13)C]Gluc and [U-(13)C] Fruc production decreased greatly and [2-(13)C]Gly generation increased significantly under low-level and high-level gaseous H(13)CHO stress in the dark. C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle contributed differently to HCHO metabolism and detoxification in gaseous H(13CHO-treated petunia plants. As the level of gaseous HCHO increased, the role of C1 metabolism decreased and the role of the Calvin cycle increased under light conditions. However, opposite changes were observed in petunia plants under dark conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimu Alissa Rehbein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.

  7. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Wessing, Ida; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Steinberg, Christian; Eden, Annuschka Salima; Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+) were paired with an aversive noise (US), while further 52 faces (CS−) remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating), behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report), and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography) measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80–117 ms) and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140–160 ms) during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory. PMID:26113814

  8. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  9. Compartmentalized self-replication under fast PCR cycling conditions yields Taq DNA polymerase mutants with increased DNA-binding affinity and blood resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezi, Bahram; McKinney, Nancy; Hansen, Connie; Cayouette, Michelle; Fox, Jeffrey; Chen, Keith; Lapira, Jennifer; Hamilton, Sarah; Hogrefe, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Faster-cycling PCR formulations, protocols, and instruments have been developed to address the need for increased throughput and shorter turn-around times for PCR-based assays. Although run times can be cut by up to 50%, shorter cycle times have been correlated with lower detection sensitivity and increased variability. To address these concerns, we applied Compartmentalized Self Replication (CSR) to evolve faster-cycling mutants of Taq DNA polymerase. After five rounds of selection using progressively shorter PCR extension times, individual mutations identified in the fastest-cycling clones were randomly combined using ligation-based multi-site mutagenesis. The best-performing combinatorial mutants exhibit 35- to 90-fold higher affinity (lower Kd ) for primed template and a moderate (2-fold) increase in extension rate compared to wild-type Taq. Further characterization revealed that CSR-selected mutations provide increased resistance to inhibitors, and most notably, enable direct amplification from up to 65% whole blood. We discuss the contribution of individual mutations to fast-cycling and blood-resistant phenotypes.

  10. Towards the geophysical regime in numerical dynamo models: studies of rapidly-rotating convection driven dynamos with low Pm and constant heat flux boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.

    We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....

  11. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  12. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  13. The assessment of the influence of different natural conditions on the particular processes of the hydrological cycle within a river basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav; Němečková, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2011), s. 6904 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011. 03.04.2011-08.04.2011, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300600901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : hydrological modelling * hydrological cycle * SWIM model Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  14. Rapid and slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell: effect of pyrolysis conditions on the product yields and characterization of the liquid product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, Ayse E [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, (Turkey); Ozbay, Nurgul [Bozuyuk Vocational School, Anadolu University, Bozuyuk/Bilecik, (Turkey); Varol, Esin Apaydin; Uzun, Basak B; Ates, Fuda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, (Turkey)

    2006-10-30

    This study reports the experimental results for the pyrolysis of pistachio shell under different conditions in a tubular reactor under a nitrogen flow. For the different conditions of pyrolysis temperature, nitrogen flow rate and heating rate, pyrolysis temperature of 773 K gave the highest bio-oil yield with a value of 27.7% when the heating rate and carrier gas flow rate were chosen as 300 K min{sup -1} and 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. Column chromatography was applied to this bio-oil and its subfractions were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Aliphatic subfraction was conducted to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for further characterization. The results for the characterization show that using pistachio shell as a renewable source to produce valuable liquid products is applicable via pyrolysis. (Author)

  15. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W.; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide 210 Po/ 210 Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995–November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and 210 Po/ 210 Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton “bloom” was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of 210 Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest 210 Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained 210 Po and 210 Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5–486 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more 210 Po and 210 Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the 210 Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  16. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking. .

  17. Early diagnosis of congenital vascular malformation as a condition to rapid prevention of complications – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Jaguś; Agata Rutkowska; Paweł Wareluk

    2017-01-01

    Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterised by a triad of symptoms: capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations, varicose veins and venous malformations as well as soft tissue and skeletal hypertrophy of the affected limb. In this article, we present a case of a 5-year-old boy with extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs and the buttock region. In this case, manifestation of all three symptoms was gradual. At the age of 4 years, the patient was ad...

  18. V.I. Vernadskiy study of biochemical cycles and role of biocenoses trophic structure in their stabilization under background conditions and at chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezel, V.S.; Bel'skij, E.A.; Bel'skaya, E.A.; Zhujkova, T.V.; Mukhacheva, S.V.; Nesterkov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    In the present report the participation of different trophic belonging organisms in biogeochemical cycles at the pollution of the environment by aerogenic emissions of metallurgical enterprises are discussed. Investigation in and around southern taiga of Middle Ural in liable to heavy metals contamination areas was made. Several areas with different level of soil contamination from background uncontaminated (at a distance 20-30 km from emission source) to buffer (4-7 km) and impact (1-2 km) were separated out. Mechanism of chemical elements accumulation by different components of terrestrial ecosystems that the aggregate of trophic levels present: depository environment (soil), producers (plants), consumers of several levels (phytophages, zoophages) was studied. Accumulation of chemical elements was considered in biomass of trophic levels both with content of chemical elements in the soil on a regional background level and by their intensive contamination. The findings enable to evaluate the quantity of chemical elements involved in biogenic cycles by different trophic belonging organisms

  19. Effects of variations in coating materials and process conditions on the thermal cycle properties of NiCrAlY/YSZ thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Feng [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: ftang@ucdavis.edu; Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kim, George E. [Perpetual Technologies, Montreal, Que., H3E 1T8 (Canada); Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Thermal cycle tests were conducted on a variety of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens with bond coats that had been prepared in different ways. Variables include: (1) different thermal spray processes (high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray and low pressure plasma spray (LPPS)) (2) different feedstock powder (gas-atomized and cryomilled) (3) the introduction of nano-sized alumina additives (particles and whiskers) and (4) with and without a post-spray vacuum heat treatment. The results show that the cryomilling of the NiCrAlY powder and the post-spray heat treatment in vacuum can both lead to significant improvement in the thermal cycle lifetime of the TBCs. The TBC specimens with LPPS bond coats also generally showed longer lifetimes than those with HVOF bond coats. In contrast, the intentional dispersion of alumina particles or whiskers in the NiCrAlY powders during cryomilling did not result in the further improvement of the lifetime of the TBCs. Microstructural evolution, including the thermally grown oxide (TGO) formation, the distribution of the dispersoids in the bond coat, the internal oxidation of the bond coat, the bond coat shrinkage during the thermal cycle tests and the reduction of the ZrO{sub 2} in the top coat during the heat treatment in vacuum, was investigated.

  20. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  1. Energies and media nr 30. Conditions for the nuclear sector. The fuel cycle and wastes. The usefulness of fuel reprocessing. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector in different countries (energy policy and projects in the USA, Europe, China, India, Russia), this issue proposes some explanations on the nuclear fuel cycle and on nuclear wastes: involved processes and products from mining to reprocessing and recycling, usefulness of reprocessing (future opportunities of fast neutron reactors, present usefulness of reprocessing with the recycling of separated fissile materials), impact of reprocessing on the environment in La Hague (gas and liquid releases, release standard definition), and the destiny of wastes

  2. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive owing to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Rapidly increasing uranium prices, public reluctance for widespread Pu recycling and expected delays for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, particularly with re-fabrication by remote handling of 233 U, are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu recycling. To divert from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems worth while intensifying future efforts for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGRs are particularly promising for economic application. However, further research and development activities should not concentrate on this reactor type alone. Light- and heavy-water-moderated reactors, and even future fast breeders, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  3. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Brenzinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2 concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2. We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot, which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the

  4. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Kujala, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A; Moser, Gerald; Guillet, Cécile; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Braker, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Continuously rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO 2 ( e CO 2 ) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N 2 O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO 2 ( a CO 2 ). We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected e CO 2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term e CO 2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing). Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot), which were fumigated with e CO 2 and a CO 2 , respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under e CO 2 differed only slightly from soil under a CO 2 . Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO 2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content) due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% e CO 2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling

  5. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Gisele P; Alves, Alexandre A; Laviola, Bruno G; Albrecht, Julio C

    2014-12-01

    Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169) as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i) the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii) the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii) the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv) the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v) the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  6. Production dynamics and life cycle of dominant chironomids (diptera, chironomidae) in a subtropical stream in China: adaptation to variable flow conditions in summer and autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-07-01

    The production dynamics and trophic basis of 7 dominant species of chironomids were investigated in the area of a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, in central China from June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that Tvetenia discoloripes was by far the most abundant chironomid, dominating the overall standing stock of the taxa. In terms of lif ecycle, Chaetocladius sp., Eukiefferiella potthasti and T. discoloripes developed 1 generation a year, whereas Microtendipes sp. and Pagastia sp. developed two, while Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. developed three. T. discoloripes was the most productive chironomid with 120.305 8 g/m2. a, Pentaneura sp. and E. potthasti had relatively high production values of >17 g/m2.a, and the rest were 0.5), especially for filter-collectors Microtendipes sp., Chaetocladius sp., Chaetocladius sp., T. discoloripes and Pagastia sp. All species except Pentaneura sp. consumed a large portion of amorphous detritus, constituting more than 90% of their diets, and contributing nearly 90% to their secondary production. All the 7 chironomids represent obvious adaptation to local highly variable climate in summer and autumn in life cycle pattern, production dynamics, and food type.

  7. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE P. DOMICIANO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169 as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  8. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions; Caracterizacion de ciclos de evolucion de contaminantes en una zona costera mediterranea en situaciones de verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, J; Artinano, B

    1994-07-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. Hat cycle dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucco, A.; Corallo, C.; Pini Prato, A.; Porro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Among the innovative cycle recently proposed in literature, the Humid Air Turbine Cycle - Hat better seems to fulfil the main energy market requirements of today: High efficiency in a large power ranger, low pollution, low specific capital cost. The previous results of an analysis at partial load and transient conditions are here presented, where the Hat plant has been simulated using the original model implemented in LEGO environment [it

  10. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  12. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  13. Modeling of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde with the PEPSE code to conditions of thermal power licensed at present (2027 MWt); Modelado del ciclo de vapor de Laguna Verde con el codigo PEPSE a condiciones de potencia termica actualmente licenciada (2027 MWt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda G, M. A.; Maya G, F.; Medel C, J. E.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    By means of the use of the performance evaluation of power system efficiencies (PEPSE) code was modeled the vapor cycle of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde to reproduce the nuclear plant behavior to conditions of thermal power, licensed at present (2027 MWt); with the purpose of having a base line before the implementation of the project of extended power increase. The model of the gauged vapor cycle to reproduce the nuclear plant conditions makes use of the PEPSE model, design case of the vapor cycle of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde, which has as main components of the model the great equipment of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. The design case model makes use of information about the design requirements of each equipment for theoretically calculating the electric power of exit, besides thermodynamic conditions of the vapor cycle in different points. Starting from the design model and making use of data of the vapor cycle measured in the nuclear plant; the adjustment factors were calculated for the different equipment s of the vapor cycle, to reproduce with the PEPSE model the real vapor cycle of Laguna Verde. Once characterized the model of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde, we can realize different sensibility studies to determine the effects macros to the vapor cycle by the variation of certain key parameters. (Author)

  14. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 3: Graphical data book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical presentation of the aerodynamic data acquired during coannular nozzle performance wind tunnel tests is given. The graphical data consist of plots of nozzle gross thrust coefficient, fan nozzle discharge coefficient, and primary nozzle discharge coefficient. Normalized model component static pressure distributions are presented as a function of primary total pressure, fan total pressure, and ambient static pressure for selected operating conditions. In addition, the supersonic cruise configuration data include plots of nozzle efficiency and secondary-to-fan total pressure pumping characteristics. Supersonic and subsonic cruise data are given.

  15. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550 C and 750 C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in

  16. Simulation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Pasunurthi, Shyamsundar; Jupudi, Ravichandra S.; Gubba, Sreenivasa Rao; Primus, Roy; Klingbeil, Adam; Wijeyakulasuriya, Sameera; Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Standard practices of internal combustion (IC) engine experiments are to conduct the measurements of quantities averaged over a large number of cycles. Depending on the operating conditions, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of quantities

  17. Analysis of thermal cycles and working fluids for power generation in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarlecki, Jason; Lior, Noam; Zhang Na

    2007-01-01

    Production of power in space for terrestrial use is of great interest in view of the rapidly rising power demand and its environmental impacts. Space also offers a very low temperature, making it a perfect heat sink for power plants, thus offering much higher efficiencies. This paper focuses on the evaluation and analysis of thermal Brayton, Ericsson and Rankine power cycles operating at space conditions on several appropriate working fluids. Under the examined conditions, the thermal efficiency of Brayton cycles reaches 63%, Ericsson 74%, and Rankine 85%. These efficiencies are significantly higher than those for the computed or real terrestrial cycles: by up to 45% for the Brayton, and 17% for the Ericsson; remarkably 44% for the Rankine cycle even when compared with the best terrestrial combined cycles. From the considered working fluids, the diatomic gases (N 2 and H 2 ) produce somewhat better efficiencies than the monatomic ones in the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The Rankine cycles require radiator areas that are larger by up to two orders of magnitude than those required for the Brayton and Ericsson cycles. The results of the analysis of the sensitivity of the cycle performance parameters to major parameters such as turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio are presented, equations or examining the effects of fluid properties on the radiator area and pressure drop were developed, and the effects of the working fluid properties on cycle efficiency and on the power production per unit radiator area were explored to allow decisions on the optimal choice of working fluids

  18. The coefficient of friction of UHMWPE along an entire walking cycle using a ball-on-disc tribometer under arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by ISO 14243-3:2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceinas-Sanchez, J D O; Alvarez-Vera, M; Montoya-Santiyanes, L A; Dominguez-Lopez, I; Garcia-Garcia, A L

    2017-01-01

    The observation of tribological phenomena occurring in total knee replacement (TKR) simulators may be obscured by the intrinsic complexity of their operation: the dynamics and kinematics prescribed by the ISO 14243-3:2014 standard, and the geometry of the surfaces involved. On the other hand, evaluating the individual performance of the tribosystem elements may be carried out in simpler apparatuses. An experimental method is presented here, by means of which the arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by the said standard are adapted to a ball-on-disc configuration in order to observe the behavior of the coefficient of friction along an entire walking cycle, using the contact point of an AISI 316L stainless steel ball rolling/sliding on an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc, lubricated by a solution of fetal bovine serum, at 37°C. The method was tried on two different testing fluids prepared with protein concentrations of 20g/L, according to the said standard, and 36g/L, as received. The statistical model obtained for the behavior of the COF during the entire walking cycle may be used in numerical simulations of UHMWPE wear, under the conditions established by ISO 14243-3:2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Projection of future climate change conditions using IPCC simulations, neural networks and Bayesian statistics. Part 2: Precipitation mean state and seasonal cycle in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe [LODYC, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Tour 45-55/Etage 4/Case 100, UPMC, Paris Cedex 05 (France); University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, Fernando; Segura, Enrique C. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-02-15

    Evaluating the response of climate to greenhouse gas forcing is a major objective of the climate community, and the use of large ensemble of simulations is considered as a significant step toward that goal. The present paper thus discusses a new methodology based on neural network to mix ensemble of climate model simulations. Our analysis consists of one simulation of seven Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models, which participated in the IPCC Project and provided at least one simulation for the twentieth century (20c3m) and one simulation for each of three SRES scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. Our statistical method based on neural networks and Bayesian statistics computes a transfer function between models and observations. Such a transfer function was then used to project future conditions and to derive what we would call the optimal ensemble combination for twenty-first century climate change projections. Our approach is therefore based on one statement and one hypothesis. The statement is that an optimal ensemble projection should be built by giving larger weights to models, which have more skill in representing present climate conditions. The hypothesis is that our method based on neural network is actually weighting the models that way. While the statement is actually an open question, which answer may vary according to the region or climate signal under study, our results demonstrate that the neural network approach indeed allows to weighting models according to their skills. As such, our method is an improvement of existing Bayesian methods developed to mix ensembles of simulations. However, the general low skill of climate models in simulating precipitation mean climatology implies that the final projection maps (whatever the method used to compute them) may significantly change in the future as models improve. Therefore, the projection results for late twenty-first century conditions are presented as possible projections based on the &apos

  20. Energy Approach-Based Simulation of Structural Materials High-Cycle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayev, A. F.; Korolev, A. V.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Sklyarova, A. I.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper describes the mechanism of micro-cracks development in solid structural materials based on the theory of brittle fracture. A probability function of material cracks energy distribution is obtained using a probabilistic approach. The paper states energy conditions for cracks growth at material high-cycle loading. A formula allowing to calculate the amount of energy absorbed during the cracks growth is given. The paper proposes a high- cycle fatigue evaluation criterion allowing to determine the maximum permissible number of solid body loading cycles, at which micro-cracks start growing rapidly up to destruction.

  1. HCl removal using cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles is used to remove HCl. • The optimum temperature for HCl removal of cycled carbide slag is 700 °C. • The presence of CO 2 restrains HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • CO 2 capture conditions have important effects on HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • HCl removal capacity of carbide slag drops with cycle number rising from 1 to 50. - Abstract: The carbide slag is an industrial waste from chlor-alkali plants, which can be used to capture CO 2 in the calcium looping cycles, i.e. carbonation/calcination cycles. In this work, the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping cycles for CO 2 capture was proposed to remove HCl in the flue gas from the biomass-fired and RDFs-fired boilers. The effects of chlorination temperature, HCl concentration, particle size, presence of CO 2 , presence of O 2 , cycle number and CO 2 capture conditions in calcium looping cycles on the HCl removal behavior of the carbide slag experienced carbonation/calcination cycles were investigated in a triple fixed-bed reactor. The chlorination product of the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping after absorbing HCl is not CaCl 2 but CaClOH. The optimum temperature for HCl removal of the cycled carbide slag from the carbonation/calcination cycles is 700 °C. The chlorination conversion of the cycled carbide slag increases with increasing the HCl concentration. The cycled carbide slag with larger particle size exhibits a lower chlorination conversion. The presence of CO 2 decreases the chlorination conversions of the cycled carbide slag and the presence of O 2 has a trifling impact. The chlorination conversion of the carbide slag experienced 1 carbonation/calcination cycle is higher than that of the uncycled calcined sorbent. As the number of carbonation/calcination cycles increases from 1 to 50, the chlorination conversion of carbide slag drops gradually. The high calcination temperature and high CO 2

  2. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  3. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  4. DETECTING ALIEN LIMIT CYCLES NEAR A HAMILTONIAN 2-SADDLE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    LUCA, Stijn; DUMORTIER, Freddy; Caubergh, M.; Roussarie, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at providing and example of a cubic Hamiltonian 2-saddle cycle that after bifurcation can give rise to an alien limit cycle; this is a limit cycle that is not controlled by a zero of the related Abelian integral. To guarantee the existence of an alien limit cycle one can verify generic conditions on the Abelian integral and on the transition map associated to the connections of the 2-saddle cycle. In this paper, a general method is developed to compute the first and second der...

  5. Web-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, General Caregiving Outcomes, and General Health for Informal Caregivers of Adults With Chronic Conditions Living in the Community: Rapid Evidence Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; McAiney, Carrie; Duggleby, Wendy; Bartholomew, Amy; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-07-28

    Most adults with chronic conditions live at home and rely on informal caregivers to provide support. Caregiving can result in negative impacts such as poor mental and physical health. eHealth interventions may offer effective and accessible ways to provide education and support to informal caregivers. However, we know little about the impact of Web-based interventions for informal caregivers of community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this rapid evidence review was to assess the impact of Web-based interventions on mental health, general caregiving outcomes, and general health for informal caregivers of persons with chronic conditions living in the community. A rapid evidence review of the current literature was employed to address the study purpose. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Ageline were searched covering all studies published from January 1995 to July 2016. Papers were included if they (1) included a Web-based modality to deliver an intervention; (2) included informal, unpaid adult caregivers of community-living adults with a chronic condition; (3) were either a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT); and (4) reported on any caregiver outcome as a result of use or exposure to the intervention. A total of 20 papers (17 studies) were included in this review. Study findings were mixed with both statistically significant and nonsignificant findings on various caregiver outcomes. Of the 17 included studies, 10 had at least one significant outcome. The most commonly assessed outcome was mental health, which included depressive symptoms, stress or distress, and anxiety. Twelve papers examined the impact of interventions on the outcome of depressive symptoms; 4 found a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Eight studies examined the outcome of stress or distress; 4 of these found a significant reduction in stress or distress as a result of the intervention. Three studies examined the

  6. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  7. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  8. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  9. Formation of thermal fatigue cracks in periodic rapid quenching of metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical University, Thermal Engineering Department, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Water lancing is an effective technique for cleaning boiler heating surfaces from ash deposits by burning low-grade fuels with complicated composition of mineral matter. In water cleaning cycles of boiler`s heat transfer surfaces due to rapid quenching destruction of corrosion protective oxide film and formation of thermal fatigue cracks on the outer surface of the tube`s metal occur. The criterion of the thermal fatigue cracks` formation and their growth intensity depend on the character of temperature field in the tube`s metal outer layer. The solution of non-stationary heat conductivity equation for metal rapid quenching conditions is given. The convective heat transfer coefficients from hot metal surface to water jet were established experimentally. Thermal fatigue crack growth intensity was investigated in real boilers` heat transfer surfaces` tubes as well as in laboratory conditions. The formula for predicting thermal fatigue cracks` depth depending on the number of cleaning cycles. (orig.) 5 refs.

  10. Formation of thermal fatigue cracks in periodic rapid quenching of metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A [Tallinn Technical University, Thermal Engineering Department, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Water lancing is an effective technique for cleaning boiler heating surfaces from ash deposits by burning low-grade fuels with complicated composition of mineral matter. In water cleaning cycles of boiler`s heat transfer surfaces due to rapid quenching destruction of corrosion protective oxide film and formation of thermal fatigue cracks on the outer surface of the tube`s metal occur. The criterion of the thermal fatigue cracks` formation and their growth intensity depend on the character of temperature field in the tube`s metal outer layer. The solution of non-stationary heat conductivity equation for metal rapid quenching conditions is given. The convective heat transfer coefficients from hot metal surface to water jet were established experimentally. Thermal fatigue crack growth intensity was investigated in real boilers` heat transfer surfaces` tubes as well as in laboratory conditions. The formula for predicting thermal fatigue cracks` depth depending on the number of cleaning cycles. (orig.) 5 refs.

  11. Inheritance conditions for object life cycle diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipeck, U.W.; Saake, Gunter; Hartel, Peter; Vossen, G.; Jungclaus, Ralf; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Feenstra, Remco

    Inheritance is the main principle in object-oriented design methods to support structuring and reuse of object behaviour descriptions. Most proposals restrict the formal use of inheritance to method interfaces and method effect specifcations. We propose to extend the inheritance relation to cover

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  13. Hamiltonian cycles in polyhedral maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a contractible, non-separating and non-contractible separating Hamiltonian cycle in the edge graph of polyhedral maps on surfaces.We also present algorithms to construct such cycles whenever it exists where one of them is linear time and another is ...

  14. Adaptabilidade de trigo mole às condições mediterrânicas em função do seu ciclo vegetativo Adaptability of bread wheat under mediterranean conditions as influenced by its vegetative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo realizado tinha como objectivo verificar a capacidade de adaptação de genótipos de trigo mole, quantificada pela resposta produtiva, às condições mediterrânicas em função do seu ciclo vegetativo. Devido à irregularidade das chuvas de Outono, que afecta a data óptima de sementeira, é de extrema importância para a cerealicultura das regiões mediterrâneas. Na experimentação efectuaram-se diferentes datas de sementeira de quinze genótipos de trigo mole durante cinco anos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com divisão dos talhões e quatro repetições. A partir dos resultados, conclui-se que o ciclo vegetativo do trigo mole de 125 a 145 dias desde a sementeira até ao espigamento ou de 1350 a 1450 ºC permite uma boa adaptação dos genótipos às condições mediterrânicas e, em consequência, uma boa resposta produtiva. Assim, as variedades que apresentam um ciclo vegetativo com a duração referida, mesmo quando a data de sementeira varia entre o fim de Outubro e o fim de Novembro, como é o exemplo da variedade Nabão, adaptam-se à irregularidade das condições mediterrânicas e atingem rendimentos aceitáveis.This study was conducted to verify the adaptability of bread wheat genotypes with different vegetative cycles to Mediterranean conditions in terms of their productivity. Due to the very irregular rainfall in autumn, which conditions sowing date, the knowledge of the performance of the wheat varieties used with regard to different sowing dates is of extreme importance for a successful cereal production under Mediterranean conditions. Fifteen wheat bread genotypes were sown at different dates during autumn over a period of five years. The experimental layout was a randomized block design for sowing dates with a split for the different genotypes and four replications. The results indicate that wheat genotypes with a cycle duration of 125 to 145 days or 1350 to 1450 days • degree (d

  15. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  16. The economics of thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and thorium fuel cycles are discussed. The thorium cycles are initiated by using either enriched uranium or plutonium. Subsequent thorium cycles utilize recycled uranium-233 and, where necessary, either uranium-235 or plutonium as topping. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which thorium cycles are economically attractive. (auth)

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  18. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  20. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  1. Measurement of the fission cross section induced by fast neutrons of the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclei within the innovating fuel cycles framework; Mesure de la section efficace de fission induite par neutrons rapides des noyaux {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U dans le cadre des cycles de combustible innovants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, C

    2005-03-15

    The thorium-U{sup 233} fuel cycle might provided safer and cleaner nuclear energy than the present Uranium/Pu fuelled reactors. Over the last 10 years, a vast campaign of measurements has been initiated to bring the precision of neutron data for the key nuclei (Th{sup 232}, Pa{sup 233} and U{sup 233}) at the level of those for the U-Pu cycle. This is the framework of these measurements, the energy dependent neutron induced fission cross section of Th{sup 232} and U{sup 233} has been measured from 1 to 7 MeV with a target accuracy lesser than 5 per cent. These measurements imply the accurate determination of the fission rate, the number of the target nuclei as well as the incident neutron flux impinging on the target, the latter has been obtained using the elastic scattering (n,p). The cross section of which is very well known in a large neutron energy domain ({approx} 0,5 % from 1 eV to 50 MeV) compared to the U{sup 235}(n,f) reaction. This technique has been applied for the first time to the Th{sup 232}(n,f) and U{sup 233}(n,f) cases. A Hauser-Feshbach statistical model has been developed. It consists of describing the different decay channels of the compound nucleus U{sup 234} from 0,01 to 10 MeV neutron energy. The parameters of this model were adjusted in order to reproduce the measured fission cross section of U{sup 233}. From these parameters, the cross sections from the following reactions could be extracted: inelastic scattering U{sup 233}(n,n'), radiative capture U{sup 233}(n,{gamma}) and U{sup 233}(n,2n). These cross sections are still difficult to measure by direct neutron reactions. The calculated values have allowed us to fill the lack of experimental data for the major fissile nucleus of the thorium cycle. (author)

  2. Effects of 4:1 carbohydrate/protein solution versus a carbohydrate-alone solution on IL-6, TNF-α, and cortisol during prolonged cycling in hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosio-Lima LM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav Desai, John W Stelzer, Petra B SchulerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Intense or prolonged exercise and/or heat stress might affect the immune system creating a response similar to trauma or inflammation, resulting in an increase in the susceptibility to viral infections. For example, during prolonged exercise, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and the stress hormone cortisol are produced and released. Although there have been several studies examining the effects of nutritional supplementation on cytokine release in elite athletes, few studies have investigated the effects of different energy drinks during exercise in adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under hot environmental conditions while ingesting fluid that contains a ratio of 4:1 carbohydrates and protein (4:1 CHO/PRO versus a carbohydrate-only drink (CHO.Methods: Six male cyclists (aged 27 ± 8 years; weight 75.5 ± 3.4 kg; VO2max = 66 ± 2.7 mL/kg/min, mean ± standard error rode on a stationary ergometer on two separate sessions for 2.5 hours at 75% VO2max in an environmental chamber set at 35°C and 60% relative humidity. During the first session the cyclists were given 4 mL/kg body weight of a 6% carbohydrate solution every 15 minutes. During the second session they were given 4 mL/kg body weight of a 4:1 carbohydrate/protein drink every 15 minutes. Subjects were not aware of which drink they were given in each trial. Blood samples were taken pre-, immediately post-, and 12 hours post-exercise. SPSS (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY was utilized to analyze data through repeated measures analysis of variance.Results: No significant main effect was observed between treatments in

  3. A novel high performance stopped-flow apparatus equipped with a special constructed mixing chamber containing a plunger under inert condition with a very short dead-time to investigate very rapid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mostafa Habibi Khorassani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work set out to establish a novel stopped-flow instrument equipped with a special constructed mixing chamber containing a plunger to enable a kinetic study of the very rapid reactions under a dry inert atmosphere glove bag, in particular, for the reactions are sensitive to moisture or air. A stopped-flow spectrophotometer is essentially a conventional spectrophotometer with the addition of a system for rapid mixing of solutions. The purpose of this work is to describe the fabrication and evaluation of specially constructed and in-expensive stopped-flow system. The evaluation includes determination of the dead-time, relative mixing efficiency, and the measurement of known rate constants. Herein, a dead-time of about 3.4 ms was determined in the final modified construction of the stopped-flow apparatus in order to investigate the rapid initial during which some form of reaction intermediate is presented to be formed.

  4. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  5. CHOOSING DRIVING CYCLE OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing driving cycles was performed. After comparing some of the cycles, one specific driving cycle was selected for the hybrid vehicle as the most reliable in representing the real moving of the vehicle in operating conditions and which may be reproduced at experimental tests at the modeling roller stand.

  6. Fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  7. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  8. Introductory Business Textbook Revision Cycles: Are They Getting Shorter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Brian; Brunswick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The rate of textbook revision cycles is examined in light of the recent trend towards more rapid revisions (and adoptions of textbooks). The authors conduct background research to better understand the context for textbook revision cycles and the environmental forces that have been influencing what appears to be more rapid textbook revisions. A…

  9. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... that take place over the weeks in your cycle. Want to know what happens on each day ...

  10. Fuel cycle optimization in PWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de; Amorim, E.S. do.

    1979-08-01

    Neutronics aspects of a reactor core throughout its cycle were investigated in a search for increasing in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes content in the cycle discharged disposal. The effects due to design modifications introduced at burnup levels near the end-of-cycle, in an equilibrium cycle condition, have indicated the possibility of a better in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes existing in the cycle discharged disposal. The potential benefits are significant to warranty an examination of the mechanical and thermal hydraulic involved. At convenient burnup levels, change in H 2 O/UO 2 volume ratio were introduced allowing an intense depletion of the residual fissile isotopes existing in assemblies with high exposures levels. (Author) [pt

  11. Lean-Six Sigma: tools for rapid cycle cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Chip

    2006-10-01

    Organizational costs can be grouped as process cost, cost of quality, and cost of poor quality. Providers should train managers in the theory and application of Lean-Six Sigma, including the seven categories of waste and how to remove them. Healthcare financial executives should work with managers in eliminating waste to improve service and reduce costs.

  12. Phase lock of rapid cycling synchrotron and neutron choppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.; McGhee, D.; Volk, G.

    1981-01-01

    The 500-MeV synchrotron of Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source operates at 30 Hz. Its beam spill must be locked to neutron choppers with a precision of +- 0.5 μs. A chopper and an accelerator have large and different inertias. This makes synchronization by phase lock to the 60-Hz power line extremely difficult. We solved the phasing problems by running both the Ring Magnet Power Supply (RMPS) of the synchrotron and the chopper motors from a common oscillator that is stable to 1 ppM and by controlling five quantities of the RMPS. The quantities controlled by feedback loops are dc current, injection current, ejection current, resonant frequency, and the phase shift between the synchrotron peak field and the chopper window

  13. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post-landing operations. These unique requirements combined with a success-oriented schedule of four flights within a ten-month period have provided numerous opportunities for understanding and improving operations processes. Furthermore, it has increased the knowledge base of future Payload Carrier and Launch Vehicle hardware and requirement developments. Discussion of the process flows and target areas for process improvement are provided in the subject paper. Special emphasis is also placed on supplying guidelines for hardware development. The combination of process knowledge and hardware development knowledge will provide a comprehensive overview for future vehicle developments as related to integration and transportation of payloads.

  14. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  15. Fatigue during maximal sprint cycling: unique role of cumulative contraction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Aleksandar; Ross, Emma Z; Martin, James C

    2010-07-01

    Maximal cycling power has been reported to decrease more rapidly when performed with increased pedaling rates. Increasing pedaling rate imposes two constraints on the neuromuscular system: 1) decreased time for muscle excitation and relaxation and 2) increased muscle shortening velocity. Using two crank lengths allows the effects of time and shortening velocity to be evaluated separately. We conducted this investigation to determine whether the time available for excitation and relaxation or the muscle shortening velocity was mainly responsible for the increased rate of fatigue previously observed with increased pedaling rates and to evaluate the influence of other possible fatiguing constraints. Seven trained cyclists performed 30-s maximal isokinetic cycling trials using two crank lengths: 120 and 220 mm. Pedaling rate was optimized for maximum power for each crank length: 135 rpm for the 120-mm cranks (1.7 m x s(-1) pedal speed) and 109 rpm for the 220-mm cranks (2.5 m x s(-1) pedal speed). Power was recorded with an SRM power meter. Crank length did not affect peak power: 999 +/- 276 W for the 120-mm crank versus 1001 +/- 289 W for the 220-mm crank. Fatigue index was greater (58.6% +/- 3.7% vs 52.4% +/- 4.8%, P < 0.01), and total work was less (20.0 +/- 1.8 vs 21.4 +/- 2.0 kJ, P < 0.01) with the higher pedaling rate-shorter crank condition. Regression analyses indicated that the power for the two conditions was most highly related to cumulative work (r2 = 0.94) and to cumulative cycles (r2 = 0.99). These results support previous findings and confirm that pedaling rate, rather than pedal speed, was the main factor influencing fatigue. Our novel result was that power decreased by a similar increment with each crank revolution for the two conditions, indicating that each maximal muscular contraction induced a similar amount of fatigue.

  16. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  17. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  18. Quantifying the effect of nighttime interactions between roots and canopy physiology and their control of water and carbon cycling on feedbacks between soil moisture and terrestrial climatology under variable environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Palmroth, Sari [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Oren, Ram [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Swenson, Jennifer [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); King, John S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to characterize and quantify how the temporal variability of hydraulic redistribution (HR) and its physiological regulation in unmanaged and complex forests is affecting current water and carbon exchange and predict how future climate scenarios will affect these relationships and potentially feed back to the climate. Specifically, a detailed study of ecosystem water uptake and carbon exchange in relation to root functioning was proposed in order to quantify the mechanisms controlling temporal variability of soil moisture dynamic and HR in three active AmeriFlux sites, and to use published data of two other inactive AmeriFlux sites. Furthermore, data collected by our research group at the Duke Free Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site was also being utilized to further improve our ability to forecast future environmental impacts of elevated CO2 concentration on soil moisture dynamic and its effect on carbon sequestration and terrestrial climatology. The overarching objective being to forecast, using a soil:plant:atmosphere model coupled with a biosphere:atmosphere model, the impact of root functioning on land surface climatology. By comparing unmanaged sites to plantations, we also proposed to determine the effect of land use change on terrestrial carbon sequestration and climatology through its effect on soil moisture dynamic and HR. Our simulations of HR by roots indicated that in some systems HR is an important mechanism that buffers soil water deficit, affects energy and carbon cycling; thus having significant implications for seasonal climate. HR maintained roots alive and below 70% loss of conductivity and our simulations also showed that the increased vapor pressure deficit at night under future conditions was sufficient to drive significant nighttime transpiration at all sites, which reduced HR. This predicted reduction in HR under future climate conditions played an important regulatory role in land atmosphere interactions

  19. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycoberry, C.; Rougeau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive implementation of some key nuclear fuel cycle capecities in a country corresponds to a strategy for the acquisition of an independant energy source, France, Japan, and some European countries are engaged in such strategic programs. In France, COGEMA, the nuclear fuel company, has now completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Its experience covers every step of the front-end and of the back-end: transportation of spent fuels, storage, reprocessing, wastes conditioning. The La Hague reprocessing plant smooth operation, as well as the large investment program under active progress can testify of full mastering of this industry. Together with other French and European companies, COGEMA is engaged in the recycling industry, both for uranium through conversion of uranyl nitrate for its further reeichment, and for plutonium through MOX fuel fabrication. Reprocessing and recycling offer the optimum solution for a complete, economic, safe and future-oriented fuel cycle, hence contributing to the necessary development of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  1. Factors which could limit the nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, M.; Barre, B.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a most important industry for the energy future of the world. It has also a leading part as regards the physical continuity of energy supply of the countries engaged in the nuclear field. The development of this industry is subject to the economic or political constraints involved by the availability of raw materials, technologies or production means. The various limiting factors which could affect the different stages of the fuel cycle are linked with the technical, economic and financial aspects, with the impact on the environment, nuclear safety, risks of non-pacific uses and proliferation of arms. Interesting to note is also the correlation between the fuel cycle development and the problems of energy independence and security of nuclear programs. As a conclusion, the nuclear fuel cycle industry is confronted to difficulties due to its extremely rapid growth (doubling time 5 years) which only few heavy industries have encountered for long periods. It is more over submitted to the political and safety constraints always linked with nuclear matters. The task is therefore a difficult one. But the objective is worth-while since it is a condition to the development of nuclear industry [fr

  2. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ''pyroprocessing,'' featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs

  3. Not all counterclockwise thermodynamic cycles are refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. H.; Mottmann, J.

    2016-06-01

    Clockwise cycles on PV diagrams always represent heat engines. It is therefore tempting to assume that counterclockwise cycles always represent refrigerators. This common assumption is incorrect: most counterclockwise cycles cannot be refrigerators. This surprising result is explored here for quasi-static ideal gas cycles, and the necessary conditions for refrigeration cycles are clarified. Three logically self-consistent criteria can be used to determine if a counterclockwise cycle is a refrigerator. The most fundamental test compares the counterclockwise cycle with a correctly determined corresponding Carnot cycle. Other criteria we employ include a widely accepted description of the functional behavior of refrigerators, and a corollary to the second law that limits a refrigerator's coefficient of performance.

  4. Continuation of connecting orbits in 3d-ODEs. (ii) cycle-to-cycle connections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doedel, E.J.; Kooi, B.W.; van Voorn, G.A.K.; Kuznetzov, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this paper we have discussed new methods for the numerical continuation of point-to-cycle connecting orbits in three-dimensional autonomous ODE's using projection boundary conditions. In this second part we extend the method to the numerical continuation of cycle-to-cycle connecting

  5. Variable cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  6. Origins of the supercontinent cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Damian Nance

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The supercontinent cycle, by which Earth history is seen as having been punctuated by the episodic assembly and breakup of supercontinents, has influenced the rock record more than any other geologic phenomena, and its recognition is arguably the most important advance in Earth Science since plate tectonics. It documents fundamental aspects of the planet's interior dynamics and has charted the course of Earth's tectonic, climatic and biogeochemical evolution for billions of years. But while the widespread realization of the importance of supercontinents in Earth history is a relatively recent development, the supercontinent cycle was first proposed thirty years ago and episodicity in tectonic processes was recognized long before plate tectonics provided a potential explanation for its occurrence. With interest in the supercontinent cycle gaining momentum and the literature expanding rapidly, it is instructive to recall the historical context from which the concept developed. Here we examine the supercontinent cycle from this perspective by tracing its development from the early recognition of long-term episodicity in tectonic processes, through the identification of tectonic cycles following the advent of plate tectonics, to the first realization that these phenomena were the manifestation of episodic supercontinent assembly and breakup.

  7. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedriks, W.

    1994-01-01

    Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects

  9. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  10. Bond strength of hard chairside reline resins to a rapid polymerizing denture base resin before and after thermal cycling Resistência de união de resinas rígidas para reembasamento imediato a resina para base de prótese de rápida polimerização antes e após termociclagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study assessed the shear bond strength of 4 hard chairside reline resins (Kooliner, Tokuso Rebase Fast, Duraliner II, Ufi Gel Hard to a rapid polymerizing denture base resin (QC-20 processed using 2 polymerization cycles (A or B, before and after thermal cycling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cylinders (3.5 mm x 5.0 mm of the reline resins were bonded to cylinders of QC-20 polymerized using cycle A (boiling water-20 minutes or B (boiling water; remove heat-20 minutes; boiling water-20 minutes. For each reline resin/polymerization cycle combination, 10 specimens (groups CAt e CBt were thermally cycled (5 and 55 ºC; dwell time 30 seconds; 2,000 cycles; the other 10 were tested without thermal cycling (groups CAwt ad CBwt. Shear bond tests (0.5 mm/min were performed on the specimens and the failure mode was assessed. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (alpha=.05. RESULTS: QC-20 resin demonstrated the lowest bond strengths among the reline materials (POBJETIVO: Esse estudo avaliou a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de 4 resinas rígidas para reembasamento imediato (Kooliner, Tokuso Rebase Fast, Duraliner II, Ufi Gel Hard a uma resina para base de prótese de rápida polimerização (QC-20 submetida a 2 ciclos de polimerização (A e B, antes e após termociclagem. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cilindros (3,5 mm x 5,0 mm das resinas reembasadoras foram unidas aos cilindros de resina QC-20 polimerizados pelo ciclo A (água fervente - 20 minutos ou B (água fervente; remoção do calor-20 minutos; água fervente-20 minutos. Para cada combinação resina reembasadora/ciclo de polimerização, 10 corpos-de-prova (grupos CAt e CBt foram termociclados (5 e 55 ºC; intervalo de tempo 30 segundos; 2.000 ciclos; os outros 10 foram testados sem termociclagem (grupos CAwt e CBwt. Os testes de resistência de união ao cisalhamento (0,5 mm/min foram realizados sobre os corpos-de-prova e o tipo de falha avaliado. Os dados foram

  11. Evaluation and optimization of a supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion cycle for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550degC and 750degC. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550degC. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550degC versus 750degC. However, the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle requires a high end operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle high end operating pressure of 7 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton cycle for different reactor coolant outlet temperatures and mass flow rates. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550degC and 850degC. Sensitivity calculations were also performed to determine the affect of reactor coolant mass flow rates for a reference reactor coolant outlet temperature of 750degC. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO 2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the

  12. Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.

    OpenAIRE

    Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

    1984-01-01

    A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producin...

  13. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    C). Additions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere from industrial activity, however, are increasing the concentrations of these gases, enhancing the greenhouse effect, and starting to warm the Earth.The rate and extent of the warming depend, in part, on the global carbon cycle. If the rate at which the oceans remove CO2 from the atmosphere were faster, e.g., concentrations of CO2 would have increased less over the last century. If the processes removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it on land were to diminish, concentrations of CO2 would increase more rapidly than projected on the basis of recent history. The processes responsible for adding carbon to, and withdrawing it from, the atmosphere are not well enough understood to predict future levels of CO2 with great accuracy. These processes are a part of the global carbon cycle.Some of the processes that add carbon to the atmosphere or remove it, such as the combustion of fossil fuels and the establishment of tree plantations, are under direct human control. Others, such as the accumulation of carbon in the oceans or on land as a result of changes in global climate (i.e., feedbacks between the global carbon cycle and climate), are not under direct human control except through controlling rates of greenhouse gas emissions and, hence, climatic change. Because CO2 has been more important than all of the other greenhouse gases under human control, combined, and is expected to continue so in the future, understanding the global carbon cycle is a vital part of managing global climate.This chapter addresses, first, the reservoirs and natural flows of carbon on the earth. It then addresses the sources of carbon to the atmosphere from human uses of land and energy and the sinks of carbon on land and in the oceans that have kept the atmospheric accumulation of CO2 lower than it would otherwise have been. The chapter describes changes in the distribution of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial ecosystems over

  14. [Rapid analysis of suppositories by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, R A; Kovaleva, S A; Goriainov, S V; Vorob'ev, A N; Kalabin, G A

    2012-01-01

    Rapid analysis of suppositories with ibuprofen and arbidol by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed. Optimal conditions for the analysis were developed. The results are useful for design of rapid methods for quality control of suppositories with different components

  15. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  16. Timing of initiation of macronuclear DNA synthesis is set during the preceding cell cycle in Paramecium tetraurelia: analysis of the effects of abrupt changes in nutrient level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, A.S.L.; Berger, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    In many eukaryotic organisms, initiation of DNA synthesis is associated with a major control point within the cell cycle and reflects the commitment of the cell to the DNA replication-division portion of the cell cycle. In paramecium, the timing of DNA synthesis initiation is established prior to fission during the preceding cell cycle. DNA synthesis normally starts at 0.25 in the cell cycle. When dividing cells are subjected to abrupt nutrient shift-up by transfer from a chemostat culture to medium with excess food, or shift-down from a well-fed culture to exhausted medium, DNA synthesis initiation in the post-shift cell cycle occurs at 0.25 of the parental cell cycle and not at either 0.25 in the post-shift cell cycle or at 0.25 in the equilibrium cell cycle produced under the post-shift conditions. The long delay prior to initiation of DNA synthesis following nutritional shift-up is not a consequence of continued slow growth because the rate of protein synthesis increases rapidly to the normal level after shift-up. Analysis of the relation between increase in cell mass and initiation of DNA synthesis following nutritional shifts indicates that increase in cell mass, per se, is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for initiation of DNA synthesis, in spite of the strong association between accumulation of cell mass and initiation of DNA synthesis in cells growing under steady-state conditions

  17. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  18. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  19. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  20. Dynamic simulation of combined cycle power plant cycling in the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benato, A.; Bracco, S.; Stoppato, A.; Mirandola, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flexibility of traditional power plants have become of primary importance. • Three dynamic models of the same single pressure HRSG are built. • The plant dynamic behaviour is predicted. • A lifetime calculation procedure is proposed and tested. • The drum lifetime reduction is estimated. - Abstract: The energy markets deregulation coupled with the rapid spread of unpredictable energy sources power units are stressing the necessity of improving traditional power plants flexibility. Cyclic operation guarantees high profits in the short term but, in the medium-long time, cause a lifetime reduction due to thermo-mechanical fatigue, creep and corrosion. In this context, Combined Cycle Power Plants are the most concerned in flexible operation problems. For this reason, two research groups from two Italian universities have developed a procedure to estimate the devices lifetime reduction with a particular focus on steam drums and superheaters/reheaters. To assess the lifetime reduction, it is essential to predict the thermodynamic variables trend in order to describe the plant behaviour. Therefore, the core of the procedure is the power plant dynamic model. At this purpose, in this paper, three different dynamic models of the same single pressure Combined Cycle Gas Turbine are presented. The models have been built using three different approaches and are used to simulate plant behaviour under real operating conditions. Despite these differences, the thermodynamic parameters time profiles are in good accordance as presented in the paper. At last, an evaluation of the drum lifetime reduction is performed.

  1. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  2. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  3. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Olson, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  4. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  5. Urinary steroid hormone analysis of ovarian cycles and pregnancy in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) indicate that menses, copulatory behavior, sexual swellings and reproductive condition are associated with changing estrone conjugates (E(1)C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca Sellin; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if sexual swellings in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are a reflection of reproductive endocrine state. Urine samples were assayed using an enzyme immunoassay measuring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1)C). Hormone patterns of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation were characterized and compared with sexual swellings and copulations relative to menses and peak E(1)C. Cycle lengths averaging 28.7 days and pregnancy length of 181 days determined by hormonal and sexual swelling measures were similar to those reported in other Old World primate species. First day of copulation was observed during rising E(1)C concentrations and preceded observations of peak swelling by 1-2 days. Observations of peak sexual swellings occurred at or on the day after peak E(1)C and decreased following the ovulatory increase in PdG. Observations of menses and sexual swellings are a useful method to track mandrill ovarian cycles and can assist zoos in determining the reproductive state of females in their collections. Zoo Biol 27:320-330, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. An analysis of the Lorenz energy cycle for conditions of low, middle and high CO2 concentrations based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, J. A.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2013-05-01

    The energetic analysis in this study takes account the new set of scenarios forcing experiments: RCP85, RCP45, RCP26. The model used in this study pertains to the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The results show a decrease in the most of energy terms of the Lorenz energetics for the global domain. The reduction of the values in the energy cycle is clear and is independent of the CO2 emission scenario. However, the strongest reduction is related to the highest radiative forcing experiment the RCP85. As an inverse behavior the results show an increase in CK, KZ and KE components of the energy cycle. Similar reduction in the energetics intensity is observed for the SH domain, with RCP85 emission scenario provoking the most intense decrease in the energy terms. However, for this scenario the energetics projection indicates an increase in KZ of 24.6%, which is higher than for global (21.56%) and for the NH (9.36%) domains. The increase of KZ for all domains is attributed to the increase in CK, which in this case acts as a source of energy for KZ, and to the efficiency factor, which is defined as the rate between conversion and generation. The NH energetics suffer changes in the energy cycle as well. The results showed a reduction in CE for all scenarios, however KE suffer low rate of increase relative for the historical experiment.

  7. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  8. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid depressurization of a compressible fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, M.; Dupont, J.F.; Weber, H.

    1978-08-01

    The rapid depressurization of a plenum is a situation frequently encountered in the dynamical analysis of nuclear gas cycles of the HHT type. Various methods of numerical analyses for a 1-dimensional flow model are examined: finite difference method; control volume method; method of characteristics. Based on the shallow water analogy to compressible flow, the numerical results are compared with those from a water table set up to simulate a standard problem. (Auth.)

  10. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  11. [Menstrual cycle disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, María E; Pipman, Viviana; Arcari, Andrea; Boulgourdjian, Elisabeth; Keselman, Ana; Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Blanco, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The high prevalence of menstrual disorders during the first years after menarche is well recognized. This is usually a cause of concern for parents and patients, and a common reason for visiting the pediatrician. The immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the major cause of these disorders, but there are also some general organic or emotional conditions that may alter the menstrual cycle, which is a sensitive indicator of health. Physiology of the menstrual cycle, its alterations, etiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed in this article.

  12. Parametric optimization design for supercritical CO2 power cycle using genetic algorithm and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangfeng; Sun Zhixin; Dai Yiping; Ma Shaolin

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical CO 2 power cycle shows a high potential to recover low-grade waste heat due to its better temperature glide matching between heat source and working fluid in the heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG). Parametric analysis and exergy analysis are conducted to examine the effects of thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance and exergy destruction in each component. The thermodynamic parameters of the supercritical CO 2 power cycle is optimized with exergy efficiency as an objective function by means of genetic algorithm (GA) under the given waste heat condition. An artificial neural network (ANN) with the multi-layer feed-forward network type and back-propagation training is used to achieve parametric optimization design rapidly. It is shown that the key thermodynamic parameters, such as turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature and environment temperature have significant effects on the performance of the supercritical CO 2 power cycle and exergy destruction in each component. It is also shown that the optimum thermodynamic parameters of supercritical CO 2 power cycle can be predicted with good accuracy using artificial neural network under variable waste heat conditions.

  13. Proposal of a nuclear cycle research and development plan in Tokai works. The roadmap from LWR cycle to FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Abe, Tomoyuki; Kashimura, Takuo; Nagai, Toshihisa; Maeda, Seichiro; Yamaguchi, Toshiya; Kuroki, Ryoichiro

    2003-07-01

    The Generation-II Project Task Force Team has investigated a research and development plan of a future nuclear fuel cycle in Tokai works for about three months from December 19, 2002. First we have discussed about the present condition of Japanese nuclear fuel cycle and have recognized it as the following. The relation of the technology between the LWR-cycle and the FBR-cycle is not clear. MOX Fuel Use in Light Water Reactors is important to establish technology of the FBR fuel cycle. Radioactive waste disposal issue is urgent. Next we have proposed the three basic policies on R and D plan of nuclear fuel cycle in consideration of the F.S. on FBR-cycle. Establishment and advancement of 'the tough nuclear fuel cycle'. Early establishment of the FBR cycle technology to be able to supply energy stably for long-term. Establishment of the radioactive waste treatment and disposal technology, and optimization of nuclear fuel cycle technology from the viewpoint of radioactive waste. And we have proposed the Japanese technical holder system to integrate all LWR and FBR cycle technology. (author)

  14. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997).

    Seasonal

  15. Survey of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, H.J.; Pickert, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A brief outline of the technical aspects of the fuel cycle, starting from the mining of uranium up to fuel element fabrication, is followed by a more detailed description of the management of the outer fuel cycle. This includes the system of contracts and their reciprocal technical and chronological interdepence, as well as financial aspects, market conditions and trends. (RB) [de

  16. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  17. Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.

  18. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  19. Proliferation in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In the contracting phase with w≅0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w≅0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  20. Very high cycle fatigue testing of concrete using ultrasonic cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, Ulrike; Schuller, Reinhard; Fitzka, Michael; Mayer, Herwig [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Physics and Materials Science; Denk, Andreas; Strauss, Alfred [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    The ultrasonic fatigue testing method has been further developed to perform cyclic compression tests with concrete. Cylindrical specimens vibrate in resonance at a frequency of approximately 20 kHz with superimposed compressive static loads. The high testing frequency allows time-saving investigations in the very high cycle fatigue regime. Fatigue tests were carried out on ''Concrete 1'' (compressive strength f{sub c} = 80 MPa) and ''Concrete 2'' (f{sub c} = 107 MPa) under purely compressive loading conditions. Experiments at maximum compressive stresses of 0.44 f{sub c} (Concrete 1) and 0.38 f{sub c} (Concrete 2) delivered specimen failures above 109 cycles, indicating that no fatigue limit exists for concrete below one billion load cycles. Resonance frequency, power required to resonate the specimen and second order harmonics of the vibration are used to monitor fatigue damage in situ. Specimens were scanned by X-ray computed tomography prior to and after testing. Fatigue cracks were produced by ultrasonic cycling in the very high cycle fatigue regime at interfaces of grains as well as in cement. The possibilities as well as limitations of ultrasonic fatigue testing of concrete are discussed.

  1. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  2. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  3. Dissociable effects of inter-stimulus interval and presentation duration on rapid face categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Talia L; Jiang, Fang; Webster, Michael A; Rossion, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    Fast periodic visual stimulation combined with electroencephalography (FPVS-EEG) has unique sensitivity and objectivity in measuring rapid visual categorization processes. It constrains image processing time by presenting stimuli rapidly through brief stimulus presentation durations and short inter-stimulus intervals. However, the selective impact of these temporal parameters on visual categorization is largely unknown. Here, we presented natural images of objects at a rate of 10 or 20 per second (10 or 20 Hz), with faces appearing once per second (1 Hz), leading to two distinct frequency-tagged EEG responses. Twelve observers were tested with three squarewave image presentation conditions: 1) with an ISI, a traditional 50% duty cycle at 10 Hz (50-ms stimulus duration separated by a 50-ms ISI); 2) removing the ISI and matching the rate, a 100% duty cycle at 10 Hz (100-ms duration with 0-ms ISI); 3) removing the ISI and matching the stimulus presentation duration, a 100% duty cycle at 20 Hz (50-ms duration with 0-ms ISI). The face categorization response was significantly decreased in the 20 Hz 100% condition. The conditions at 10 Hz showed similar face-categorization responses, peaking maximally over the right occipito-temporal (ROT) cortex. However, the onset of the 10 Hz 100% response was delayed by about 20 ms over the ROT region relative to the 10 Hz 50% condition, likely due to immediate forward-masking by preceding images. Taken together, these results help to interpret how the FPVS-EEG paradigm sets temporal constraints on visual image categorization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  5. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  6. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  7. Chords in longest cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord.......If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord....

  8. Denatured fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the denatured fuel concept and discusses the characteristics of fuel cycles based on the concept. The proliferation resistance of denatured fuel cycles, the reactor types they involve, and the limitations they place on energy generation potential are discussed. The paper concludes with some remarks on the outlook for such cycles

  9. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2018-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision...

  10. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  11. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  12. Cell cycle and anti-estrogen effects synergize to regulate cell proliferation and ER target gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dalvai

    Full Text Available Antiestrogens are designed to antagonize hormone induced proliferation and ERalpha target gene expression in mammary tumor cells. Commonly used drugs such as OH-Tamoxifen and ICI 182780 (Fulvestrant block cell cycle progression in G0/G1. Inversely, the effect of cell cycle stage on ER regulated gene expression has not been tested directly. We show that in ERalpha-positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 the estrogen receptor gene and downstream target genes are cell cycle regulated with expression levels varying as much as three-fold between phases of the cell cycle. Steroid free culture conditions commonly used to assess the effect of hormones or antiestrogens on gene expression also block MCF-7 cells in G1-phase when several ERalpha target genes are overexpressed. Thus, cell cycle effects have to be taken into account when analyzing the impact of hormonal treatments on gene transcription. We found that antiestrogens repress transcription of several ERalpha target genes specifically in S phase. This observation corroborates the more rapid and strong impact of antiestrogen treatments on cell proliferation in thymidine, hydroxyurea or aphidicolin arrested cells and correlates with an increase of apoptosis compared to similar treatments in lovastatin or nocodazol treated cells. Hence, cell cycle effects synergize with the action of antiestrogens. An interesting therapeutic perspective could be to enhance the action of anti-estrogens by associating hormone-therapy with specific cell cycle drugs.

  13. The uranium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    In identifying uranium provinces, and, more importantly, mineralized zones within these provinces, it is of paramount importance to attempt to trace the geochemical behaviour of an element through all stages of Earth's evolution. Aspects that need to be addressed in this regard include solar abundance levels and fractionation processes during accretion, changing patterns of crustal evolution, effects of an evolving atmosphere, and the weathering cycle. Abundance patterns and partition coefficients of some of the siderophile elements in mantle rocks lend support to a multistage accretionary process. Lack of a terrestrial record in the first 500 Ma necessitates that lunar models be invoked, which suggests that early fractionation of a mafic/ultramafic magma resulted in an anorthositic crust. Fractionation of the mantle and transfer of materials to the upper levels must be central to any model invoked for development of the crust. Given high heat flow conditions in the early Archaean it would seem inescapable that the process of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics was an ongoing process. If the plate tectonic model is taken back to 3500 Ma, and assuming current speading rates, then about half of the mantle has passed through the irreversible differentiation cycle. Arguments in support of recycled material must be balanced against mantle metasomatism effects. With the associated advent of partial melting of the mantle material a partitioning of minor and trace elements into the melt fraction would take place. The early primitive mafic and ultramafic komatiites exemplify this feature by concentrating U and Th by a factor of 5 compared to chondritic abundances. It is of tantamount importance to understand the generation of the magmas in order to predict which are the 'fertile' bodies in terms of radioelement concentrations. In that the granitoid magmas image their source compositions, the association of high radioelements will primarily be source-dependent. Uranium

  14. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  16. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  18. Energies and media nr 30. Conditions for the nuclear sector. The fuel cycle and wastes. The usefulness of fuel reprocessing. Wastes; Energies et medias no. 30. La conjoncture, pour le nucleaire. Le cycle du combustible et les dechets. L'utilite du retraitement des combustibles. Les dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector in different countries (energy policy and projects in the USA, Europe, China, India, Russia), this issue proposes some explanations on the nuclear fuel cycle and on nuclear wastes: involved processes and products from mining to reprocessing and recycling, usefulness of reprocessing (future opportunities of fast neutron reactors, present usefulness of reprocessing with the recycling of separated fissile materials), impact of reprocessing on the environment in La Hague (gas and liquid releases, release standard definition), and the destiny of wastes

  19. Optimizing the data life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Kilian [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jung, Christopher [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Today, data play a central role in most fields of Science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and the data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied for scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The Helmholtz Portfolio Extension ''Large Scale Data Management and Analysis'' (LSDMA) focuses on the optimization of the data life cycle in different research areas. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This presentation describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work done in the DLCL ''Structure of Matter''. The main topics of this DLCL are the support for the international projects FAIR (Facility for Anti Proton and Ion Research) which will evolve around GSI in Darmstadt and the European XFEL and PETRA III at DESY in Hamburg.

  20. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...